The citizen. (Honesdale, Pa.) 1908-1914, April 30, 1909, Image 6

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    3 LIVE 4f
Feed the Ewet Welt While Nurtlng
and the Lamb When Weaned.
Lambs should not run with the
wes after November If the ewea are
desired to lamb early In the year. And
this Is very desirable, as It gives tho
wcs a rest to make up their growth,
and puts them through the winter In
good condition and brings the next
soaoon again a llttre earlier. When
the lambs are separated from tho
ewes It will be necessary to give them
a little grain, which Is best in tho
form of finely ground meal. This is
wholly used by the lambs, and none
of It Is lost for want of full digestion.
Thoro Is no more satisfactory way to
push tho lambs forward for the next
year than to put the eyes on good
feed and so Bupply the lambs with
plenty of milk of the best quality. To
feed the ewes well, when nursing the
lambs, adds fully a month to their
growth, and thus puts them forward
for a repetition of the same advance
the year following. What is thus
gained Is worth twico as much as any
gain afterward. No one who has not
tried thUNionstant pushing on of the
lambs will be disappointed with the
results. It easily adds f 1 to the value
of each lamb, and this Is of Itself a
very considerable bonus on the year's
Income from a flock. Some farmers
especially dUUke early lambs for the
reason that they begin to eat too soon,
making it necessary to feed before
the early spring' grass Is ready. But
one ounce of meal or bran Is worth
more than a full pound of grass, and
the constant practice of all sheep
keepers should toe to push ahead all
the lambs and keep this larger growth
increasing naturally as the animal
grows older. The last pound of In
crease In any animal will cost more
than twice as much as the first, and
this rule will apply to all kinds and
conditions of animals, but most of all
to limbs, and sheep after them. Feed
ing Is an art that must be learned by
practice; it may be studied very pro
fitably by reading the experience of
others, and so one will know what to
do and what to avoid in his own prac
Double Pen Which Will Prove of
Great Help In Task.
Have two pens, A and B, with an
opening, Jut wide enough to allow
one hog to pass through at a time, In
the corner of A, as shown In the ac
companying Illustration. Hang a gate
on hinges at post 0 to swing from
Pens for Dividing Hogs,
jposta X and E. Attach pulleys at D
.and E with ropes fastened to the
swinging pulley and back to F.
Throw some corn In the pen, A, call
in the hogs, and standing at F, where
the hogs can be seen, operate the
gate as the hogs pass out. Some
shelled corn, says Prairie Farmer,
should be thrown in pen B to keep the
hogs from coming back into pen A.
A Handy Hog Chute.
The illustration explains itself and
is a light handy chute to use in load
ing hogs. It should be made of strong
material, say 2x4, for sills for bot
tom and for upright pieces to fit n
tho staples on sides of bottom. Also
two small hooks arc placed at the
bottom to hook on v -son box. Cleats
should be nailed on the bottom so
hogs can walk up easily without slip
ping. About six feet long makes the
right slant and three feet wide. H.
E. Studebaker.
Thrush In Horses' Feet.
Little Is known about the origin
of the term "thrush," as applied to a
diseased condition of the "frog" or
bold triangular center visible on tho
ground surface of the horse's foot,
but the cause or causes giving rise to
the diseases are well known, and,
therefore, should bo understood.
Filth is the chief factor in the de
velopment of thrush. Some owners
believe thrush to be contagious, but
there is no contagion about it at all,
for remove the filth, clean the feet,
and often the disease will cure itself.
Canker of the foot Is a contagious
disease, however, and is due to a
parasite of vegetable origin. Mares
suffer from thrush oftener in the
hind feet than do stallions or geldings,
who suffer in the fore feet principal
ly. The reason for this Is obvious.
$ (TO''' ' '
bii IttVl i, m J
Countess do Rhooilnsko, Escaped to
Paris from Harem, Leading the
Work of Liberty for her
Country Women.
Women have taken a great, though
silent, part in the Turkish revolution
Which has exacted a constitution
from the Sultan. The most remark
able of the Turkish revolutlonatres
Is the Countess do Rohozinska,
daughter of the late Noury Bey,
former under secretary of state for
foreign affairs in Turkey, who, rath
er than bear the oppression of
harem ' life, escaped to Paris and
married a Polish count. She has
since thrown her soul Into the work
of liberty for her country women.
The revolution In Turkey is a fight
for advanced ideas and higher Ideals.
Tho marriage laws of Turkey are
such that women aro not held on a
high plane. Monogamy is gaining
ground and has been for some time,
but the harems still hold aleadlng
place and the Turkish gentleman Is
not credited with having a home un
til he has married two or more wo
men, usually his slaves. The ex
pense of marrying a woman of rank
owing to numerous wedding festivi
ties and presents is enough to make
the fondest heart waver. The mar
riage of & slave costs only the pur
ohase money for the woman and for
all that she may be a high-born lady.
The dreaded specter of a mother-in-law
never troubles the Turk who has
married a slave, but with all that he
has his troubles with his many
wives and they are never happy un
less they adopt- the oriental fatalism
which leads ' them to believe that
they have only one life to live and it
matters little how It is spent.
Caring for Bird Cages.
Those who own canaries find them
at this time of the year suffering
from rheumatism, which is caused by
standing on wet perches. A special
ist in bird diseases says that birds
suffer terribly from the carelessness
of those who clean the cases.
Women will wash out a cage and
neglect to thoroughly dry It. Tho
perch Is left damp, and the bird,
standing on it, at once takes on
rheumatism, which spreads through
tho body.
A little Inflammation starts in the
feet, and this is apt to result In a
tiny abscess which is torture to the
The specialist tells women that the
perches should be scraped and then
rubbed with a dry cloth instead of
being washed each time. If they are
washed they should be dried in tho
oven before being put back in tho
Ways to Clean Tan Leather.
The knowledge that tan leather Is
hard to clean at home keeps a great
many people from wearing it as
much as they should like.
Unless one is very careful the ef
forts of renovating make it become
dark and streaked In places.
Heavy tan gloves, which are al
most every one's great comfort, can
be kept In good condition by taking
a damp rag and rubbing it over the
surface. This removes the dirt and
restores the original color.
Yellow shoes, which no girl con
siders herself In the latest style with
out, can be cleaned by putting a few
drops of turpentine on a woolen rag
and rubbing them evenly all over.
When dry polish with a soft brush
and they will look ltko new.
Welsh-rabbit Points,
The cheese in a Welsh-rabbit will
not separate or become stringy if
the following suggestions are observ
ed: Tho "rabbit" should not be
cooked directly over a flame, as the
intense heat hardens the albumen In
tho cheese; but over hot water, and
the water should not be allowed to
boll. To further insure success, add
a pinch of soda, which serves to
counteract the acidity of the cheese.
This also makes It more digestible.
Easily Prepared Relish.
An easily prepared' and good rel
ish for this time of the year Is made
of twelve large cucumbers, six large
onions, three green peppers, one cup
of grated horseradish and half a cup
of salt. Chop all fine and drain in
a bag over night. In morning add
half a cup of brown sugar, on tea
spoonful of clery seed and two ta
bUspoonful of white mustard wed.
Cover with vinegar, mix well and
can. No cooking is needed.
Points for Cultivation to Insure Good
A liberal use of poison in the gar
den and orchard during the month of
June will go a long way toward con
trolling Insect pests and fungous dis
eases and help to Insure better crops.
Bordeaux mixture combined' with
arsenate of lead should be used freely
on vegetables, grapevines and fruit
trees. Care should bo 'taken not to
spray when the fruit blossoms are
open; otherwise the bees, which fre
quent tho flowers and are of the great
est value In fertilizing them, will be
Hellebore Is a most satisfactory
poison to use on currants and goose
berries to keep down the currant
worms. The most economical way to
use hellebore Is to mix it with water
and apply with a spray pump or a
whisk broom. The powder may be
used dry when tho leaves aro wet
with dew, but it is more difficult to
distribute the dry power. Hellebore
should always be fresh when used, as
It deteriorates rapidly.
Tht home asparagus bed may be
proteco4 from Insect pests to a largo
extent by sowing lettuce seed, as
oftentimes the insects will leave the
asparagus stalks for the lettuce
leaves. Poison bait, such as lettuce
leaves dipped in Paris green, Is some
times used, but is rather dangerous In
the home garden. It frequently hap
pens, when the asparagus stalks are
eaten off below the ground, that the
only effective plan is to dig down
around the stalks until the Insects are
found, and then destroy them.
In sections where plum and cherry
trees are damaged by curcullos, these
pests may bo got rid of by Jarring the
trees. First spread an old sheet or
two underneath the trees to catch the
Insects, or else have a flock of chick
ens on hand to eat them as they fall.
Secure a thick pole, and wind burlap
or pieces of old quilts around one end.
Ram this padded pole against the tree
trunk as high up as can be reached
conveniently. Do this in the early
morning, when curcullos are torpid,
and tbey will readily fall to the
The vegetables which may be plant
ed In -June include cucumbers, pump
kins, watermelons, muskmelons,
squash, green corn, beans, lettuce,
Swiss chard, and, when it Is desired
to have a succession of young beets
and carrots, the seeds of these vege
tables. Notes on Orchard Culture.
Clover Is the apple tree's best
Profit from a fruit orchard Is nol
theory but a demonstrated fact.
A few days after pruning paint the
stubs with white lead.
Each tree has an Individuality of its
own and must bo dealt with accord
ingly. Good, first-class fruit is the aim ot
our effortB. Never bo satisfied with
anything else.
Stable manure is without doubt the
best general fertilizer that can be ap
plied to orchard soils.
Make the orchard a business ven
ture and keep an account of every
thing pertaining to Its Interests.
When poor fruit Is produced there
is a reason. Aim to find It by a care
ful study of the trees and conditions.
Nature grows fruit for the seeds,
while man grows It for the pulp. We
want pulp with as few seeds as pos
sible. In removing large limbs saw them
off about three feet from the trunk to
prevent splitting. Then saw off close
to the trunk co as not to leave a pro
jecting stub.
Cutworm Death Bait.
In India the formula used by the
government for poisoning cutworms Is
four pounds of white arsenic (worth
at a drug store about twelve cents a
pound) and eight pounds of sugar In
six gallons of water used to moisten
eighty pounds of fine chopped straw.
Small quantities are dropped at the
bases of plants.
Don't Hurry Garden.
Do not be In too great a hurry to
make garden. Nothing is gained by
working over a soil heavy with water
from melting snows and early rains.
Walt until this surplus water has
drained off, and the action of sun and
wind has mellowed the soil to some
Use a Blanket.
If cold nights come along after you
have uncovered the bulb beds, spread
a blanket over them to prevent tho
tender plant from being severely froz
en. They will stand a good deal of
cold, but it is not advisable to put
them to the test ot seeing how much
they can stand.
Green Food In Winter.
Do not forget to give the chickens
green food during the winter. Any
thing in the way of roots is good. Try
a turnip nailed to a board, or a beet
or carrot hung from the celling and
far enough from the floor to give the
hens a little exercise in pecking at
the swinging vegetable.
Keep a lot of good tools of your
otto, Tou will appreciate them your
rclf and so will your neighbor, be
.raise you won't be borrowing hie.
Good Care of the Fowls la the First
The poultry man 1b anxious to get
winter eggs. The price paid for eggs
in winter is enough to warrant con
siderable time and thought upon
methods of wintering and feeding tho
poultry for winter egg production.
The old way of letting the chickens
roost In the trees or on fences usual
ly keeps healthy fowls and results In
most excellent laying In the spring
as the weather gets warmer and more
pleasant. But every farmer's hens
lay at that time of year, and eggs get
very cheap. Winter eggs are profita
ble because of the great demand for
them during the winter season.
In spring the hens get a varloty of
foods. They exercise running over
the fields, gathering a variety of
foods. They are warm both day and
night By surrounding them with si
milar conditions during the winter
monthB winter eggs may be obtained.
A warm, well-ventilated roosting
place, kept clean, Is one essential.
A warm place, free from winds,
snow and rain, In which to exercise
Is another. Then feed a variety of
grain In cut straw or other litter In
this warm place so the hens may work
scratching the litter apart. Oats, with
wheat thrown into the cut straw, will
give them exercise. Near noon feed
the bran mash, including table
scraps and milk and at night a full
ration of corn, if cabbage or turnips
given raw can be fed to them, they
will do even better. Green bone, meat
scraps, grit clean water are also help
ful. If these conditions can be met
with in tho dead of winter the hens
will do some laying, at least when
eggs are scarce and prices are high.
Good ventilation without a draft is
very Important as a draft often
causes colds and roup.
8llver Pheasant.
Pheasants are reared for pleasure
only, and they afford much recreation
for those who have leisure time to
devote to them. There aro twenty or
more distinct varieties, but the gold
en and silver are the favorites.
There Is nothing more beautiful
than a flock of pheasants on a well
kept lawn.
How They Spot the Careless Farm
ers In Denmark.
Although the average person has
little chance to guard against bad
eggs in the United States, in Den
mark they apparently have solved the
bad egg problem. In that country
there are syndicates which. control the
egg industry and It is their duty to
keep tab on the farmers who are in
the habit of shipping bad eggs to the
market. The headquarters of this
egg syndicate, of course, is Copenhag
en, and the members of it are the
farmers themselves. Tho members
of this egg syndicate throughout the
country are provided with rubber
stamps which bear the serial number
of the member's certificate as well as
a number for the egg. Each egg Is
thus stamped with the farmer's name
on It, with Indelible Ink. No eggs are
accepted tna.t do not bear a stamp.
So this stamp is a guarantee of qual
ity. When the eggs are, examined in
Copenhagen, If they are found to be
bad the shipper receives notice and
is compelled to pay a fine averaging
about one dollar of our money. If he
makes many shipments of bad eggs
he is very quickly expelled from the
syndicate; thus all bad and not per
fectly fresh eggs are either sold to
the village grocer or used at home.
It has been found that this system
works admirably In keeping the open
market stocked with eggs that are
guaranteed to be In good condition.
It is likewise stated by officers of the
syndicate that very few of the mem
bers have ever been delinquent with
their fines.
Poultry Pointers.
"When toosters crow It Is time that
they go," Is a common motto among
many poultry laisers.
It is a good plan to separate the
cockerels and pullets as soon as the
sexes can be distinguished.
You will find It a better investment
if you will train your fowls to come
to you Instead of running from you
with fright
Sloppy mashes are not good for
feeding chickens and, if kept up ex
cessively they will eventually breed
Lack of vigor is one thing to be
looked after. None but strong, vig
orous stock should be allowed in the
breeding pens. I
The lazy hen is not apt to be tho
Cleanliness Is essential to success
ful poultry raising.
A Plan That Every Dairyman Should
8tudy Carefully.
The accompanying four Illustrations
gives detail of a brace frame barn 40x
62 feet with 20-foot posts. The barn'
is built of 2x6 or 2x8-lnch scantlings
throughout There is not a single
piece larger in tho whole frame. The
ground plan, Fig. 3, shows position of
the pillars, 20 in number. These pil
lars are of stone, or concreate. There
are four bents In this barn which may
be arranged as suits the needs of the
Fig 1 gives in detail the method of
framing. A single bent is shown
complete with part of the adjoining
one. ,Tho rafters are also shown, as
well as detail of tho palte, spans,
Joist bearers, braces, nailing, girths,
etc. Fig. 2 shows an end view of the
manner of framing a single interior
bent The raftera may advantageous-
Details of a Brace Frame Structure,
40 x 62 Feet.
ly bo lapped on the purlins, making
them In two pieces, and spiked well
Fig. 4 shows detail of floor Joists,
showing the manner of putting them
in lengthwise of the building. They
are 2x8, pretty close together and
well bridged, while the Joist bearers
are 2x12 two 2x6's placed side by
side. The manner of spiking through
the Joist bearers to the ends of the
floor Joists, making the upper edges
flush, saves a lot of head room. This
Is well illustrated In Fig 4. The floor
Joists are spiked to the -Joist bearer
before It Is let down in place, then all
aro firmly spiked together.
The floor of a braco frame structure
Is best of concrete. A sill under floor
la not rigid enough. If a wooden floor
Is used sills are best placed In be
tween posts and spiked through after
the manner of spiking the floor Joists
to Joist bearers. The detailed speci
fication and bill of lumber can be
worked out by any carpenter worthy
the name.
Won't Churn to Butter.
We havo two or three correspond
ents who write that they are having
trouble churning, that tho cream
foams but won't granulate Into butter,
and ask what to do. One correspond
ent says the cow furnishing the cream
has not been fresh for 18 months. It
Is very well known that creami from
the milk of such cows often gives this
kind of trouble in churning. A very
successful butter maker says this is
the way they prepare for churning in
the winter season, viz.:
"In cold weather If the cream is
very cold I have a pan of warm wa
ter, set the pall ot cream in and with
my cream thermometer ready, stir un.
til it stands about 54 or 60 degrees;
have the churn scalded and cooled to
proper temperature, put cream in and
you will not have to churn over 15
minutes until the butter will or should
be in small granuals, about the size
of wheat grains."
Dandelions a Nuisance.
In some localities dairy farmers be
lieve that the dandelion is an advan.
tage in pastures; but recent investi
gations show that the weed is a det
cided Injury, adding to the difficulty
of making choice butter of best flavor
and keeping qualities. It makes trou
ble of this kind whether in the pas
ture feed or in the hay. The idea that
dandelions are a benefit, was proba
bly suggested by the milky Juice of
the plant which farmers somehow con
cluded must have a good effect on the
product ot the cows. Instead, the
weed is now pronounced a nuisance
and farmers are advised to weed it
out or encourage the children to dig
the plants for greens.
Milking Habit.
The matter of short or long period
of milking of cows Is a matter of
habit For this reason If during her
first period of lactation she is milked
regularly to within a few weeks of
dropping ber second calf, she accepts
this as her destiny. On the contrary,
If the milking period with first calf Is
limited to four months, it will bo a
difficult matter to overcome the in
clination here as elsewhere, to follow
in the old path. The only remedy is
persistent milking even when but
very little milk can bo obtained.
A dairy house makes a fine equip
ment for the farm where many cow3
are kept. It need not be 'over 10x14
unless there Is a gasoline engine for
power. In this case, a' small room
may be partitioned oft In a large build
ing, with belt door to allow power to
be obtained from the engine In an
other room. In this other room may
be placed the feed grinder, sheller
and other machines run by the gaso
line engine. Of course this Is pictur
ing how one may utilize the same reis
er handily, If he hat jJJ Jhe machines
f Bjpjpj. '
jpl' t 1
Device for Getting Rid' of Hot&enoiA'
"Oh, myt Whatever shall I do
with all this rubbish?" exclaims tho
housekeeper, beholding a miscel
laneous collection" of papers, scraps
and pasteboard boxes, the roundup
of the regular weekly cleaning. "Tho
ashman declines to tako anything
but ashen, the rubbish man picks
out only such as ho can find use for,
and the second-hand man will havo
nothing but the whole papers, and
they must be clean at that." This
little monologue may be heard most
anywhere. The conditions are about
the eaae in any city of large or me
dium size. There is a great deal of
accumulated material around a house
which is quite difficult to dispose of.
It might be burned, but an effort to
dispose of the mass in an ordinary
stove would more than likely lead
to disaster, even If the stove is of
suitable proportions to accommodate
the collection. Most of them are not.
The housekeeper's, quandary has
led to the invention of a model devlco
to bo added to the equipment of tho
household. It is a refuse destructor,
in which the accumulations of the
household are to be disposed of by
burning in the back yard without
danger. The destructor Is a basket
of wire built on an iron frame, sup
porting It several Inches above the
ground. Into this the household
accumulations are dumped, as well
as the sweepings. A match applied
soon reduces a big pile to a handful
of dust. Such a device solves com
pletely the problem of the disposal
of a great deal of material.
Inquiry of Home.
It is only a little thing, but It
makes a lasting impression, and
that is the way some people make
It a point always to ask after a cer
tain member of the household. It
may be the invalid mother, or fa
ther, or a convalescent child, or per
haps the baby. Just who Is the.
subject of Inquiry makes little dif
ference, but the fact that a friend
recognizes that your home life cen
ters, for the time, more or less,
around one member Is pleasing.
There are some good friends who
never think to make Inquiries about
any of the family. It Is Impossible
not to contrast them with thoso
who are quite the opposite in their
thoughtfulness. One person never
falls to ask how near relatives are.
She realizes how close the ties are.
Does such an inquiry make the day
brighter? Indeed, It does.
Glass Shelves.
At very little cost one can have
a neat glass bathroom shelf mado
with nickel or porcelain brackets to
hold the collection of bottles, brush
es and salve pots that the modern
woman includes among her toilet
requisites. These shelves are sold In
an assortment of sizes and aro mado
of thick plain glass with rounded
corners. A few of the self labelled
drug and toilet bottles that are now
offered at prices ranging from thirty-five
cents up will be useful to
hold toilet water, tooth wash and
the other essential aids to cleanli
ness and daintiness.
The Odor of Paint.
Every one knows that an onion
has a distinct and unpleasant odor,
whether cooked or raw. But every
one does not know that this odor of
an onion will draw to it every other
disagreeable odor and clear the at
mosphere in a day.
The onion can then be thrown
away and with it goes the disagree
able smells that come about in a
house that has been closed for tho
And this is also a good thing to
know: That It will absorb all tho
odor from fresh paint and turpon
tlne. nousework Mittens.
Kitchen mittens can be bought in
several thicknesses and sizes for va
rious branches of housework. There
are thick ones with straps across
the wrist to wear when polishing tho
range, then there aro others to put
on when scrubbing floors or sinks
and still thinner ones with chamola
cloth insldes to use for polishing
silverware. These mittens aro a
great protection to the hands and
finger nails, and they really simplify
the work more than thoso women
who hare not availed themselves of
this convenience realize.
Towel Rack.
We hang our dish towels on an
ordinary wooden curtain pole, which
is fastened with brackets at the top
of the kitchen wainscoatlng and ex
tends along one aide of the room.
There is length enough for several
towels, and the wliole extends only
a couple ot Inches into the room.