The citizen. (Honesdale, Pa.) 1908-1914, March 30, 1910, Image 1

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    On Wednesday partly cloud? weather will prevail, and on Thursday, overcast and cooler weather with local rain.
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Scml-Wcckly Founded ?
Weekly Founded, 1844
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tA Wayne County Organ
' of the
67th YEAR.
NO. 25
Supreme Court Justice Suc
cumbs In Oath.
Wife Hears Sound of Falling Body.
Death Cripples Court on Pend
ing1 Oil and Tobacco.
ase Decisions.
Washington, March 2!). David Jo
slali Brewer, associate Justice of tin
United States supreme court since
1S85), dropped .dead from apoplexy it
the bathroom of his homo here In lib
seventy-third year. Up to the time ot j
his death ho had been apparently in j
Rood health and spirits. I
Mrs. Brewer heard his body fall and
went to investigate the cause. A phy- j
siclan who was hastily called said I
death was almost instantaneous.
Close application to the work of tht
supreme court in the Standard Oil and t
tobacco cases undoubtedly hastened
Justice Brewer's death. lie had been
devoting himself
arguments to the s
case, and he had
ord of the case in his hand when
death overtook him.
It Is probable that his death will
have a farrenehJng effect on important
cases now pending before the supreme
court. Ilo was one of the progressive
members of the court and Inclined to a
liberal construction of the laws.
Ho sat In both the tobacco and
Standard Oil cases, both of which arc
on the eve of being decided. It lint
been the general expectation that tin
vote of the court in these cases would
be close. There is a strong likelihood
now that conditions may bo reversed
one way or the other over the deci
sions as they would have been ren
dered had Justice ltrewer lived.
Justice Brewer's passing makes tht
second vacancy-by deattt"d1i"thc,'wi":
preme bench wince the beginning of tin
Taft administration. The tirst death
was that of Justice Hufus W. .Peck'
ham, who was succeeded by Hornet
II Lurton.
David J. Brewer had lcen a justice
of the United States supreme court fot
more than twenty years. He was ap
pointed by President Harrison to sue
coed Justice Stanley Matthews, nnd
he was sworn In on Jan. C, 1S00.
i ho son of a missionary, he wai
born in Smyrna, Asia Minor, in 18117 !
nut was brought to America before he
was a year old.
Like his father, his grandfather and
his great-grandfather and a number ol
his uncles, h( was an alumnus of Yale
having taken Ills degree in 1850.
After leaving college young Brewei
studied law in the otilce of his uncle.
David Dudley Field, in New York ami
was graduated from the Albany taw
school in J8T.8. The next vear he ro
moved to i.Pnrnmvnrfh TTnn i
he became United States mmm'i,
mm judge of the nrolmto nmi Mr.,,.. I
In 18r he was appointed n United
States district judge and remained on
that bench for four years. In 18(10 he
became county attorney and from 187C
to 1884 was a Justice of the supreme
court of the state of Kansas. From
10il 10IIH 1... ... . ..
, oo. uc us u juuge or tilt'
.-i4(i;r ;iii:uji. LOllll.
He was the author of several books
among them "The Pew to the Pulpit,'
18117 "The Twentieth Century From
Another Viewpoint," 1809; "American
Citizenship," 1002; "The United State!
n Christian Nation," 1005.
She Receives $10,000 a Year Under Will
of Maternal Grandfather.
Boston, March 20.-Mrs. Alico Boose-velt-Longworth,
wife of Congressman
Nicholas Longwortb. and daughter of
former President Boosovelt, receives
a yearly income of $10,000 under the
will of her maternal grandfather,
Ocorge C. Lee, the Boston banker, filed'
Mrs, Lougworth, who is the only
grandchild, shares equally with Mr.
Lee's children in the division of the
estate, which is -divided equally Into
six parts. Mr. Leo was one of the
founders of the Boston banking house
of Lee, Higglnson & Co.
Kroo and Fanteea Butcher and Eat
Frenchmen In Wert Africa.
London, .March 21). The steamship
Salaga, which has Just arrived at Liv
erpool from west Africa, reports that
there has been an uprising of the na
tives on the Ivory Coast.
The Krooa nud Fantees attacked the
French, killing thirty-four whites, of
whom they ate several,
s y- c whMw
NeWS Snapshots A lral" k,1(nv" ,m" "Itnilolr-s" Special" left California for New York with six private cars carrying Andrew Cartuvle.
; Sirs. Kussell Sage, Kdwin Cuuld and W. Seward Webb. John F. Klein. ex-Plttsburg alderman, on his wav to penltentliirv
Ol the Week confessed, and as a result indictments against sixty Pittsburg otllcials have been returned for grafting. Ktigene N. l-'oss. a
Democrat, was elcctetl congressman from a Boston Itepnbllcan district on high cost of living platform. Superintendent of In
surance William Ilotchklss has uncovered a graft fund among tire Insurance companies. The widows of Presidents Harrison and Cleveland will gut $r..0nu
n year pension. President Taft. after a hard week of traveling, returned to Washington happy as a boy. he said. Mount Ktnu Is active again.
A ltediiction in tin Cost of Hnulliig
From 12." Cents to 12 Cents Would
.Menu mi nniiuul Saving of Over
At the meeting of the supervisors!
of Wayne county at the court house I
on Monday afternoon at the court
house, A. W. Long, of Scranton, de
livered an interesting address on
"Earth Bonds." It should be read
by every person interested in the
making of good roads, and we are
glad that we can give the address in
full. The address follows:
Of the different kinds of roads, the
earth road is the cheapest in first
cost, and is by far the most common.
By the term earth road Is meant one
whose surface consists of the native
There are 2, 151, .170 miles of pub
lic roads In the United States. Of
this, mileage statistics show that
about 7 per cent, are improved. We
may infer from this that 93 per cent,
of the roads in the country are bad
roaas. in Pennsylvania the total
road mileage is 1)9,041, of which
about 700 miles have been improved. !
During the crop-year 1905-OG, 85,-j provement with no expense for main
487,000,000 pounds of farm prod-J tenanco, the benellt being immediate
ucts were hauled over dirt roads I an" certain; and therefore it is
from farms to shipping points. It doubtful if money can be spent on
is evident from this fact that the I earth roads to better advantage than
slightest saving In the cost of haul- 1 laying tile. The side ditches are
ing per ton would assume striking
proportions when considered for the
entire country.
Investigations have established the
"lul luul lue average cost or haul-
f -.4 A 1 . A i 1. -
lnB Per ton ner mlle " about 25
con!. on B.tono roails 1,1 ordinary
conditions, 12 cents; on earth roads
containing ruts and mud, 29 cents;
on sandy roads when wet, 33 cents;
and on sandy roads when dry, G4
A reduction in the cost of hauling
from 25 cents to 12 cents, would
nieuu an annual saving ot over
torn 000 000
Sometimes the state
ment Is made that the cost necessary
to build these roads would increase
taxation, but the reverse is true. If
the present cost of moving farm
products to market is 25 cents per
ton per mile, and by Improved roads
it Is reduced to 12 cents per ton, we
have n net saving of 13 cents on
j every ton hauled. It is estimated
mui me average larmer lives nvo
miles from market, including his
return trip there is, therefore, a loss
of $1.30 to tho acre, cost of moving
his crops to market. If ho farms 80
acres the tax of bad roads makes a
loss in tho moving of his crops to the
farmer of over $100 per year. Tho
cost of steam transportation In this
country Is about three quarters of a
cent per ton per mile. The cost in tho
Old country, where they know the
value of good roads, Is 8 cents per
In all forms ot road construction
tho most Important consideration Is
that of drainage, since no road,
whether earth or stone, can long re
main good without It. Drainage
alone will often change u bad earth
road to a good one, while the best
stone road may be destroyed by tho
absence of proper drainage. Water
Is the natural enemy of earth roads,
for mixed with dirt it makes mud,
and mud makes bad going; no road,
however well mado otherwise, can
endure if water collects and remains
on It. A perfectly drained road will
have three systems of drainage, un
der drainago, side ditches, and sur
face drainage. ;
If natural drainage does not exist,
artificial methods must be used. The
best natural drainage is usually
found upon a loose gravel or a sandy
soil, especially when the grade of
the road Is somewhat abovo the sur
rounding country. If the land is dry
and the sand deep enough to absorb
quickly even the heaviest rains, no
proper crown to tile surface of the
nnisneu road to divert the water
from it. Frequently the country is
so low and level that the surface of
the road is likely to be kept con
tinually wet, from seepage. Under-
lralnaee without grading is better
tllan grading without drainage; and,
in general, it may ue said tliat there
Is no way in which road taxes can be
spent to better advantage than In
subsurface drainage.
The best and cheapest method of
securing under-drainage is to lay a
line of G-inch farm tile or G-inch
terra cotta pipe 3 or 4 feet deep on
one or both sides of the roadway.
The ordinary farm tile Is satisfactory
for road drainage. Tiles are laid
simply with their ends in contact,
caro being taken to turn them until
their ends are reasonably close, and
with a slight fall to keep them clear.
There is no danger of the grade of
the tile being too great; the only
(lllliculty is to secure sufficient fall.
If possible the fall should be three
inches in 100 feet, and care should
be taken that the tile is laid to a true
grade with a free outlet.
A tile drain Is a permanent 1m-
to receive the water from tho sur
face of the traveled way, and should
carry It rapidly and entirely away
from the road. No good road can
be obtained with side ditches that
holds tho water until it evaporates.
Public funds can often be more wise
ly used in making ditches in adjoin
ing private lands thnn by making
ponds at the roadside in' an attempt
to improving the road by raising the
surface. It is cheaper and better to
allow the water to run away from
the road, than to try to lift the road
out of the water. If it can bo pre-j have to take into consideration the
vented, no attempt should ho made effect of grades upon the cost ot opor
to carry water a long distance In I ntlng tho road. The grade may ho
side ditches; for large bodies of wa-j reduced by going nround tho hill
ter are hard to handle and are liable or by cutting down the hill. If the
to become very destructive. Side slono to be nscended is n lone ono
ditches should discharge frequently
Into the natural water courses, and In
order to accomplish this it may he
necessary to carry the water across
tho road, which would necessitate
putting in n pipe culvert. As a rule
side ditches will not have too much
fall, but sometimes a ditch straight
down a hill wll have so much ns to
wash rapidly, In which case It Is an
advantage to pavo the bottom with
cobble stones.
The drainage of the surface of a
road is very important, and is pro
vided for by making the surface
crowning nnd keeping it smooth.
Tho slope from the center should bo
enough to carry the water freoly
and quickly to tho Bide ditch. The
slope from the center to the side
should be about 1 inch to a foot.
In crowning tho road tho material
should be dumped and spread in lay
ers as oven as possible, beforo being
driven over.
In building a new road it is very
important that no stumps, branches
of trees, or other matter subject to
decay should be overlooked and left
in tho road bed, ns at such points
wenk places are euro to bo developed
in tho course of tlmo. One way to
improve an old road advantageously
Is to .lesson tho grades; by cutting
down tho hills and Ailing up tho
Grade resistance Is tho force on a
grade to keep the load from rolling
down the slope. It is independent
of the nature of the road and de
pends only upon its angle of Inclina
tion, Grades are ordinarily express
ed in terms of the rise or fall In feet
per hundred feet, or a per cent, of
the horizontal distance; thus a 1
per cent, grnde means a rise or fall
of 1 foot in 100 feet. Under average
conditions, on a good hard road a
work horse can draw up a short 10
per cent grnde but one-third the
weight which lie can draw on a level.
Up a longer 5 per cent, grade but
two-thirds the weight which he can
draw on a level. In other words, to
reduce the grades at any time and all
points on a road, from a maximum of
10 to 5 per cent, enables material or
merchandise to be transported over
the road for one-half the former cost
per ton per mile.
It is necessary to have a tractive
force of 58 pounds to haul 1 ton 11
miles, including the ordinary vel
hlchTover a good macadam road on a
grade of 1 per cent., which would be
equivalent to hauling the same load
over l Ms miles of level road. On a
1 0 per cent, grade It would require a
tractive force of 238 p.ounds, which
would be equivalent to hauling the
same load over 64 miles of level
road, so you will see the Importance
of reducing the grades on your roads.
I might say that the width of tires .mi..- uuoi-i on miction wnen useu
on a hard road bed, but assists very
materially in maintaining a per-
maiiently hard and smooth surface,
One of the most common defects of
ordinary country roads Is that dls -
tanco has been saved by a disregard
of the desirability of easy grades,
Tho curving road around a hill may
often be no longer than the straight
one over it; ior the latter is straight
only with reference to the horizontal
plane, but curved as to the vertical
plane, while the former is curved as
to the horizontal plane, but straight
as to the vertical plane. Both linos
curve, and tho one passing over the
hill is the one called straight only
because its vertical curvature is less
apparent to the oyo; for instance,
the bale of a pall is the same wheth
er up or down.
In the matter of grades a road
nearly level Is the most desirable,
but as it can seldom be obtained vid
the tirst method should bo em
ployed, but if the grade Is short, the
second method is usually tho better,
increasing tho length adds to tho
cost of construction and of transpor
tation, while cutting down a hill
adds only to the cost of construction.
In n broken or rough country a
proper adjustment of the grades is
the most Important part of road
building, nnd the better the road
service, tho more necessary Is such
an adjustment.
All grades are objectionable for
two reasons: First, because a grado
increnses tho amount of power re
quired to move a load up it, nnd
secondly, because a grade may bo bo
steep as to limit tho amount of the
load that can bo moved over the road.
As a chain is no stronger than its
weakest link, so a road Is no better
than Its steepest grade. Tho fixing
of tho proper maximum or ruling
grade is very important. On -long
maximum grades it is wlso to pro
vide a llttlo stretch of nearly levol
road upon which to let the team rest.
Considering only tho cost of trans
portation level road is tho best; but
It costs less to maintain a road upon
a slight grade than ono porfoctly
level. On any road longitudinal ruts
are llablo to form and Interfere with
tho surfaco drainago and, there
fore, if the road Is perfectly level in
its longitudinal direction, Its surface
can not be kept free from water with
out giving it so great a pitch cross
wise as to expose vehicles to the
danger of overturning. On n level
road every rut will hold water, which
will soak into the road and soften It
whether it be earth or broken stone;
whereas with even a slight longitudi
nal grade, every wheel track becomes
a channel to carry off the water. It
Is a common observation that earth
roads running up hill and down are
better to travel upon than level ones.
The harder the road material the
loss necessity for longitudinal drain
age of the surface. In tilling up a
hollow or cutting down a hill, the
employment or a light longitudinal
grade may decrease the cost of con
struction, and also the cost of
maintenance. The important princi
ple to remember is that a slight
longitudinal grade is an advantage;
although over a long stretch of level
country It may 'not be practicable to
secure'ilt.- - -
After your road is once graded
and crowned one of the best ways
to keep it in good condition is by
j frequent applications of the split
log drag. This work should be done
by farmers along the road. They
should be regularly employed and
provided with drags. Usually tills
work is to be done when the iields
are too wot to work in, and plenty
of farmers can be found who will do
u for little compensation. It is plain
I that if this work were carried out It
would not be necessary to use a
i large road machine on the road once
in ten years, and a rivalry would be
, encouraged among the farmers as to
, which would keep his road in the
best condition for the least money.
When this condition is reached the
I problem of cutters Is solvon a
farmer should have three or four
miles of good road, or loss what ho
Is willing and able to take care of.
If the work is done at tho nrnnor
, time. Immediately after a rain, and
done well, the earth road will pack
smooth, and tho trnlllc will spread
all over the road, and there will be
no ruts. When there are no ruts in
the surfaco of a well crowned road,
the road Is smooth nnd dry within a
very short time after It stops raining,
and tho water Is In the gutters.
When the township roads are all
put in good condition nnd are being
well maintained, then let the town
ships buy stone crushers nnd road
rollers. Thero are plenty of stone
all along the highways, and In ad
Joining fields, which can be gotten
with but little expense, and after
that, with capable men the main
tenance of tho roads is only a ques
tion of patience and pay roll.
Judgment Againit Laura Biggar Re
duced to That Sum From $75,000.
Now York, March 20. Justice Cruue
In the supreme court handed down a
decision reducing to $r.0,000 tho Judg
ment of fr,000 obtained by Mrs, Ag
nes Mary Hendrick In her suit ngalnst
Laura Biggar, the actress, for allenat.
ing the affections of her husband, Dr.
John C. Houdrlck.
Justice Crane announced that if Mrs.
Hendrick agreed to accept the $150,000
ho would deny tho motion for u new
Call Them Birds of Prey and Says
They Acted In Bad Faith.
Paris, March 20. Paulhan, the avia
tor, arrived hero today angry and dis
gusted at ills experiences lu America.
Ho said: "Wilbur and Orvlllo Wright
are like birds of prey. They acted to
ward me with Incredible bad faith.
Owing to their persecution I had to
flee from America, losing $40,000,
which Is owing to me by my mauager
Wolter 'Promises to Tell
of Ruth Wheeler's Fate.
Murdered Young Woman's Umbrella
Found In Suspect's Home Her
Body Probably Burned In
Open Fireplace.
New York, Marcli 'J!). Upon Katie
Mullcr. the so called wife of Albert W
Wolter, the supposed murderer ot
Ituth Wheeler, rather than upon Wol
ter himself It depends whether or not
the prisoner will ever tell what took
place when the little stenographci
went to Welter's rooms In Fast Scv-enty-tlfth
street looking for n position
Willie Wolter was being grilled by
Inspector Titus a note was brought tc
the Tombs prison from Katie Mnllei
for Wolter. Inspector Titus handed
the note to Wolter, who kissed the
missive passionately, then read it
through, with hysterical outbursts
"Oh, my nod." he sobbed as he finish
ed reading the letter, "she loves me
'Then why not tell the truth and
save herV" asked the Inspector.
"I will write her." was the sobbing
reply. "When I got an answer from
her saying she forgives me I'll tell the
And with that the police had to be
content. Not another word would Wol
ter say except to add: "Coine see me
Wednesday. I shall have her answei
by that time. Then I will confess nil."
Then, turnin:,' to inspector Titus, who
had been very gentle with him
throughout all the questioning, Wol
ter said, "What I toll I will tell to you
Later developments strengthen the
police in the belief thnt Wolter hud
something to do with the white slave
This belief of the detectives is
strengthened by the finding of post
cards that Wolter addressed to a num
ber of young women.
Still another link in the chain of
circumstantial evidence against Wolter
was added when tho police found Ituth
Wheelers umbrella In Welter's room.
This umbrella was Identified by tho
murdered girl's mother and sister, who
said that Ituth had tho umbrella when
she left homo last Thursday. Katie
Muller said that It was ono of three
that she found In tho closet when, In
accordance with Welter's order, shj
moved their few belongings. One um
brella was Welter's, she said, one her
own, and tho other was unknown to
her. But finding It hi the closet, she
took It along.
Another find that strengthens tho po
lice In their belief that the dead girl
was burned In the open Wreplaco was
tho discovery of n brick in tho hearth
to which were adhering ti piece of
burned flesh and a bit of ribbed un
derwear. This underwear was like
that worn by the dead girl. Two tow
els partly burned also came to light.
Likewise Wolter admitted that the
shirt found wrapped up on the tins es
cape was his. This shirt was In a
separato package under the body.
Who Wouldn't, Eh.
One tank that man
Will do with vim
Is tt-ach a pretty
Ulrl to swim.