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THE CITIZEN, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 19 12.
Simple Lessons All That Are
SOIL RENEWAL CHIEF NEED.
Great Northern's President Says Soil
Examination, Fertilization, Seed Se
lection, Rotation of Crops and Thor
ough and Repeated Cultivation Are
Jnnies J. mil, tlio railroad bulkier,
tins contributed one of the most sensi
ble talks on the need of farmers recent
ly appearing In thu public prints. In a
recent letter to the New York Times
the "empire builder" nud former presi
dent of the Groat Northern says:
"The lnijwrtanre of Instruction for
the work of the farm is now universal
ly recognized. The number of Institu
tions touching agriculture In the United
States increased fruni SIS In October,
190S, to S75 In May, 1010, n gala of
more than CO per cent In nineteen
months. Agricultural colleges receiv
ing federal funds are In operation to
day In every state of the Union. Thoro
were 10 per cent more students In agri
culture In these Institutions In 1010
than in 1009 and more than eight times
as many students taking the teachers
course In agriculture. Since then the
work has grown rnpldly. Extension
work, short courses, farm Institutes
and the running of instruction trains
by the railroads at their own espea'KS
are now familiar and popular features.
The movement to educate has ncqulrcd
"Our experiment stations, schools
and colleges are doing good work, but
It falls short of our Immediate needs.
They are mainly engaged In educating
teachers. Meantime the farm Itself
langulshe5". Only n small percentage
of the children of farmers become stu
dents In tlieso Institutions. Only a
small percentage of those go back to
the farm. The soil Is tilled, the crops
are raised, for the most part, by men
who cannot attend college, high school
or extension course. In n generation
or two the educational process going
on may leaven the whole lump. But
the country cannot afford to wait for
"The condition of the farm and the
statistics of production cry out for In
struction, and at once, for the wholo
body of farmers. Soils that once pro
duced from twenty-flvo to forty bushels
of wheat to the ncrS now give from
ten to twenty. England and Germany,
once as reckless of Impoverished soil
ns we, have raised their average yield
to more than twice ours under far less
favorable circumstances. We can do
the Mine with greater ease.
"What are the steps? I am refer
ring now only to what the uneducated
man can do. If a man Is sick ho must
have a doctor to dlognose the disease
and prescribe the right remedy. So
with the soil. The evidence of 1U
sickness Is Inadequate yield. It needs
medical treatment. Send n sample of
It to the nearest experiment station
for analysis. The analyst can detor
mlne what elements have been ex
hausted by careless cultivation; what
particular form of fertilization will re
store that soil to high productivity.
This will give the farmer tlio exact
practical Information for the first step.
It Is nlmost the only purely technical
question that ho haa to face.
How to Test Seeds.
"The next step Is seed selection.
This Is strictly farm work. Every
farmer should plant his seed for ger
mination before planting. This he can
do quickly in n small wooden box with
a few Inches of earth In it, covered
with a white cloth marked out In
squares. Place 50 or 100 6eeds In each
square, moisten the earth, keep It In a
moderately ovon temperature and
count the number of seeds that sprout.
An expert can do no more.
"Soil examination, fertilization, seed
selection, rotation of crops and thor
ough and repeated cultivation these
nre the essentials. The lost mentioned
means deep pluwlng, frequent harrow
ing, bringing and keeping tho soil In
condition to favor growth.
"There Is nothing here requiring tech
nical education. Put the best qualified
uimi'i'iiiui in inn nnnnTFir ri w.ii n ririui
of land and ho could do no more, and
every ludnstrlous farmer can do this
on his own land, njjd ho will get as
good results. By nothing more com
plex than tho general adoption of these
methods 8,000.000,000 or ?9,000,000,000
might be ndded yearly to the national
wealth and tho farmers of tho coun
try bo elevated to comparative alllu
ence. "Agricultural education for toduy,
then, resolves Itself Into the extremely
practical question of how to get not
students, but the man actually on tho
farm, to do theso few simple things
that transform farming from n labori
ous occupation of many hazards Into
u safe and profltnblo Industry.
Passing of the 811k Hat.
Any ono who is familiar with pic
tures of English school life, whether
depicting classrooms or cricket fields,
will remember tho con&Icuous nppear
nnco of tho silk hat ro tho heads of
tho students. All this is now to
change. Rugby nfter this term win
discontinue tho uso of the silk hat,
nnd Eton is likely to follow its cx-
Joseph Ury Crawford Was Twice Deo
orated by the Mikado.
Joseph Ury Crawford, consulting en
gineer of tho Pennsylvania railroad,
having reached the nge of seventy
years, has Just retired from active
Aside from an enviable war record
Mr. Crawford has attained fame as an
englneor both at homo and nbroad and
during his long years of service was en
gaged upou many important engineer
Mr. Crawford was Itorn nt Ury Form,
Philadelphia. Aug. 25, 1S12, and went
to tho University of Pennsylvania in
tho class of 1802. At the breaking out
of tho civil war Mr. Crawford enlisted
In the Seventeenth Pennsylvania regi
ment (Washington Greys of Philadel
phia) and attained the rank of captain.
From 1SC5 to 1STS Mr. Crawford was
cngagod in railroad surveys in the west
and south. He was appointed consult
ing engineer of the government of
Jopan In 187S, at the close of which en
gagement he was decorated by tho em
peror of Japan with the Order of tho
In the fall of 1SS2 Mr. Crawford
again entered the service of tho Penn
sylvania Itnilroad company until 1S9S,
when he was appointed by the secre
tary of war consulting engineer for the
United States government to exnmluc
into nnd report upon tho transportation
facilities in Cuba.
In the fall of 1010 Mr. Crawford was
ngaln decorated by tho emperor of
Japan for faithful service as consulting
engineer nnd inspector of tho Imperial
government railways. This time the
emperor invested him with tho Order
of tho Sacred Treasure, Insignia of the
third class, Illslng Sun.
On Jan. 5, 1011, Mr. Crawford was
appointed consulting engineer of tho
Pennsylvania Railroad company.
LEAVES BEQUEST OF 15 CATS.
Eccentric Woman Apothecary In St.
Louis Dies In Rags, Though Rich.
A crowd of women gathered In a
queer little apothecary shop in St.
Louis discussing with awe the death
of Dr. Sarah F. Wells, tho proprietor,
who for years had held them In fear
through the mystic powers which she
was reputed to possess. Dr. Wells
was a graduate of Oborlln university,
founder of medical colleges, author,
lecturer and traveler.
Though she Is said to have had a
large fortune In tenement houses in
Dayton, O., nnd Kansas Oity, real es
tate In Florida and government bonds,
for days she sat in a broken chair in
tho little Franklin avenue shop, suffer
ing from scalds received when she fell
info a bathtub filled with hot water,
before she was persuaded to call a doc
tor. Clothed In rags, she waited painfully
for the end, while about her were
trunks packed with gorgeous silk
gowns, rich possessions from tho orient.
She know she was dying, and her last
act was to send for Mme. Bee, n for
tune teller, and Miss Delia Iluddy,
who lived In tho rooms above hor shop,
to whom she gnve her fifteen cats.
For years the women of the neigh
borhood had held the fifteen cats In su
perstitious terror. They swarmed about
tho place, enjoying every liberty. Be
fore tho death of the woman doctor's
husband, Bufus G. Wells, an eccentric
aeronaut, two years ago, there were
two cats to which strange Influences
wero credited. Tho aeronaut was a
poet after a fashion, and when he was
composing a rhyme one big cat would
sit on his right shoulder and another
on his left knee.
ARE LOBSTERS ANIMALS?
Cruelty Case Against Philadelphia Chef
Too Much For Judge.
Admitting that ho was unequal to
tho task of classifying the lobster In
tho renlm of living creatures, Police
Magistrate Ilaggerty of Philadelphia
held John Ilaudocaur, a hotel chef, In
100 ball to answer a charge of cruel
ty to animals by placing a wooden peg
in tho first Joint back of tho cluw of a
lobster to prevent it from snapping.
Complaint was lodged against Ilaudo
caur by a member of the women's
branch of tho Pennsylvania Society
For tho Prevention of Cruelty to Ani
mals, who saw tho "pegged" lobster on
I exhibition In a window of tho hotel
Two lawyers, an amateur fisherman
from Maine, a member of tho cruelty
society ond tho proprietor of tho ho
tel nrguod tho case, but It was too
much for tho inogistrate. Tho cruelty
representatives pleaded that dumb nnl
mals havo feelings nnd that tho chef
was guilty of cruelty.
naudocaur8 friends nrgued that tho
chargo fell becuuso tho lobster was not
"It's too much for me," said tho
magistrate. "I'll hold tho defendant
ond let tho court decide tho matter."
Writes Book at Ninety-five.
Colonel D. J. IUggins of Los Ange
les, nlnety-flvo years old, has Just com
pleted a brilliant book on "American
Lifo In tho Nineteenth Century," prob
ably ranking him as tho oldest living
author. Colonel nigglns is still actlvo
and Is eagerly waiting tho national
Grand Army of tho Republic encamp
ment to meet his old comrades.
Though nn assiduous student all his
life, Colonel Hlgglns still reads with
out glasses. In addition to his Jltvary
work, Colonel Hlgglns has attended
tho University of Southern California
tho past two years, studying philos
ophy nnd psychology.
EXPLORER OF THE
Roy Chapman Andrews1 Story
LOCATED UNKNOWN LAKES.
Found Race Which Hod Never Seen
"Palefaces" and Was Exhibited In
Towns Natural History Museum
Officer First White Man There.
Roy Cbnjftunn Andrews, assistant
curator of tho deportment of mammal
ogy of the American Museum of Nat
ural History, who got back recently
from a ton months' trip to the orient to
obtain specimens for the museum nnd
who whllo in Korea explored a region
never before entered by a whlto man
nnd discovered three lakes In the north
of tho country, gave tho following de
scription of his expedition:
"After finishing my whaling I spent
threo weeks nt Shlmonosekl, Japan, col
lecting fish and then returned to Korea
and went to Seoul to interview tlio di
rectors of foreign affairs, from whom
I got tho necessary permission to go
into the interior. Then I went nwny
up the coast by ship to Sheshin.
"From thure I went on a push rail
way you get In n car nnd natives push
you up on handenrs to n military sta
tion on the Tumen river, west of
Musan. The latter Is a walled town
500 years old, with its orlglnnl public
buildings nnd many ancient houses. It
Is the Inst place Inland over beforo vis
ited by whites.
"The southern part of Korea is abso
lutely bare of trees, unless you so clas
sify fir underbrush about a foot high.
Saw Leopards and Tigers.
"I wanted to get Into the unknown
region, which wis said to be wooded
and full of game. Tho last was not
true. There nre leopards In tremen
dous numl)ers In many parts of tho
country, snow leopards, and thero nro
tigers in many districts.
"Most people believe tigers aro con
fined to hot countries, but those of Ko
rea go nwoy up to the Amur river.
They live nmong tho rocks and llvo
mainly on deer, which nro to bo found
In great abundance. I never went out
from camp without seeing threo or
"From Musan I traveled forty miles
west before I camo to tlio edge of the
big forest and tho last village, Nojldo,
n hamlet of eight or ten houses. Then
I went directly toward Palktusnn, 'tlio
whlto topped mountain,' which is-S.OOO
"The forest I found was mainly of
virgin larch, CO to ICO feet high, with
some birch, with a very thick under
growth. Right nenr is the Pniktusanls,
where the Manchus originated.
"The mountain is a single peak, but
it is ono of a range called tho Long
White mountains. Tho Yalu has its
source there, and it lind been supposed
the Tumen also roso there, but I dis
covered Its source was forty miles
"Of course I went Into tlio big
woods primarily to collect, but the
fnunn was so limited it was of no use.
I hod not been in tlio country long be
fore I heard talk that 'threo big rivers'
wero on the mountains, the descrlp
tions of which convinced me they
were lakes. Korea was supposed to be
Discovered Three Lakes.
"We came upon ono of tho lakes
suddenly. They nro upon the summit
of a mountain about 4,000 feet high. I
found tlint the lakes were known by
report to tho Koreans ns Samcheung
(threo bodies of water), nnd I did not
attempt to rechrlstcn them. Tlio lar
gest Is about threo miles in circum
ference, the next is about a mile
nround nnd the third nbout two miles.
Tho shores nro entirely of volcanic
ash. Thoro is no outlet or inlet
"I camped three or four days there,
built a raft and made soundings. The
water in tho lakes ranges from six to
eighteen feet In depth, nnd ns nenr ns
I could figuro out tho bottoms aro of
"We got out Into tho Ynlu country
after an uneventful trip. I got a raft
nt tho Yalu for my stuff and a small
boat for myself nnd went down the
river 375 miles to Antuug, near which
tho battle of tho Yalu was fought.
Thero a railroad connects -with Muk
den. I hnd been in tlio forest six
"Most of tho people in that northern
country had never seen n whlto man.
As my eyes wero not brown they would
not believe that I could sec.
Made to Exhibit Himself.
"At out vlllago I arrived very tired
lato ono nfternoon. Toward twilight
tho Interpreter awakened mo with tho
Intelligence that a crowd -wanted tho
Btrango looking man to show himself.
I was wearing a beard at tho time.
Most Koreans never shave. When I
took a pair of scissors and began to
trim my beard they wero shocked, and
when I took out my snfety razor nnd
began to shavo off n perfectly good set
of whiskors they wero struck dumb.
"Except in Seoul tho Korean women
aro not supposed to bo seen by a man
who is not n member of their own
family. They seemed to bo afraid of
mo in that north country. Ono after
noon a delegation of two women camo
to my tent and asked if I would not ex
hibit myself tho next morning to all
tho women In tho vlllngo at onco."
ITALY VOICES GRATITUDE
FOR MESSINA RELIEF.
We Led All Nations In Amount G-iven
Gratitude to tho American Red Cross
for lwlp following tho enrthquoko
which destroyed Messina nnd other
cities nnd killed 70,000 persons was
glTcn strong expression by Itallnn del
egates to tho International Red Cross
conforence, recently hold In Washing
ton. Count Soningllo, vice president
of tlio Italian Red Cross society, said:
"It Is with tho greatest satisfaction
thnt I take this occasion to express
to all the societies which came to our
old our feeling of lively gratitude for
their fraternal nnd efficacious assist
ance which ennbled ub to successfully
moot tho consequences of what may
woll bo regarded ns ono of tho most
disastrous catastrophes of modern
times. It Is my very agreeable duty
and privilege to express particularly
from tlio depths of my henrt our grntl
tudo to tlio Rod Cross of this noblo
country of America, whoso hospitality
tho inemlwrs of this conference nro
Surgeon General Lulgl Fcrrcro sold:
"I should bo locking In my duty ns
delegate of the Italian government if
I did not also ndd in its namo nn ex
pression of tho profound, unalterable
grntltudo which nothing can efface
from tlio henrts of all Italians.
"I wish, then, to express to you this
lively gratitude to tho Red Cross and
to tho governments of nil the coun
tries, but you will nllow mo at this
tlmo to utter this sentiment In on en
tirely Bpcclol mnnncr to tho American
Red Cross nnd to this great country of
tho United States. My manner of ex
pressing our thankfulness will be dif
ferent today from that which I should
probably have adopted had I spoken
upon tho first day of this conference.
Then I should havo scorched for su
perlatives to placo myself In accord
with tho grandeur of tho co-operation
which tho American Red Cross and
tho United States gnve our country.
But I havo como to feel In the days
which I hove passed here that the
greatness is entirely In the nature of
this people. All Uiat humanity, fra
ternity and charity can dictate is done
very naturally and entirely ns though
in tho fulfillment of a simple duty."
Whllo neither of tlieso speakers drew
comparisons, it is well known thnt the
American people, through tho Red
Cross, contributed a total sum to the
relief of tho Italian earthquake suffer
ers very fnr in excess of tho contribu
tions from any other nntlon.
If you want fine Job printing
Just glvo Tho Citizen a trial order.
Wo can do GOOD work.
I lessons published.
Mailed to any ad
dress in Wayne or ad
EEEEEEEEE EH EBBEEEEE EE
which tho up-to-dato business man
MUST HAVE In the handling of his
1. Ho must havo tho assurance
that his funds aro
than they could possibly bo In his
own hands, and that his Intorests
aro being looked after more careful
ly than It Is possible that they could
bo oven under his own management.
2. In every detail ho must have
posslblo In order to mlnlmlzo the
friction of his dally routine of business.
SECURITY and SERVICE
D. & H. CO. TIHE TABLE HONESDALE BRANCH
In Effect Juno 30, 1912.
... Albany ....
... Lake Lodore ...
... . Waymart
.... Honesdale ....
P M.'P M.IA M lAr
Counties upon i
of 6 cents.
t of lloneilale, Pa.
7 451 8 12
12 551 10 05
12 05 9 12
5 18 .
5 06 .
5 04 .
10 21 1