The citizen. (Honesdale, Pa.) 1908-1914, March 05, 1909, Image 1

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    Semi-Weekly Founded!
Wayne County Organ
Wecklv Founded. 1844
of the
. ,
66th YEAR. HONESDALE, WAYNE 00 PA., FRIDAY, MARCH 5, 1909, ' q-
Outlines Policy of
Speech Begins With Advocacy
of Predecessor's Reforms.
incoming President's Ideas on
Trusts and Other Matters.
My Fellow Citizens Any one who
takes the onth I have just taken must
feel u heavy weight of responsibility.
If not, lie has no conception of tho
powers and duties of the office upon
which he is about to enter or he la
lacking in a proper sense of the obliga
tion which tho oath Imposes.
The ofllce of an Inaugural address Is
to give n summary outline of the main
policies of the new administration so
fur us they can be anticipated. I have
had the honor to be one of tho ad
visers of ray distinguished predecessor
nud as such io hold lip lila blinds in
the reforms he has initiated. I should
lie untrue to myself, to my promises
and to the declarations of the party
platform upon which I was elected to
office If I did not muke tho malute
nance nud enforcement of those re
forms n most Important feature of my
administration. They were directed to
the suppression of the lawlessness and
abuses of power of the great combina
tions of capital invested in railroads
and In Industrial enterprises carrying
on luterstato commerce. The steps
which my predecessor took nud the
legislation passed on his rcconinienda
tlon have accomplished much, have
caused a general halt in the vicious
policies which created popular alarm
and have brought about in tho busl
noss affected a much higher regard for
existing law.
Further Action Needed.
To render the reforms lasting, how
ever, and to secure at the same time
freedom from alariu on the part of
those pursuing proper and progressive
business methods further legislative
uud executive action are needed. Re
lief of the railroads from certain re
strictions of the nntl-trust law have
been urged by my predecessor and will
be urged by me. On the other hand,
the administration Is pledged to legis
lation looking to n proper federal su
pervision and restriction to prevent ex
cessive Issues of bonds nud stocks by
companies owning and operating Inter
state commerce railroads.
Then, too, a reorganization of the de
partment of justice, of the bureau of
corporations in the department of com
merce and labor and of the interstate
commerce commission looking to effec
tive co-oporatlon of these agencies Is
needed to secure a more rapid and cer
tain enforcement of the laws affect
ing lnterstnte railroads and lndustrlnl
I hope to be able to submit at the
first regular session of tho incoming
congress in December nest definite
suggestions In respect to the needed
amendments to the anti-trust and the
interstate commerce law and tho
changes required in the executive de
partments concerned In their enforce
ment. "Good and Bad Trusts."
It Is believed that with the changes
to bo recommended American busi
ness can bo assured of that measure of
stability nud certainty in respect to
those things that may be done and
those that arc prohibited, which is
esscntlul to the life and growth of
all business. Such a plan must lncludo
tho right of the people to nvall them
selves of those methods of combining
capital and effort deemed necessary to
reach tho highest degree of economic
efficiency, at the same tlino differenti
ating between combinations based
upon legitimate economic reasons and
those formed with tho intent Of creat
ing monopolies and artificially control
ling prices.
The work of formulating' Into prac
tical shape such changes Is creative
work of the highest order and requires
nil the deliberation possible in the in
terval. 1 believe that the amendments
to be proposed are just as necessary in
the protection of legitimate business as
in the clinching of the reforms which
properly bear tho name of my prede
cessor. Revision of the Tariff.
A matter of most pressing Impor
tance Is the revision of tho tariff. In
accordance with the promises of the
platform upon which I was elected, 1
hall call congress Into extra session,
to meet on the lGth day of March, in
order that consideration may be at
once given to n bill revising the Ding
ley net. This should sccuro an ade
quate revenue and adjust the duties In
Ruch a manner as to afford to labor
nnd to nil Industries In this country,
whether of the farm, mine or factory,
protection by tnrlff equal to the differ
ence between the cost of production
abroad and the cost of production hero
and have a provision which shall put
Into force, upon executive dctcrmlnn
tloifof certain facts, n higher or maxi
mum tariff against those countries
whose trade policy toward us equitably
requires such discrimination, it Is
thought that there has been such a
change In conditions since the enact
ment of the DIngley net, drafted on a
similarly protective principle, that the
measure of the tariff above stated will
permit the reduction of rates In certnln
schedules and will requiro the ad
vancement of few, If any.
The proposal to revise the tariff
made in such an authoritative way as
to lead the business community to
count upon It necessarily halts all
those brunches of business directly
affected, and as these are most Im
portant It disturbs the whole business
of the country. It Is Imperatively nec
essary, therefore, that a tariff bill be
drawn In good faith In accordance
with promises made before the elec
tion by 'the party In power and as
promptly passed as due consideration
will permit.
Inheritance Tax Advocated.
In the making of n tariff bill the
prime motive Is taxation and the se
curing thereby of n revenue. Due
largely to the business depression
which followed the financial panic of
HK7, the revenuo from customs and
other sources has decreased to such
on extent that the expenditures for
the current fiscal year will exceed tho
receipts by $100,000,000. It Is Impera
tive that such n deficit shall not con
tinue, and the framers of the tariff
bill must of course have In mind the
total revenues likely to bo produced by
It and so arrange the duties as to se
cure nn ndequato Income. Should It be
Impossible to do so by import duties
new kinds of taxation must bo adopt
ed, and among these I recommend (t
graduated Inheritance tax ns correc'
In principle and ns certain nnd ensy of
Government Economy Urged.
The obligation on tho part of those
responsible for the expenditures made
to carry on the government to bo as
economical as possible and to muke
the burden of taxation ns light as pos
Mhle Is plain und should be affirmed In
every declaration of government pol
icy. This Is especially truo when we
are face to face with a heavy deficit.
Hut when tho desire to win the popu
lar approval lends to the cutting off of
expenditures really needed to make
the government effective nnd to en
able It to accomplish Its proper objects
the result Is as much to be condemned
us tho waste of government funds in
unnecessary expenditure.
Jn the department of agriculture the
use of scientific experiments on a largo
scale and the sprend of Information
derived from them for the improve
ment of general agriculture must go
The importance of supervising busi
ness of great railways and Industrial
combinations nnd the necessary Inves
tigation and prosecution of unlawful
business methods nro another neces
sary tnx upon government which did
not exist half a century ago.
Proper Forme of Expenditure.
The putting into forco of laws which
shnll secure tho conservation of our
resources so fur ns they may be with
in the jurisdiction of the federal gov
ernment, Including tho most Important
work of saving and restoring our for
ests, und the great Improvement of wa
terways are all proper government
functions which must Involve largo
expenditure If properly performed.
Wbllo some of them, like the reclama
tion of arid lauds, aro made to pay
for themselves, others nro of such nn
Indirect benefit thnt this cannot bo ex
pected of them. A permanent im
provement, like tho ranamn canal,
should bo treated as n dUtlnct enter
prise and should be paid for by the
proceeds of bonds, the lssuo of which
will dlstrlbuto Its cost between the
present and future generations hi ac
cordance with tho benefits derived. It
may well fee submitted to the serious
consideration of congress whether tho
deepening und control of tho channel
of a great river system Ilko that of tho
Ohio or of tho Mississippi when defi
nite and practical plans for tho enter
prise bavo beon approved and deter
mined upon should not bo provided for
in the same way.
Then, too, there nro expenditures of
government absolutely necessary if our
country is to maintain its proper place
among the nations of tho world and Is
to exercise Its proper influence in de
fense of Its own trade Interests in tho
maintenance of traditlonnl American
policy against the colonization of Eu
ropean monarchies in this bemlsphero
and In the promotion of penco and In
ternational morality. I refer to tho
cost of maintaining n proper army, a
proper navy and suitable fortifications
upon the malnlnnd of the United
Stntes and In Its. dependencies. ,
Tho Army and Navy.
Wo should have nn army so organ
ized and so officered as to bo capable
In time of emergency In co-operation
with the national militia and under
I he provisions of n proper national
volunteer law rapidly to expand into
n forco sufficient to resist nil probablo
Invasion from abroad and to furnish a
respectable expeditionary force, if nec
essary, In tho maintenance of our tra
ditional American policy which bears
Hip nuine of President Monroe.
Our fortlflcntlons nre yet in a state
jf only partial completeness, and the
number of men to man them is insuffi
cient. In a few years, however, the
usunl annual appropriations for our
coast defenses, botli on the mainland
and In tho dependencies, will make
them sufficient to resist nil direct at
tack, and by that time we may hope
that the men to man them will bo pro
vided as n necessary adjunct. The
distance of our shores from Europe
nnd Asln, of course, reduces the ne
cessity for maintaining under arms a
great army, but It does not take away
the requirement of mere prudence,
thnt we should have an army suffi
ciently largo and so constituted ns to
form n nucleus out of which n suitable
forco con quickly grow.
What has been said of the army
inuy bo affirmed in even a more em
phatlc way of the navy. A modern
navy cannot be Improvised. It must
bo built nnd in existence when the
emergency arises which calls for its
use and operation. My distinguished
predecessor hns In many speeches and
messages set out with great forco and
striking language the necessity for
maintaining a strong navy commensu
rate with the coast line, the govern
mental resources and thu foreign tfiitie
of our nation, nnd I wish to reiterate
all tho reasons which he has presented
In favor of the policy of maintaining
a strong navy as the best conservator
of our peaco with other nations and
tho best means of securing respect for
tho assertion of our rights, tho defense
of our Interests and the exercise of
our Influence In international mutters.
Must Arm as Other Nations Do.
Our International policy Is always to
promote peace. Wo shall enter Into
nny war with a full consciousness of
the awful consequences that it always
entails, whether successful or not, and
we, of course, shall make every effort,
consistent with national honor nnd the
highest national interest, to avoid a
resort to arms. We favor every instru
mentality, like that of Tho Hague tri
bunal and arbitration treutles made
with n view to its use in nil interna
tional controversies, in order to main
tain penco and to avoid war. But wo
should bo blind tocxistlng conditions
and should allow ourselves to become
foolish Idealists if we did not realize
that, with all the nations of the world.
armed nud prepared for 'war, wo must
bo ourselves In n similar condition In
order to prevent other nations from
taking advantage of us and of our in
ability to defend our Interests nnd as
sert our rights with a strong hand.
In the International controversies that
nro likely to ariso in tho orient, grow
ing out of tho question of tho
open door and other Issues, the
United States can maintain her Inter
ests intact and can secure respect for
her just demands. She will not be
able to do so, however, if it is under
stood thnt she never intends to back
up her assertion of right nnd her de
fense of her Interest by anything but
mere verbal protest and diplomatic
note. For these reasons tho expenses
of the army and navy and of const de
fenses should nlwoys bo considered as
something which the government must
pay for, and they should not be cut off
through mere consideration of econ
omy. Our government is able to af
ford a suitable army and a suitable
nnvy. It may maintain them without
the slightest danger to tho republic or
the cause of free institutions, and fear
of additional taxation ought not to
change a proper policy In this regard.
Protection For Our Cltlxens Abroad.
Tho policy of the United States in
the Spanish war and since hns given
it a posltlou of Influence among tho
nations that It never had before and
should bo constantly exerted to secur
ing to Us bona fide citizens, whether
native or naturalized, respect for them
as such In foreign countries. Wo
should make every effort to prevent
humiliating and degrading prohibition
against any of our citizens wishing
temporarily to sojourn In foreign coun
tries becnuso of raco or religion.
The Japanese Question.
The admission of Asiatic Immigrants
who cannot be amalgamated with our
population has been mado tho subject
either of prohibitory clauses in our
treaties and statutes or of strict ad
ministrative regulation secured by dip
lomatic negotiations. I sincerely hope
that wo may continue to minimize the
evils likely to arise from such immi
gration without unnecessary friction
and by mutual concessions between
self respecting governments. Mean
tlmo wo must take every precaution to
prevent or, falling that, to punish out
bursts of rnco feeling among our peo
ple against foreigners of whntever na
tionality who have by our grant a
treaty right to pursuo lawful business
hero nnd to be protected against law
less assault or Injury.
This leads me to point out n serious
defect In the present federal jurisdic
tion which ought to be remedied nt
once. Having assured to other coun
tries by treaty the protection of our
laws for such of their subjects or citi
zens ns we permit to come within our
Jurisdiction, we now lenve to n stato
or n city not under tho control of the
federal government the duty of per
forming our international obligations
in this respect. By proper legislation
we may and ought to place In tho
hands of tho federal executive tho
means of enforcing the treaty rights of
such aliens in the courts, of the federal
government. It puts our government
ti: a pusillanimous position to make
deimlto engagements to protect aliens
and then to excuse the failure to per
form those engagements by on expla
nation that the duty to keep them Is In
stntes or cities not within our control.
If we would promise, we must put
ourselves In a position to perform our
promise. We cannot permit the possi
ble failure of justice due to local preju
dice in any stato or municipal govern
ment to expose us to the risk of n war
which might be avoided If federal
jurisdiction was asserted by suitable
legislation by congress and carried out
by proper proceedings instituted by
the executive in the courts of the na
tional government.
Monetary Laws Need Change.
One of tho reforms to bo curried out
during the Incoming administration Is.
n change of our monetary and banking
laws so ns to secure greater elasticity
In the forms of currency available for
trade and to prevent the limitations of
lnw from operating to Increase the em
barrassments of a financial panic. The
monetary commission lately appointed
is giving full consideration to existing
conditions and to all proposed reme
dies and will doubtless suggest one thnt
will meet the requirements of business
and of public Interest. We may hope
that the report will embody neither the
narrow view of thoso who believe that
the solo purpose of the now system
should be to secure a largo return on
banking capital nor of those who would
have greater expansion of currency
with little regard to provisions for Its
lmmedlnte redemption or ultimate se
curity. There is no subject of econom
ic discussion so intricate nnd so likely
to evoke differing views nnd dogmatic
statements ns this one. The commis
sion in studying tho general Influence
of currency on business and of busi
ness on currency have wisely extend
ed their investigations in European
banking and mouetary methods. Tho
Information that they have derived
from such experts as they have found
abroad will undoubtedly be found
helpful In the solution of the difficult
problem they have In hand.
Favors Postal Savings Banks.
The Incoming congress should
promptly fulfill the promise of tho Re
publican platform and pass a proper
postal savings bank bill. It will not
bo unwise or excessive paternalism.
Tho promise to repay by the govern
ment will furnish an inducement to
savings deposits which prlvato enter
prise cannot supply and nt such a low
rate of interest ns not to withdraw
custom from existing banks. It will
substantially Increase tho funds avail
able for Investment as capital In use
ful enterprises. It will furnish the
absolute security which makes tho
proposed scheme of government guar
anty of deposits so alluring without
Its pernicious results.
Ship Subsidies Advocated.
I sincerely hope that the incoming
congress will be nllvo, as it should be,
to tho lmportanco of our foreign trado
and of encouraging it In every way
feasible. Tho possibility of increasing
this trade in tho orient, In the Philip
pines nnd In South America is known
to every one who has given tho matter
attention. Tho direct effect of freo
trade between this country nnd the
Philippines will bo marked upon our
sale of cottons, agricultural machinery
nnd other manufactures. The necessi
ty of the establishment of direct lines
of Btcamers between North and South
America has been brought to tho at
tention of congress by my predecessor
and by Mr. Root before and after his
noteworthy visit to that continent, and
I sincerely hope that congress may be
induced to seo tho wisdom of a tenta
tive effort to establish such Hues by
tho use of mall subsidies.
The importance which the depart
ment of agriculture and of commerce
and labor may play in ridding tho
markets of Europe of prohibitions and
discriminations against the importa
tion of our products is fully under
stood, and it is hoped that tho use of
tho maximum and minimum feature
of our tariff law to bo soon passed will
be effective to remove many of thoso
Lock Canal Plan Defended.
Tho Panama canal will havo a most
Important bearing upon tho trade bo
tween the eastern and the far west
ern sections of our country and will
greatly increase the facilities for
transportation between the eastern
I and the western seaboard and may
1 possibly revolutionize the transconti
nental rates with respect to bulky mer
, chandlse. It will also have a most
, beneficial effect to increase the trade
between the eastern seaboard of tho
United States and tho western coast
of South America and indeed with
some of the Important ports of the
east coast of South America reached
by rail from tho west coast. Tho
work on the canal Is making most sat
isfactory progress. The typo of tho
canal as n lock canal was fixed by
congress after a full consideration of
the conflicting reports of the majority
and minority of the consulting board
nnd after the recommendation of tho
war department and the executive
upon those reports. Recent suggestion
that something had occurred on the
Isthmus to make tho lock type of the
canal less feasible than it was sup
posed to be when the reports were
made and the policy determined on
led to a vfolt to the Isthmus of a
board of competent engineers to exam
ine the (latun dam and locks which
ure the key of the lock type. The re
port of that board shows that nothing
has occurred in tho nature of newly
revealed evidence which should chango
the views once formed in tho original
discussion. The construction will go
on under n most effective organization
controlled by Colonel Gocthals nnd his
fellow army engineers associated with
hlni and will certaluly bo completed
early In the next administration, if not
.Some type of canal must bo con
structed. The lock typo has been se
lected. We are all in favor of having
It built as promptly as possible. We
must not now, therefore, keep up a fire
In tho rear of the agents whom wo
have authorized to do our work on
the Isthmus. We must hold up their
hinds, and, speaking for the Incoming
administration, I wish to say that I
propose to devote all the energy possi
ble and under my control to the push
ing of this work on the nlans which.
have Ijecn adopted nnd to stand behind'
tho men who are doing faithful hard
work to bring about the early comple
tion of this the greatest constructive
enterprise of modern times.
Free Trade With Philippines.
Tho governments of our dependen
cies In Porto Rico nnd tho Philippines
aro progressing as favorably as could
be desired. The prosperity of Porto
Rleo continues unabated. The busi
ness conditions in the Philippines nro
not all that we could wish them to be,
but with tlm passage of the now tariff
bill permitting free trade between the
United Stntes and the archipelago,
with such limitations lu sugar and
tobacco us shall prevent injury to tho
domestic Interests on thoso products,
wo can couut on an Improvement in
business conditions in the Philippines
nnd the development of a mutually
profitable trade between this country
nnd the Islands. Meantime our gov
ernment In each dependency Is uphold
ing the traditions of civil liberty and
Increasing popular control, which might
be expected under Amerlcau auspices.
The work which we aro doing there
redounds to our credit ns a nation.
Words of Friendship For the South.
I look forwnrd with hope to increas
ing the nlrendy good feeling between
the south and tho other sections of the
country. My chief purpose Is not to
effect a change lu the electoral vote of
the southern states. That Is n second
ary consideration. What I look for
l ward to Is an increase in the tolerance
j of political views of all kinds and
their ndvocacy throughout the south
I nnd the existence of n respectable po
litical opposition in every state even
more than than this, to an Increased
feeling on the pnrt of all the people in
the south that this government Is their
government nnd that its officers In
their stntes arc their officers.
The Negro Question.
The consideration of this question
cannot, however, be complete and full
without reference to the negro race,
its progress and Its present condition.
The thirteenth amendment secured
them freedom, tho fourteenth amend
ment due process of lnw, protection
of property nnd the pursuit of happi
ness, and the fifteenth nmendmcnt at
tempted to secure the negro against
nny deprivation of tho prlvllego to
vote because ho was a negro. Tho
thirteenth nnd fourteenth amend
ments bnvo been generally enforced
nnd havo secured the objects for which
they wero intended. Whilo tho fif
teenth nmendmcnt has not been gener
ally observed lu the past, It ought to
be observed, and the tendency of
southern legislation today Is toward
tho enactment of electoral qualifica
tions which shnll square with that
No Repeal of Fifteenth Amendment.
Of course the mere adoption of a
constitutional lnw Is only one step In
tho right direction. It must bo fairly
uud Justly enforced as well. In time
both will como. Hence it is clear to
all that the domination of an Ignorant,
Irresponsible element can be prevent
ed by constitutional laws which shall
exclude from voting both negroes and
whites not having education or other
qualifications thought to be necessary
for a proper electorate. The danger
of tho control of an Ignorant electorate
has therefore passed. With this change
the interest which many of tho south
ern whlto citizens take in the welfare
of the negroes hits Increased. The col
ored men must base their hope on the
results of their own industry, self re
straint, thrift and business success as
well as upon tho aid and comfort and
sympathy which they may receive
from their white neighbors of the
south. There was a tlmo when north
erners who sympathized with the ne
gro in his necessary struggle for bet
tor conditions sought to give to him
tho suffrage as a protection and to en
force Its exercise against the prevail
ing sentiment of the south. The move
ment proved to be a failure. What re
mains Is the fifteenth amendment to
the constitution and tho right to have
statutes of Btatos specifying qualifica
tions for electors subjected to the test
of compliance with that amendment
This Is a great protection to the negro.
It never will be repealed, and it never
ought to be repealed. If It had not
been passed it might be difficult now
to adopt it, but with it in our funda
mental law the policy of southern leg
islation must and will tend to obey It,
and so long as the statutes of the
states meet the test of this amend
ment nnd are not otherwise in con
flict with tho constitution nnd laws of
the United States It Is not the disposi
tion or within tho province of the fed
eral government to Interfere with tho
regulation by southern states of their
domestic affairs.
"Negro Is Now American."
There is In the south n stronger feel
ing than ever among the intelligent,
well to do and Influential element in
favor of the industrial education of
tho negro nnd the encouragement of
the raco to make themselves useful
members of the community. Tho
progress which the negro has made in
the last flftyyears from slavery, when
Its statistics are reviewed, Is marvel
ous, and it furnishes every reason to
hope that In the next twenty-five years
a still greater improvement in his con
dition as a productive member of so
ciety, on tho farm and In the shop nnd
in other occupations, may come. The
negroes are now Americans. Their
ancestors came here years ago agalnstl
their will, nnd this is their only conn
try und their only flog. They have
shown themselves anxious to live for
It nnd to dlo for It. Encountering tho!
rnco feeling against them, subjected
at limes to cruel injustice growing out
of It, they may well have our profound
sympathy and aid in the struggle they
are making. We are charged with th
sacred duty of making their path as-'
smooth and easy as we can. Any
recognition of their distinguished men,'
any appointment to office from among
their number, is properly taken as an
encouragement and an appreciation of
their progress, nnd this just policy
shall be pursued.
The Appointment of Negroes.
But It may well admit of doubt
whether lu case of nny race an ap
pointment of one of their number to
a local office In a community in which
the race feeling Is so widespread nnd
acute ns to Interfere with the ease and
facility with which the local govern
ment business enn be done by tho ap
pointee Is of sufficient benefit by way
of encouragement to the raco to out
weigh the recurrence nnd Increase of
race feeling which such nn appoint
ment Is likely to engender. Therefore
tho executive in recognizing tho negro
rnco by nppolntmcnts must exercise a
careful discretion not thereby to do it
more harm thau good. On tho other
hand, wo must be careful not to en
courage the mere pretense of race feel
lug manufactured in the interest of In
dividual political ambition.
No Raco Feeling In White House.
Personally I havo not tho slightest
race prejudice or feeling, nnd recogni
tion of Us exlstenco only awakens in
my heart a deeper sympathy for those
who have to bear It or suffer from It,
and I question tho wisdom of u policy
which Is likely to increase it. Mean
time, if nothing Is dono to prevent, a
better feeling between the negroes and
the whites In the south will continue
to grow, and moro and more of the
whlto peoplo will como to realize that
the future of tho south is to be much
benefited by tho Industrial and Intel
lectunl progress of tho negro. Tho ex
crclso of political franchises by those
of his race who are Intelligent and
well to do will bo ucqulesced In, and
the right to voto will be withheld only
from tho Ignorant nnd Irresponsible of
both races.
Continued on 2d pace, I
Longing For Spring.
My heart Is sick, my spirit racked
With winter's heavy woe.
I'm longing more to have It o'er,
I count the minutes go.
My very being yearns for spring.
' I fairly weep and beg
To have a tew potatoes new;
Also a recent egg.
New York Press.