Bedford inquirer and chronicle. (Bedford, Pa.) 1854-1857, January 11, 1856, Image 1

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    ■Boirfoti) lifliiim mh ftroiiclf.
<;oiEPi\oirs imm. \
Tv the llmorahit f 'iclSeii/ilor * nrui JHe rubers '
< f the House, of R'pmentaiiv es of the |
Guteral AsseAbly.
Gkxtlkmkx —A kind Providence has
rr.oarly biess.-d our LVirmnon wealth dnring !
the past year. No foreign war, uv internal I
strife have interrupted or destroyed the
:>acefal yuiet of our homes. All the i
_-reut interests of the people iiave been e:u- 1
.neatly prosperous. The earth, in rich !
abundance, has. yielded hs increase to sup
jiiy our wants, aud reward with her bouu- '
ties the labor of the husbandman. Labor, ]
in every department of manufacturing and I
mechanical industry, has been stimulated i
;.nd encouraged- 14m ravages of disease
and the horrors of the pestilence hare
•>! avoided from us; and whilst the cry of :
humaA s-tifforing from other States, has been
•an! in viViog our sympathy wn i aid, we!,
i rive been blessed with heahh aud per- ,
milted to tny v the comforts and happiness
i.f social life. To 'dim who hath bestowed
iiiesf blessings upc bs, and upon whose !
■ ire we are aonstanftY .'lepertient, should
.-overpaid the wUl.'lig hounge of our i
grateful heaits
The report of the .State I'Vou'lirer wil;
> riiiljit i < jou, in detail, the .operations u!
hi- department. Hie re-wits are uio*e sat
isfactory arid encouraging than wfe." *' u! j
• hated. ' A
The recoi; ts :;{ the Treasury for the .'*■ j
. U war ending November 39, 1855, iueiu
hiu-' ilie balance in ilw Treasury on the Ist *
•lay of December, 1854, ($1,240,928 72;
amounted Jo $0,631,402 *3. The total
ivmmts for the same period were $">,385,- •
7 '5 52: lenviatf n balance in the Treasury
<>n the 30tfc Nov
697 31. .No lu.mS, i'Worary or other
wise, were negotiated duAPg 'ho } a *t fiscal
ear, thev were not jofJHired by ilia,
wants of the Treasury.
The receipts during the past tear f iroiu
-!i sources, (exelouing the balance in the .
Treasure on tlie first day of Decern bo/.
1 *54.) were $5,390,4.4 11. The ordinary '
expenditures for the same period, including'
the interest on the public oeut, were sl,- •
159,512 28, showing an iscos. of re
ceipts over ordinary expenditures of sl,"
250,961 83.
The extrannliit&ry paVnurtts for the vnr
were 51,246,193 *24. as follows, viz:—-To
the e <tiip!eti(in of the ttew Portage railroad
over the Allegheny mountains, §446,762
12; !< the Nertb 15ra:irfi t'aual, $87,562
<57; lo the Coltitnhia railroad, to re-kiv ,
south track, $133,100 00: to the payment
of domestic creditors, §1,629 8.5; to tlie
redemption of loans, $516,550 60, and to
relic f notes cancelled, $260,588 00.
The balance in the Treasury will be re- ;
quired for the payment of the interest on ,
the State debt falling due in February next ,
ur.d for unpaid appropriations. The inter- I
o-t on the funded debt of the t'ommon
v.eal'li. which became due in I'ebruarv and j
August Tif, wfls promptly paid; and it i
gratifying to state that the interest due in
February next will be paid wifb equal
promptness. The credit of the State mav
be regarded as fir July established, and with
proper economy and a careful and honest
i inagmuent of her finances, an annual re
duction of her debt, to a considerable ex
t nt, may be confidently expected.
There is dne by tlvc Treasury to the
Sinking Fund the sunt of $335,011 39, u.
be applied to the redemption of the relief
note-, now in circulation, and to tin* funded
debt of the UomnionwWaltU. The greater
p*art of the funded debt bears interest at
the rate of five per cent, per anmuu: the
balance l*ars a still less rate of interest.—
Hut as the. tentjiorary loans, which by law
are to be first paid oat of the available
means of the Treasury, bear interest at the i
rate of six per cent., it has been deemed
advisable, as a matter of economy, to apply
the surplus revenue* to the pnvmeut ofi
those loan*. When these arc liquidated, I
the amount tine and properly applicable to i
tbe Sinking Fund will be paid, and its op
eration continued as directed bv law.
N'otw'tlwtandiiig the revenues for the last
four or fire years have largely exceeded the
ordinary expenditures (l f the government,
vet in cor sequence of the large and iusati- ;
able demand* upon the Treasury for the '
completion of the .Yorth Branch canal, the
Portage rai'roatl and otlier kindred im
provements, the public debt, instead of be
iuy reduced, has been increased. Tilts in- '
crease, with the amount and condition of
the debt at different periods, will he seen
in the following statements:
5 fife menl of //••* funded an I unfunded
•I,at of the CommonwaJtA on the. Ist
day of Drrrmbes, 1851, as per re
port of the .htdilor General.
Funded debt, riz:
6 per ft. loans, $2,314,023 51
•* 'in, 36,104,484 o.>
44 do, 198,200 00
'Total funded deLt. §39,216,707 54
Unfunded debt, viz:
Belief note* in circulation, 650,163 00
Interest <jfrtifiea'.cs out
standing, 150,231 82
Do do unclaimed, 4,418 38
interest ou m'tstandrng and
unclaimed certificates,
when fended, 9,7.52 91
I ! >*netic creditors, 82.932 74
897,528 65
Total :,bt, Doc. 1 :,\ t 4( 5 111,236 39
A Weekly Paper, Devoted to Literature, Politics, the Arts, Sciences tgriculture, &c., Ac —Terms: Two Dollars per annum.
S trie merit showing the imtehteilness of He
Vommn iwatth on the I*/ dmj of De
cember, 1854, ai per Auditor
General's Report.
Funded debt, vii:
<5 per cent loans $592,104 93
d <*" 30.004,009 97
di d ( ' do Bti.-S.2uu UU
4 110 4" 100,000 oo
Total funded debt, $40,084,914 90
refunded debt, via:
Relief notes in circulation, $494,301 00
lu'st certificates outstanding 24,857 21
Do unclaimed, 4.448 38
Interest on outstanding and
unclaimed certificates,
when funded, 1.870 97
Domestic creditors certificates, 2,7 l 7 til
Balance of temporary loan
of April 19, 1853* 560,000 00
Balance of temporary loan of
Mnv 9, 1854 , 400,435 07
Total unfunded debt & tem
porary loans, $1,538,680 34
To these should be added the following
relief notes, not included in the relief notes' I
in circulation, viz:
Relief notes tuadc by the
Lancaster Bank, not
charged on State Treas
urer's books, §25,000 00
Relief imles put in circu
i latum September, 18.54,
* an 1 not redeemed De
cember 1, 1854, 50,000 00
75,000 00
Total pal. debt, Decem
ber L 1854. $41,699,595 74
Do 1851, 40,114,236 39
Increase of debt in •> yrs. S 1,554,359 35
The funded and ~'aliUided debt,including
unpaid temporary iMh3*. u the l.t day of
December, 1655, the cid'B£? t>f the last ti*eal
year, as per report of the Auditor General
and State Treasurer, was as fellows, to wit:
Funded debt, *
6 (ici* cent loan, $u16,1. >4 93
• i uo do, 38^105, 44J >4
4 4 do do 385,2f10 00
4 do do, 100,000 00
Total funded debt, §39,307,800 47 i
Unfunded debt, viz:
Relief notes in circulation, §268,773 00
In'st certificates outstanding, 29,1n?' 27)
Domestic ei editors, 1,264 00
Balance of temporary loan
April 19, 1853, 525-000 00
Balance of temporary loan
of May 9, 1854, ' 346,090 00
Total unfunded debt, 1,1641,194 25
Total debt Dee. 1, '55, 4i,067,994 72
Total debt, as above sta
ted, Dec 1, 1854. 41,008,595 74
Do do Dec. 1, 1855, 41,067,994 72
Decrease during fiscal yr. §630,601 02
This statement exhibits the gratifying
fact that during the fiscal year ending No
vember 30,185.5, the indebtedness of the
Commonwealth has been reduced $630,-
Oul 02. 1 luring the same period large
appropriations and payments were made
; for the completion of the new Portage
Railroad, rehiring the track of tint (Jo-
Inmbia railroad attd for other purj-OMs. —
Theke demands upon the treasury were,
without the aid of loans, promptly paid.
Refusing to undertake any new schemes
of internal improvement, limiting all ap
propriations to the actual demand* of the
occasion, practising strict economy in all
departments of the government and hold
ing the receiving and disbuisit.g agents of
the Commonwealth to a rigid accountabili
ty, will greatly reduce the expenditures,
and, under ordinary circumstances, leave
an anr.uat surplus of the revenues to be ap
i piied to the redeuiptiou of the public debt.
The estimated receipts and expendi
tures for the current fiscal year will be pre
' sented to yon in the report of the Stat.j
' Treasurer. The receipts from the usual
sources of revenue, above the ordinary ex
penditures, may exceed tlie sutu of one juil—
j lioti and a half of dollars. These estimate*
' may approximate the true result, but can
not be relied upon with certainty.
By the 38th section of the act of the
♦ 16th of April, 1845, entitled "An Act to
provide for the ordinary expenses of gov
ernment, the repair of the canals and rail
roads of the State, and other claims upou
the Commonwealth," the Governor was au
thorized to cause certificates of State stock
to be issued j all persons or bodies corpo
rate holding certificates for the payment of
interest on the funded debt of the State
which fell due ou the Ist day of August,
1842, the Ist days of Februarv* and August
> 1843, and the Ist days of February and
August, 1844: in an amount cquai to the
amount of certificates so held, upou the de
livering tip said certificates to the Auditor
General. In pursuance of the authority
thus given, certificates of State stock to the
amount of four millions, one hundred ami
five thousand,me hundred and fifty dollars
and twenty cents, bearing interest at the
rate of five per cent' per annum, payable
1 semi-annually, on the Ist days of February
and August iii each year, and redeemable
on or after the Ist day of August 1855,
were Issued. The minimum period fixed by
law for the redemption of these certificates,
expired on tlie 6r*t day of August last. No
provision has been made for their renewal
or redemption.
Although by the terms of tlie act author-
| tzme these certificates of State stock, asal
; so by the conditions of flic certificates is
j sued in pursuance thereof, the time of pay- |
; '"cut , after the expiration of the minimum
I penod: is optional with the debtor—the
( omtnonwealth— yet a due regard to the
credit of the State requires that provision
• should be made for their renewal or re
j demplion. To redeem these certificates a
■ loan would become necessary, as a loan can- j
! not be effected, in the present financial eon- i
i uiti?n of the country, on terms more fa
j verable to the State, than those on which
these certificates were issued. I wou]d frec
j ouimeud that authority be given to issue the
bonds of the Commonwealth in renewal of
said certificates, bearing interest at the rate
of five per cent, per annum, payable semi
annually, aud redeemable on or after the '
expiration of twenty years; and tbat tip- ■
; bonds be issued with coupons or ccrtifi- ;
j eaten of interest attached, in sums equal
' in amount to the semi-annual interest there
! on, payable on the first davs of February
aud August in each and every vcar, at such
j place as may be designated." This change
in the form and character of the ccrtifi- j
rates, it is believed, will be so advanta
geous to the holders, without increasing the
liabilities of the Commonwealth, as to iu
; duce a willing and prompt exchange, at a 1
, premium, for the bonds proposed to be is- I
' sued.
I The condition of the public works, their
tfeueraJ operation, and the receipts and ex
| jieuuitures for the past fiscal year, wiil bo '
| presented to you in the report of the (Ansa! j
! Commissioners.
The aggregate receipts at the Treasury
from the public works, for the year ending
November 30, 1855, were $ 1,942,376 71. 1
The aggregate expenditures, including ordi
i nary and extraordinary payments, for the
'same period, amounted to §1,838,791 Is,'
showing an excess of receipts, over ail ex
penditures, of $103,585 53.
I he extraordinary payments for the same
year, (excluding $ 138,100 00 paid for re
laying the south track of the Columbia '
Railroad, and §'28,000 00 for re-building
the 1 reeport Aqueduct,! were §690,427 :
1 8. The ordinary expenditures were sl,-
148,363 4u.
Aggregate receipts as
above stated, §1.942.376 71
Ordinary expenditure.:, 1.148,563 40
N'ett revenues fur fiscal yr., §794,013 31 j
This. Main* o-rgfUtt. •, vniajl •<(>]s{■ in i
the no it revenues, as compared with the
r.ett revenues of 1854, and notwithstanding
the withdrawal of the transportation ljues
frm the ;otin line of the Canal, the aggro- <
gate revenue,. for the last fyear have ex
ceeded the revgonex of 1804 by more
than tweuty-tlt-re# thousand dollar-. From
the abundantcri-ps oi* fbe past year, t!-c
improved condition of ihe vimnefary af
fair? of the country and tht genera! reviraj
of business, a large increase in the revenue
for toe curt cut year may be confidently ex- j
The sum of $i'11,125 25, has botvi paid
into the Treasury by the i'ouasy! vaniu rail- '
read ecmiptliy and other railroad companies, l
as the tax <>u tonnage passing over t | jp ; r '
r ond<. This ttnonnt largely exceds l hesuru
pai'l by the same wwupanies i 1§54.
The Delaware division exhibits a satisfae
f'wv resuit. The total receipts were $392,"
673 42: expenditures. $60,097# 86: show
ing a net revenue of §552,575 56. If ail
our lines of improvement exhibited a simi
lar balance sheet, the people Would have .
less eause of complaint and more confidence ,
in the general operat on of tlu system.
There bus been a large increment the
business aud tonnage of lite (.'oiunthia rail
road. and a corresponding increase iu tlw
receipts therefrom. , The Operations of this
road for the past year have been highly ,
satisfactory. The operations of tbat parti
of the main line from the Junction to Fitts- ■
burg, including the Portage railroad, do ;
not present so favorable a result. The re
ceipts have greatly diminishi-d, and wore
uot sufficient to meet the ordinary expendi
tures. The revenues from file main line ,
do not equal the receipts of the previous (
years. The causes of this reduction are ap
parent, and some of thorn liave been referr
ed to and enumerated. It is but just to
add that the expenditures on this line have '
been much diminished by the avoidance of
the iuclined planes on the Portage rail
J regret to inform you that the railioad
to avoid the eucliucd planes on the AUc- i
giieuy mountain, bus not been completed as j
was confidently anticipated. The delay in j
the completion of this work has occasioned j
much inconvenience to the business of the
main line and a loss to the revenues of the
(louimruweaith. The expenditures have [
largely exceeded the original estimates for >
its construction; and although the sum of j
§277,730 00 was appropriated at the last )
session of the Legislature for the completion !
; of this work—a sum covering the estimate t
: of the Lugiaeer—yet after the expenditure j
i of the whole amount thus appropriated, the !
I the road is unfinished; and to complete it,
I and pay the debts coutracted, the further
1 sum of §177,573 66, as now estimated !y i
' the Engineer, will be required. Hither tlfe
I estimates have been very carelessly made,
. or large sums of money uselessly and ex
! travagautly expended in the prosecution ff
; this improvement. As aidiug the business (
f of the Main Line, reducing still further its :
expeuditnrcs aud relieving the Treasury, ;
| front these, constant demuuds, the aunouuee- i
, ment of its early completion, will bo bailed
with pleasure by every citiaeu.
Altliough the completion of the North
Branch Canal, before the close of navigation
! was rtrtainly expected, yet this expectation
' has wot teeu realized. TUo efforts of the
' j,re^ont Superintendent, Mr. Maffit, dur
! ing the past j oar, to mpletc and put in
f successful operation thfanul deserve the
highest commendation. Everything that
skill, energy and industi could accomplish
has been dune- The iar to be performed
! was great, and rendcreituorc difficult and
j perplexing by the iinpoeet and fraudulent
construction of the old irk and sonie por
i tion of the new. The latsrjuantity of rocks
trees, stumps,and roots peed in the bottom
! of the Canal, and the itsfcctive material
! ued in the embankuseut suffered the wa
j ter to escape almost as redly as admitted,
j and rendered a reconstntion of the work,
! in many places,indh.peKsly necessary- Its
j successful completion, in hoped) will scou
j be announced.
It will appear by the eport of tbeCoin
j mittee of Ways and Mefintuade to the House
' of Representatives in 18*, that the entire
amount necessary to eopjcie and jut in
operation the unfinished portions of this
Canal was estimated at tl sum of $1,106,-
i U37 00. The amount a dally expended 011
(he work since that pcrufL as appears from
the Reports of the? Supifutcndent, Kngi
; neer and Canal is $1,857,-
377 52, beiug an excenof expenditures
over the original estimata of $751,340 52:
and the Canal tiot yet itifoera'ion. With
| such facts lsifure us—sufi ovideuce of mis
i management and reckles&pcnditure as the
1 history of this Canal shoe—it is uot mat
ter of surprise, that the tpmiuou wealth and
people are burdened wjb debt and taxa
' tion. ?
hi pursuance of the o - r of the SIII of
May last, providing for tfe sale of the .Main
Line of the Public Work* after giving the
notice required by law, 1 caused the same
1 to be exposed to public ale, at the Mer
chants' Exchange, in theL'ity of Philadil
| phia. No offers were uia£ and consequent
-1 ly the works remain Sealed pro
posals for the "sale or |ase of the Main
Line," were .sub.sei|Ueiirlyj isivited, as direc
ted by the seventeenth potion of the said
Act, and the proposals rfreived are here
with submitted to the I.edslature for their
action and final dispositipj.
Having Ift a former ootasioe presented
my views of the propric-tj and policy" of
-ale of this branch of out public improve
ments, a repetition of the sentiments then
i expiessed beontut unnecessary. 111 rela
tion to this subject, my bpiniou lots not
changed. On ihe coutraiy the cxporiertc e
of the ps-t, and a careful examination of
the question in its eeonopioal and political
relation®. Lr „ft?l An.iti-rnn*')
it. That the state should, long since, have
bc-u supurate-1 from the .uanugemfeiit an I
control of these works* the history of their
con-tructiou and management dearly ae
liioiistraKs. Public policy and public sen
timent demand this seperation: and every
consideration of present and future iiitor&st
requires their sale. The late financial < 111-
barrassmeiitsof tiie country —the imperfect
character of some of the provisions of ibe
bill authorizing the sale together with tbt
an\inSm-nee of rival int.. -rest..-, defeat
cd the recent attempt to sell. These diffi
have been, or oan be, removed-, and a sad,
yet effected 00 terms amply protective oi
iue l ights and interests of the people and
.:t tin: same time just and liberal to the
purchasers. "
To reduce the State debt and relieve the
peep!" form taxation, are objects worthy the
earnest afcd anxious consideration of the
Legislature. To accomplish these objects
speedily aud Ctrtaiuly, a sale of the whole
or part of our public improvements becomes
important and necessary. The Tcrvcaines ol
the State.':ltdi r the 1 resent system 01 man
agement of the pubiiu works are bu:
1 little nine than sufficient to pay t!*e inter
est of her debt, and the ordinary espouses
of the government. A sale nf these works,
for a fair consideration, and upon t.-rms just
and liberal, would constitute a in
. the process of liquidation tliat would free
I our Commonwealth from debt and hex peo
ple from consequent taxation, la every
measure calculated to produce these desira
ble results, I will cheerfully eo operate with
the Legislature.
The currency of the State, in its relation
. to banking institutions, and their increase,
| is a subject that demands careful ami iotel
' figeut consideration. From the notice giv
en of numerous intended applications to tlie
Legislature for new banks and an increase
: of banking capital, this subject will doubt
| less be presented to, and strongly urged
| upon your at'entioß. Bhall the number of
i Ranks and the amount of banking capital
! be increased? and if 30, to what extent and
; in what localities? are questions of üb.sorb
i ing pubiie interest."
Without desiring to issuiue a general and
uncompromising hostility to all Ranks, or
to ar. increase of banking capital, 1 cannot
discover the necessity that requires, or the
• circuiusuaqges that would justify tho ineor
| porn tion of all that may be demanded frou:
; the Legislature. The incorporation of new,
i or die rechartttr of old uml solvent Batiks,
■ when tndispetisibly necrssary and clearly
i demanded by the-actual, business wants of
; the community in which they may be loca
ted, should not be refused; under uo other
circumstances should their incorporation be
Tiie necessity for increasing the number
of Ranks should be determined more by
the actual wants Of legitimate trade, thah
by the number of applications and the wiW
fancies of stock jobbers and spoeulators.4-%
The sudden and unnecessary -expansion 4f
I the currency should be avoided, and what
ever touds to, produce such a result ought to
be discountenanced and prevented. In the
| creation of Banks the true interests of the
| State ar.d people should be
a just and honest discrimination, as to num
ber, locality, and the demands of trade, be
hxercised by their representatives. Public
sentiment dteda not demand, nor do public
#r private interests require the* creation of,
u uterou* Banks,
In tho present condition of the finance.'
and in aid of the revenue* of the State (>a
addition to the taxes now imposed by Jaw)
a reasonable premium should be required
to be paid by ail Banks er Saving institu
tions that may hereafter be chartered or re
chartered by the Legi-laturf,
As appropriate to this subject, and inti
mately connected with it, 1 cannot forbear
to express mv disapprobation ot a practice,
that has heretofore obtained to some extent,
of using the names of members of the Legis- i
lature as corporators in bills pending be- '
fore them for the incorporation of Banks
and Atlier companies, Fuch a practice is
pernicious, and cannot be too strongly con
demned. it perils tfle independence of the
Legislature—exposes hiut to unjust suspic
ions, and stamps with selfishness, at least,
his legislative action in the premises. Le
gislation should be free, even from the ap
pearance cf improper motive; and every
undue and corrupting influence, inside or
outside the Legislative Halls, should be
resisted and condemned.
It is a cause of more than ordinary con
gratulation that Agriculture, the first as it
is the noblest pursuit ofuraii, has, in its pro
gress of devehipeineut, vindicated its own
importance, and assumed, in public esteem,
the honorable position to which it is so
justly entitled. Constituting a< it does the
substratum of OUT great mechanical, manu
facturing and commercial interests, it shawl I
ever be regarded as ihe chief source ot State
and .National prosperity. First in necessi
ty it is the highest in usefulness of all the
departments of tabor ; sustaining and pro
moting i:i their varied and multiplied rela
tion* all the other industrial interests of
the country. Our financial and couimer-iil
prosperity is largely dependent upon the
success of Agricultural industry.
An interest so important should receive
the encouragement of all classes of society.
No loag.-r a mere art —an exertion of physi
cal strength, it has reached the dignity of
a science : and to its progress and improve
ment the people and tlnir representatives
should cheerfully ccntribute. state and
County Agricultural Societies have done
much to ijoujoty this cause : and through
their agency much valuable information has
beeh collected and diffused. Much yet re
mains to be done. More information is de
manded. More efficiency iri the collection and
diffusion of useful knowledge is required.
To secure this result,the establishment, of an
Aericuitucal Bureau, in connection with
some of the Departments of Mate, would
largely ooutribute. The importance of such
a bureau, properly organized, as an aid to
the advancement of Agricultural knowledge
and the success of Agricultural iudustrv,
cannot he easily over estimated. The suO
jeot is earnestly 'torn mended to your atten
By an act of the last session an institu
tion designated as tlio "Farmers' High
School of Pennsylvania*' was incorporated.
The charter was accepted by the trustei s
and the institution duly organized. An
eligible site for the L'oilego has been se
cured in Centre county ; and two hundred
acres (if valuable and highly cultivated land
donated to tho trustees: for the use of the
institution, by Gen. James Irvin, of that
county. The citizens of the county, with a
liberality htgidy commendable, have pledged
and secured to the trustees, tur the use of
ihe College, ten thousand dollars in addi
tion to tlie land donated. This liberality
shows that the farmers of Pennsylvania
folly appreciate the importance of such an
institution and will support and sustain it.
The course of instruction will be thorough
and practical. Scientific ami practical
agriculture, with the usual branches of
academic education, will' be taught, and
the effort will fce to make gooU farmers
good scholars and good citizens.
Whilst individual liberality and energy
have done much and will do more fur this
institution, an approbation by the State, in
such sum as the Legislature may deem pro
per, would not oniy aid and encourage this
laudable enterprise, bat would be an honor
able and just recognition of the important
interests ivoived.
The laws now in operation, iemulating
manufacturing and otlter improvement com
panies, are in some of their provisions too
severely restrictive, and should be modified.
Legislation on these subjects has heretofore
tended to restrain the investment of capital
—check industry, and curb the energy of
the people in the prosecution of those enter
prise*. that aid the develops moot ot our im
mense resources, and contribute so largely
to the wealth and prosperity of tint State,
Liberal and judicious legislation—encour
aging individual enterprise—inviting the
investment of capital and stimulating the
Various departments of manufacturing and
mechanical industry, would greatly pro
mote the interest* of the people —increase
our reveuues, an J give the Common wealth
that prominence and position in the sister
hood of States, to which the character oi
her citizens aud her illimitable natural re
sources justly entitle her. To this subject
your attention is invited.
The report of the Superintendent of Com
mon School will exhibit to you their cotuli
tirti and the general oper tins of thesysiem
iltroughout the Commonwealth during the
past year To the valnabe an 1u- *i'u 1 sag
gastinu.s oj the Report I would earnestly ask
the attention of tho Legislature
The. operation and results of the system,
as detailed are highly interesting. Qui
educational system is slowly, but surely
cohtjuering tlu prejudices and gaining the
confidence ®f the people. Coder the foster
ing care of libera! and eulightened legi>la
t'uu its ultimate triumph is certain. When
tho system was first introduced it was sup
posedth it it could be perfected and fopcee
ntc genera! and vigorous operation by tlu
mere willjof tlie legislature. Experience
has proves, that in this, as in every Other
great social and moral reform, time and htat
eunsent which arises from a radical change
in the popuhu mind, were required. This
slow process of the acclamation of the new
system to our social auil mora! atmosphere,
has been in operation fur nearly twenty
years; ami it is now evident the period for
another effective interposition of legislative
aid and authority in favor of our noble sys
tem of common schools, has arrived, In
whatever form this obviously proper and
necessary interposition imiy present itself, il
calculated to promote the great purpose in
view it shall receive my elieer/uj^st^pgp-*,
After a careful examination of thesubject
it is my clear conviction that the system is
now prepared for and requires increased ef
ficiency in its general supervision—increased
qualification in its teachers, and increased
means of support.
The experiment of the County Snperin
tendeucy wherever faithfully carried out has
not disappointed the expectations of the ad
vocates of that measure. The improved
condition of the schools, and the greater
efficiency of the system, clearly establish
the propriety and utility of such super
vision. The official visits of an officer of
the school depart nun t to some of the coun
ties of the State in couuexiou with the County
Superintcndancy, have demonstrated that
the voice of public authority to sustain, and
the presence of an official agent to encourage
have largely contributed to excite and main
tain the deep interest now felt by the pub
lic iu our educational progress and improve
The most markeJ improvement recently
effected in the system, has been in its corps
of teachers. With almost unparalled dis
interestedness and devotion to the noble
cause iu which they arc engaged, the common
school teachers of the State, have, in almost
every county, Leeu using all the tuoaus and
appliances within their power for self-im
In conceding this boon to our children
through their teachurs, we are encouraged
by the example of oilier countries, and the
experience of the past, it is a remarkable
fact, that no State of cur futon, Uor nation
of the Old World, has perfected its system
of public instruction, without sohools for the
professional training of teachers,
od and supported by the publie authority
and.means: and it is no less retuarkabh ,
and still more encouraging, that uo such in
stitution has ever yet been abandoned.—
trout Trus-sia, whoso experience in this re
gard is that of a century and a quarter, to
that of <-ur young i.-ter Michigan, whose ex
istence is * ot yesterday, the normal school
has been tried throughout Christendom with
uuvvifyiug success.
This result is in full harmony with the
laws of uiiud ami human society, Teaching
is a high aud liotiorahle profession; and no
profession ha- more arduous and complex
dnties tp preform—no one greater responsi
bilities to meet—.and no one operates on, or
with such valuable and interesting material.
The most thorough preparation is therefore
requisite; and as the duties to be performed
are not only responsible, but deiiuaie, and
may affect the social, jxditical, uiorai or
religious feelings and rights of ibe citizen,
no source is so safe, no authority for their
discharge so 1 roe f<-om suspicion or Lias, as
the State. Teagbeis trained by the State,
and representing the vitality of ita repub
licanism, will be the firm support aud sure
guarutiU e of its republican equality.
It i.s time also that the teaching luind
should resume its true place iu the schools,
la the oouiuiuajcati >n of knovrledge, to be
effective, miad, in sympathetic contract,
must act upon mind, and with living, speak
ing energy, leave its impress there. The
(drear Master l himself thus trained the School
which was to reform a world. Jiut now the
OooJi lias <>o mueU intruded itself between
the teacher and the taught. The teacher
has too uiuoh beoome the mere expoucuf ot
the printed page, aud the mind of the iear
nor the impressed copy of of the text. In
thus say tug, the value and imporuuee of
books, as a means of knowledge, are not in
tended to be overlooked or iocried; but the
uses of our best agencies luvc their limit-,
ami when we find the book Usurping the
place of the teacher, to the injury of the
teacher to the injury of the tniud of our
youth, we should restore each to its proper
position—require from eacli the performance
of its appropriate functions, and thus con
fer upon both the full Measure of their use
As an expedient to supply the place of
regular Norma! schools till established, and
as a valuable auxiliary to them when in op
eration, the Teachers' Institute would be of
unquestionable value. It would bring to
gether the teachers of a eouuty under the
best iuflticuees, for consultation and im
provement, and exhibit thciu before ("ueir
felknv citizen* itr their proper professional
character. *A portion of the means of the
State, or of the respective counties, applica
ble to educational improvement,could net be
more profitably applied, tlnln to the encour
agement of the meeting of at least one such
institute, auuualy, in each county. An ex
periment of this kind, recently made in the
county of Chester, is sai l to have been
eminently successful, and strongly indica
tive of the wisdom ot the measure.
If,in addition to these or similar measures
tin Legislature should feel warranted—and
tli, iiiWurhas all the sanction this execu
tive document can give it—to make a large
addition to the annus! State appropriation
to oo;uuion schools, I believe th<t all will
be done which the patriotism of the peo
ples' representatives can now effect; and
I do not hesitate to express the opinion that
tiie time has come for this prompt, fait ami
dect.-ivc action. fiCt tho integrity of the
system, in its great purpose* and objects, lie
maintained: aud if changed, changed only
VOL. 8!), NO I
j to render it more efficient, and to increase
iti power for greater usefulness. Whatever
j else mav distinguish your present session, it
• Ls hazarding iitile to predict, that more hon
| cr uiid benefit will rsult from the perfection
1 of the Couiiiiou School sj stem of education,
' than from any other exercise of your legis
-1 lative powers.
The public school, of Philadelphia are
deserving of special notice uud approral.
In their various giadatii-ns, from the pruoarv
'up to the High School, they are models
worthy imitation: and their management and
efficiency reflect great credit upon those to
whom have been committed their supervision
and control. It is to be regretcd that these
schools, so crditable to our great commercial
and literary emponun, and so honorable to
onr oouimonwealth, should find nc place iu
the annual report of the Superiutcnd.ini of
! Common Schools. As at present organized
these schools are iudepeudant of the State
superintcudency, and do not report to the
. school departipcnt of the Commonwealth.
' As everything thai relates to the operation
of the Common School System, and the
condition of the public schools iu the State,
is important and interesting, the statistics
el those schools should be furuUbcJ to the
State Superintendent, that the same might
be embodied in the annual report of the
department. A modification of existiug
laws on this subject, so far as to require the
controllers of the public schools of Phila
delphia to report to the school department
the number, grade and condition of their
schools, the number of pupils, and gener
ally such information in relation to their
! government as may be deemed useful to the
cause of education, i respectfully recom
To improve the sooial, intellectual and
moral condition of the people, reclaim the
i ei ring, and ameliorate Iranian suffering, are
objects that commend themselves to the
consideration of the philanthropist and the
statesman. Our educational, charitable
and reformatory institutions are justly the
pride of the State, honorable alike to the
wisdom that devised and the liberality that
I'otln'ded and sustains them. Ther havo
strone claims upon the bounty of tka peo
ple, arid 1 cordially recommend them to
your care and the liberality of the Com
The State Lunatic Hospital, at Ilarris
bitrg, in its objects and result.--, merits our
highest approbation. The just expecta
tions of its projectors and founders havo
not been ui-appoiuted. Kiuducss and love
with tlioip softening and subduing influence
constitute tlie rub* uf its gavermneat.
Many of its forutof unfortunate inmates
1 have been restored to reason, to friends
and home, and the enjoyments of social
life. Those that remain require our sym
pathy and ai l Thev should not be with
held. The report of the directors will ex*
Libit, iu detail, tbeoperations of the insti
The necessity and importance of provi
ding additional accommodation for the iu
snue of Western Pennsylvania have been
strongly pressed apou my attention. Tii#
present accommodations are clearly insuf
fidient, and these have been provided pfinc!
pally by the eohtribuiious of benevolent cit
izens. kis urged that the rapid advauc*
of our population, the gloomy* increase of
the insane, and tuc inadequacy of the pre—
cut asylums for their care and management,
reuder it imperatively neecs-ar, that effec
tive .lia shout ! bo given t.> that portion of
the State for tho establishment of a new
and entirely distinct Western Insane Hos
pital, ns x home to those of our fellow citi
zens wl.o-e only alleviation is to be found in
tueir own ignorance of the frightful malady
with which they are burdened. . The sub
ject is worthy of calm and dispassionate in
quiry. I will cheerfully co-operate with
the Legislature in all proper efforts to ac
complish this ohjept.
Should you decline to act upon this sub
ject, 1 would then recommend that an ade
quate appropriation be made to the Western
Pennsylvania Hospital, fur the purpose uf
extending its accommodations for the care
of the insane, as distinct as may be practi
cable from the other cla-s of patient? ami
inmates. The charter of this institution
is liberal in its provisions and comprehen
sive in 'he objects liable to he brought un
der its care, embracing the insane as well
as the sick, helpless and infirm.
In tliis connection I would commend to
yonr attention the Pennsylvania Training
School fo- Tdioiie and Feeble-Minded Chil
dren. The aid of the Commonwealth has
heretofore been extended to this institution.
It is a noble charity, and anpeals to tho
best feeling? of the heart. It deserves to
share the bounty of the f*fate.
The House of Refuge in Philadelphia, and
tho Western House of Refuge near Pitts
burg, are institutions of ereat oxcelence.
having frir their object the reclaiming of
wayward and erring youth, the employment
of the idle, tho instruction of the ignorant,,
the reformation of the various and depraved
and the relief of the wretched. They are
schools, not pr'sous—homes, not places of
punishment; they area refuge to tho neglec
t'-l and outcast children and youth of our
Commonwealth. Tho success of the past is
a sure guarantee of their future usefulness.
They should receive your aid and encour
Tho "Wind" and the "Poaf and Dumb
Asylums," in Philadelphia, invite our sym
pathy, and ask to share the benefactions of
toe Commonwealth. They should not ho
disappointed. Tin; blind, in their darkness
—:tn dumb, in their silence—will cherish
the eift. and bless the generous donor.
The legislation, in relation, to all ques
tions of moral and social reform, should be
carefully and wisely consul jredand matur
ed. On no subject within the.constitutional
authority of the Legislature, aro the people
so sonsative: an l no one more deeply inter
ests every class aud condition of society.—