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THE CITIZEN, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2, 19 13.
Differences Hot of Kind, but
of Degrss, Says Export,
NO CRIMINAL TYPE EXISTS.
Dr. Goring, Medical Officer of English
Prison, Gives Results of Twelvo
Years' Study of Wrongdoers Crimi
nals Are Defective, but Only by Con
trast With Normal People.
"As individuals criminals possess no
characteristics, physical or mental,
which arc not shared by all people.
The only difference is one of degree."
Such is the conclusion reached after
a remarkable statistical investigation
based upon measurements of prison
ers in I'arUhurst prison, England,
which began in 1901, now set forth
by Dr. Goring, the medlcnl officer of
the prison, in n monograph which is of
extraordinary scientific and human in
terest. Dr. Goriug's measurements shatter
the theory propounded by Lombroso
that thero is a definite criminal type
and that it Is even possible to' know
the various kinds of criminals by
their faces. The nose of the thief Is
not, as Lombroso taught, "short and
large;" the eye of tho homicide "not
glassy, cold and .fixed." Crime does
not reveal itself In a man's outward
The general characteristics of the
English convict are those- of n defective.-
Ho is defective in physical
strength, weight, stature and mental
oapacity. It Is found that In height
nud bodily weight ho Is very marked
ly inferior to the general average of
the population. This is tho only solid
fact ascertained which might suggest
the existence of u criminal type.
j Highbrows and Lowbrows.
One venerable superstition laid to
rest by Dr. Goring Is that a low fore
head connotes criminality and a high
The different classes of criminals, he
shows, do not differ markedly among
themselves or vary much, except In
height and weight, from tho standard
of population, while hospital inmates
who are quite free from crime, but of
weak physique, in many characteris
tics signally resemble the malefactor.
Thieves and burglars, It is true, nro
-unusually puny, whllo fraudulent of
fenders are commonly as tall and
lieavy as the average man, but this is
because tho fraudulent offender is
drawn from a higher class of the pop
ulation than tho thief.
The reimrrkable inferiority of tho
criminal in height and weight Is ex
plained very simply. Stature and pliy
iquo arc endowments which enable n
Tnan readily to obtain an honest occu
pation. "Wo might easily produce sta
tistics," says Dr. Goring, "to show
that, all other tilings being equal, the
poor man's physique serves frequently
as tho costing voto determining wheth
er he can easily find employment or be
unemployable." It is for this reason
apparently and no other that crime Is
to some extent hereditary, low stature
being transmitted by parents to their
Causes of Criminality.
Tho criminal's health appears to
have no effect upon his proclivity to
crime, nor Is it true that drink is the
cause of crime, except In tho case of
violent offenses against tho person. So
cial inequality, often paraded as tho
true cause, appears to have even less
to do with making n criminal, but a
low standard of intelligence, often
amounting to mental deficiency, has
been found In tho vast majority of
Dr. Goring concludes: "The chief
source of tho high degree of relation
ship between weakmlndedness and
crime Is probably beside the fact Tho
thing which wo call criminality and
which leads to the perpetration of
many If not most anti-social offenses
today Is not Inherent wickedness, but
natural stupidity." 1
The volume Is epoch making In that
It Is "tho first attempt to arrive at
results In criminology by the statistical
treatment of facts, which in a crude
form nro without scientific value."
FORMS A ONE MAN TRUST.
Philadelphia Carpenter Incorporates
Himself For $2,000,000 Partly Water.
IJenJamln P. Roberts, a carpenter of
024 Cumberland street, Philadelphia,
has sent to Ilarrlsburg papers Incor
porating himself for $2,000,000 as a 0110
Roberts said thaf; ho was watering
his stock somewhat, as ho might not
ho able to pay dividends upon tho ?2,
000,000 stock issuo which ho purposes
to sell to friends or other Interested
parties, but ho contended bo had na
much right to tnllato his personal stock
ns any other corporation.
Brilliant Signs Lure Hawks.
Maurlco Wlllcn of Georgetown, Del.,
has n new scheme for killing chicken
hawks which ho claims proves that
hen hawks have an artistic senso dv
spito their ferocity.
Maurice secured a number of largo
advertising signs brilliantly painted,
which he set in his poultry yard, tho
pictures luring tho ben hawks down
for n look, when "vVillen. hiding with
a gun, shoots them.
Until a short
person in a
ever tasted a
as it came
can know and
enjoy the crisp
out going to the
A food to live
Strength for the
them to the
MAKE PETS OF SNAKES
NEW JAPANESE HOBBY.
Slant Eyed Belles Now Carry Striped
and Spotted Serpents.
To make pets of snakes is tho latest
hobby of Japanese society, according
to recent dispatches from Tokyo.
Fashionable women arc cultivating n
fancy for small livo serpents. They
havo about them tho harmless spotted
keel backs and striped snakes, which
arc easily tnmed.
Tho man who has done more than
anybody else to establish this hobby
is Klnjiro Nakamura, who has been
engaged hi tho snako business for
more than twenty years and who has
a wonderful assortment of reptiles.
Tho most productive districts for
snakes in Japan aro certain mountain
sections near Tokyo and Niklco. Hero
they nro caught in largo numbers.
Japanese snake catchers drink" sake be
fore starting out to hunt large ser
pents, so that they will not bo stupe
fied by tho "poisonous breath" of tho
A real combat occurred recently be
tween threo men and n serpent twenty
feet long. Tho snake poised Its head
about six feet above ground, knocked
two men down with its tail, rendered
another unconscious with Its "poison
ous breath" and then escaped.
But Mc Nakamura .has found other
uses for snakes, no says they aro
popular as tonics for tho dlgnstivo or
gans and that some aro used success
fully as a remedy for pulmonary con
sumption. Thero is tho food question
too. Nakamura says that tho Japa
nese viper Is splendid ns n stimulant
either in powdered form or eaten with
Japanese soy. In the districts around
Nlkko rice with snako frlcassoo is con
sidered a most royal dish. Tho viper
is also good as a euro for stomach
troublo if taken soaked in Japanese
British cheeses are all mado from
cow's milk without any mixture, savo
in tho caso of "loaf" cheddar, which is
sometimes flaro'red with sago leaves.
Cruel Tail Docking.
Horses in Italy aro docked in a cruel
and disfiguring fashion. Several of
tho caudal vertebrao are amputated
it is a kind of crippling and tho
plaguo of flies In Italy, against which
tho horse is rendered helpless, la of n
kind never known in America.
Sewing by Machine.
Tho earliest attempt at sowing by
machinery of which thero is any au
thentic record was in 1775, in which
year a machine was patented in Eng
land by Charles F, Weisenthal.
BIGGEST DAM IN
To Impound 4,000,000,000
Cubic Feet of Water.
WILL BF: 305 FEET HIGH,
Giant Structure Thrown Across tho
Yuba River Is Expected to Double
California's Water Power When Fin
ished Expected to Be In Operation
by Jan. 1, 1914.
In n few months there will be partly
completed In California a dam which,
when entirely finished, will be the
largest lu the world It Is expected
that tho structure will reach a height
sufficient to allow It to be put in opera
tion about the first of tho year, but
later on the work will be carried
through to tho full extent of the mag
nitude contemplated. Tho finished pro
ject will result in more than doubling
the horsepower available In tho state,
which on Jan. 1, 1012, tho records of
the agricultural department showed to
be 450,000. '
This enterprise Is part of tho hydro
electric development of tho Golden
State. The dam referred to Is being
built in a narrow gorge of tho south
fork of tho Yuba river, commonly call
ed tho South Yuba, Just below Lake
Spauldlug, one of the largest of a
chain of storage reservoirs owned and
operated 'on tho Sierra range by tho
largest public utilities corporation ot
California. The capacity of this lake
today is about 250,000,000 cubic feet,
but the now dam, which is to bo 303
feet high, will havo the effect of rais
ing tho waters to such height as to
give the lake a storage capacity of just
sixteen times that amount
Installing Power Plants.
Six power plants are also being con
structed along tho entire length of the
valley country between tho Sierra Ne
vada mountains and the Sacramento
valley. These plants, when installed
to their full capacity, are expected to
add not less than 100,000 horsepower
to this company's electric generating
and distributing system.
An appropriation of $10,000,000 was
mado for this great enterprise. Work
was begun immediately upon the ap
proval of tho engineers' estimates in
July, 1012, and before the winter sea
son stopped operations the foundation
of tho big dam had been constructed
to the extent of lifting a breast wall
to tho waters of tho South Yuba at a
height of thirty-eight feet above bed
rock. From tho site of this dam the
water Is to bo conveyed by a mile long
tunnel bored through solid rock, which
at tho other end discharges into what
Is known as Bear river valley, and
down which, nt tho distance of nine
miles from the lake, stands tho Drum
powerhouse, nestling in a gorge of the
Bear river underneath a precipice of
1,375 feet, down which two pipes will
convey tho waters from tho ditch
above to tho waiting wheels. Work
on this tunnel was carried on through
the winter, and on May 1 last the
gangs of workmen, laboring from either
end, met in tho middle, and the tunnel
is now fully completed.
Origin of Project.
Tho project had Its origin in the pur
chaso by tho California Gas and Elec
tric corporation of the properties of the
Sou Ui Yuba Water company, which
owned a number of storago lakes, ca
nals and ditches that wero originally
constructed for tho boneflt of tho min
ing Industry in tho days before the hy
draullc monitor was put out of com
mission by California's state law. This
purchase was nindo In 1005, and only
a feSv months later the company's en
glneers went over tho ground and se
lected Lake Spauldlng ns tho best
available site for a storage reservoir
that would bo larger by far than any
thing over before conceived, let alone
executed, In that region.
Then came tho San Francisco fire
and the 1007 panic, and it was not un
til tho Pacific Gas and Electric com
pany took over tho property and fran
chises of tbo California Gas and Elec
tric corporation that tho great dam
and its collateral work became practi
cable. Tho Pacific company has been
serving with gas and electric power
an oxtopslvo region in California, and
tho now project will vastly enlarge its
PIGEON'S RECORD FLIGHT.
Bird Flies a Thousand Miles In 26
Hours 30 Minutes.
Ono thousand miles, air lino distance,
between Abilene, Tex., and -Fort
Wayne, Ind., In 20 hours, SO minutes
and 0 seconds actual flying time was
tho rcmarkablo flight of a homing pi
geon belonging to O. Anderson of Fort
Wnyno during tho latter part of July.
Tho records, sent to President Car
ney of tho American Racing Pigeon un
ion in Pittsburgh for verification, have
Just been officially announced. Forty
iicven birds contested in tho race from
(ko Texas city, and tbo record mado by
Mr, Anderson's bird is a world's mark.
Tho second bird to arrlvo tn Fort
Wayno from Ablleno belonged to J.
Schilling, It had been on tho road SO
hours 51 minutes 47 seconds actual
flying time. Tho speed of Mr. Ander
son's bird averaged more than thirty
eight miles an hour.
of the News
Right Off the Reel
A brand new dance, tho "pussy
sneak." comes from Onset, Maes.
Statistics show that tho United
States is the greatest meat eating na
tion in' the world.
Tho Balkan government has adver
tised In tho German newspapers for
3,000 artificial legs.
A lumberman In Wisconsin, clghty
threo years old, just married, has a
bride of the same nge, and they have
courted fifty years.
A prisoner serving n life sentence in
Jefferson City, Mo., nppllca for a par
don, and witnesses swear the man he
was convicted of murdering Is still
In the spring of 1841, when William
T. Osborne o Newburg, N. Y., was
twenty-nine years old. four doctors
told him he had consumption and could
not livo long. Recently he celebrated j
his ono hundred and first birthday.
Tho four doctors are dead and have
been many years.
The ladles who are so anxious for
juffrnge ought to bo reasonablo enough
to see that thero aro not half enough
offices for tho men. Houston Post.
No wonder the western suffragettes
nro clamoring to be appointed clevntsr
"boys" In the federal buildings It
Isn't every Job that enables a lady to
stand up In front of a mirror all day
long with all the men taking off their
hats to her. Boston Transcript.
Train and Track.
Of 74,000 locomotives inspected List
fear by the interstate commerce com
mission over 48,000 were defective.
The rounded roofs of modern sleep
lug cars havo been found 'to provide
purer air than the older styles of deck
ed roofs with windows in the sides.
Schemes for tho construction of a
3,000 mile railway through Central Af
rica, at n cost roughly estimated at
550,000,000, have been revived by the
termination of the war between Italy
I'd love to be a mermaid
And with the mermaids stand,
A-groomlng of my colden locks,
A mirror In my hand;
Clad In a sinuous ono pleoo suit
Of shining silvery scales,
But I would never wish to wear
Their regulation talis! .
'Twould not be picturesque, methlnks.
If stranded on tho beach
To wrlgglo through the shallow waves
A handy rock to reach.
Tails in the briny aro au fait.
On land 'tis far more meet
In such emergencies to hava
llk hose and..an,daled .feet.
1 ifONESDALE, PL
Always Your Friend
It is a pleasure to assist our patrons in every way possible
with reference to business matters as well as financial transac
tions. A depositor often finds that a recommendation or a let
ter of introduction from his bank is of greatest value.
You may be in a quandary over a contemplated business
change, or an insurance policy, or an investment, or the selec
tion of a competent lawyer or agent. We are always apprecia
tive of your confidence, and glad to confer and advise on any
matter of importance to you. Our depositors' room is at your
service for private conferences.
First time you pass this way drop in and have a talk with
us about opening a savings account. Let us explain how much
more it means to you than you think it does.
You can start with one dollar.
HENRY Z. RUSSELL, President, . LEWIS A. HOWELL, Cashier,
ANDREW THOMPSON, Vice-President, ALBERT C. LINDSAY, Asst. Cashier
, . HENRY Z. RUSSELL, nOJIEIt GREENE,
HORACE T. RIENNER, JAMES O. IintDSALL,
LOUIS J. DORFIilNGER, EDSIUND D. IIARUENBERGn,
ANDREW THOMPSON, PRIMP R. MURRAY,
LEWIS A. HOWELL.
OPEN SATURDAY EVENINGS FROM 7:30 TO 8:30 O'CLOCK
JOSEPH N. WELCH
The OLDEST Fire Insurance
Agency in Wayne County.
Office: Second floor Masonic Build
ing, over C, C. Jadwln's drug store
That splitting Headache will
get almost instant relief if you
take a Neura Powder. 10 and
25 cts. Sold everywhere.
DEAFNESS CANNOT BE CURED
by local applications, as they can
not reach the diseased portion of the
ear. Thero is only one way to cure
deafness, and that is by constitu
tional remedies. Deafness is caus
ed by an Inflamed condition of the
mucous lining of the1 Eustachian
Tube. When this tube is Inflamed
you have a rumbling sound or im
perfect hearing, and when it is en
tirely closed, Deafness is the result,
and unless the inflammation can be
taken out and this tube restored to
Its normal condition, hearing will
be destroyed forever; nine cases out
of ten are caused by Catarrh, which
is nothing but an Inflamed condition'
of tho mucous surfaces.
We will give One Hundred Dol
lars for any case of Deafness (caus
ed by catarrh) that cannot be cured
by Hall's Catarrh Cure. Send for
P. J. CHENEY & CO.,
Sold by Druggists, 75c.
Take Hall's Family Pills for con
stipation. Hot weather makes aching
corns but why suffer? PEDOS
CORN CURE will give instant
The use of hose for sprinkling is abso
lutely prohibited, except between the hours
of 6 and 8 a. m. and 6 and 8 p. m.
Honesdale Cora. Water Co.
. ATTORNEY A COUNSELOR.-AT-LAV
Office in the Court House, Honesdale
EAKLE & SALMON,
ATTORNEYS A COUNSELORS-AT-LAW
Offices lately occupied by Judce Searle
riHESTEK A. GARRATT,
J ATTORNEY & COUNSELOR-AT-LAW
Offlce-Dlmmlck Building, Honesdale. Pa.
WA1. H. LEE,
ATTORNEY A COUNSELOR-AT-LAW
Office. Foster Building. All legul buslwss
promptly attended to. Honesdale, Pn.
MUMFORD & MUMFORD,
ATTORNEYS A COUNSELORS-AT-LAW ,
Office Liberty Hall building. Honesdale
ATTORNEY A COUNSELOR-AT-LAV
Office: Relf Building, Honesdale.
CHARLES A. McOARTY,
ATTORNEY A COUNSELOR- 1T-L An
Special and prompt attention given totli
collection ot claims.
Office: Relf Building, Honesdale.
PB. PETERSON, M. D.
. 1126MAIN STREET', HONESDALE, PA.
Eye and Ear a specialty. The flttlnc of class
es clven careful attention.
F. G. RICKARD Prop
Especial Attention Given to
' Transit Business.
I STCtlE BARN CHURCH STREET.
J. E. HALEY
Have mo and savo money. Wi
attend sales anywhere in State.
Address WAYMART,PA.(R.D. 3;
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to do nil kinds of Job Printing.