The citizen. (Honesdale, Pa.) 1908-1914, April 19, 1911, Image 2

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Semicentennial of the
First Year of Nal.'o.i'r.
Life and Death Strug
gle The Going Out o'
the "Cotton Republics."
ONE most fortunate fact fur
nlshi'S the keynote to the llf
tleth anniversary of the heglu
nlng of the .civil war-the
Union Is now so tirmly cemented that
the celebration cannot disturb In the
slightest degree the fraternal relations
hctweou the two sections. There could 1
he no more complete vindication oi I
popular government. Not only did the 1
Vnlon sustain the shock of the great- i
est Internal war In history, hut In less I
than a single lifetime Is more strouglj
knit together than over before. :
The first year of the war was not i
conspicuous for the number or size a'- !
its battles. Indeed, the first Hull tt-i.i
was the only general engagement of j
first class Importance. It was a tiii.c ,
of preparation, of the mustering ii i
and drilling of armies, of the phiunlu'.
of campaigns, of a political strug e i
over the border stales nnd of the i
lection of generals.
The preliminary steps leading to I'm i
struggle had taken place hi the lnt
days of 1800. They began Immediate i
ly after the election. 'hen congress
met there were various conferences of
the southern senators and repreeuta
tives, followed by addresses to their
states and preparations for villi
drawnl. South Carolina led the wa,
in actually seceding from the Union,
her ordinance having been adopled on
Dec. 'JO. or nearly three weeks prior to
that of 'iny other state.
Without Compass or Eudder.
The new year opened in gloom am1
uncertainty. The outgoing ndminltra
Hon was vacillating between the doc
trine of noncoerclon on the one side
and the stiffening Union sentiment of
the north on the other and was rtnlii'-'
nothing effectual. Mr. Lincoln wti
silent as to his coming policy. The
uhlp of slate seemed to be drifting
without compass or rudder. In this
period of doubt t !i3 condition of the
public mind may be imagined. The
only people who seemed to know e'
nctly what, they wanted were the
southern leaders. There was no l.icl;
of decision here. On .Tnn. 0 Mississippi
went out. Florida followed on the loth
and Alabama on the 11th. .Ian. ill
neorgia cast In her lot with hoi" se
ceding sisters, and one week later, on
the 2(51 h. Louisiana cut loose her moor
ings. Then came Texas on Feb. 1
rnmploting the seven cotton slate's, oi
cotton republics, as they were called
l.i the prints of the day, that formed
the lint provisional government of the
fnut hern confederacy.
Events moved swiftly nt the south
On Feb. 4 the provisional congress jim-i
at Montgomery and on the Sth hid
'.omplotcd the plans for a proUsioi il
government. The next day Jefferson
DavK who had resigned his post as
United States senntor from Mississippi
only a few days before, was eloitei'
provisional president and nine dnvi
later, on Feb. 18, was Inaugurated.. So
matters stood when Abraham Lincoln
became president on March 4.
Things now began to happen also at
the north. There was caution, yes, hut
no more Indecision or halting. The
difference was that the new head of
the Washington administration knew
ns definitely what he wanted as did
the leaders nt Montgomery, ills en
tire Inaugural address had been de
voted to the one theme of preserving
the Union, l'erhaps he did not yet
realize the stupendous nature of tin1
struggle to reach Unit end. Nobod.
did. Mr. Lincoln, Inexperienced as he
was and unfamiliar with recent inside
facts at Washington, yet seemed to
have a keener insight into the situa
tion and a more lively appreciation of
the gravity of the crisis, however, than
did those who surrounded him. On the I
very tlrst day of bis term he was fife
to face with the question that was to I
prove the actual starting point of the
war, that of provisioning nnd holding
Fort Sumter.
The Fall of Sumter.
The anniversary of the firing on
Fort Sumter, which occurred on April
12, has already been celebrated
throughout the land. The supplies and
ie-enforcenients ordered by Lincoln
were on their way and npproachetl the
fort during the bombardment, only to
he turned back. Despite the discour
agements, the disparity in numbers,
the exhausted food supply and the fall
ing ammunition, the little garrison
held out for three dnys, finally capitu
lating on the l-lth. On the next dny
President Lincoln sent out n call for
75,000 throe months troops. There was
no more Indecision, As Greeley said
in the Tribune, the government; nt last
had a "man nt the head of it." The
challenge wns accepted the moment It
was made,
Major Itohert Anderson, the hero of
Kort Sumter, had a part later in the
rear. He wns appointed to recruit
Union troops in his native state of
Kentucky nnd as a general hod charge
for a time of tho Kentucky forces,
. The firing on Sumter was the be
ginning of the war. Tho people of the
north were ns instant as Lincoln in
rising to meet the crisis. The whole
north blazed. Even New York city,
that wns suspected of disloyalty, held
monster mass meetings, and one news
liier that hart been siding with the
Struggle For the Border
States The Advent of
McClellan and Lee Cap
tain Nathaniel Lyon's
Death to Save Missouri.
south was forced to change Its policy
overnight. Stales overfilled their quota
and clamored for the privilege of offer
ing more troops. Not only men were
forthcoming, hut money nnd supplies.
Ilurdly since the crusades was there
'over witnessed such n spontaneous
popular uprising. It was as though a
divine decree had gone forth nnd the
heart of the nation responded.
The south was affected equally with
the north. Virginia nnd North Caro
lina had been In the balance, but Sum
ter decided them. Henceforth there
was no middle ground. lie who wns
not for the nation was against it. On
April 17 Virginia went out of the
Union. Tennessee and Arkansas would
probably have Joined the cotton states
anyway, although there was a con-
Union population in the
! mountain section of Tennessee. These,
with Virginia and North Carolina,
made up the eleven states that finally
constituted tho rebellion.
Fighting For the Border States.
There then began a struggle for the
border states, which in one sense was
altogether the most important develop
ment of the year. In this struggle tho
north was the victor. Had the result
been different there might have been
nnother outcome to the war. The story
of the holding of Missouri, Kentucky
and Maryland and of tho cutting off
of West Virginia Is of thrilling in
terest. While there was little blood
shed In the process, there wns general-
- I
ship of a high order. The retention of
each of these states was worth the
winning of many battles.
In point of time nnd perhaps in
strategic importance Maryland came
first. The Baltimore riots occurred on
i April 10. Portions of the Sixth Massa
I chusetts in passing through the city
were attacked by a mob, several sol
! dlers being hurt and some killed. The
I troops (lred back, wounding and kill
ing ninny. Tho police finally restored
J a semblance of order, and the soldiers
! proceeded. The "massacre," as It was
called, had a still further effect in In
flaming the north. Its influence on
Maryland was equally great. Other
uprisings occurred In outside towns,
and It looked for a time that the state
would be swept into tho rebellion and
tho city of Washington would lie ma
rooned iu hostile territory. Delega
tions from Baltimore visited tho cap
ital with demands that no more sol
diers pass through Baltimore. Some
of tho more timiii Marylanders peti
tioned that soldiers should not cross
the state at all, which caused Lincoln
to sny rather quaintly that as they
could not fly over or go under the
stato they would have to cross It. The
famous Seventh New York spent days
of arduous labor in rebuilding the rail
road from Annapolis and finally
reached Washington, marching up
Pennsylvania avenue In fine form, to
the prodigious cheering of the citizens.
Henceforth this route wns used with
out further difficulty. Soon afterward
General Butler took charge In Balti
more, and the uprising In favor of the
south subsided.
Lyon and McClellan.
In Missouri the governor nnd many
of the state officials wcro on the side
of the sout'i and were active in the
efforts to take the stato out of the
Union. They were defeated only by
the nativity of a league headed by
Frank P. Rlafr end Caftnln Nathaniel
Lyon, lloverin)'' Jackson liihllshcrt n
camp In St. J.otilM ii.-u-ifii In honor of
himself. Ou May lc t rptnlu Lyon de
scended on Camp .bit'' i-n and cap
tured It Wtrhout b!o"l heil Ho then
followed Jr. kson and (fouoml I'rlt'1.
defeating them In several engage
ments, only to lose bis own life In the
battle of Wilson's Creek or' Air 10
It wns a costly sacrifice. Lyon belli"
one of the most promising oltlcers de
veloped In the early part of the war
but It kept Missouri In the Union ami
this fact wns unquestionably Inlltteii
'inl.ln holding Kentucky.
Tho winning of West Virginia
brought General George It. McClellan
to tho front. McClellan Joined the
army In Ohio nnd was sent across the
Ohio river with several regiments early
In the yenr. The Virginians west of
the Allegheny mountains had never
been In close political sympathy with
those of the eastern part of the slate
and voted nlmost solidly against re
cession. Under the protection of the
Union troops a convention was called
nnd on June 10 Its members practiced
a little secession on their own hook,
formally separating from tho remain
der of the state on Juno 10. The next
day a governor was elected, and a
month Inter a new state was erected,
which was admitted In ISO-"1. Mean
while McClellan nnd his generals ,iad
won a succession of victories In the
vicinity of Grafton and had driven the
opposing troops out of the new state.
McClellan wns not the only ofllcei'
afterward conspicuous who participat
ed in the flchtlng lii 18(51. Colonel Rob.
ert E. Lee. his great opponent, while
opposing secession, went out with his
,lllto aml r(.st;nc(1 from tho lItllt(.(1
States army in April, soon afterwaul
being placed nt the head of the Vlr
glula troops. "Stonewall" Jackson ,ili
made his first appearance In 1S(il, n
did General Sherman. Grant also won
his first battle, though late in the year
Th Death of Ellsworth.
An eveat that served to arouse the
north almost as much as did the 'firing
ou Sumter or the Baltimore riot was
the assassination of Colonel E. Elme1
Ellsworth on May 1!4. Ellsworth was
tho colonel of the famous zouaves re
cruited from the Now York llrenien
When ordered to Alexandria his tlrst
act was to remove with his own hands
a Confederate flag floating from a
hotel that had long been an offense to
Washington, since on clear days It was
in sight of tlie capltol. While descend
ing with the flag wrapped about his
body Ellsworth was shot by the pro
priotor of tho house.
The first actual battle of the war be
tween organized troops wns that at
Big Bethel, Va., fought on June 10.
Bull Run came only eleven days late1'
Volumes have been written to expl.iii.
the outcome of this battle. In the light
of subsequent investigations It doe.
uot appear the rout at first reported
It was a well planned action ami, con
sldering the unseasoned condition of
the troops, was well fought. In the
forenoon the Union men bad all the
best of the lighting, but the arrival of
Johnston's fresh troops from Winches
tor In tho nfternoon turned the tide
It was tho release of this army from
the vicinity of Harpers Ferry, where
they had been engaged by General
Patterson, that unquestionably decided
the fate of tho day. General Beaure
gard commanded for the Confederates.
The engagement served nt least one
useful purpose. It aroused the north
to the seriousness of tho struggle.
Most of the battles of 1801, especial
ly In the east, were Union reverses
Ono of the most lamentable was the
fight of Ball's Bluff, Va., in which
Colonel Edward D. Baker, Lincoln's
lifelong friend, lost his life.
On tho whole, however, the yenr was
not one of discouragement to the
Union cause. Tho north hnd been
aroused nnd united, an army created
and drilled and tho border states held
In line. These three things laid the
Rvoundwork for future success.
A Wealth of Exquisite Blos
soms For tho New Headgear,
Flower decorated hats are the rule
this season, and the flowers are applied
with such abundance that the cost of
the hats is far from being as encour
aging ns It should be. For instance,
tho elegant white chip hut shown here
Is adorned with roses that so success
fully imitate the natural flowers that
they might well be mistaken for thorn.
Tho roses are of pluk tulle, whit h
gives them their peculiarly light and
airy appearance.
There Is something very attractive
this season about the new millinery,
partly, no doubt, because the latest
shapes show so much variety and
partly also boeauxo the colorings which
nre most in vogue are of the daintiest
and most delightful description.
Various small blossoms, massed
closely together, will be employed to
cover entirely the high crowned and
narrow brimmed toques and hats,
which seem likely to take the place of
the extinguishers of last season. Giant
violets in thlr own beautiful purple
coloring lire being used for these floral
toques, intermingled with the same
flowers dyed In a vivd shade of crim
son. The violet anil crimson blossoms are
grouped together so that they cover
both crown and brim, while high ou
one side there is frequently a tall
aigrct of flowers.
The Swedish Almanac.
The Swedish name almanac differ
from English almanacs in giving, he
sides the usual information, a Chris
tian name for each sex for every day
of the year. The names set forth have
to receive the approval of tho king.
The object ulmert at Is to secure a
greater choice of names for" parents
and to avoid tho endless repetition of
a dozen or so names. A similar uaino
almanac Is Issued under roynl author
ity in one of the German states. Lon
don Graphic.
Sounded Bigger,
"How did you get that new clerk?
Ho wouldn't accept an offer from me."
"Probably I offered him larger In
ducements." "I told him his wages would be S10
a week."
"That's It, then. I told him his sal
ary would bo $10 n month." Cleveland
Moral Courage,
As to moral courage, I have very rare
ly met with the 12 o'clock in the morn
lng courage. I mean unprepared cour
age, that which Is necessary on an un
expected occasion, and which, in spite
of the most unforeseen events, leaves
futt freedom of judgment and decision.
wi nr,Tf i,r,.
Roll of
Attention is called to tne STRENGTH
of the
Wayne County
The FINANCIER of New York
City has published a ROLL Or
HONOR of the 11,470 State Banks
and Trust Companies of United
States. In this list the WAYNE
Stands 38th in the United States
Stands 10th in Pennsylvania.
Stands FIRST in Wavne County.
Capital, Surplus, $527,342.88
Total ASSETS, $2,951,048.26
llonesdale, Pa., December 1, 1910,
Mm ill
Ann Bofeyn and the Lemon.
WliO1 vcr thinks of onnectlng such
a commonplace at It 1 if diet as the
lemon with the rorni' history of lit
fated Anne Uoleyn'.' Y l indirectly she
wns the cause' nf its llrsl Introduction
Into England and so Into i.mpulnr no
tice. Henry VII L gave such splendid
feasts and pageniitK in honor of the
coronation of Anne and of their pre
vious nuptials as had seldom been ac
corded to queens of the blood roynl.
Tnese kingly entertainments were in
turn followed by the grunt civic feasts
of London, for which tin.' whole world
was searched for delicacies to add ti
the splendor. At one1 such banquet,
graced by the presence of the royal
pair, a lemon was Introduced as an
elegant novelty. To an epicure such
as Henry the acquisition of a castle
In France would have proved less ac
ceptable, and such wns tho Importance?
attached to the discovery so says un
old biographer that a special record I
was made of the fact that the cost of
this precious lemon was six silver pen-1
His "Turnout."
Isn't this earlier than your
1 for going home?
Yes hut my wife said If I
by the :i:-I,r she'd meet me'
usual time
came out
with tin1 carriage. 1
"1 didn't know you kept a horse and ,
"Er er It's a baby and carriage '
Order your furniture by mall and get
factory prices.
Only $3.92
for this fine, brass-trimmed Iron Bed In
any size. Lacqnered brass rods, orna
ments and vases. Beautifully enameled
In every detail. Reverso rails to fit any
kind ot sprlnp. A bed of similar style
and quality retails In stores for $5.50.
Carefully packed, shipped
for $3.92. Do you wish to
save fully a third in buy
ing your furniture?
Send today for our Factory-Price Cat
alogue. Sent free on request. "Stlckley
Brandt" furniture Is the kin that serves
you. longest and best.
Have you a kick coming ?
Is there anything that displeases you ?
Are you unhappy and need cheering up ?
Has any little thing gone wrong ?
Tell us your troubles. Let us help you ?
For each of the three best kicks each week, The Citizen
will give a brand new crisp one dollar bill. Don't kick too
long. 50 words to a kick. No limit, however, to the num
ber of your kicks. You don't have to be a subscriber to be a
Open to everyone alike, men, women and children, subscribers and non-subscribers.
Old and younc. rich and poor. ltemember two cents a word for the
three best kicks.
There must be something you don't like.
Kick about it. What good is an editor any
way except to fix up the kicks of his read
ers? Relieve your mind and get a prize!
A few suggested subjects at which to kick! Tho weather, of course.
Tight fitting shoes. Tho high cost of living. The hobble skir( and the
Ilarom trousers. High hats on weok days. Suffraglsm, etc., etc., etc. The
tunnler the better.
Several people have asked us If tho fifty-word letters containing kicks
have to be signed, llow else will wo know to whom to award the prizes?
Whether in the event of the letter winning a prize and being published,
the name of the kicker would appear is another question. Undoubtodlr
tho writer's wishes would be followed on that score. Our Idea of the
"Kick Kontest" Includes everything except direct and offensive personali
ties. Sit right down now and dash off fifty words about anything you don't
llko and want to register a kick against. It won't take you five minutes
and you may win a prize. The more original the subject the better chanoe
for a prize. One dollar for less than five minutes work is pretty good par.
Of course you can mako your kick as short as you wish. A clever fifteen
word kick may win a prize over a full-length fifty-word one. The shorter
the better.
For the best kick of ten words or less The Citizen will pay an additional
prizo of one dollar. Now then, lace up your shoes and let drive!
()lllra nrilnre nt til Prist ntltrn In Tllmmlflr
ofllce. lloncsilaie, l'a.
Office over post ofllce. All lecul business
promptly attended to. Honcsdale, Pa.
Otllce I.lhortv Unit hlllllllno. imnnolfn Him
Post Olllce. llonesdale. Pa.
Office over Itelf's store, llonesdale Pa.
Special and prompt attention clvcn to the
collection of claims. Olllce over Kelt's new
store, llonesdale. Pa.
h . attorney a cohnselou-at-law
Olllce over the post olllce llonesdale. Fa.
1 Ofllce in the Court House, llonesdale
Olllce Second, floor old Savings Bnk
Hnnesrtale. Pa.
Otllccs lately occupied by Judge Kcarle
Olllce adjacent to Post Ofllce, llonesdale. P
Olllce Kirst Hour, old Saving's Hank build
ing, llonesdale. Pa.
Office Hoimg-8n. in. to 6 p. 111.
Any evening by appointment.
Citizens1 phone. 33. liesidence. No. 8&-X
Ev?und Ear n snnciultv. Thf (It tin? of pIarm-
es given careiui attention.
JLi moved his livery establishment from
corner Church street to Whitney's Stone
Certified Nurse,
Certified Nurse,"!. S. N.
Tcleplioiic-Cileu ICyre.
Advertise in Tho Citizen?
f f