The citizen. (Honesdale, Pa.) 1908-1914, September 06, 1912, Page PAGE TWO, Image 2

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Dismissal of Mena by Presi
dent Diaz Started It.
He Ha Been In Control of the Troops,
and a Former President Had to
Leave the Country For Commanding
Him to Lay Down His Power.
The present Nlcnrngunn revolt was
directly brought about by the dismissal
of the minister of war, General Luis
Mena, by President Adolfo Diaz. This
action resulted In tho shelling of tho
capital by II una and the landing of
American marines to protect the prop
erty and lives of foreigner
The president Is the nominal ruler of
the republic, but General Mena has
been In control of the troops. Ills son
nud other relatives have commnnded
the garrison at Granada and the foiuI
military police force of the cnpital. .Ma
nagua, and General Mena himself luix
lived n stone's throw from the unde
fended palace of the president in the
eemlfortress, where Zelaya, surround
ed by bayonets and with machine guns
nt the angles of U10 high walls, sent
forth his barbarous decrees of conlls
cation, torture and death. It required
n high degree of courage for President
Diaz to send a summons to such a min
ister to lay down his power. A former
president tried it with Mena and had
to leave the country.
For a long time Mena and Diaz were
boon companions. Diaz Is In almost
every particular tho opposite of Mena,
who has a largo Infusion of negro
blood. He stands more than six feet
hlgti, Is the idol of his soldiers and pos
sesses a breadth of view and n grace of
maimer rare In one whoso educational
advantages have been so limited.
Diaz Described.
Diaz Is of white blood, moderate sta
ture, with the polish acquired by a long
career on the east coast Ho Is the
sort of man who lets others do most of
the talking while he does the thinking.
Knowing English well, ho prefers to
conduct an Interview through an In
terpreter, his critics say, because It
gives him time to consider his reply
while the interpreter Is translating, lie
took part in the war of liberation, but
It was chietly as financier and com
missioner general rather than as a
fighter. lie has made no attempt to
tear the laurels of military success
from the brow of Mena or Emlllano
Chamorro. the two heroes of tho war.
Diaz sits at bis desk, thinking, plan
ning, studying tho most practicable so
lutions of his many hard problems. If
lie decided that he must dismiss Mena
from tho ministry of war It was no has
ty and Immaturo decision, It Is be
lieved, but was turned over In his mind
for many mouths and adopted finally
because It was tho only escape ho saw
from a situation growing dally more
The third chief actor in tho drama,
General Emiliano Chamorro, now In
command of tho government forces,
differs essentially from tho others.
General Chamorro's field of creation,
however, is the battlefield. Ho does
not lay claim to bo a profound student
of economics or statesmanship.
Function of the United States.
It Is between these three men Eml
llano Chamorre, tho lion hearted; Gen
eral Mena, In command of the revolu
tionary army and tho strong places,
and Adolfo Diaz, now In possession of
executive authority that tho future of
Nicaragua has lain. In the meantlmo
It has been tho function of the United
States to guard against tho return of
the old conditions of bloodshed, revo
lution and anarchy. The United States
had already Intervened soon after Ze
laya fell. When trouble first threat
ened between tho successful leaders
of tho revolution tho late Thomas C.
Dawson, the special representative of
the state department, persuaded the
five principal chieftains to sign an
ngreement by which they were to be
bound by the choice of tho flvo as to
the conservative candldato for presi
dent as soon as a constitution had been
formed and it becamo possible to hold
free elections.
In tho meantlmo tho new national
assembly of April, 1911, had begun t In
formation of a constitution. Into that
constitution was put an article which
Is tho crux of tho present difficulties
in Nicaragua. This provision Is that
the decrees of the constituent assem
bly on tho appointment of tho presi
dent nnd vice president and of the
magistrates of the courts shall remain
In force for tho periods respectively set
forth. Then tho assembly n few days
before the approval of the loan in Oc
tober, 1011, elected GeneraJ Mena as
president of tho republic for tho term
beginning In 1013 without providing
for any popular ratification of tills ac
tion. This promised troublo for tho United
States, but no definite action was taken
until tho beginning of tho present
year, when a request was submitted
by the American charge d'affaires that
the constitution should not bo promul
gated uuti! the arrival of tho now
American minister. Violent resent
ment was shown against this request.
Secretary Kuox visited Nicaragua In
March of this year, but ho took no
doclslvo action which has been reveal
1 to tho nubile.
They Gave Much Trouble,
But Never Imperiled the
Great Work.
IN an article contributed to tho En
gineering Record Donald F. Mac
Donald, geologist to tho isthmian
canal commission, sayB that the
great slides which havo occurred In tho
Culebrn cut havo never for a moment
caused tho engineering staff to doubt
the ultimate success of tho great under
taking, lie concludes that when the
slopes shall havo been reduced to tho
proper angle, which will of coureo vary
with tho Btrcugth of tho rock from al
most perpendicular in tho case of
strong lavas to one in flvo In tho caso
of the much sheared clay rocks, tho
slide problem will be practically solved.
For a time the great masses of earth
and rock which broke from tho steep,
high slopes of Culebra cut and slid Into
the excavation were, to those who re
lied on the newspaper reports, a perious
menace to the successful completion of
tho canal, says Mr. MacDonald. As n
matter of fact however, tho slides,
vast though they were nud are, never
really complicated tho engineering
problems of the work, never hindered
the yardage output and never threat
ened the success of tho canal. It is
true that the slides have added much
to the necessary excavation and there
fore to the total cost but it is a mis
tako to think that they havo In tho
past or will in tho future put in Jeop
ardy tho successful completion and op
eration of tho canal.
Tho slides are duo In large part to
the geological conditions. The oldest
rocks are exposed along the canal be
tween Obispo and Empire. Faulting,
shearing and weathering have mixed
this already complex mass so that It
Is difficult to analyze It From Empire
southward younger rocks are found in
a formation estimated to bo 250 feet
thick. Thofe grade upward into light
gray lenses of sandstone from three
inches to three feet thick, separated
from each other by thin bods of shale.
Both series of beds show remains of
marine fauna which indicate that they
were originally laid down as sediment
In the bottom of Bhallow estuaries of
tho sea, and as tho same fossil rela
tions are found nil ncross the Isthmus,
it is evident that tho Atlantic and Pa
cific oceans were Joined at that time.
Four Types of Slide.
There are four distinct types of
slide, each clearly distinguishable from
tho others, yet each aiding and abet
ting tho others and all working togeth
er to pull down material from the high
slopes Into Culebra cut to squeeze ma
terial up In the bottom of the cut or to
do both.
These are structural breaks and do
formations resulting in slides, normal
or gravity slides, fault zone slides and
weathering and surfaco erosion. Tho
first class is by far tho most Important
and troublesome. Fortunately they
scarcely occur outside of tho Culebra
district The first manifestation of
these slides is tho nppearanco of crocks
or fissures parallel or somewhat
oblique to the trend of tho edge of the
steep slope of Culebra cut. They ex
tend from a few yards to a hundred
yards or moro back from it and from
each other.
They are usually traceable on the
surface of the ground for several hun
dred yards and gradually widen out
to form perpendicular crevasses sev
eral inches wide. Locally one or more
of these cracks may appear, and they
may develop into tho second stage in
a few weeks or In a year or two, de
pending on the surrounding conditions.
The second stage of this typo of
slide consists of a canalward tilting of
these blocks, usually accompanied by
a deformation or bulging up of the
rocks In the bottom of the canal oppo
site them. Thcro Is a downward nnd a
canalward movement of all the blocks
which reaches a maximum of, say, five
feet to ten feet at tho edgo of tho cut
There ia also a tilting forward toward
tho cut on its own axis of each block.
Takes Year or More to Settle.
These settling, tilting nnd formative
movements go on for from a few
weeks to a year or more before the
third and last stage of tlieso slides is
reached. The last stago consists in the
dropping downward of ono or more
blocks, duo to tho failure nnd squash
lug out of its base. Then tho whole
block disintegrates and soon becomes
a normal gravity earth rock slide, pil
ing up in the bottom of tho cnt
This typo of slldo Is duo to the un
stable geological condition of tho rock
formations through which tho cut
passes, attrlbutablo only to nature and
to tho oversteepness and height of the
slopes, blasting nnd other work attrib
utable only to man. Any excavation
removes support from ono sldo of tho
column of owth or rock which forms
tho slopes or walla of that excavation.
In an excavation through granite tho
slopes or walls may bo made perpen
dicular for depths of several thousaud
root without their crushing in, but If
such excavation wero carried down for
a depth of, say, threo miles, perpen
dicular walls could not bo maintained
oven In granite, for tho unbalanced
pressure at tho foot of such walls
would exceed the crushing strength of
No Reason Why the Vast
Valley Should Not En
dure For Ages.
tho rock, and crushing In of tho lower
part of tho excavation would result
Tho weaker tho rock tho less deep
need bo tho excavation and less steep
tho walls In order to cause crushing
nnd doformntlon, and the critical depth
and steepness for the rocks involved
have locally been exceeded in tho cut
near Culebra. In tho first estimate of
excavation for Culebra cut this weak
rock factor was not sufficiently con
sidered. Tho earth vibrations sot up
by deep, heavy blasting near slopes nl
ready under n great strain have had a
considerable tendency to develop slides.
Only One Known Remedy.
For this type of slide thcro Is only
one remedy nnd that is now being ap
plied namely, to make tho slopes less
steep by removing material from their
upper portions so that the unbalanced
pressure toward tho floor of the steep,
high cut banks shall be less than the
crushing strength of tho rocks involv
ed. To do this several steam shovels
have been put up on top of tho banks
on each sldo of the cut, nnd these are
now terracing tho upper part of the
slopes, making them less steep nnd re
lieving somewhat their strained condi
tion. Also each block as it crushes down
generally leaves behind It not a grad
ual slope, but the nearly perpendicular
face of another block, so that when
the first slide Is shoveled out tho ten
dency for tho next block to crush
down 1b not removed and in most
cases is but little lessened. Another
factor which enters Into tho cause of
these large slides and deformations Is
time. Some of these movements run
their course in a few weeks or months,
but others have shown cracks for
many months or even years nnd havo
not yet slid.
These cracks and fissures nro sources
of weakness which sooner or later, es
pecially after the cut shall have been
deepened, will give trouble unless
remedied by reduction of slopes.
These slides also involve tho additional
expense nnd trouble of keeping tho
cut drainaf open nnd of shifting nnd
adjusting the railroad tracks in the
cut so that tho dirt trains may not be
It is fortunate that of the highest
and. steepest parts of Culebra cut
nnmely, Gold hill nnd Contractors'
hill will not deform and crush into
the cut This is due to the fact that
their foundations are relatively strong
rocks of volcanic origin, which extend
down more than 1,000 feet Into the
earth. Locally, especially In the upper
portions, these masses In their forma
tive stage had mushroomed out some
what. Itock, loosened by Jointing, by
weathering nnd by former henvy
blasting or by all threo causes, will
from time to time drop from theso
steep plnces, even to tho extent of
what might bo called good sized rock
slides, but tho hill masses themselves
will stand Immovable.
Another Large Erosion Remedy.
Another large erosion problem Is
that which will result along the wa
ter's edge from the wash of steamers
going through tho canal. Tho wnBh
from tho many steamers that will pass
through Culebra cut will certainly bo
sufficient to very considerably erode
the softer rockB along tho water's edge
unless tney bo protected.
Tho turning of tho wntcr Into the
canal will remedy tho slides only in so
far as It will provida cheaper methods
of excavation and removal of them by
dredging. The counterbalancing ef
fect of tho water against tho slopes of
tho canal will bo an almost negligible
quantity, so far ns tho slides are con
cerned, for tho following reasons: Tho
maximum depth of water In Culebra
cut will bo forty-fivo feet, and tho
height of tho slopes where sliding
might occur Is from 75 to 300 feet.
Tho sliding material has nn nverago
specific gravity of almost two and n
half; henco forty-fivo feet of water
would balance only about eighteen feet
of slldo If tho prcssuro wero evenly
Considering tho raoro or less wedgo
shaped fronts and tho back pressures
of many of tho filldes, it Is estimated
that tho forty-fivo feet of water would
bo equivalent to only nbout ten feet or
Blldo. Other considerations nro that,
though tho water will protect the low
er part of tho canal from oxidation
nnd wcntherlng, thus removing n small
sourco of weakness, It will causo wa
ter to permeate tho cracks and Inter
stices nt tho foot of tho slopo and thus
bo an added Bourco of weakness,
though not a serious ono, to tho slides.
On tho wholo, tho water In tho canal
will slightly Incrcaso tho tendency to
slide, but this will bo moro than ofTsot
by tho cheaper methods of excavation
nnd transportation which can then bo
With tho slopes reduced to the prop
er nnglo tho slldo problem will be solv
ed. With slopo pressures thus finally
ndjusted and n protective mantlo of
vegetation minimizing erosion on tho
banks, Mr. McDonald says there is no
reason why this now and mighty man
made valley shall not bo as atablo nnd
ns enduring as other great valleys
wrought long ages by Naturo'a aculp
turinc hand-
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and the prices will be most rea
sonable, O. T. CHAMBERS,
Opp. D. fc II. Station. Honesdalk. Pa.
Designer and Man
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At a meeting of tho dlrectora of
tho Honesdalo Dime Bank, held on
July 25, 1912, tho following resolu
tion was unanimously adopted:
"Resolved, That wo recommend
the stockholders of tho HoneBdale
Dlmo Bank to Incrcaso the capital
stock of tho said bank from $75,000
to $100,000."
In accordance with tho abovo res
olution n meotlng of tho stockholders
is called to convono at tho bank on
Thursday, tho 10th day of October.
1912, botweon tho hours of 3 and
4 o'clock In tho afternoon of the
said day, to tako action on tho ap
proval or disapproval of tho propos
ed Increase.
Note: In tho event of tho stock
holders approving tho lncreaso ar
recommended, the Board of Direc
tors will fix tho prlco for which tho
said stock shall bo eold at ?200 per
. . SocroUry.
Honesdalo, Pa., Aug. 5, 1912.
Remember tho dates of the com
ing fair.
M. K. SIMONS, President. O. A. EJIERY, Cnahler.
Corner of
Main & 10th
Watch US
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in Wayne county.
mark and is steadily growing with the people's confidence
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business; together with it's trust funds invested in bonds
and first mortgages on improved real estate assures its de
positors absolute security.
It treats its hundreds of small depositors with the
same courtesy as though their funds were deposited by ono
or more persons.
This bank comes under the strict requirements of the
State banking laws as all savings banks and is frequently
visited by the Pennsylvania State bank examiner, besides
having a board of directors consisting of sixteen of Wayne
county's reliable business men and farmers.
M. B. Allen,
George C. Abraham,
J. Sam Brown,
Oscar E. Bunnell,
Wm. H. Dunn,
W. H. Fowler,
W. B. Gulnnlp,
M. J. Hanlan,
John E. Krantz,
Fred W. Kreltner,
J. E. Tiffany.
John Weaver,
O. Wm. Sell,
M. E. Simons,
Fred Stephens,
George W. Tisdell,
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Vacant lota nt Blandln; 1 dwelling houso on Park street, Honesdalo;
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