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THE TIOG t CQt HTY AGITATiIW
t 8 runi,lanzu - niA CiItBDAT
VAN aEtbkeit r qk MITI HELL:
r. O. Van Gelder. Jno. 1. Slltebell.
lERNS OF EMBIPTION INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE
RATES OE OtkovEtrrisitra.
TEN Una OP MINION OR LENS, WARE ONE S•IIAEE
No. Sq'r.s.—. I I In. Ins I 4 Ins 1 • 3 3 . 10 a j 6 Mot? I 1 Yr
1 Squad, I StrOg I $ 2 . 00 $ 2 , 50 t6,00-I t 7,00 I si2.
2 Squares,— 1 2.00 1 8,00 1 4,00 1 8,00 1 12,00 I_lB,oo
Half IT4i, - 0115,001
One Cnr --- 1 15.00 1 25,00 1 30,00 1 45,00 1 - 65 - ,00 j 100.00
car Special ilist l icies:is ants pof ; Itn-;'Editortn7 or
Local 220 Cent! pill gni. • t '•
Transient ribiltils*itsi be paid:fel in aticumq. .
Justice iiialck"Caiisteadti- Bbitit,'Veeda, Juda ,
leant Notes, arringe Certilkcates, &c., on band.
lan Gelder & Mitchell,
Book, Plain and Fancy Job Printers. All work
promptly and neatly execdted.—Jan. 1, IS7Q.
Smith & Mem;kik,
y torneye & Counselors' at Law. Insurance,
onnty and Pension Agency, Wilco on Main
trcet, Welleboro,ya, opposite Union Muck.
Jan. 1. 1870. W. ii. SmiTu.'
• GEO. W. MERRieS.
BANKERS, Knoxville, Tioga, County, Pu.—
ReCeive Money on deposit, discount notes,
, and drisfte New: York City. Collect.
I ions promptly ratkdo.--Don. 1869-Iyo
l ino. W. Adams,
Attorney and Counselor at Law, Mansfield, 'Tie Mit
county, Pa. Colleetiontr, promptly ationtal
to. Jan. I, 1870. -
Jno. I. Mitchell,
Attorney and Counselor at Law, Claika, and In
surance Agent. Offioe over Kress' Drug Store,
adjoining Agitator office, Wolleboro, Pa.
- I%i & Niko - -
'Attorneys and deniiselo . is at Law: - Will attend
promptly to business entrusted to their care in
the counties of Tioga and Potter. Office on
the Avenue. Jan. ], 1870. .
[J . NILES.
John W. Guernsey, •
Attorney and Counselor at Ilaw. All business
entrusted to him will be promptly attended to.
Office 2d door south of..llazlett's Hotel ITioga,
Tioga County, Pa.—Jan. 1, 1370.
.Wm. B. Snipll
Pension, Bounty and Insurance Agent 'Com
munications ent to the above address will re
ceive prompt. attention. Terms moderate,
Knoxville, Pa.—Jan. 1, IS7O. ,
John C. Horton,
Attorney and Counselor at Law, Tioga t , Pa.—
Office with C. H. Seymour, Esq., Business at
tended to with promptness.—Jan 1. 1870.
W. P. Terbell 4t C
Wilolasalo Druggists, and dealers in Wall Paper,
Kerassina Lamps; WiriclOw Maas, Perfumery,
Paints, Oils, &c., &e.—Corning, N. Y. Jan. 1 '7O.
Dr. C. K. Thourro
Wollaboro, Pa., will attendlo.Prok,sional oath
0 in tho village of Wellsboto, • aild elsewhere.—
Oftloo and Residence on State St., 2d door to
right going east.—aan. 1, 1870.
• _D. Anon XL D.
Ohysicign and Surgeon. I Will attend promptly
to all calls. Office on-Grafton Street, In rear of
the Meat Market, Wellsbero.—Jan. 1, 1870.
E. S. Perkins, L D.,
Respectfully announces to the Citizens of East
Charleston and vicinity, that he would be grat e
fel for their patronage. Jan. 1, 1870.
A. M.' Ingham, M. D.,
Eivinoeopathist, Office at his Residence r.r. the
Avant:ie.—Jan. 1, 1870.
George Wagner, \ •
Tailor. Shop first door north of RdkoertF
ey'a Hardware Store. Cutting, Fitting and ite
pairing done promptly and' ZN cll.—Jan. I, 1870.
Tailofitnil Cutter. Shop opposite Danes Car l .
nage Shop, Main Si.,here he is prepared to
work promptly and neat.—Jap. 1870.
Thomas B. Dryden,
enrreyor and Draftsman. Orders left at bis
room, Townsend Roue°, Wollsboro, wit!' meet
with prompt attention.—Jun. 1, MP.
R. E. - Onley,
Dealer In Clocks and Jewelry, Silver and Plated
Ware, Spectacles, Violin Strings, Sc. :hatch•
es and Jewelry 'neatly repaired. Engraving
done in plain En gliett and UOrwrin,—.Aliinstieltl,
Jan. I, 187 u.
Westfield, Pa., GEO. CLOSE, Pruprictar. A new
llotel «inducted on the principle of live and
let live, for the aceomtuodnii 9'l of the public.
Jan. 1, 1870.
Tic'Ela,Tioga-County, Pa. Guud stoibliogettaell.
ed. and an attentive hostler always in attend.
anon. Geo. W. Hazlett, Prop'r.--Jan. 1, 1370.
We.ttiell Borough, Ituga Cu., Pa. E.. 0.
Proprietor. 'A new uud commodious building
kith all thi2o Modern ituprovttueLts.
easy drive (ut the beet huntiug, and fishing
Grounds inl- - Northern Peun'a. Convey.tnces
furnished. Terms moderate,—Jan. I, 1870,
Tllga, Pa, E. M. Smith, Proprietor. House in
good condition to aCo• ) MTilotiato the traveling
public in a superior manner.—Jan. 1, 1870.
Babinsrille, Tina Co , Pa., J. B. Benn,'Prop'r.
Good entertainment for man and beast. Con.
xanient to the best fishing grounds. Parties
acdbmmodatod with'conroyances.—Jan. 1, '7O.
Dealer In Vermont and Italian Barbie, mnnu
facturer of .41ouurnente, Ttomb• S tones, 3.c., e‘,r
ner Market and Cedar Ste.. Corning, Y. All
orders promptly and neatly executed, .An
drea Van Dusan, Agent.—Jan. 1, 1870,
Union- Hotel, ) 1
Miner Watkins, Proprietor. Tho traveling pub
will find ,this a cotnfortiblo end convenient
houea to Mop at. Good 'tabling, and an at
:entire hosti,-r. Jan. 1. IS7O.
T'3C-I t 3M G3M331/1 .!
51:. M. SEARS, PROPRIF.7OR.
WuERr, delicious lee Crearn,..lrenth Co t ,
fectionary, all kinds of fruits in their
Lesson, a nice dish of Tea, Coffee, or Chocolate.
and Oysters in their season—can ho had. at rot
hours, served in the ben style. Nest door tit
low Roberts & Bailey's Hardware Store,. Mali.
Street. ' .
Wallsboro, Jan. 1, 1870.
lIARKNESS ~C RILEY,
BOOT',AND . ISHOE ICE'', S.
Ozer et" Van Vabienbury'o Storeju
roonsiateiy occupied by Muj, Seetfy.
B oors AND StIOES of all kinthEaude to
order an,d in the boot wanner.
Itgi'AtlliNG)f all kinds donepromptly and
good. Give ns a call.
JO UN' /TAR k NES
WM. RE [LEY.
Wellsboro, Jan. 1, 1 8 70.-13. I
E. R. ICDIBAT,t, • ./ .„ t !
GROCERY AND RESTAURANT;
• One door above the Meat Market,
ItNSPEbTFULLY announces to the trading
public that he has a desirable stock of' fir -
series, comprising, Teas, Coffees, Spices, Su'zars,
Molasses, Syrups, 'and all that Constitutes a first
class stock. Oysters in eivety style at all sea
4 17 allebno,:an. 1, 181041. --
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4145 r 4
Po of E enitte•i
tf "i t
Boauty and Elasticity of tt jab. • -
Perfection and bimplieity oi 'Machinery.
Using both threads directly from tho spools.
No fastening of senpis hy . ,nand and im waste
' 'Wide range of appliCatiOn..withotit change of
The seam retains its beauty and firmness af
ter washing and ironing.
Besides doing all kinds of work done by Other
Sewing Machines, these Machines execute the
most beautiful and permanent Embroidery and
ornamental work. .
•2•' ' „ •
fal - The highest Premiums at all the fairs
and exhibitions of the United States ana
Europe, have been awarded the Ural:el' &Baker
Sewing Machines, and the wurk.dono by them,
.pr• The very highest prize, TIIE CROSS
.1:1111; LEUION t./1 11.01sWit, was conlerreu
OP toe represeutatiy,e of,zlte , Grover Baker
Sewing Machines, at the Exposition Universelle,
earls, 1867, trait attestiu& their great superior
ity over all other Sewing ' Machines
Jun. 1, 1870-tf.
CITY ROOK BINIMItY
BLANK BOOK 31ANU1 ACTORT,
8 B a ldwin St.root,
cSIGN OF THE BIG BOOK, 21.) FLoon.,)
OUR MOTTO :
GOOD AS VIE BESTy-CHEAP AIIe I TIIE CHEAPEST
Of ovary description, in all styles of Binding,
and as low, for q uality of Stclek, as any Bindery
in the State, Volumes of,. every description
Bound in the best manner and in any stylo or
ALL KINDS OF GILT WORK
Executed in tho best manner. Old IlGokr re
bound and made good as new.
p?,wy 4 N
I nm Of:Oared to furnish back nutabers of all
Reviews or Magazines published in the United
States or Ureat Britain, at a low price.
BLANK BOOK & OTHER PAPER,
Of all sires and qualities,on hand, ruled or plain
DILL HEAD PAPER,
Of any quality or size, on hand and cut up ready
for printing. Also, BILL PAP.I,IIt, and CARL)
BO.A.Itb oi_ all colors and quality, in boards or
car t!ci any slit. - -
Calf, Letter,' Note Paper, Envelopes,
- 'Tam solo agcnt for .
Prof. SHEPARD'S NON-CORROSIVE STEEL
' PENS, Of VARIOUS SIZES, Pon 1.41)1118
Which I will warrant equal . to Gold'Prne,, The
beet in use and no mistake.
. Tho above stock I will soli at the Lowestliates
at all times, at a small advance on New YorE
prices, and in quantities to snit purchasers. All
work and stock warranted as represented.
I respectfully solicit a share al public patron
age. Orders by mail promptly attended to,—
Address, LOUIS KIES,
Jau. 1, Elmira, N.Y.
waLErri & LATIMOP. •
. DE.A.LERS 11.4 •
HARDWARE, IRON, STEEL, NAILS
Carriage and Harness
HARNESSES, SADDLES, &c.
Corning, N. Y., Jai. 2, 1870-1y.:1
New Tobacco Store !
rrIBE subsoribe'r has fitted up the Store fir,
deor.oa:t Unarms I.lnrden's dry goods store
1.,r the wanufacturo" and rate of
CIGARS, (all grades), Fancy and Como'
SMOKING TUBACG'o,Alieleiyan Fine Cu
CHEWING, and all kircls of
PLUG — TOBACCO, PIPES, and thechoi
vest Biattd of CIGARS.
„7.2.1 Call and ,?oo for yoursclvei.
JOHN IV. PURSEL
Wall-boro,.,tan. 1, 1870—tf.
PILE undersigned has fitted up iye old Fon:/-
dry building, near the Brewery-, Wellsboro,
and I, now prepared to turn out fine calf, hip,,
cowhide, at,d harness leather in the best man
ner. Rides tanned on shares. Cash paid for
hides. M. A. DURIF
Wel'shore, Jan. 1,18;0.
Great Improvement in Densistry
HAVING purchased the exclu
sive right of Dr. Folsom's Im
proved patent Atmospheric Dental
Plates for Tioga County. I now take pleasure
in 'otToring it to the public as the greatest tits-
COVERT yet made in
By the use of which, we can overcame any any
and all difficulties which have heretofore baffled
the skill of the most practical Dentist iti tie
world. Plata constructed upon this plan re
main perfectly firm under nil circumstances or
condition of the month; as no air, or particles of
food can possibly get urn der them. Those having
old styles, , Gold or Rubber Plates, can, at half
the cost, have the Improvement applied to them
answering in every respect the same purpose as
as a now set. Perfect sotiefactien guaranteed
in every case. C. N. DARTT, Dentist.
Wellsbitro, Jan. 1, 1869.
This certify that we are now acing the Improvi
ed Dental Plates with perfect satisfaction.' jraylng,
need the oil style of plates for years with all thetroubles,
awl incorm,niences known in the use °rand! plates,
weehreifnliy recnmraend the, improved Plates as far
superior tesnyth!ny yet known. E.ll. KIMBALL.
CHAS. WILL:IA 31S•
J. BURGIN would say to tha citizens of
11.boro ar.4 vicinity that he is:pre.
pfired to supply them with
BREAD, PIES AND CAKES:
of the best iquality. We also serve meals to
those who wi.A. OYSTERS always on band,
(or salo, and served if desirM. Call at the old
Steven-54 •lid• J. J. ft Erit3ll7.
Feb 9, 1870-Iy.
NORWAY OATS FOR EED !
T HAVE twenty-five •bembels of the ganuin , s
1 Ramsdell Norway oats. beihg part of-fifty
bushels raised -from ono bushel The
seed .from which the above oats were rafted,
was bought in New York • City from the • sole
agents of the genuine Ramsdell Norviay-Oals.—
Price. $5 per bushel. Address,
Feb. 10. , V7astioro,•Pa.
WM. 11. ARNIM - 119110. BAUVIII, LINRj
t , 'J
,wl7l' - ti
'-' ol ta' 472 -YS , AT - TANG P ,
WILLiOXSP ' Orq,iP4ItN4.r
Aug. 4,1869.1 y.
TIUCA URDU STOREI
.).nordisirr keeps constantly on
`Pnin Drugs and Bledicin'es,
Chemicals, Paints and Oils, Lamps,
Stationary, Yankee Notions ho.
PRESCREPTIONA CAREFULLY COMPOUNDED.
; :',11:q1; IIoRDE4i.
, 'Bogs; Jan. 2, •
1870 FOR • SALE.. 1870;
(formerly B. C. Wiekhata's Nursery) •
A.T MS NURSERY OF FRUIT AND OR
' NAM ENTAL TREESAIT . TIOO A
. . ,
60,000 Apple Trees,
, 10 000.- Pear Trees. '
A gcod supply of PLUM, PEACH, CHERRY.
andORNAMENTAL TREES d SHRUBBERY
TheFrait trees are composed of the choicest
varieties, good, healthy, some 9 k 'horn large and
in bearing. Any ono wishing Co get a supply
will do well to call and see my stock before pur
amain* elsewhere., gist- Delivered at the depot,
! Welishoro, EfatisfieldiLawrencevllle and Blois
'bUrg,- free of elfarge. All orders promptly filled.
Address, T. B. STONE,
Tiega, Dee. 8, .14 6 871.37:- • ;
f .PiNfilittliit :WINTER 1
gilrli- - . i .414 don't neglect to secure
76:4=15, 2 i• - . ' •Ji - first class
. CIUTTER I ' OR SLEIGH.
ri. W. DARTT, has on hand the latest, styles
and will make to order and warrant to suit. All
kinds of REPA 'WINO done at the shortest no
tice. • Also,. i . ' - r
Iron W k and - floi§O'4lkoeirtg,
. . .
Please call and examine and be convinced
that better workmanship or. material is not fur
nished elsewhere at mere reasonable prices.
Main Street; Wellsbriro, Pa. • • .
Nov. 24, 1869.-44, . fl. W. DARTT. .
Get the Illest!••
Mrs. A. J. SOFIELD, ie agent for that gti
perlor BEWINGi MACHINE, the •
WILEaOX & GIBBS,
Which orerytiody Hires who tries it. It is a beau
tiful Machino,'rievor gets out of: order with fair
usage, sews rapidly and strong stitch, and is
pH - Machines rented by the week.
Nov. 17, 1869-tf. Mrs. A J. SOFIELD.
• r , WELLSBORO, PA.
, „ r
• if-r, '. ' litlDlttW POLEY,
? . .- 1
=- '4. ,
• .-,,,.,..: lished in the Jewelry bug
` i ' l --, ':' \`: ''.:';'%• 'Tr nees' in Wellsboro, bas al
•i'' 1 --,V •
_ . P,. „42. , , _ ways ,on Bain, VATIOLIS ,
S : r:l4ll 4 e -- 1-. 4 kinds and 'prices of
. B--- r:---,•- 7 _
GOLD OR I SILVER. CLOCKS, JEWEL
RY, GOLD CHAINS, KEYS, RINGS,
PINS, PENCILS, CASES, GOLD &
STEEL PENS, THIMBLES, -
SPOONS, RAZORS, PLA
With most other articles' sually kept in suet
establisbniisrit, which iseeld low for •
Repairing done neatly, and promptly, and on
short NOTICE. A. FOLLY.
January 5, 1870-Iy.
WICKHAM & FARWS,
can same a good pereentage.'ae we must snake
C A S
AND ' .
room for other
G 0 - O._ .10 S.
Jan. 5; 11369-tf.
WELLSB ORO, TA-4 IWEDNESP4q MORNING, .., MARCH 23, 1870.
TILE tinnscoyEgrb . - cotrYna.
Tbo - .144 that 0145:crarAark; upoerkain trorpl,
"%Imre lie atom happier bille anillieadowe.lorr--;
.Ab, if, beyond the - spirit's inmost cavil, -' -
.Anght of thy country:lvo could surely know,
• Who iionid not go P•
. . • blight.re bat-bear • .
The boreringungele- high imspiued chorus,' •
Or eitteh;betbiteg;rf waltefia eyeS Skrid,
Pno.rad*t Oita. of ibe
With one rapt moment.giveu to.sea tuad iteary • ;
Ab, who would fear?
• . ,• Were we Tate sure
To find tho peerless friends who left us lonely;
Or there, by comes celestial stream as pure,
To gaze in eyes that,hgre were love-lit only
This weary mortal coil, were we quite sure, ,
Wbo could endure? •
':''perm -father,' • Said 'Mary Fdwardr,
!don't go ottt this evening,' and the
soling girl, who had scarcely numbered
fourteen years, laid liei 4 band upon the
arm of her parent.
But Mr. Edwards shook het. Wimps
niutthringillis -he did sw—
- ~ ‘ Caii7 t .l'go4bere•l•Plettee?', ' •
• ` Oh, yes, fatlier,? iirged•Mary, 'draw
ing up to him again, notwithstanding
her repulse. `But there is going
. to be
a storm, and.l wouldn't go out:'•
' Storm ! Nonsense! That's only
your pretence.'itut I'll be home Soon—
long: before the rain, if:itcomesat
And saying this, Mr. Edwards turned
from his daughter, and left the house.
As-soon • as she - -was 'alone, _Mary sat
down and, commenced weeping. • 'There
had been sad changes since she was ten
years old., -In that time ber . father bad
fallen into habits of intemperance, and
not only wasted lila substance, but
abuied his fatally i• and Sadder Still, her
Mother biid died brokell-Hearted; leav
ing her alone in the world with. a drun
ken father. i !
The young girl's trials, under these
painful circumstances, were • great.:r --
Night after night her father would conic ,
home - intoxicated, and it was so rare a
thing to get kind Word from 'him,
that a tone of affection from- his , lips
would " Move'. her . Instantly - to tears.
Daily the Work - of declension, went On.
Drunkenness led to idleness, and grad=
ually Mr. Edwards and his child sunk
lower and still lower in the scale of
comfort. Tlie Pleasant home where
they had lived for years was given up,
and in Small, poorly furnished' rooms
they hid themselves from..observation.
Afterthis change 'Mr. Edwards moved
along is down Ward 'way Morerapidly ;
caring less and drinking More.
Mary grew oici fast. -Under severe
trials and afflictions, her mind rapidly
er grew stronger, and stronger, as she
'realizedinbieiftilfy the dreadful nature
-and ultimate ithilleheyt of- the infatha
nod by lii 'vas led- • .••• •- •
At last, in the anguialt of herconeern,
she ventured upon remonstrance. This
'brought only ail - my repulse, adding
bitterness to the "cup of sorrow. The
appearance to which we have alluded,
gave Mary an excuse for urging her
father not to go out. How her -remon
stance was received has been seen.—
While the poor girl: sat weeping, the
distant rolling of thunder indicated the_
apProach of the storm to which she hiku
reterred. But she cared little for it now.
later lather had gone out. She hadonly
spoken brit with the hope that he might
hai4e been Induced to•reinalu with ,
Now that fie was away, the agitation
within was tt.o great to have any con
cern fur the turbulent weather without.
On leaving his Willie, Mr. Edwards,
who had not talteu auy liquor for three
or four houra,'and - whose appetite was
sharpened fur the accustomed stiwulus,
walked quietly hi the direction vi a
drinking house where he usually spent
his evenings. On ehiering he footle
that there was a little coma/W..10u iu the
ear-room. . A certain individual net
overtrieLstily- to landlords, bud intro
duced lihnself ; and, his character being
known, the inmates were disposed to
have a little spurt with him.
Cotne, now, fellow,' said oue, just as
Itiltartis came ie. •Isloulit .this tattle
and uailto a hrst-rute tekuperauce
. • Do, and I'll treat you-to the stiffest
glass of whisky toddy the landlord eau
mix,' added another. perhaps
yOu'd like a mint julep or gin_ cocktail
better. Anything you please. Make a
speech and call for the liquor. I'll
stand the treat.'
`Vv"hat d'ye day, landlord ? Shall he
make the speech ?' said another, who
was eager fOr the sport.
Please yourselves,' replied the land
lord, 'and you'll pleasetne.
Very well. Now for the speech, old
fellow 1 Here; mount this table.' And
two or three of the most 'forward took
hold of his arms.
.1 am not in the humor to make a
speech,' said the temperance man, 'but
if it will please you as well, I will sing
you a song.'
Give a song then. Anything to ac
commodate. But come, let use liquor
so,' said the other firmly, 'I must
sing the song first, if I sing at all.'
`Don't you think ylitir pipes will be
clearer for a little drink of some kind
or other ?'
Perhaps they would,' was replied.
'So provided you have no objection,
I'll take a glass of cold water, if such a
thing is known in this plaer . 1
The glaSs of water was presented
and then 'the man, who was some
what advanced in years, prepared to
give them the promised song. All
stood - listening attentively, Edwards
arnong_the rest. The voice of the old
man was biw - atul tremulous, yet every
word was uttered distinctly and with
pathos whin showed that the meaning
was felt. The following well-written
temperance song was the one he sang,
and while his voice, _filled the room
every other sound was hushed :
"Where are the friends that to me were so dear,
tong, long ago—long, long ago?
Where l are the hopes that ray heart used to cheer,
'Long, long ago—long ago ?
Frieadr that I loved in the grave are laid losr, .l
Hopes that I cherished are fled from me now,
I am degraded, for rum was my foe.
Long, long ago—long ago
Badly my wife bowed her beautiful head—
Long, Ling ago:—long,luog ago.
. ~• „
TICE POWER OP , NITSIO.
Ob, hOw I wept when I found oho wag dead,
„Itang,long,ao 7 long ago.. (.-- , .
Sho was &q aist,el+ 1 lino anAirl itliile—
Vainly to.iatot4f to Tutu aka tried!
Poor biojOn ileaTte i 4WIIB well il?'et eke died
' . long, long ago—long ago.
Let me look back ow the days of nay youth—
Longrleakar-rlopg, long ,ago.
I was pp - i4ranketttu ; virtdo 1'44 trtttb,
Long, long ago—long ago.
Oh, for the hopes•that were pure as the day !
Oh, for the joys that
. were purer than they !
Oh, for, the hourp that I'vo.sautrdered away •-• 'LO4, Aug atO.' "-
The silence that pervaded the room 1
when the old man's voice died, or it
might Whet* be said, sobbed away, was
the allelie& eV - death. Ella own heart
was touched, for, he wiped his, eyes,
from which the * tears had started.
Fausing,scargelya moment, he moved
sletv/y frciris the roo', and left his atidi
ence to their own reflections. There
was not one of them who was not more
or less affected, but the deepest impress 7
ion had been made on the heart of Ed
wards. The song seemed as if it had
be n made for him. The second verse,
pa tieoerlY,lW4lit tiliAllirissto Om very
ce itre Of Ws:f4ell4o si--: i t '
' Sadly tri,y prifcr,l3o-d
. les• beitutiN bead—"
Flotir sifdditily'arose' before him the
sorrow-stricken form of the wife of his
youth at, those words; and when the
old man's vo"ice . faltered on the lino--
skoor tifolcen-heititld,''twas well that she died r'
the anguish of his spirit was so great,
that he only kept himself from sobbing
aloud by a strong, effort at self i soutrol.
Ere the spelt was broken, or a •svord ut
tered by any one, ho arose and rleft the
For minutes after her father' depar
ture, Mary sat weeping bittern , . Ten
derly, did shailove her parent, . but this
love was only,a . source of the keenest aiaguish, for she sw, him swiftly pass
ing along the road to destruction with
out the power",to 'save, him.
Grief wastes itself by its own violence.
So it was in this instance. The tears
of Mary were et length dried, her sobs
were hushed, and she was about rising
from her chair, when a blinding flash
of lightning glared into, the room, fol
lowed instantly by, a deafening jar of
thunder. ' 1
`Oh, if father were home,' slo mur
mured, -clasping heti hands together.
Even while ri be_stood in this attitude,
the door opened quietly and Mr, Ed
wards entered: , '
' I thoughtyou would beafraid,liiry,
and so I came home,' ho said in a kind
Mary looketl7-iit him in surprise.
-This wpssoory.:,changed , to -joy as- she
perceived thatliOvas sober.
Oh, father . / OA sobbed, unable to
control her feelings, and leaning " her
face on his breast na she spoke-9.f you
would never go away P
Tenderly did thelfather draw his arm
round his weeping child, and kissed her
'Mary, said he, calmly as he could
speak, 'for your mother's sake'—but he
could not finislithe'Sentence. His voice
• • 6 6 i 51jg4419 inarticulate.
'heart did the father,' he stood thus
with his.child4ri hls :arms, repeat the
vow holnad - 'n.lietlY Wren And he'
kept his vows.
Wonderful is the power of music! It
is the language of the soul, and speaks
to It in a voice of irresistible peAtia
-91011. It is a good gift froni heaven,
and should ever bensed in good causes.
ANTHRACITE COAL INTERESTS.
- REMARRS OF OEN. CAMERON
In the U. S. SeNUE " , March'7, on the oc
castion of presenting a. Armorial set
ting forth the • importance of the An
thracite and Bituminous Coal Inter
ests of Peniasvlvania.
Mr. President ; In presenting this
petition, I wish to call the attention of
Senators to the:interesting region from
which it comes, and to submit some
facts concerning its wonderful develop-
Meat; trustingJ. that the exhibit will
prove useful, by inducing .this body to
reflect on the vast interests now held
iu the anthracite and other coal-produ
ding territory of. the country. lam not
without belie that an intelligent study
of this subject will 'show the import
once of such legislation as shall contin
ue the development of the coal fields of
the whole country, and so prevent the
destruction of the 'industries which fur
nish a market for this, important ,arti
ele, and mainly depend -on its produc
All that I shall recount has taken
place within my wivn memory and un
der my own obserVation.
,'"hen I was
a yofmg man, the land from which such
vast wealth has' Been extracted was a
wilderness. It could be t houghti for fif
teen or twenty cents
,an acre, and no
onewould have it at any price. To pay
the taxes on it was deemed folly and
extravagance. Then population was
spares and comfort unknown. Now,
this whole region teems with a bus s t
throng, and it.has become , the aboae of
opulence, intelligence and refinement.
On the earth's surface, the unending la
bor of well-paid men goes on—and far
down in the mines, the busy scenes of
the upper world are repeated.
The,anthracite coal region of Penn
sylvania-4hieh comprises all of any
importance in the country—ls confined
within an area of 470 square miles, or
30,0,000 . acres. I state this now, that it
may be 'remembered when I come to
speak of the enormous production that
, has.beert attained and the-vast capital
that is now' Invested in thiscoal ter
ritory. I present the increase in mined
coal and population in Schuylkill coun
ty, Pennsylvania, giving the figures
with critical accuracy; while, as to the
population directly subsisting and at 7
tributablo to the mining interest in thC
remaining parts of the hard coal region
I estimate from reliable data and an tin
timate knowledge of the locality and a
personal observation of the subject!
The year 1820 marked •the beginning
of anthracite coal nsinlngln our coun
try. The population of the county of
Schuylkill—before referred to—ansl the
number of ,tons mined -were as follows
at the'beginning of each decade since
The population and production for
the Same period, in the entire 47Q square
miles of anthracite coal lauds, were as
follows; the population, being e6tirna
te'd at a low figure, and [ - think, upon
a basis which will bear
,the closest in
vestigation sueoessfully 3 ,
Popurn. T. Mined
...... 20,784 89,984
29,081 452, 29!
..... 63:205 - 1,71200
... 90,173 3,270016
. . • , ... . , . . . •
Year. Popurn. T, Mined.
1830 ' • ' ' 45,000 - 174,734
1840 ' - yO,OOO , 864,384
1850 180,000 . 3,358,809
1860' ' ' • ' 220,000 ' 8,412,846
1870... .; -. ' - - - '-- ' • • 4850,000`=16,728,080
The amount of anthracite eeal yet in
the earth is as follows ; the area and the
thickness of the veins being accurately
, S. M. Depth Coal. Tons.
Central coal fieltla, 120 15 . 5,854,061,000
Southern o'l Dada, 140 25 '11,308,842,000
North'n al fields, 198 , 15 9,179,872,000
Total," " 470 -' 26,343,057,000
Deduct nno-half waste In mining, 13)171,148,500
Which leavOs of marketable coal, 11,171,828;500
lons, or a deposit equal to an annual
supply of 20,000,000 tons for 000 years,
and of Vastly greater value than all the
mineral deposits of many nations of the
earth, and by no • means contemptible
nations either. -
. , But vast asthis undeveloped wealth
is, and astonishing as its development
has been, it is but. a trifle when com
pared to the bituminous coal deposits of
qur country, or indeed of Pennsylva
nia, Within a circle of one hundred
of which Pittsburg, in the wes
tern extremity, of my State, is tiie cen
ter', there IS eniptigh bitUrnineue coal in
the earth to pity ofr the national debts
of all the governments of the world
many times over. And it has been es
timated, from geological surveys, that
this coal would pay our national debt
fifty-four times, if its stupendous value
could be realized at once. This, you
will please remember, is in Western
Pennsylvania alone, and only compri
ses ono description of a particular hind
of wealth, which is surrounded, and to
some extent dwarfed, by other wonder
ful resources in that section of our State.
It is impossible to over-estimate the
value of•this wealth, or its relations to
other industries. It is to-day the foun
dation of our wealth ; and a glance at
the distribution of hituniinouscoal over
the country, indicates clearly •to my
wind, that the development of this sin
gle interest, is the basis fora piosperitty,
under wise laws, which would do more
than anythidg else to render us inde
pendent of every external influence,
however it might be exerted.
The following table will! shOw the
area of the bituminous and cannel coal
deposits of the country, as far aS is ac
State.. •• S. ifilce.
Tennessee ......... .......
Texas - -
Showing a total of 2quaio miles of 194,210
And to this must ho adtied,,of tertiary ,
coals around the ItockyUllountains 200,000
'Making a grand total of 394,216
square miles of coal within our borders,
or more than thirty-one tithes as much
as there is in Pennsylvania, together
with 800 square miles of anthracite in
Rhode Island and Massachusetts, and,
100 square miles in Oregon. These how-'
ever are not important deposits, and are
of very little value.
These statistics are taken from Dar
row's "Coal and Oil," and may be
deemed as reliable as any work on the
subject, attainuble to the student of
such affairs. Those relating to the an
thracite coal, are supplied by Mr. Ban
nun, who for fifty years has observed
and studied the subject.
In Pennsylvania, notwithstanding
her rugged surface and her numerous
mountain chains—in spite of the fact
that a mile of railroad in o,ur State costs
many times as much as in some others,l
we now have more nines of railroad
than any other State in the Union,
while our capital invested in these far
suipasses that of any other, amounting
ill the aggregate to $300,000,000.
As au indication oq the value of coal
in developing nearly every description
of internal improvement, let no cull
your attention to the fact that, to earry
our Schuylkill anthracite coals to mar
ket, we have invested in
Railroad's ... :50,000,900
Mining operations and lands...,
'hile in the residue we have in
Canals ...... ;.. 49,000,000
Mining operations and lands
A grand total of
The amount invest din like imprbre
meats for sending ou bituminous coal
forward, I have 'no m atis of accurately
deter — mining; but it ip very large. For
the greater area, and the greater dis
tance inland at which our soft or bitu
minous coal is placed, involves a great
er mina.) , for transpottation. The yield
of this description ddring the last year
wa5,14,117,828 tons, and was . chiefly pro
duced from the State of Pennsylvania.
And while tlie capital invested in mi
ning operations is not so large as in the
anthracite, region, this marked differ
ence exists between these great inter
ests, and 'swell worthy of remembrance.
The bituminous coal is situated far in
the interior;it suffers greater wastage 1
in mining and carriage than hard coal,
and it is open to the competition of a
foreign product having all the advan
tage of cheap oeead-carriage, while our
soft coal must,rely on artificial modes
,IrtiAs`portation rbuil t at enormous ex
penseit,xer agrent mountain • range, to
bring ie to -tide-water and au eastern
It will be Observed that these coal mi
ners do not petition you to protect their
especial product. But, With a clear ap
preciation of the intimate relation be
tween all brunches of productive Indus- ,
try in our country, they: ask Congress
to protect American labor and home 1
manufactures, well knowing that every 1
thing which vitalizes production vltttl- i
izes every material interest of the cowl- I
try, and especially its greatest interest,
labor. I hope the statesmanship of 1
these hardy miners way be reflected by
members of Congress, whenever the
threatened onslaught on American in
dustry shall be made lu the interest of
British capital, in these halls, under'
the label of "Free Trade" or a "Tariff'
I have already adverted td the .poet
that my own State has more mileso
railroad than any other, and that di*?
cost per Mile his Kreater than in other -
States ; and I have justly attributed •
this supremacy to, the *seal mining; "Be-
ford I leaviethis, branch of the'subjeat,
let me add another fact which will'
doubtless be interesting. Beneath the
surface, far clown in-the minese (ln some
instances as much ts 1500 feet below the
level of the river,) we have in the small
anthracite regions more titan 400 miles
of railroad, not inclUded in the aggre
gate of railways in the •State. I - may,
be more successful in placing this fact
before Senators, by assuring them that
these subterranean railroads would , if
formed into one continuous line, retie!:
_BoSton to Washington ;Air they
would form a double track road frOna
hero to New York and back again. ,s,
While the Subject on which. I no
address you is of national linportatic ,
I have confined, my illustratlims entiti
ly within my native Saute. The pe
Bona! knowledge and familiarity I pod 4
seas in relation to the subject ns it has
developed about my home;and also the
higher degree'of skill that hisa been at
tained with us than in other' sections,
has governed me in this design. And,
pursuing that course, I call attention to
the cities of Philadelphia and Pittsburg,
in Penusylvnuia, as eminently illustra
tive of the benefits flowing from coal,
as shown in (treat rig and - maintaining
home-manufactures and home industry.
When the cdumiercial interests of the
country wertrenSferred to New York,
and Philadel Alla lost her supremacy us
the etuporiu of the nation, her people
at once slime ed their• attention to the
creation of tl o 'wares and fabrics which
she had for erly been content to ex
change". Th result is, that instead 01
sinking uuder the withdrawal of com
merce, she i now the greatest manufac-
Wring city on the continent. She has
a better fed;etter clothed, and better
paid popuiat on than any other city in
this 'country: . And she has the best
housed population, of any city on the
Second to Philadelphia in this last
particular, carid in the - extent of hers
products'second to Philadelphia alone,)
is Pittsburg, in the isvestern part of the
State r, in part, represeat., Here is the
great workshop of Our f iron manufac
tures. And here, too, as in our eastern
city, the same natural wealth—coal—
forms the basis and foundation of her
prosperity. Here is to be seen thrift,
industry, intelligence, noble charities,
admirable schools; magnificent church
es, and freedom as near perfect as can
be found anywhere. ' While less than
half a dozen British corsairs were swee
ping our commerce, from every sea, this
city sent one continual stream of cant
non, shot, and shell—yes, and heroic
men—to save the nation's life 'from the
4 , reatest danger which ever has or ever
• clx, n threaten it. And while -ler cotn
thercial marine sunk under its few and
riot very formidable assailants, this busy
hive of labor and industry sent you the
rneanr of utterly destroying the might
! jest armies, except our own, whichever
waged war. Our blockade was main
tained alone by the coal thinned from
ss_ ...a.......-..-nf D iiithdeltalla to . our na
val vessels at theirstatlons. riliiititittie
of Gettysburg prevented tba destruc
tion of the anthracite coal - mines. It
also prevented the destruction of •our
blockade. And that crowning victory
was won, because in some ;parts of lour
country productive industry enabled us
to place great artnies In the geld, and to
_supply them with the materiel of war.
To-day, the inadequate protection given
to It, prevents universal bankruptcy
and national shame. Adequate protec
tion svill secure to us everything which
this government needs.
As a means ofi national welfare, as
sault, defence and intantellatiCe, I con
trast the two, and, see:min:2:ly, antago
ni,tie Itilereto, of commerce and pro
duction ; and I shall not shrink from -a
1 candid eXaMillatioll of their relative
importance to our country, in either
peace or War.
-1 1 2,656
1 , 25
...... ... 30,000
... ....... .:.. 21,000
And I will go further : lam content,
,by this comparison, to test this whole
quc*ion. I insist that the policy of
protection is the true i)olicy to apply
for securing th..! development of every
source of wealth, commerce included.
By this wise policy, the farmer puts in
his pockets as profits the freight he
must now pay to bring his crops to mar
ket—for the workshops, springing up .
all over the country, under this pone.%
of prottction, bring - the market to his
barn door. The trarrpprter, losing this
source of income, gilds it more than
made good by the abundant freightage
pouring from thousands of distau t work
shops in every part of the country, seek
ing the seaboard and a foreign markt-t
And here, too, when our artisans attain
a higher skill, our machinery rt.:it:het
perfection, and our ability to produce is
Jtistered, y u Will find the reliable foun
dation for' commerce which, like that
of Great B itain, since she developed
her coal, w 11 be aggiesive and endu
ring. The working man will find his
. subsistence cheapened, by transferring
his dwelling to the teeming farm lands
from which he must be fed, be he where
he may. ,The churchls, schools and be
nevolent ir.stitutions flourish, when the
Masses who earn their bread by labor
are fully employed, cheaply fed, and
well paid. The revenues of the coun
try are certain and generous, then; and
indeed, btfsiness, in all its ramifications,
prospers when labor is prosperous. The
capital of every nation is its labor.—
When this is well and profitably hives
ted, nil goes ,well ;—when labor lan
guishes, all perish together in a com
mon ruin. .
These petitioners come before you
asking no light thing. There is no sel
fishness in their prayer; they know
they cannot be Injured by competition.,
but they see clearly that the department'
of labor in which they are engaged un-'
de i rlies d -veloriment and happiness.—
They sec that the high state of pros
perity which marks the surrounding
region of thc•ir coal fields, is traceable
t o co L d. They are not confined lin their
relu -t 1,.‘ , State lines, or local jeai
on.y ; Ihey point out the wily to make
every coUntl V as pfosperods as the fa
voi-i2d locality in which they live; and
they I-imply aAt you to adopt a national
policy "Nviiich shall benefit every part of
the country. If the coal of Great Brit
ain and of, Pennsylvania has been the
basis of a sound prosperity, we only ask
you to do Alfa which will make other
States possessing the same blessing,
equally or more, prosperous,—render
useful to their future development and
happiness the' .100,00(f square miles of
coal which underlies nearly every State
in the Unicai souse the benefits
vouchsafed to our people, 'father than
I now close with this imperfect refer-
~N u3Otti , l i
eine to the subject I . haver-alluded. to,
with a hope thatit will caminend , itselt
to the , znindi 'of 'Senaters ; sad When
these great interests are assailed, that a
candid and conscientious Inquiry will
be made by each about -the . Justice and
propriety of crippling ouyitury growing
manufactures and producers, for the
benefit of a nation. which - `having at
tabled high perfection in machinery,
&Most crushing poWer in. capital, and
degraded\ the wages of labor to a point
bordering on starVation,,now seeks, by
free trade, to make of us only a custom
er for her workshops, and a helpless de
pendent on her ! for the necessitiriz of
life and the comforts of cisiilizatiou.
The petition, on motion of pen:Cam
eron, was referred.to ttie Committee on
AN ACT Extending the Criminal Ju
risdiction of Justices of the .Peace in
the County of Tioga:
SECT. 1. Do it enacted by the Senate and
lii.llEo of Representritlieg of the Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania, That ,the several Jttedees "Of
the Peace of the county of Tioga be and they
are hereby authorized tci hear and determine, in
the manner hereinafter provided, the several of
fences and misdemeanors Mentioned in tbe thir
tieth, thirty-firsthrty-f4r.th; forty
,alz.th- ; sixty
ninth, seventy-s tend, runety-seventb, one buns
.deed and third, one bun Tied add twelfth, one
hundred nod 'RI tieth. one - hundred and forty
eighth, and one hundred. and fifty-second sec
tions, of the act ,of the Slst cf March, 1860; en.
titled "an act to consolidate, revise 'and amend
rho penal laws of this Commonwealth."
SECT. 2 Whenever any person shall be brought
before a Justice on a warrant issued by said Jus
tice. founded on'the oath or information of, the
party aggrieved, or by some ono acting for the
party aggrieved, the complaint or information
shall be lolly read ale .d in the hearing of the
deforidant or party mewed ; and if the defend
aut ellen plead guilty t the charge against him,
the Justice shall procee to inquire into the ele c.
eumetanees of the case so far as he shall thine
best frr a proper understanding of the defend
iilleil guilt, and shall proceed to pass sentence
upon the defendant; which sentence shall hive
' the full force and effect of a sentence pronounced
by the Court of Quarter Sessions in like cases;
and the defendant shall be committed to the jail
of the county until the sentence be complied
Secy. S. If the defendant shall plead not guilty ,
-tAhe offence charged, and shall at the same Limo'
signify Lis determination to he tr,ed by a jury of
six, &fore the said Justice, the justiee shall
make en entry to that effect upon' his dcriket ;
and the defendant shall then enter into receipt._
entice, % - tith good and Sufficient surety or sureties; !
conditioned for his appearance before the said
Justice at a day certain, and not depart without
leave until discharged according to law; but if
the defendant shall nut enter into such recogni•
zance aforesaid, it shall be tho duty of the Ccn•
stable to keep him or her safely, until discharged
by course of law ; and in either case, the Julie*
shall proceed to the trial of the cause in the man•
ner pointed out izothe following seotions of this
act ; but if the defendant shall not signify his or
her determination to be tried before said Justice,
the Justice shall proceed with the defendant the
Same as if this act had not been 'passed. o
Sec+. 4. Whenever a defendant shall signify
his or her determination to be tried by a jury of
six before the Justice of the Peace, for any of
the 'offences of which a Justice of the Peace
shall have jarisiiction, according to the provi
sions of the first section of this act, in the man- .
Der pbinted out in the foregoing seetioni, ttif Baia
Justice ii-Hereby required to issue a veniri, di
rected to the Constable of the proper borough or.
township Where the said cause is to be tried,'
commanding him to summon six. good and law
ful :nen. citizens of said borough or township,
and haring the qualifications of electors therein,
echo 'shall be in no wise of kin, of either 'cleferttfrr
ant or complainant, nor in any manner intereat
ed. who shall bo chosen as follows, to wit: The
Justice shall write in a panel the names of eight
een persons, from which 'the defendant, his
agent, cr attorney, shall striko one name, the
complainant or prosecutor ono, and so on, alter
eatare. until each shall have stricken cis names;
and the remaining six shall constitute the jury,
to be and appear before such Justice at-the time
to which said cause shall have been adjourned,
to serve as a jury for the trial of such cause.—
Provided, That if either party shall neglect or
refuse to aid in striking the Ines- as aforesaid,
the Justioc„sball strika the setae in behtilf of
SECT. 5. 'lt shall bo the duty of such Constable
to make service cf venire, and to return the
same, with the names of the persons by him sum
mooed, at the time appointed for the trial of the
Sncr. d. It shall be the duty of such CoMsta
b:e to be in• attendance on said court at the time
appointed for said trial, and during the progress
of the same; and if by reason of ehallenge for
cause sick/esti, or other disability, the persons
whose naves shall be returned by the venire, or
any of tba©, shall not be impanneled as jurors,
-the said Constable "ball 1111 tho panel from the
bystanders, es is done by the Sheriff in the Court
ut Common fleas; and the said Constable shall
be allowed for his attendance on said coact, one
dollar per day, in addition to the fees attmly
lowed by law, to be tad in the bill of costs;
and at too close of the trial the jury shall be
c•lnducted by the Constable to same_ private and
convenient •place, uhere they 'may' deliberate
and without interruption consult upun their ver
Scar. 0. The coo potence, and credibility of
witnth•res, the form of the 'baths of jurors -and
witue4ses and the Constable who shall wait open
the j4y, shalt be the ;,atnelas in the trial of the
s we iStleoces in the Court :of Quarter rsres:dpris,
and the jury thall have the shine jurisdiction
and edptrol over the pdyment of costa Provi
ded, 'ft at the county Awn In no cute be liable
or ettlo.r the pro,Jetttor's ,or defertd.tut'd
of aorta; and the dmdice,l'n care the jury shall
oy ter. %!erdlet direct that the prosecut,r or de: ,
feudaut thud pay the o hole or ahy , part of the
real' proceed to pass sentence , accorditO ,
and the party who thall be thus 'F.enTenci.‘n,'
,halt be cou.wittvil nun! the aenteucq bi corn.=
S The verdict of the jury shall be final
nJ conclusive up'', all guys ions. of, fact iut
v teed :it LI no writ of certiurari,or erpr,
or appeal, bhail be allowed for the review of
euen case tact so tried by the jury ; and in
eu.,o the proceedings shalt by retnovoci to a high
er court, upon certiorirr er etherwise v the district
attorocj , shad thereafter conduct tho J procceitngs
in behalf of tno CoznuiuuwcAlth, and his tee
:than be the saute us etp.)ll iudictteenis found by
toe g.z.zuct jury. to be taxed and mid as the other
e v ets of tie case; and if the proectedio'gs shall
revered, on any certiorari or writ of error
ed out ou b,12.11 - of the defendu:it., on a,coeunt
ar.y ria ect in t stve.uoat of the , iffencts
the i t the 0..V.1rt Shag
taro pr,cee tltt4s bit - .. 4 L.) tho %fodless ler to
new tti.l, and direct the initrmatiosi or acCusa
ttoct unsaid eau to no amended by the district
attancy, and sworn to by the prosecuttr; and:
thereupon the defendant shall be required or
eLter his plea to such amended information to
aciusatton; and thereupon the new trial shall
proceed beruro the JU3IiCO as on . the former hear
oECT. 9.. Whenever the jury shall render a
verdict of guilty. the Justice shall proceed to
pass sentence upon the defendant, accordiug to
law, and with the like effect as if the defendant
had plead guilty, or been oonvioted in the Court
of - Quarter Sessions; and any santencs of im
prisonment which may be imposed, Baia only
oe niflicted in the county jail; and all aa;
posed, shallper collected and paid jnto the school
tund of the Ochool district in which the offence
was committed; and it shall be ,the duty of the
Justice to receive the atnebn t of.,the tine and pay
it into the treasury of the proper district; and
any neglect to pay the same as aforesaid, shall
hel considered a misdemeanor in office.
BELT. 10. In all cases vrbioh shall be tried by
a jury under the provisions of l this act, tbo ITtro
ti4a of the Peace trying the same ;ball be enti
tled to a fee of two dollars in addition to the
fees already allowed by law, and oach jaror
stall be allowed one dollar per day, to bo taxed
SECT, 11. When any person:stall be ituntmon-c.
eft to attend as a juror, and shall fail to attend
at the thno and place specified in. tho 'venire,
haring no,reasonablo excuse to assigm for sUoti
faiiure, every such person shall be fined any sum
not is:receding ten dollars, for which fine the Jos-
Itice t`fbait reuder judgment in the name of the
Cominonwersith, and Issue execution therefor,
and i ben collected shall pay the same into the
township or borough school treasury, for the use
of the common school therein.
Sou, 12. If the defendant shall piltad not
guilty, and demand a trial by jury as •I:ros - ided
in seotion throe of this act, the Stud a shall
[make an entry to that effect In his docket, and
require the defendant to enter into recogrit
sauce, with good and sufficient surety or sureties,
conditioned for his or hot. appearance before said
Justice, not loss than four nor more than ten
days thereafter, unless the defendant shall then
make affidavit that ho or she cannot, within the"
ioogeit time mentioned, procure the necessary
witnesses for his or her defence, when the, hear
in; stiall be continued, by' the Justice to such
time as will give this defendant a reasonable and
fair opportunity to procure the evidence; and if
the detendant shall not enter into /inch renognl
iitocre,and the day of trial shall be postponed
for a longer period than ten days, the Constable
may commit the defendant to the jail of the