The citizen. (Honesdale, Pa.) 1908-1914, September 06, 1912, Page PAGE TWO, Image 2
PAGE TWO THE CITIZEN. FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1912. THE REVOLUTION : IN NICARAGUA Dismissal of Mena by Presi dent Diaz Started It. GENERAL GADSE OF TROUBLE. He Ha Been In Control of the Troops, and a Former President Had to Leave the Country For Commanding Him to Lay Down His Power. The present Nlcnrngunn revolt was directly brought about by the dismissal of the minister of war, General Luis Mena, by President Adolfo Diaz. This action resulted In tho shelling of tho capital by II una and the landing of American marines to protect the prop erty and lives of foreigner The president Is the nominal ruler of the republic, but General Mena has been In control of the troops. Ills son nud other relatives have commnnded the garrison at Granada and the foiuI military police force of the cnpital. .Ma nagua, and General Mena himself luix lived n stone's throw from the unde fended palace of the president in the eemlfortress, where Zelaya, surround ed by bayonets and with machine guns nt the angles of U10 high walls, sent forth his barbarous decrees of conlls cation, torture and death. It required n high degree of courage for President Diaz to send a summons to such a min ister to lay down his power. A former president tried it with Mena and had to leave the country. For a long time Mena and Diaz were boon companions. Diaz Is In almost every particular tho opposite of Mena, who has a largo Infusion of negro blood. He stands more than six feet hlgti, Is the idol of his soldiers and pos sesses a breadth of view and n grace of maimer rare In one whoso educational advantages have been so limited. Diaz Described. Diaz Is of white blood, moderate sta ture, with the polish acquired by a long career on the east coast Ho Is the sort of man who lets others do most of the talking while he does the thinking. Knowing English well, ho prefers to conduct an Interview through an In terpreter, his critics say, because It gives him time to consider his reply while the interpreter Is translating, lie took part in the war of liberation, but It was chietly as financier and com missioner general rather than as a fighter. lie has made no attempt to tear the laurels of military success from the brow of Mena or Emlllano Chamorro. the two heroes of tho war. Diaz sits at bis desk, thinking, plan ning, studying tho most practicable so lutions of his many hard problems. If lie decided that he must dismiss Mena from tho ministry of war It was no has ty and Immaturo decision, It Is be lieved, but was turned over In his mind for many mouths and adopted finally because It was tho only escape ho saw from a situation growing dally more difficult The third chief actor in tho drama, General Emiliano Chamorro, now In command of tho government forces, differs essentially from tho others. General Chamorro's field of creation, however, is the battlefield. Ho does not lay claim to bo a profound student of economics or statesmanship. Function of the United States. It Is between these three men Eml llano Chamorre, tho lion hearted; Gen eral Mena, In command of the revolu tionary army and tho strong places, and Adolfo Diaz, now In possession of executive authority that tho future of Nicaragua has lain. In the meantlmo It has been tho function of the United States to guard against tho return of the old conditions of bloodshed, revo lution and anarchy. The United States had already Intervened soon after Ze laya fell. When trouble first threat ened between tho successful leaders of tho revolution tho late Thomas C. Dawson, the special representative of the state department, persuaded the five principal chieftains to sign an ngreement by which they were to be bound by the choice of tho flvo as to the conservative candldato for presi dent as soon as a constitution had been formed and it becamo possible to hold free elections. In tho meantlmo tho new national assembly of April, 1911, had begun t In formation of a constitution. Into that constitution was put an article which Is tho crux of tho present difficulties in Nicaragua. This provision Is that the decrees of the constituent assem bly on tho appointment of tho presi dent nnd vice president and of the magistrates of the courts shall remain In force for tho periods respectively set forth. Then tho assembly n few days before the approval of the loan in Oc tober, 1011, elected GeneraJ Mena as president of tho republic for tho term beginning In 1013 without providing for any popular ratification of tills ac tion. This promised troublo for tho United States, but no definite action was taken until tho beginning of tho present year, when a request was submitted by the American charge d'affaires that the constitution should not bo promul gated uuti! the arrival of tho now American minister. Violent resent ment was shown against this request. Secretary Kuox visited Nicaragua In March of this year, but ho took no doclslvo action which has been reveal 1 to tho nubile. GEOLOGIST OF PANAMA CANAL TELLS ABOUT CULEBRA SLIDES They Gave Much Trouble, But Never Imperiled the Great Work. IN an article contributed to tho En gineering Record Donald F. Mac Donald, geologist to tho isthmian canal commission, sayB that the great slides which havo occurred In tho Culebrn cut havo never for a moment caused tho engineering staff to doubt the ultimate success of tho great under taking, lie concludes that when the slopes shall havo been reduced to tho proper angle, which will of coureo vary with tho Btrcugth of tho rock from al most perpendicular in tho case of strong lavas to one in flvo In tho caso of the much sheared clay rocks, tho slide problem will be practically solved. For a time the great masses of earth and rock which broke from tho steep, high slopes of Culebra cut and slid Into the excavation were, to those who re lied on the newspaper reports, a perious menace to the successful completion of tho canal, says Mr. MacDonald. As n matter of fact however, tho slides, vast though they were nud are, never really complicated tho engineering problems of the work, never hindered the yardage output and never threat ened the success of tho canal. It is true that the slides have added much to the necessary excavation and there fore to the total cost but it is a mis tako to think that they havo In tho past or will in tho future put in Jeop ardy tho successful completion and op eration of tho canal. Tho slides are duo In large part to the geological conditions. The oldest rocks are exposed along the canal be tween Obispo and Empire. Faulting, shearing and weathering have mixed this already complex mass so that It Is difficult to analyze It From Empire southward younger rocks are found in a formation estimated to bo 250 feet thick. Thofe grade upward into light gray lenses of sandstone from three inches to three feet thick, separated from each other by thin bods of shale. Both series of beds show remains of marine fauna which indicate that they were originally laid down as sediment In the bottom of Bhallow estuaries of tho sea, and as tho same fossil rela tions are found nil ncross the Isthmus, it is evident that tho Atlantic and Pa cific oceans were Joined at that time. Four Types of Slide. There are four distinct types of slide, each clearly distinguishable from tho others, yet each aiding and abet ting tho others and all working togeth er to pull down material from the high slopes Into Culebra cut to squeeze ma terial up In the bottom of the cut or to do both. These are structural breaks and do formations resulting in slides, normal or gravity slides, fault zone slides and weathering and surfaco erosion. Tho first class is by far tho most Important and troublesome. Fortunately they scarcely occur outside of tho Culebra district The first manifestation of these slides is tho nppearanco of crocks or fissures parallel or somewhat oblique to the trend of tho edge of the steep slope of Culebra cut. They ex tend from a few yards to a hundred yards or moro back from it and from each other. They are usually traceable on the surface of the ground for several hun dred yards and gradually widen out to form perpendicular crevasses sev eral inches wide. Locally one or more of these cracks may appear, and they may develop into tho second stage in a few weeks or In a year or two, de pending on the surrounding conditions. The second stage of this typo of slide consists of a canalward tilting of these blocks, usually accompanied by a deformation or bulging up of the rocks In the bottom of the canal oppo site them. Thcro Is a downward nnd a canalward movement of all the blocks which reaches a maximum of, say, five feet to ten feet at tho edgo of tho cut There ia also a tilting forward toward tho cut on its own axis of each block. Takes Year or More to Settle. These settling, tilting nnd formative movements go on for from a few weeks to a year or more before the third and last stage of tlieso slides is reached. The last stago consists in the dropping downward of ono or more blocks, duo to tho failure nnd squash lug out of its base. Then tho whole block disintegrates and soon becomes a normal gravity earth rock slide, pil ing up in the bottom of tho cnt This typo of slldo Is duo to the un stable geological condition of tho rock formations through which tho cut passes, attrlbutablo only to nature and to tho oversteepness and height of the slopes, blasting nnd other work attrib utable only to man. Any excavation removes support from ono sldo of tho column of owth or rock which forms tho slopes or walla of that excavation. In an excavation through granite tho slopes or walls may bo made perpen dicular for depths of several thousaud root without their crushing in, but If such excavation wero carried down for a depth of, say, threo miles, perpen dicular walls could not bo maintained oven In granite, for tho unbalanced pressure at tho foot of such walls would exceed the crushing strength of No Reason Why the Vast Valley Should Not En dure For Ages. tho rock, and crushing In of tho lower part of tho excavation would result Tho weaker tho rock tho less deep need bo tho excavation and less steep tho walls In order to cause crushing nnd doformntlon, and the critical depth and steepness for the rocks involved have locally been exceeded in tho cut near Culebra. In tho first estimate of excavation for Culebra cut this weak rock factor was not sufficiently con sidered. Tho earth vibrations sot up by deep, heavy blasting near slopes nl ready under n great strain have had a considerable tendency to develop slides. Only One Known Remedy. For this type of slide thcro Is only one remedy nnd that is now being ap plied namely, to make tho slopes less steep by removing material from their upper portions so that the unbalanced pressure toward tho floor of the steep, high cut banks shall be less than the crushing strength of tho rocks involv ed. To do this several steam shovels have been put up on top of tho banks on each sldo of the cut, nnd these are now terracing tho upper part of the slopes, making them less steep nnd re lieving somewhat their strained condi tion. Also each block as it crushes down generally leaves behind It not a grad ual slope, but the nearly perpendicular face of another block, so that when the first slide Is shoveled out tho ten dency for tho next block to crush down 1b not removed and in most cases is but little lessened. Another factor which enters Into tho cause of these large slides and deformations Is time. Some of these movements run their course in a few weeks or months, but others have shown cracks for many months or even years nnd havo not yet slid. These cracks and fissures nro sources of weakness which sooner or later, es pecially after the cut shall have been deepened, will give trouble unless remedied by reduction of slopes. These slides also involve tho additional expense nnd trouble of keeping tho cut drainaf open nnd of shifting nnd adjusting the railroad tracks in the cut so that tho dirt trains may not be Interrupted. It is fortunate that of the highest and. steepest parts of Culebra cut nnmely, Gold hill nnd Contractors' hill will not deform and crush into the cut This is due to the fact that their foundations are relatively strong rocks of volcanic origin, which extend down more than 1,000 feet Into the earth. Locally, especially In the upper portions, these masses In their forma tive stage had mushroomed out some what. Itock, loosened by Jointing, by weathering nnd by former henvy blasting or by all threo causes, will from time to time drop from theso steep plnces, even to tho extent of what might bo called good sized rock slides, but tho hill masses themselves will stand Immovable. Another Large Erosion Remedy. Another large erosion problem Is that which will result along the wa ter's edge from the wash of steamers going through tho canal. Tho wnBh from tho many steamers that will pass through Culebra cut will certainly bo sufficient to very considerably erode the softer rockB along tho water's edge unless tney bo protected. Tho turning of tho wntcr Into the canal will remedy tho slides only in so far as It will provida cheaper methods of excavation and removal of them by dredging. The counterbalancing ef fect of tho water against tho slopes of tho canal will bo an almost negligible quantity, so far ns tho slides are con cerned, for tho following reasons: Tho maximum depth of water In Culebra cut will bo forty-fivo feet, and tho height of tho slopes where sliding might occur Is from 75 to 300 feet. Tho sliding material has nn nverago specific gravity of almost two and n half; henco forty-fivo feet of water would balance only about eighteen feet of slldo If tho prcssuro wero evenly distributed. Considering tho raoro or less wedgo shaped fronts and tho back pressures of many of tho filldes, it Is estimated that tho forty-fivo feet of water would bo equivalent to only nbout ten feet or Blldo. Other considerations nro that, though tho water will protect the low er part of tho canal from oxidation nnd wcntherlng, thus removing n small sourco of weakness, It will causo wa ter to permeate tho cracks and Inter stices nt tho foot of tho slopo and thus bo an added Bourco of weakness, though not a serious ono, to tho slides. On tho wholo, tho water In tho canal will slightly Incrcaso tho tendency to slide, but this will bo moro than ofTsot by tho cheaper methods of excavation nnd transportation which can then bo used. With tho slopes reduced to the prop er nnglo tho slldo problem will be solv ed. With slopo pressures thus finally ndjusted and n protective mantlo of vegetation minimizing erosion on tho banks, Mr. McDonald says there is no reason why this now and mighty man made valley shall not bo as atablo nnd ns enduring as other great valleys wrought long ages by Naturo'a aculp turinc hand- WHEN THERE IS ILLNESS in your family you of course call n reliable physician. Don't stop nt that; have his prescriptions put up at a reliable pharmacy, even if it is a little farther from your home than some other store. You can find no more reliable atore than ours. It would be im possible for more care to be taken in the selection of drugs, etc., or in the compounding. Frescrip tions brought here, either night or day, will bo promptly and accurately compounded by a competent registered pharmacist and the prices will be most rea sonable, O. T. CHAMBERS, PHARMACIST, Opp. D. fc II. Station. Honesdalk. Pa. maar K MARTIN CAUFIELD Designer and Man ufacturer of ARTISTIC MEMORIALS Office and Works; 1036 MAIN ST. HONESDALE, PA. tuuuutuuui WAXTED EXPERD3XCED RIBBON WEAVERS: Piece work; can make $18.00 per week, but are guaranteeing $15.00 per week of 55 hours. Married peo ple preferred. Schaum & Uhlineer high-speed doublo deck looms. Ap ply by letter only to VIRGINIA SILK COJIPAXY, IXO., South Richmond, Va. 50tf C We wIsTi to secure a good correspondent in every town in Wayne county. Don't be afraid to write this office for paper and stamped envelops STOCKHOLDERS' NOTICE. At a meeting of tho dlrectora of tho Honesdalo Dime Bank, held on July 25, 1912, tho following resolu tion was unanimously adopted: "Resolved, That wo recommend the stockholders of tho HoneBdale Dlmo Bank to Incrcaso the capital stock of tho said bank from $75,000 to $100,000." In accordance with tho abovo res olution n meotlng of tho stockholders is called to convono at tho bank on Thursday, tho 10th day of October. 1912, botweon tho hours of 3 and 4 o'clock In tho afternoon of the said day, to tako action on tho ap proval or disapproval of tho propos ed Increase. Note: In tho event of tho stock holders approving tho lncreaso ar recommended, the Board of Direc tors will fix tho prlco for which tho said stock shall bo eold at ?200 per share. 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LIST OF PROPERTIES IX HOXESDALE, PA.: Vacant lota nt Blandln; 1 dwelling houso on Park street, Honesdalo; 1 dwelling house on Court Btroot, Honesdale;2 dwelling houses on East Street Extension; 1 dwelling houso and vacant lot on lGth street; 1 dwolling houso on 13th street; 1 dwelling houso on 17th street. Also farms, hotels, and business properties.