Republican news item. (Laport, Pa.) 1896-19??, July 21, 1898, Image 8

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■erlous Work of Feeding: an Army The
Problem of Fresh Breed—How the Sol
diers Health !• Guarded-Tbe Company
Uncle Sam's soldiers are
the best fed and cared for troops in the
world. The facilities for securing pro-J
visions, even on forced marches, are
such that the commissary department
has little trouble in supplying the
troops wiih a varied and palatable bill
of fare. I
The greatest tests in the matter of
food .supplies during the past two de
cades have been to secure and trans-,
port provisions to the little bands olj
cavalry and infantry engaged in keep-j
ing down Indian depredations in the
west. It was during these expeditions
that the equipment of the commissary)
department has been perfected, until
to-day each company carries in a small
space all the necessaries of a kitchen
and culinary department. This outfit
is one which never fails to interest
women visitors to encampments of
United States troops, and to win from
the housewife great praise for its sim
plicity and effectiveness.
Each company has its cook, usually
a fat and jolly member of the service,
whose headquarters are frequented
during all parts of the day by convivial
members of the company. The usual
habit of cooks to grow fat and good
Matured seems to be a rule of those
who serve in the army, as well as those
who are in civil life. The cook is a
regularly enlisted member of the army,
told off for his duties because of his
fitness for the part. He is allowed two
assistants, these being appointed by
the commander of the company for a
week's service in the cook's depart
ment, and being under his charge.
While they assist in preparing and
serving the food, the cook does tho ma
jor part of the work, and it is his taste
and skill which goes to make the
victuals served a factor in the health
and contentment of the corps.
The cook lias one small tent in
which are stored the extra provisions
and utensils needed. A large fly, with
poles and guy ropes, serves to shelter
the cooking apparatus and to form the
company's kitchen. Under it the stove
is placed. The latter is an oblong
metal affair, made on purpose for the
army, and having griddle holes for the
pots and pans. A ditch is scraped in
the earth, and on it the stove is placed,
leaving room underneath for the firo
of glowing weed embers. The cook is
an artist at making a fire in this trench
and in keeping It at an even heat. Var
ious folding chairs, tables improvised
of camp cliests and other things, serve
to make the necessary apparatus for
use in the kitchen. A dozen big ket
tles, boilers and pans are the utensils
Dinner, at noon, is the principal meal
of the day In camp life, and for an hour
before the kitchen presents a busy
scene. One assistant, with sleeves roll
ed up above the elbows, sits on a chest
peeling potatoes, a bushel or more be
ing necessary for the meal. Near him
the other assistant bends over a great
quarter of beef, carving out a supply
for the meal. The cook watches his
men while he attends the stove and be
gins preparations for the coming re
past. A huge boiler on one side of the
stove holds four gallons of fragrant
coffee, another boiler is filled with wa
ter to receive the potatoes, while in a
bright kettle on another part of the
stove the cook drops vegetables, rice
and other wholesome parts of soup and
waits for the assistant to finish carving
the meat that it may be added.
Soon the dinner is well under way,
and the cook and his assistants are
busy men. In addition to the hot parts
of the meal, there are to be taken from
the chests and served great loaves of
bread or hard tack. The bread problem
is a serious one on a march,or in camp,
and away from the cities, and while
the cook often has to prepare the corn
bread or other cereal himself, it is
brought into camp already prepared
whenever possible. A company of a
hundred men or more will eat a great'
quantity of the staff of life in a week,'
and hundreds of loaves are necessary. 1
There are other parts of the soldier's
meal to be fixed, if the company is
near civilization and provisions are
plentiful. Baked beans often appear on 1
the bill of fare, dried fruit, rice, hom
iny and other easily carried eatables,
and to prepare all these on the one
small stove and with only two assist-'
ants is an art that only an army cook
When the meal is ready and the
bugles blow to mess, the soldiers ar
range themselves in an orderly man
ner, and the cook and his assistants
start out. First the soup is ladeled out,!
then the more solid components of the
meal, then the coffee and then the
sweets, until all are supplied.
To such an extent does cleanliness 1
enter into the preparation of the eoiy
diers meal that the greatest precau-'
tlons are taken to exclude dirt. Care-;
fully the pots and pans are scrubbed!
brightly, the big knives and utensils 1
are polished and the refuse of the cook,'
tents is carried far off and dumped to!
prevent the contagion that might arise'
from decaying slops. The officers are.
vigilant in keeping watch on the cook
ind his assistants, as the health of the
:amp may depend on their careful:
cleanliness. ,
Each company has Its cook and mess,,
except where great armies are encamp-'
sd; then a number of cook departments!
ire thrown together to work in unison, i
Uncle Sam has all his cooking utensils 1
made to order, andrcheats are used to'
pack everything In when on the mand>.
A. Remarkable Compound Soon to be
tied in Oar \nv>.
It bas been remarked that gunpow
der is'to the gun what the soul is to
the body. It gives it life and makes
it of some account. It is the means lo
an end. Gunpowder drives the shot
that the man befliind the gun aims at
ihe enemy, and enables him, if he be as
skilful as most of the marksmen in
the United States Navy are, to demol
ish his target, whether it be a bird or
a man or a ship or a fort.
Ordinary gunpowder, the kind one
buys in a store, is a mechanical mix
ture of 75 parts of saltpetre, 15 parts
of charcoal and 10 parts of sulphur.
The properties such a mixture posses
ses may be altered to any desired ex
tent by changing these proportions;
the method of treatment also modifies
the character of the resulting powder,
and the size and shape of the grain
likewise influence the action of gun
To manufacture gunpowder quanti
ties of each ingredient are thoroughly
mixed in the proper proportions, in a
machine called a mixer; the composi
tion resulting from this is known aa
gree"n powder. Green powder must be
subjected to the incorporation process,
an extremely dangerous one, for it is in
the incorporating room that nearly all
powder mill explosions occur.
The green powder is put into a tub,
where heavy runners of three or four
tons weight grind it into a homogene
ous mixture. After incorporation the
"'mill cake," as it is called, is crushed
between gun metal rollers, then it is
subjected to differont treatment, ac
cording to the kind of powder to be
produced, whether grain, pebble or
prismatic. Granulated powder is the
ordinary grain gunpowder of com
merce. Pebble powder, or giant pow
der, or blasting powder—for all three
are practically the same—is quite like
grain powder, except that each grain
Is of the average size of a pebble. Pris
matic powder is the kind used in our
service to drive shot home, therefore a
short description of it may not be un
The powder charges for guns of the
United States Navy are made up of
hexagonal prisms of brown gunpow
der. Brown gunpowder contains usual
ly about 82 parts of nitre, three parts
of sulphur and fifteen parts of under
burned charcoal, which accounts for
the chocolate color of the powder.
Prismatic powder passes through the
same process as other powders, only
the grains are pressed into prisms by
hydraulic machinery instead of being
separated and glazed. The prisms thus
formed are one inch high and three
quarters of an\lnch on the sides; there-
Is a round hol£, half an inch in diame
ter, through the middle of each hexa
Smokeless powder is so called be
cause when exploded it produces no
smoke. As a matter of fact, however,
a light, thin, transparent, vapor is usu
ally seen, but it quickly disappears.
Smokeless powders, from the nature of
the ingredients employed in making
them, leave no residue when exploded,
the products of the combustion being
gaseous, whereas in ordinary gun pow
ders, whether black or brown, the
products are partly gaseous and partly
solid, the eolid parts being visible in
the deposit left in the bore of the gun.
In the bits of fire blown out of the muz-
Ele at the time of discharge and in tho
thick, heavy smoke that hangs about,
obscuring the view.
Japanese HIIIIIOM.
When a lioy baby comes to a Japan
ese family it is the invariable custom
to put a huge paper fish, resembling a
carp, on a bamboo pole outside the
door. This is dontf in the first month
of May after the boy's birth. The
carp is tho chosen emblem, because it
Is strong and hardy and is typical of
good luck. When the baby is a month
old it is presented at the temple and a
first name given it, the choosing of
which is novel. The father writes on
three Blips of paper different names.
The priest prays, tosseß the slips in the
air and the one first striking the floor
Is supposed to be especially favored by
the god of the temple, and is chosen.
When the Japanese baby is 3 years
old he begins to wear the obi or girdle,
which, confines the loose robe worn by
all Japanese and commonly called a
kimono. When the boy is 15 he is con
sidered of age, and a feast is held by
his relatives, another name is given
him and his head no longer shaved on
top. He is now a man and his rela
tives, even the nearest, in addressing
him, must now affix "San" to his name.
San corresponds to our "Mr." If his
name is Qmi he will hereafter be ad
dressed as Omd-san.
Even the tiniest, villages have their
toy shops, for Japanese children are all
liberally supplied with playthings. The
business of amusing children is a rec
ognized industry, and the street jug
glers, acrobats, singers and story-tell
ers make comfortable livings. In the
family the children are amused by
the father, who tells them stories of
Japanese 'heroes and warriors, or they
play cards. Sometimes they play a
game like checkers, in moves, but re
quiring 360 .pieces instead of twenty
four. Backcammon, theatricals and
kite-flying are also popular among
children. .When there is snow the
youngsters play just as our own chil
dren do. Ftootball, stilt-walking and
contests with'tops are in vogue.
New AolderlnK' I.i<juld.
A German has brought out a solder
ing liquid wrhttch is acid free. It is
made by dissolving 500 parts of zinc in
1000 parts of hjidrochloric acid and 500
parts of water. Wtoen the solution is
complete the aemaining free ac-ld ii
neutralised by J th® addition of atn
tnonia water. |
Some of the Moat Familiar Title*
unil Their Orlniii.
In the early days of the English na
val organizations vessels of war had
double crews, a military one for light
ing purposes and another of mariners
for navigating duties. In consequence,
a large number of English sea terms
have a military origin.
At that time the rank of admiral
was unknown, and the chief oUlcer of
ilie squadron was called a constable, or
justice. The term admiral as now
used is derived from ilie Arabic "amir"
or "emir," a commander (as in "Amir
al-Uahr," commander of the sea). Tho
early English form was "amiral," and
is still preserved as such by tho
The title of captain Is not a naval,
but a military one. Originally, the real
captain of a ship was a "master." A
military officer was placed on board,
though he knew nothing of nautical
matters. Gradually his importance in
creased, while that of the master di
minished proportionately till at the
present day the master's office is gradu
ally becoming obsolete. Commodore
comes from the Spanish "comendador."
The title of lieutenant is borrowed
directly from the French, and is meant
as a place holder, or one who took the
place of the captain when absent. In
former days there were no cadets but
volunteeers, but with the gradual ad
vance of politeness, the term cadet was
appropriated from the French.
"Boatswain" is derived from the
Saxon "swein," a servant. The term
quartermaster, as used in both the
army and navy, appears to be confus
ing and anomalous. In the army it Is
the title of a commissioned officer s \vho
performs important and responsible
duties. In the navy lie is simply a
warrant officer ili ecting subordinate
duties. In the old ships and in okl"n
times bis position was a more impor
tant one; so much so that he was con
sidered to be the fourth part of the
master -hence the term quartermaster.
The ship's cook was once a great
man and there are instances on record
of his being promoted for efficient pre
paration of food. The ship's steward
was originally the' caterer.
The terms larboard and starboard
come from the Italian "questra borda"
and "quella borda," which by rapid de
livery became starboard and larboard;
but owing to the strong similarity of
souml they were changed into star
board and port (Latin porto, to carry),
the use of the terms in the original
form having been the cause of many
Gangway has been handed down
from the days of tho ancient galley of
the Phoenicians, Carthaginians and
Romans, it having been a board which
ran along the whole length serving as
a passage for the rowers to and froia
their seats. It was also_used_&s__a
Dmi't Tuliari'o Spit iiml Smoke Your l.lf'c Away.
To quit tobacco easily and forever, be mag
netic. full or life, ln'rvo ami vigor, take No-To
liae, the wonder-worker, that makes weak men
strong. AH druggists, BOc or SI. Cure guaran
teed Booklet and wimple free. Address
Sterling Remedy Co , Chicago or New York.
<•>* ° • » * - .
%} Perhaps you have made "
M up your mind to take s'j;
! Scott's 1
I Emulsion I
C •
112) this summer. >♦>
I? Then look for feffrfo i ?
|? this picture on (|
17 the wrapper, a c
man with a big \\ 11 >|
<• 5 fish on his back. s|
| < Do not let anyone talk to \|J
<•7 you of something " just (
$> as good." <$
When you want cod
liver oil and the hypo- /<•>
112 S phosphites you want the )<§
!>/ very best. You will find \®
if? them in only one place, v|;
Scott's Emulsion. c|
There is no other emul- r|
®? sion like it; none other
iv does the same work ; and Sf
|.C no other has the same ? j
record of cures. Q®
Jp All Druggists, 50c. and sl.
(g)J SCOTT & lioU NK, Chemists. N'.V.
.. 11. Surwf Bmm Prico,lM.oo. Wng'oD. P Sendfor Urg. frn Ho.lMßtmj. Fiio«.wlth«iMlu.luipa,na.
A. good m Mill for |i& <-»t»logu« of *ll our «tyle« <b>d«. «proo »uj tuJui. SU. A>(MdMMlUkr|W.
When Ague
smites vou
you can. sl::;l;a tk< Ajjua by
AY!\.':; ,vr:! crUH. lC is the
or;*' c.-> t :;ii and hifaliib'.e cure for
t!iat depleting I>. hu* been
tri. I i:i v ri.M ami under
vario:: • v i never
bee •. ! uown to An old veteran
"You may be interested to know my ex
perience many years ago v, illi Ayer's Agua
Cure. The year before the war 1 was in
Kansas. Some twenty of us were engaged in
farming, and suddenly all were taken with
fever and ague. We tried almost everything
w tliout getting any help, till at last I seut to
the city and procured a bottle of Ayer's Ague
Cure. I recovered at once. The others fol
lowed my example, and they, too, recovered.
Every one in camp took the remedy and wan
cured by it.l went all through the war,
have lived'in thirteen different states of the
Union, and have never had the ague since."
O. 1). SMITH, St. Augustine, Kla.
There's otiiy one thing to get for ague:
Ague cure.
resting place for the mast and sail
when not In use.
The cockpit, in the lowest part of the
vessel below the water used during an
action for the treatment of the wound
ed, is derived from the old days of the
English sport of cock fighting; but this
has been modernized and is now known
as the "flats"—Why, no one can ex
Lubber is from the Dutch, meaning
a lazy, cowardly fellow.
Anchor came from the Latin "an
cliora," or "ancora," which up lo tiUO
B. O. consisted simply of a large stone
with a hole through it.
The peculiarity of so many portions
of a ship's rigging bearing names de
rived from the trappings of a horse
can only be accounted for front the
fact that the early warships were man
ned by soldiers as well as sailors, the
natural consequence being that they,
the sailors, adapted some of their
terms to meet their fancy, among these
being'bridles, whips, bits, stirrups, and
the like.
I'IIIIII Tree* of Clibat.
The little island of Cuba nearly
thirty different varieties of pa'm trees.
Chief among them is the royal palm, a
majestic tree with a straight trunk and
a bunch of plumelike leaves growing
out of the top, the lower one.; drooping
toward the ground. It is ;'ne most
common as well ais the most beautiful
trie in Cuba. It has been called the
blessed tree for its every part is use
ful. Its roots are made into medicines;
its trunk is easily split Into boards for
building. The trunk has no bark and
the inside is porou . the outer portion
being hard and nearly as brittle as
The center bud at the top of the royal
palm tree, from which all the leaves
grow, is a tender substance and is a
very pleasant food, whether eaten raw,
cooked as a vegetable or preserved
with sugar. The stems on the long
leaves are odd. They are semicircular
and embrace the trunk of the tree. The
stem is called the yagua and looks i!ke
a thin board, is often five or six feet
long and the natives make It serve
various purposes. Sections cut oil
serve as plates, or if soaked in warm
water it becomes pliable and may be
bent In any shape, afterward harden
lng. Sometimes when thus softened it
is folded at the ends like a baker's paper
hat, fastened with wooden pins and
■ervestheCuban farmer as a water buck
et, basinor pan. Sometimestheinsurg
ents use one of these improvised dishes as
a kettle in which to cook their beef
and yams. The water In the dish keeps
the wood front burning.
In times of peace the yagua or stem
of t'he palm leaf is used to cover bales
of tobacco. Set. on a frame It may form
a very good bed; again, tho yagua ii
usM as a tarpaulin or mackintosh. The
CuSan soldiers with a few leaves can
build tents for themselves.
■< Keep Cool! -
Window Screens, Poultry Netting
Hammocks, Porch Chairs $1.50 and up, Coal Oil
stoves of Nickless make, Gasoline Stoves.
HARVESTING TOOLS in abundance.
Brick for chimneys, always on hand. Nails, steel
cut, #1.45 per keg. Western Washer, best
made; Building paper, 35c per roll, 500 sq. feet;
Poultry Netting, 1 ft. to 6 ft. wide, 1-2 ct. sq. foot.
I Jeremiah Kelly,
Onr Declaration of War
Has been in effect for a number of
years and our
Bombardment of High Prices
Has created havoc of late in the sale of
all at the lowest cash price.
PHOSPHATE, ThiJty tons of different grades will be
sold at a low figure.
W. E. MILLER, Sullivan County, Pa.
We always carry out our promise* lo the very letter. Our promises to
the public is (o sell liigli grade merchandise at lower prices than any other
store in the country. Our constantly increasing business is proof. Positive
that our promises have always been kept we have determined that more
than ever we shall keep on increasing and increasing our reputation lor
being the greatest popular priced store in this section.
We give you special bargains in
SHOES and Ladies' Coats and
We have a very large stock on hand and will sell this month at cut
prices. It will pay you to make your purchase now. We have a full
line of Ladies' Slippers at bottom prices. Also Ladies' .Skirts, Wrappers,
Shirt Waists and Corsets. Prices chea|>er than you can buy the material.
Ladies' Capes at half price. Come and see them while they last; it will
l>ay you.
Come and see: it will be lo your benefit. The prices we are ottering
now when you see them yon cannot help buying.
I _ -.l* H/\« The Reliable Dealer in Clothing
jaCOP IWI Boots and Shoes.