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"WILLI &.M ! YOU'RE TOO LATE.''
(The New York Herald's cartoonist gives his idea of the situation in the Philippines.)
8 CHINA TOTTERS §
8 TO HER FALLo
Q England Accuses Li Hung Chang O
© of Being Bought With O
X Russia's Gold. x
The friction between England and
Russia, arising from the attitude as
sumed by the Chinese Government in
regard to railroad concessions in the
Celestial Empire, has become the all
absorbing topic of the hour among
foreign diplomats. In view of the
large American interests in the Far
East the trend of affairs is also being
closely followed in this country. At
the close of the war between China
and Japan, England and Russia, both
wctchful for an opportunity to increase
their power in the Chinese realm,
stepped in and gained control through
"leases" over the territory which had
been occupied by the Japanese troops.
Russia took Port Arthur and the sur
rounding country on the north of the
Gulf of Pe-Chi-Lie, while England
acquired control of Wei-Hai-Wei, on
the south of the gulf.
EMFEROR OF CHINA.
At the present time there is only
one railroad in Chiuu, which was built
by Li Hung Chang, aud is under the
control of the government. The
trouble now threatening between
England and Russia has arisen
through the repudiation by China of a
contract with the Hong Kong and
Shanghai Rank to build a road from
Tientsin via Shan-Hai-kwon to New-
Chwang. The bank is owned almost
entirely by English capitalists, al
though a few Americans hold stock in
it. The proposed new road was an
important part of the railroad system
under development in China.
The Empress Dowager of China
has openly relieved the Emperor of
all real power. The Ministers take
their instructions directly from her,
aud Li Hung Chaugpractically super
sedes the Tsung-li-Yamen.
It is rumored that Sir Claude Mac
donald, the British Minister, before the
Tsung-li-Yamen accused Li Hung
Chang of betraying China to Russia;
and it is said that Li Hung Chang has
threatened to demand the recall of Sir
~W '' '
THE TBUNG-LI-YAMEN—THE STATE DErARTJIENT AT TEKIN.
Li Hung Chang is thus once more
in power, acting as Chancellor directly
under the Empress Dowager. This was
brought about through the weakness
of the Emperor, who is recognized as
unlit to deal with largo matters of
state. The Empress Dawager, who
is a very able woman, convinced him
that he must retire Weng, who for
several years had been the head and
front of the party opposed to all for
eign reforms and improvements.
Foreigners and the Progressive
party of Chinese are delighted. No
more radical or necessary first step to
ward progress could have been taken.
The.Emperor has at last been made to
see this old fossil in his true light,
and has rid himself of his "Old Man
of the Sea." The Manchus, many of
them, sympathize with Weng, and are
fearful less this dismissal means
With Weng out of the way, the Em
press Dowager had no difficulty in re
gaining her old place as real ruler of
the eighteen provinces. All the pro
vincial Governors and Viceroys, as
well as government officials ranking
higher than Taotai, are commanded to
memorialize her, thanking her for the
office they hold. She has already
shown her favor to Li Hung Chang,
aud he is in power again as virtual
ruler of the Tsung-li-Yamen. It must
give old Li much satisfaction to thus
prevail ever Weng, who clamored lor
Li's head during the Chinese-Japanese
One weak man in the Cabinet is
Wang, who has been called from the
Chihli Viceroyship. Prince Kung on
on his deathbed stipulated that Wang
should succeed him in the Cabinet.
Wang is dull, ultra conservative, and
smokes too much opium, but he is old
and cannot last long.
The resurrection of Viceroy Li has
I aroused the British in China, who see
in it another trick taken by the
Russians. Li, who was once the
strongest friend of England, is now
doing everything in his power to help
The Empress Dowager of China,
Tsou Hsi, is a woman of force. She
is sixty-four years old, but she is the
Chinese exemplar of the new woman.
For nearly forty years hers has been
the most powerful influence in the
The Emperor Kouangsu is the Em
press Dowager's adopted son. After
her own son's death slio took up
Kouangsu and (rained hiin so that she
could keep him under her thumb.
The Emperor is twenty-six years old
to-day, so that his open deposition
from real power is aleft-lianded birth
day present from his dear adopted
For many years she has been re
ceiving birthday presents which have
made her the richest woman on earth.
On each birthday the Chinese- people
have poured riches into her lap. Dur
ing the war with Japan it was hinted
to the Dowager Empress that the
people needed all the money they had;
that perhaps she might be pleased to
refuse the usual presents. She com
Li Hung Chang, who was so popular
in New York, has always found his
firmest friend and most generous pa
tron in the Dowager Empress. Once
in a while she has been mad at him
and taken away his peacock's feather
or his yellow jacket, but he soon had
it again, and her favor. So that usu
ally, when all went well with Li Hung,
it proved that the Dowager Empress
was supreme. Rarely has the young
Emperor tried to demonstrate his man
hood and really be Emperor. Then Li
Hung Chang was in trouble, but it
never lasted long, for the Dowager Em
press put her thumbs down on her
stepson just as she has done now.
The Tsung-li-Yamen is the Chinese
Foreign Office. The only thing to be
compared to it in this country is the
Department of State. It is stated that
Tsou Hsi has lately been filling the
Tsungli-Yamen with weaklings to make
it easier for him to boss the Tsung-li-
It must have been a vory pretty quar
rel between Sir Claude Macdonald,
backed by England, and Li Hung
Chang, with the Dowager Empress be
"You sold China to Russia!"
"I'll have you recalled!"
While all the weaklings of the
Tsung-li-Yamen trembled in their
British subjects can travel entirely
around the world without leaving the
I VICEREINE OF INDIA. I SS
$ LUCK OK THE CURZONB.
The first American woman to become
a real Queen is the daughter of a for
mer dry-goods clerk.
She will rule more than 400,000,000
of people. She will occupy an official
position higher than any woman of this
nation has ever attained.
She has mounted to her proud place
on a foundation of dry goods and Chi
cago real estate, but she is worthy of
George Nathaniel Curzon, who mar
ried Miss Mary Leiter, of Chicago, lias
been made Viceroy of India, the high
est administrative office in the gift of
the British Crown. Before the vision
of the Hon. Mrs. George Nathaniel
Curzon there opens a vista of surpass
ing richness and promise.
Her husband will be created a peer
of the realm before he goes to india.
There he will be Vice-King and his
wife will be the Vice-Queen.
It is quite true this American woman
will act for Queen Victoria, Em
press of India, in ruling over the
largest and most important possession
of the British Empire. She will sit
on a throne aud none will be too great
to bow before her.
Mrs. Curzon, to whom a daughter
has just been born, is thirty-one. She
has great beauty, $5,000,000 as a
dowry and a young husband who is
already one of the great men of his
nation. Surely her career is enough
to turn the head of most women.
Her positiou is fixed for all time. In
GEORGE X. CURZON, THE NEW VICEROY OF INDIA. AND HIS WIFE, FORMER
LY MISS LEITER, OF CHIOAOO-rALACE OF THE VICEROY AT CALCUTTA
WHERE THIS AMERICAN (.URL WILE PRESIDE.
India she and her husband will occupy
a palace of the blood royal. In Eng
land she if upon the highest pinnacle.
Thirty years ngo the father of this
American queen was selling calico and
stockings over a counter in Chicago.
He saved one-half that he earned. Ho
invested and saved all that he made
until ho had a fortune.
When he gained wealth his wife
fought as hard for social recognition
as her husband had to make money.
She struggled in Chicngo and made
little headway. Hhe went to Wash
ington and resumed the light there
and succeeded. What matter if she
was called the Mrs. Malaprop of Wash
ington. She was a force, although to
this day her sway is disputed.
But there is no disputing the power
of her daughter. She lias taken a
foremost place in the most exclusive
society in the world. She has now
become the arbiter of the fate of
American women seeking recognition
abroad. By a mere word the daugh
tor of Levi Z. Leiter can gaiu royal
recognition for other American wo
men, or she can, if she chooses, deny
such recognition to them. She can
make Mrs. Potter rainier, her
mother's ancient social enemy, knock
in vain at the portal of European
Courts even after having conquered
the 400 and Newport.
Mrs. Curzon was Miss Mary Vir
ginia Leiter, the eldest child of Levi
Z. Leiter, and the sister of Joseph
Leiter, who was king of wheat a few
months ago and who lost something
like $18,000,000, of which his father
has had to pay about half, the other
representing the profits of the deal at
Mrs. Curzon has lived more in
Washington and in Europe than she
has in Chicago. Her marriage to
George Nathaniel Curzon, who has
been looked upon as the coming man
in the Tory party for several years,
was a great social event, although it
did not attract as much attention as
some other international marriages.
It was generally aocepted that Mr.
Curzon hoped some day to become
Prime Minister of England and that it
was his wife who influenced him in
deciding to accept the high place of
She will occupy the highest place
socially of auy woman in India, be
cause she will directly represent the
Queen. She will hold court, reoeive
native princes and be virtually queen
of 400,000,000 people.
fhe Flint I'oatofHcci.
The first postofHce was opened in
Paris in 1462, in England in 1581, and
in America ip 1710.
A French writer attributes the
grace of the Spanish women to the
fact that many of them are taught
UNIQUE FIRE ENGINE.
London ]■ Ualnjc One Whose Motive Power
The motive power of this engine is
gasoline, as the picture plainly indi
cates, the engine itself is very differ
ent from the machine that is ordi
narily in use for the purpose. It is
more compact and powerful, two im
provements that will be very weloome.
In the rear of the engine, and within
LONDON'S PECULIAR FIRF. ENGINE.
the railing, is the fire hose on the
reel of the usual pattern. Thus the
engine and hose cart are in one. With
this most up-to-date of fire engines
there is a contrivance which will reel
or unreel the hose, action being re
gulated by a lever close to that which
operates the engine itself. This is
one of the features which firemen find
great cause for enthusiasm. In fact,
the London fire fighters, who are con
sidered fully equal to the bravest and
best, even as good as the firemen of
the United States, thiuk that the reel
feature is the point par excellence of
Generally the engine is supposed to
carry live men, but this number can
be increased if desired, as the addi
tional weight of a larger crew would
have no appreciable effect upon the
j speed, which is anywhere from twelve
to twenty jniles an hour. Two of the
firemen stand on the footboard of the
engine, which makes the entire cir
cuit. The contrivance being of au
elongated nature. The fifth man is
the pilot. He stands within the rail
and by means of a wheel laid flatwise
upon an iron bar steers the queer
machine. There is the usual head
light for use at night, located directly
forward of the wheel bar.
A "Ileal Ditiißliter" Gets Her Spoon.
A few days ago there was forwarded
to Phoebe Bayard Chapter, Daughters
of the American Revolution, at Greens
burg, Westmoreland County, Penn.,a
massive souvenir spoon that brought
joy to tho heart of Mrs. Margaret C.
Craig, of New Alexandria, who is a
member of Phoebe Bavard Chapter.
The spoon, in accordance with the cus
tom of the order, was sent because
Mrs. Craig had been accepted by the
national society at Washington as a
"real daughter," she being the daugh
ter of General Alexander Craig, who
rendered distinguished services to his
country during the revolution.
MBS. M. C. CRAIG, "REAL DAUGHTER"
OF THE REVOLUTION.
Mrs. Craig is in her ninety-fifth year.
The committee of ladies which had
the honor of conveying to her the sou
venir spoon found her on the Craig
farm, in the same house where her re
volutionary father left her sixty-two
years ago. Every year of her long life
has been spent under this roof.
General Alexander Craig, the dis
tinguished head of the family, father
of our "real daughter," was born No
vember 20, 1755; served through the
revolution, and died Ootober 29, 1832.
There are eleven oities in the world
with a population of over 1,000,000.
They are London, Paris, Berlin, New
Yori, Chicago, Philadelphia, Pekin,
Vienna, Tokio, Canton and St, Peters*
IFOR FARM AND GARDEN. C
Cows Eating Straw.
Wherever much grain is grown, and
the grain is stacked in the barnyard,
it is necessary to build a stack around
it to keep cows from eating it. Freshly
threshed straw, even when all the
grain is out, is palatable to cows at
this season of the year. But they
iilionld be kept from it if the milk
yield is to be maintained. Even a
little straw will dry off the cow very
fast, and if grain is fed with it, the
effect will only be to fatten the cow
rather thau to keep up the milk
Flax Grown With Other Grain.
Under some conditions it may be
advisable to grow Wax with other
grain. Flax is a very exhaustive crop
but in this fact lies the advantage
when grain is sown on very rich land
in mixing some flaxseed with it. If
the flax is not grown the grain will
grow too rank a straw, while with the
llax to help exhaust the superfluous
fertility there is less danger of this.
There will be more of the grain grown,
while all the flaxseed that is harvested
will be so much clear gain. Barley is
one of the best grains to grow with
flat, as both are ready to cut at the
same time. But both should be very
lightly seedod if clover seed is sown
the same spring, else there will be a
poor catch of clover.
Stacking: in the Field.
When drawing in grain after the
bams are all filled it is often a great
rionvenience to build a stack of grain
in the field and leave it there until
threshing time. It will make some
extra labor in threshing, but at this
time labor is not so valuable as it is
at harvesting time. In fact, stacking
in the field may be the only means of
securing the crop of fields distant from
the farm. In winter some stock may
be kept around the stack, and grain
or hay brought from the barn to feed
them there. This will save drawing
manure, and the stock may be kept as
warm by cutting holes through the
stack as if it were kept in the barn.
In fact, the stack-fed animals are
likely togo through the winter with
inure gain at less expense than any
Fining anil Firming.
Lack of thoroughness in these is
perhaps responsible for more poor
crops than all other causes over which
man has control. Five out of every
six farmers stop too soon aud call it
"good enough." The soil must be
made tine and well compacted for best
results to follow. Either alone is not
sufficient. The middle of the road is
compact, but not in condition for a
good seedbed, for cohesion has taken
place between the particles of earth, a
thing which should not occur in the
Wheat field. On the other hand, a
light, friable soil may plow up perfect
ly tine like an ash heap, yet will re
quire much harrowing, rolling aud
tramping before it is right to seed.
The soil must be reduced to small par
ticles and these pressed close together
when not wet enough to cause them
to adhere cue to another. Thus the
ground will be solid enough so the
horses' hoofs will not sink far into it,
yet porous enough for the little wheat
loots to readily penetrate by pressing
close against the soil particles, and
the thousands of little pumps will
draw moisture from below, where the
"bin bore" pumps formed of clods
would fail to "suck." Clayey soils
plowed sometimes become too hard,
too much like the middle of the road,
and require to be thoroughly loosened
with cultivator or disc before a good
seed-bed can be secured. Nothing
better for the purpose than a good
tiding cultivator with plenty of team
attached. It pays, as a rule, to put «t
least as much work on the wheat
ground as would be required to raise
a crop of corn. Of course, some sea
sons and soils require more work thau
Ie to Cut (ir»Kn for Hay.
No ' ,'t and fast rule can be laid
down as to the proper time for fitting
grass for hay; but it may be safely
asserted that grass is nearly nl ways
cut at a period when it has lost much
of its succulent and nourishing qual
ities. That is, it is a common failing
with farmers to let their grass get too
ripe. The reason- for this in most
cases is that the heavy pressure of farm
work at this season makes it an easy
matter for the farmer to lie deluded
into the belief that a few more days of
postponement will cot make much
difference. Another reason is that the
grass in some fields does not mature
evenly,and while there may bo patches
of young green grass, other parts will
be turning yellow. Should the whole
field be sacrificed for these few patches
Now it is a demonstrated fact that
stock and cattle fatten much more
quickly on grass or hay that is cut
just prior to the stage of complete
maturity. It is the young grass of
early spring that makes stock look
sleek and fat,and which adds strength
and milk to the cows. After "haying
time," the stock put to grass rarely
make any great gain. A cow in the
August pasture is not worth nearly as
much as a cow in a June pasture.
These observations should lead one
to cut the grass for hay earlier,- even
if other pressing farm work must be
postponed. The proper time to cut
griss is when it reaches its fullest
growth, but before the animals fail to
relish it. Usually this means that the
grass must be cut before it has
headed. To many this may seem like
inviting waste, for the crop certainly
would not weigh as vucli per acre;
but on the other hand all that *s cut
is nutriment. It is doubtful if the
plants add anything more after this
period that is at all beneficial.—Hay
Commercial Apple Grafting.
Nurserymen never use two-year-old
roots for grafting if one-year-old can
be obtained. At lifting time all appta
seedling roots are assorted into three
lots. No. 1 contains all roots 1(5 inches
long and 3-16 in dinmeter at collar.
No. 2 all broken roots and less than
3-16 diameter that will make one
graft. No. 3 all refuse roots. No. 1
will make more grafts per 1000 roots
than No. 2, but tbe last will grow a
larger per cent, of those planted for
there will be more collar grafts in
those made from No. 2 than No. 1, as
root and scion will unite better at
collar than below.
Double worked trses are hardier
than simple root grafts. That is,
hardy trees root-grafted and top
worked, as for instance Duchess,root
grafted in the ordinary manner and
then used for a stock upon which to
graft a tender variety, as maiden
blush. Simple top-working a seedling
will not increase hardiness, for only
comparatively few seedlings are hardy.
Scions should be put away full length
as cut from the tree, for there is less
liability to become dry. When ready
to graft, cut with slope and_ tongue
ready to tit together, from 10*0 to 300
scions; cut them 5 to 6 inches in
length and throw out oa the table.
Trim all sidrf roots from a root; cut
slope ami tongue at collar; select a
scion as near us possible the same size
as the root, crowd theui together
closely and cut off the root 2 inches
in length. Repeat till the root is used
up. For tieing use No. l(i tidy cot
ton, drop a ball into hot grafting wax.
A long scion and short root is best,
for then the joint is well below ground
and the scion will throw out more
roots. North of 40th parallel 75 per
cent, of the seedlings will winterkill
the first winter, hence the necessity of
having the scion rooted. —American
If there is any one part of the farm
that is neglected in the summer iime,
when the rush of harvesting takes up
most of the time and attention of all,
it is the pasture fields. While there
may be some little excuse for this on
large grain farms, it can hardly be
overlooked on a dairy farm, where
grass and green pasture are the chief
dependencies for success. The im
provement of pasture tields is a crying
1 need on many old places. As a rule,
the roughest and most sterile tields
are given over to pastures, audit is
not giviug a cow a fair show to make
her pick up a living on land that
would not produce anything else.
This is often the case, however, and
then we blame the cow for not giving
more milk. Half the fault against our
dairy cows can be traced to improper
feeding. Because a cow has a largo
field or meadow to graze in it does not
follow that she ought to give a large
flow of milk. A much smaller piece
of land would produce much better
results if the pasture was rich and
well cared for.
* It is all right to give cows for pas
ture the roughest and rockiest part of
the farm, for naturally one does not
select that portion for plowing under
other crops. Hut it is the part of wis
dom to bestow a little care upon such
fields to improve them each year. A
few days labor devoted to the pasture
fields every season will surprise the
owner in the results five years later.
First, here are rocks and stones that,
can gradually be carried off the field
and piled up. Clearing the pasture
field in this leisurely way will yield its
reward some day, when it is found de
sirable to cultivate the meadows or
hillside for orchard or field crops.
Along with this work should go
that of clearing the land of wild berry
bushes, brush, roots and weeds. The
roots once taken up will kill the
bushes and trees for good and so with
the weeds. See that they are rooted
up and not simply cut off. Noxious
weeds prevent grass plants from grow
ing, and generally they harbor para
sites aud rusts of grain which may
spread to the cultivated fields any
day and do a great amount of damage.
This work of clearing the pastures of
foreign growths is very important at
this season of the year, when weeds
are about ready to produce their
seeds. One plant destroyed root and
branch now may prevent the growth
of 50 next summer. So it is wise to
begin at once, for every year that the
work is postponed the pasture field
degenerates so much more.
While engaged in this work of de
struction it be well to recon
struct, too. Plant a few shade trees in
the most convenient places of the field
and if necessary for their protection
fence thorn in until they attain a good
growth. Years later they will be ap
preciated by both man and beast.
Wheu the weeds are pretty well rooted
out, it will pay to sow the field in the
fall with grass seed, spreading it
thinly around to reinforce the old
Farm an<l Garden Not ex.
Keep your dust box full of dry dust
aud keep it where the hens can get at
it at will.
Sound, sweet feed, plenty of grit,
freedom from lice, pure water. These
are the requirements to maintain good
health in chicks from healthy stock.
Let fowls have free run of the clover
field two or three times a week, turn
ing them into it during the later part
of the day, but never after a rain or
in the early morning when the dew is
on the grass.
Dry sand has been found the best
material for putting in henhouses, as
with that the manure mixes without
caking tip, but where such sand is not
to be easily obtained dry loam or road
dust is an excellent substitute.