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have been made at their shrines ; Brahmins
have been paid to pray for rain ! And what
a rebuke is it, that the Sepoys in Bengal,
who have mutinied, are the only class shut
out from missionary influence ! Such is
the retribution on guilty neglect and cow
By the most recent telegraph, we bear
that Delhi is defended by 30,000 men, and
that 3,000 rebels are encamped near the
walls. A letter front Madras reports that
Delhi is fallen, but this is not generally be
lieved. Do not be surprised, in the present
state of tbings, that wy letter begins and
ends with India.
l Aarater aul) Abbotatc,
PITTSBURGH, AUGUST 29, 1857.
Twang... $1.50, in advance; or in Clubs
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berm, $1.75. See Prospectus, on Third Page.
ENEW AL $ should be prompt; a little
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hope our friends will still not forget us.
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PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY.-
The next session of this institution will
open on Wednesday, September 3d. The
rooms of the Seminary have been furnished
free of expense to the students, and board
is afforded in the Refectory, at $2 per week.
THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, COLTIMEIA,
Sou CAROLINA.—The next session will
open on the Ist Monday in October, and
continue eight months. Boarding and
washing can be had from $8 to $lO per
month. The appropriation for students
destitute of means, is $2OO per annum.
DEDICATION. The new and taiteful
Presbyterian church, in Milton, Pa., was
dedicated to the service of God, on Sabbath,
the 16th inst. The sermon was preached
by the Rev. Dr. McGill, of Princeton, and
the pastor, Rev. Dr. Watson, nisde the ded
icatory prayer. The sermon in the after
noon was preached by Rev. Dr. Yeomans,
of Danville, Pa. The services were solemn,
and attended by a large and attentive audi
Another Youthful Xinister Called to his
A short time ago, the Rev. J. M. Brown,
D.D., of Kanawha, Va. ) lost his youngest
son, Willie, by drowning. Now he is called
to mourn the death of his eldest son, Rev.
Samuel H. Brown, pastor of the united
congregations of Frankford, Anthony's
Creek ) and Spring Creek, on the first
inst., in the 30th year of his age. Mr.
Brown was a young man of great promise;
and just previous to his illness, he had
been laboring most earnestly in the revival
at Lewisburg, Va.
End of Volume Fifth.
THREE numbers more will complete the
Fifth Faunae of the .Presbyterian Banner.
A large number of subscriptions will termi
nate with the volume. We respectfully
request a full and prompt renewal. If the
list of subscribers is permitted to decline,
the terms of subscription must be raised.
We plead with our brethren of the Ministry
and Eldership, and with all our friends, to
lend us effective aid in furnishing to the
churches a sound Presbyterian paper, truly
good, and really cheap.
President of Centre College, Ky.
Rev. Lewis W. Green, President of Tran
sylvania University, at Lexington, Ky., has
be en elected President of Centre College,
Ky., to supply the vacancy occasioned by
the death of the lamented Rev. John C.
Young, D. D. It is generally supposed the
appointment will be accepted. Danville
has been drawing largely on Lexington
within a few months. Rev. Stephen Yerkes,
elected a professor in the Danville Theologi
cal Seminary, at the last meeting of the.
Geneial Assembly, was_a professor in . Tra
nsylvania University. Dr. Green is admira
bly adapted for the position to which he
has been called, in natural gifts, scholarship,
and experience. _
The, committee appointed by the friends
of temperance in Chicago, in May last, have
issued a call for a North American Conven
tion of the friends of Temperance, to be
held in that city on the 10th of November.
It is intended to endeavor to initiate move
runts that will revive an interest in the
Temperance cause, which has been for
some time languishing. A large and inter
'eating meeting was held at Saratoga, N. Y.,
to take into consideration the subject of ,Da
venile Temperance organizations through
out the,land. Addresses were made by E.
C. Delays% Peter Sinclair, of Scotland, Dr.
.Rev.. 'Dr. Asa D. Smith, of New'
York, and many other well known advocates
of the cause. In the course of his remarks,
Dr. Smith descanted on the importance of
juvenile action and organization, as almost
the only' thing to interest once more the
higher classes. These were beginning to
consider the Temperance cause, as obsolete,
a thing gone by—good in its day, but over:
It - watt• owing to the higher classes more
than to'others that the Prohibitory law was
not enforced in New York, and was repealed.
Let the children of these classes become
enlisted in the cause, and it will awaken a
new and lively interest in the work as noth
ing else can.
Unfortunately a similar testimony can be
borne by many others who have observed
the progress of events.
The alarming condition of the army in
the Bengal Presidency, and the deplorable
consequences ensuing on the outbreak of the
mutiny, have attracted all eyes toward the
East. In our own country, as well as in
England, there are many families who have
tender pledges of affection in the very region
where the dangers have been most immi
nent; and as these devoted servants of the
Great Master stand in such close connexion
with Christianity on the one hand, and the
native idolatries on the other band, they are
all the more likely to be sufferers for the
cause of the Gospel, in consequence of the
direction which the popular fury has taken.
In these circumstances, we have thought it
appropriate to advert at some length to the
condition of the British Empire in the East,
with a view to give some general informa
tion touching the history of the Company;
the circumstances under which its posses
sions have been acquired; the tenure by
which these possessions are held, and the
manner in which the momentous trusts re
posed in the Indian authorities are adminis
tered. We can only glance, in the most
summary manner, at these subjects. We
have before us a list of more than one hun
dred and twenty volumes, many of them
of great size, and filled with important
statistical, legal, and historical matter, all
devoted to the elucidation of the affairs of
India, and yet some of. the most common
place questions which ordinary readers might
put in relation to the topics which we have
here stated, could not, by a reader of these
treatises, find a satisfactory answer. Should,
then, our readers find that we have passed
by much that they would have wished us to
notice, they must remember the brief space
which we can only afford for historical dis
The discovery of the passage to India by
way of the Cape of Good Hope, produced an
intense impression on the mind of Western
Europe. The eyes of traders and merchants
were directed toward that land, which
for ages had been a synonym for ex
haustless wealth, gorgeous magnificence, and
barbaric power. Vigorous efforts were ac
cordingly made to organize associations for
grasping the riches of the East. At this
time the commercial spirit of Britain was
beginning to display its vigor, and as the
distance to India was so great, and the means
needful to trade on a scale commensurate
with the importance of the prize in view,
were beyond the power of ordinary adven
turers, an incorporation was secured; and
on the 30th day of December, A.D. 1600,
Queen Elizabeth signed the charter of the
East India Company. The powers donated
to these " merchant adventurers" to the
East, were of the most wholesale character.
They were not only recognized as the only
lawful traders to the East from Britain, but
they were also empowered to purchase or re
ceive grants of lands from the native Princes
for the erection of factories, and forts to
protect them; and thus to secure all the in
terests of their. trade. At the time of the
issuing of this charter, such a grant from
the Sovereign was considered sufficient for
alllegal purposes, without any Parliamentary
sanction. In process of time, however, this
question was raised, and the validity of the
charter came to be discussed because of the
appearance in the East of other parties
having licenies to trade, who were con
sidered interlopers; and the controversy
thus raised was continued during all the
years of the Stuart dynasty. In 1693, in
consequence of a failure to meet the interest
on the stock of the Company, the charter
became void; but it was restored again,
with a proviso that:it might be abrogated by
giving three years' notice. Owing to the
exigencies of the State, another Company
was originated, and the two struggled on
with varying success, until, in 1708, they
were united in one Society, through the in
fluence of Lord Godolphin, by the act of the
6th of Queen Anne.
Since the year 1767, the affairs of the
Company have been frequently subjected to
Parliamentary review and supervisift. The
necessity tOr this legislation arose from the
fact, that a trading company was rapidly ac
quiring territorial dominion; and the con
nexion of that Company with the imperial
Government was continually embroiling it
with foreign powers. The question which
had thus arisen as to the possessory and gov
ernmental rights of the Company over ter
ritory, and the sovereign rights of the
Crown over all the possessions of subjects,
was felt to be one of vast legal importance.
The Company contended that it was duly
invested with sovereign rights over conquered
or acquired territory; while opponents con
tended that territory gained by subjects, of
the Crown necessarily belonged to the
Crown. In several acts of the Legislature
the question was left unsettled, the Parlia
mentary enactments only stipulating that the
Company were guaranteed the tenure of
their territorial possessions, reserving the
rights and authority of the Crown without
prejudice to any , of the immunities of the
Company. In 1784, the celebrated India
Bill of Mr. Pitt was carried, establishing the
Board of Control, by means of which the
procedure of the India Directors is sub
jected to direct Imperial supervision. The
working of this measure, so far as legislative
and executive authority are concerned, has
been such as to lead some of the most emi
nent constitutional lawyers—such as Lord
Kenycin, Chief Justice of the King's Bench,
and Mr. Justice Lawrence—to affirm, that
the East India Company was " a limb of
the Government of the country, and that no
distinction can be established between the
offices held under the Company, and those
held under the Government of the country."
In 1833, the last great Parliamentary
change in the Charter of the Company, was
made. By the celebrated act of that year,
the preamble of the Charter declared that
all lands, territorial acquisitions, revenues,
debts, monies, rents, &0., &c., which the
Company then possessed, should remain and
be invested in the hands of the Company,
in trust for his Majesty and his heirs for the
THE PRESBYTERIAN BANNER AND ADVOCATE.
service of the Government of India. The
' supreme authority of the Home Government
over Indian affairs, was thus clearly assumed
and defined. The act, which contains one
hundred and seventeen clauses, stipulates,
very minutely, the powers of
in the different Presidencies, and of the
Governor General and his Council. It pro.
vides, also, that the Board of Control, in
London, which is to supervise the orders of
the Directors at home, and of the General
Council in Calcutta, shall consist of such
persons as his Majesty may appoint as a
Board, together with the Lord President of
the Council, the Lord Privy Seal, the first
Lord of the Treasury, the principal Secreta
ries of State, and the Chancellor of the Ex
chequer. Without the sanction of this
Board, the Governors and their Councils in
the respective Presidencies, and the Court
of Directors at the India House in Leaden
Hall Street, are unable to invest their deter
minations with the authority of law. We
have thus, as briefly as possible, sketched
the governmental character of this great
corporation, in order that our readers may
know in whose hands the sovereign power is
actually lodged. -
We have shown that the India Company
was chartered on the last day of the six
teenth century. , In 1616, the possessions
gained in the Mogul's dominions were only
Surat and Amadavad. On the Malabar
coast they had (Wield, and Maxalipatam on
the Coromandel coast. At the end of the
seventeenth century, the English were set
tled in Bengal at Calcutta, the French
held Cliandernagore, and the Dutch were at
Chinsurah, all on the Hoogly. One hun
dred and fifty years from
, the origin of the
Company passed over, before any important
tract or 'territory was possessed by it. The
Directors and Ageuts pursued a pacific and
commercial career, not manifesting a lust for
conquest, nor even making formidable pro
vision to protect the factories which they
possessed. So remarkably was this the case,
that in 1756, when Surajee Dowlah captured
Calcutta, which is now the abode of more
than a million of inhabitants, the European
prisoners which he captured and immured
in the•celebrated Black Hole, amounted
only to one hundred and forty-six persons.
The English Empire in India really dates
from this period. War with France was
imminent, and some troops had been sent to 1
the little fort of St. George, at Madras, be
cause of its vicinity to the French settle
ment at Pondicherry. These troops, at the
urgent solicitation of the British merchants
at Calcutta, were sent to protect their inter
ests. Accordingly, nine hundred Europeans
and fifteen hundred Sepoys were dispatched
under CLIVE, who landed and defeated the
forces sent against him, re-took Calcutta, as
sumed the direction of affairs, and concluded
a peace in which permission was gained to
fortify Calcutta. When the war with France
broke out, Surajee Dowlah cast in his lot
with the French, but, before the wonderful
genius of Clive, resistance was in vain.
On the 22d of June, 1757, Clive found him
self, with 900 Europeans, 2000 Sepoys, and
six guns, opposed to 50,000 infantry, 8000
cavalry, and 50 guns, under French officers;
yet he gained a wonderful victory. War
being thus commenced, Clive, to use his
own words, saw clearly that he could not
stop, but must go on. On this observation,
Alison judiciously observes, "This is pre
cisely the language and principle of Napo
leon; this necessity of advancing to avoid
being destroyed, is the accompaniment of
power founded on force in all ages. The
British power in India was driven on to
greatness by the same necessity which im
pelled the European conquerer to Moscow
and the Kremlin; it is the prodigious differ
ence in the use they made of their power,
even when' acquired by violence, which
hitherto, at least, has saved them from the
fate which so soon overtook him." Every
subsequent collision of England with France,
or any of the European powers, was sure to
increase their entanglements in India. The
native Princes that united with the enemies
of England in order to expel them from the
country, were sure in the end to be over
thrown. Many of them again failed to car
ry out the stipulations of treaties which they
had formed, and here again a fertile cause
for war and future annexation of territory,
The act which Mr. Pitt carried in 1784,
and to which we have already referred, con
tained the remarkable declaration, "that
to pursue schemes of conquest and exten
sion of diminion in India, are measures re
pugnant to the wish, the honor, and the
policy of this nation," and yet, at that time,
the territories which had been acquired by
Clive and Hastings, had been gained, as we
have seen, mainly by efforts to preserve the
immunities of the Company; and the Means
which were essential to their reservation
directly led to an extension of empire.
Thus the war in 1789, under Lord Cornwal
lis, with Tippoo, was provoked by that
Chieftain's attack on Travancore. In
1799, and for several years subse
quently, under the administration of Wel
lesley, the French, the Mahrattas, and the
celebrated leader, Tippoo, again involved the
British in war. Then again, during the
government of the Marquis of Hastings, the
aggressions of the Nepaulese, the barbarous
incursions of the Pindarries, the insincerity
of the Mahrattas, and the treachery of the.
Rajah of Nagpore, led to the operations of the
Thus it has been, that in the course
of a century, when once the career of con
quest was entered on in India, the arms of
Britain have, with varying success, been
mainly victorious; and at present, the Brit
ish flag floats from the Himalaya Mountains
to Cape Comorin, and from the Hindoo
Koosh beyond the Indus, at Attack and
Lahore, across the Bay of Bengal to Sings.-
pore, at the extreme South of the Malayan
peninsula. We search the records of anti
quity in vain for any parallel to such an em
pire. Rome never ruled over more than one
hundred and twenty millions of people, and
they were nearly all directly accessible, from
the Mediterranean sea, as a centre of influ
ence. In India, Britain has gained al
dominion over nearly two hundred millions
of souls, to reach whom her vessels of war
have to traverse the ocean for nearly eight
thousand miles. The <forces of Rome were
nearly three centuries engaged in subduing
the countries, which acknowledged their
sway; while . a century hag sufficed to raise
the power of Britain to such a perilous
pre-eminence in Southern Asia. One of
the strangest features of this great drama,
will be seen in the fact, that Britain has
mainly used a native army, to extend her
dominion and consolidate her power, in the
East: It was in 1747, at Bombay, that the
Sepoy force was originated, when one hun•
dred natives of Bombay, and four hundred
from Tellieherry, mere trained and sent to
aid the troops at Madras. From this small
commencement the Indian army has been
increased until it lately numbered, we
believe, above three hundred thousand men.
In Bengal, the troops had chiefly been com
posed of the Brahminical caste; but, in the
other Presidencies, the ranks are filled
from all nations and religious persuasions.
Hitherto, the service has_ been kept up by
voluntary enrolment, and the fact that the
service was sought after, will not appear
surprising when we state, that compared with
his brethren in his native village, the Sepoy
was raised to wealth and dignity. Each
private is attended by two servants, and in
the field, each fighting man has, on an
average, from four to five camp followers.
Then, again, the pay is such as the Sepoy
could not realize at home, while his life is
in general an easy one; and he can confi
dently look forward to a pension, at the end
of his military service. The steady attach
atent of the Sepoy force, to their British
rulers, has again and again been displayed,
in the most extraordinary manner; and
nothing but the most culpable negligence,
and unwarrantable neglect of obvious duty
could have brought about the present
mutiny. All the lamentable occurrences of
the last two months bad been foreseen; the
certainty of their advent had been foretold,
and the means of averting the catastrophe
had been specified. Terrible as the convul
sion has been, we, are willing to view it as a
storm, which sweeping through the heavens,
carries with it the oppressive malaria,
leaving a clear atmosphere behind. We
believe that India is not yet to be lost as a
field of Missions; and we confidently trust,
that when these alarms have passed away,
the result will be seen to be a more sure
consolidation of European power in the
country, and a safer field secured for the
mission of the Gospel.
India has always presented a difficult
problem to the political economist. When
Bengal was gained, by the Company, it was
found that the land revenues were every
where collected by Zemindars, who had
charge of districts. These officers were
paid a per oentage on all the rent which they
collected. The cultivators evaded payment,
the Zemindars were often oppressive, and
military force"was called" in to'compel pay
ment. Aware of the evils of this system,
Lord Cornwallis, in 1793, effected a change.
He vested the title of the lands in the
Zemindars, constituting them great land
lords, as in Britain the owners of estates are,
and he obliged these proprietors to pay a
land tax to the government. In this way
the rent of two hundred thousand square
miles of Bengal is collected. The former
system was evil, and it is now seen that the
one which was substituted for it is open to
censure also. The European and Asiatic
minds are accustomed to view things so
differently that it is a vain attempt to seek
to transform a Ilindoo into an English
farmer, for it was found that the Zemindars
abused their powers and ruined their tenants,
wherever they could, in order to spend the
money, thus gained, in extravagance and
luxury. The late Sir Thomas Munroe, of
Madras Presidency, aware of the evils of
the Zemindar system, secured the adoption
of a different system in that part of India.
According to this plan, the ryot or cultivator
of the soil, was considered the real land
holder. The ryot was called on to pay a
certain fixed rent for his tenure; and this
plan has been found to be free from many
of the evils of the Bengal system. The
collection of this impost, however, is the
difficulty arising from the extreme subdivi
sion of landed property, and the hosts of
agents and sub-agents, who are required for
this office, and who prey on each other and
on the finances,, are such that a change in
the system is felt to be urgently demanded.
This subject has been under the considera
tion of the court of Directors for some time
past and, we believe, that a different order
of things is about to be inaugurated in this
A third system of land rents prevails in
the upper districts of India. Each village
forms a little community or republic by
itself, and for the village and surrounding
region a certain quit-rent is paid. The village
elects a head man, who, collects the rent as
agreed on; and who pays the min over to
the Government official. The Government
officer knows nothing of the cultivators of
the soil. He only comes into contact with
the head man of the village, from whom the
rent is received. This is a prevailing insti
tution in the East, and it seems to be freer
from objections than either of the other
systems, which have existed in Madras and
Bengal. The revenue of the Company
chiefly arises from the land tax, and from
an impost on salt "and opium. For some
years past the income has verged on £30,-
000,000; and for the last three years the
expenditures have been within that sum. The
numerous and expensive wars,[the enormous
public works for the benefit of the people,
in which the authorities have been engaged,
have generally kept the expenditure ahead
of the income. When Burke was assailing
Hastings, he declared, that if the English
were driven out of India, they would leave
no better.traces of their dominion than the
hyena, or the tiger. The condition of affairs
in India has wonderfully changed since the
days of Burke. The formation of canals,
roads, bridges, aqueducts and harbors almost
exceed belief. In 1831, under Lord W.
Bentinek, there were constructed seventeen
hundred and eighty-four miles of road; and
ten thousand persons were employed on
them. Since then, the bridges in the
Madras Presidency, and the enormous pro
vision made for irrigation, in the South of
India, are on -a colossal scale. The canal,
also, in the valley of the Ganges, and the
military roads, connecting Calcutta with
Delhi, Lahore, Attock and Peshawar at the
gates of Cabul, together with the establish
ment of the telegraphic lines, and the great
arteries of railroads; from which branches
are to run in different directiOns, are so many
I evidences that the Government is now
wonderfully alive to the best interests of
That the mutiny will be overruled for
b (rood • that it will lead to the re - organization
of a proper force in Bengal, and to the
exclusion of much that is weak and anti
quated in the Presidencies, we confidently
expect; and that it
Governor General, and his Council, to push
forward such national works as will minister
_national security, while they will benefit
the people at large, we also believe; while, as
we have repeatedly declared our conviction,
to be, we doubt not, but that though the
enemy meant the present distress to be for
the overthrow of the Gospel, the result shall
be otherwise; and in the shaking of the
idolatries of India, at the present time, we
see the advent of the time, when the people
shall cast aside their idols, and hail the Gospel
of t6ir salvation.
To the Farmer.
On our fourth page we give place to an
article on "Barley Growing." It suggests a
very important train of reflection. Farmers
are responsible for their use of the soil.
They are tenants for the Lord, and must
account to hire; and the day of reckoning
will come. They are bound to use, for the
benefit of God's creation, the earth which
he rents to them and blesses. His revealed
word, right reason, and enlightened con
science, are to guide them. The rule of
right they now interpret, by which to order
their ways; but he, also, will interpret, and
will apply the rule, hereafter, when he comes
to judge. And as his award will be eternal,
it is the part of wisdom in them, now to
interpret the rule as strictly as he is likely
to do at that great day.
It has been our advice, from the pulpit
often, and in pastoral visitation, and we
reiterate it, through the press; and it has
been our' practice, too, for we have been
favored with a small proprietory right in the
soil; never to sell a bushel of grain to any
one who would turn it into an, alcoholic
drink. Never, never, since our attention
was turned to the terrible injuries inflicted
by strong drink, could We have any lot or
part in its production. Double prices from
the Brewer or the Distiller, could form no
temptation. God's curse, we verily believe,
would be upon us, in our person or property,
or upon our children for whom we were
endeavoring to acquire gain, if we should do
so. And if not upon .us in this life, to
chastise us, and bring us to repentance, it
would be upon us in the life to come, to our
unending and unspeakable woe.
Barley is a good crop—good food for
domestic animals. So, also, corn and rye
are good. Let farmers raise them freely;
but let them use the grain, which God in
his kindness gives, as a reward to their
industry, in such a way as to promote happi
ness, and not misery, in the land which he
blesses; in such a way as to elevate, and not
depress, humanity; in such a way as to save
and not to destroy the souls which he has
Death of Thomas Dick, LL.D.
This man, whose numerous writings have
instructed and delighted so many, has died
at his, cottage near Bronghty Ferry, in the
vicinity of Glasgow, Scotland, at the age of
83 years. Dr. Dick was not an original
thinker, or a learned theologian, but in pop
ularizing science, and bringing it into the
service of religion, he has had few equals.
The circulation of his works both in Eng
land and this country, has been immense.
The foreign papers also announce the
death of the Rev. W. J. Conybeare, well
known in connexion with Howson, as the
author of the Life and Epistles of St. Paul.
Hanover College, Indiana
The removal of the late President of this
institution, the Rev. Jonathan. Edwards, D.
D., to take charge of the West Arch Street
church, in Philadelphia, seems to have
stimulated the Trustees to renewed exer
tions. At their late meeting they deter
mined to complete, as soon as possible, the
new College • edifice, which will cost $30,-
,000, which has been secured, with the ex
ception of about $200., The selection of a
President has been postponed for one year,
and Professor Thompson has been appointed
President pro tem.
For the Presbyterian Banner and Advocate.
- Fort Wayne Presbytery
Held its meeting in Kendallville on the 11th inst.
The Rev. William Bomar was chosen Modera
tor, and George A. Irvin, Temporary Clerk.
The Rev. Edward Wright was received from
the Presbytery of Miami. His address is Auburn,
The West Arch Street church, Philadelphia,
presented a call for the pastoral services of the
Rev. Dr. J. Edwards. Dr. Edwards was accord
ingly dismissed to the Presbytery of Philadelphia.
The Rev. Cochran Forbes was called to the
church of Kendallville, and during the sessions
of Presbytery he was duly installed. On this oc
casion, the Rev. Win. Boner presided, the Rev. E.
Wright preached the sermon, and the Rev. T. N.
Swan gave the proper charges.
Presbytery altered the time of its stated meet
ings to the first Tuesday of April and October
in each year. The next stated meeting to be at
Mr. Boner was appointed to preach on the
" Deaconship," and Mr Lowrie on the"" Office of
the Holy Spirit," at the next stated meeting.
Thanks were tendered to the Baptist denomina
tion for the use of their house of worship, and to
the people of Kendallvillle, for their hospitality.
J. M. L., Stated Clerk.
Whose despiseth little things, will never at
tempt great things.
Rev. W. L. LYONS' Post Office address is
changed from Vinton, Benton County,
lowa, to Winterset, Madison County,
Rev. TREODORICK Pi YO pastor of the
High Street Presbyterian church, Peters
burg, Va., has been invited to take
charge of the College church, Hampden
Rev. D. E. li3wiNbs' Post Office address is
changed from Somerset, Va., to Gordons
vine, - Va.
Rev.. J. M. HUMPHREYS' Post Office ad
dress is changed from Blountville, Tenn.
to Blacksburg, Va., where he is to be as
sociated withthe Rev. Wir. P. HICKMAN
in the management of a Female school.
Rev. W. W. PHARR'S Post vane aaaress
is changed from Oakland, Cabarras, N.
C., to Statesville, N. C.
Rev. ROBERT MITCHELL, a licentiate of the
Presbytery of Ohio, has received a unan
imous call to become the pastor of the
First Presbyterian church, of Decatur,
Indiana, where he has been laboring, as
Stated Supply, during the past year.
Rev. E. H. RUTHERFORD, a student of
Danville Theological Seminary,. has be
come Stated Supply of the Presbyterian
church, at Vicksburg, Miss., which has
been without a regular pastor since the
death of Rev. B. H. Williams.
BOSTON AND NEW ENGLAND.
The Old and' Established Business
Houses, of Boston, are generally considered
very reliable and free , from the probability
of failure. Yet, sometimes, failures occur
here, as well as in other places, and among
those least suspected. Last week a large
firm failed for $500,000, in consequence of
disastrous losses in the Sugar smoulation.
And the suspension of this house brought
down another, for about the same sum, to
meet which there are assets to the amount
of $250,000. A singular fatality seems to
attend attempts at enormous and unreasona
ble gains in the provision business, through
out this country and Europe.
The Poo• Drunkard is not altogether
forgotten. In this busy and hurried day of
ours, there are still hearts to feel for others'
woes; there are yet hands ready to be
stretched out for the relief of the needy.
Last week an institution for the reformation
of inebriates, was dedicated with becoming
ceremonies, named ";Home for the Fallen."
In time we hope to hear a good report of
its success, although the difficulties in the
way are many.
The fact of the neglect into which the
Divinity School at Cambridge has fallen,
can be concealed no longer. The students
are few and the influence exerted is but
small, notwithstanding all the learning and
advantages connected with it. In his
inaugural discourse, the Rev. Dr. Ellis
presented three alternatives with regard to
the course to be pursued in reference to
this School. First, it may drag along a
listless and ineffective course, having but
few students, and thus being let alone:
Second, a bold and unshrinking avowal of
the peculiar tenets of modern Unitarianism,
in opposition to orthodoxy; and third, the
employment of able and earnest men in the
interest of all the leading Sects, after the
manner of the German Universities, when
pupils from the various denominations can
be congregated, each one retaining his own
peculiar views. Of these three alternatives
Dr. Ellis chooses the last, and considers
himself right in accepting his present
appointment, became he can teach an unsec
tarian theology. He distinctly avows him
self uncommitted to any of the peculiar
views of any denomination, and claims the
right to change las prOadices,.bias, and
even, convictions, "without penalty or justifi
tion." In plain language he seems to avow
himself destitute altogether of any settled
religious opinions. Certainly a strange
acknowledgment and wondrous recommen
dation for a teacher of theology!
On the Ist of January, 1857, there were )
in connexion with the general Congrega
tional Association, of lifassachusetts, four
hundred and seventy-two churches, three
hundred and fifty pastors, sixty stated sup
plies, and one hundred and fifty ministers
'without charge—making in all five hundred
clergymen. The whole number of members
was sixty-seven thousand six hundred and
fifty-six, of whom twenty-one thousand and
fifty-seven were males and forty-five thou
sand five hundred and forty-eight females—
more than two to one in favor of the females.
There are seventy thousand one hundred
and eighty-seven reported members of the Sab
bath Schools, or an average of one hundred
and forty-seven to each school.
The four largest Sabbath Schools are the
Pine Street church, Boston, . . . . . 730
Winthrop church, Charlestown, . . . 552
Maverick church, East Boston, . . . . 526
Winnisimmet church Chelsea, . . . . 502
The four oldest churches are the follow
West Barnitable, gathered at Southwark,
London, . . ..... . . . 1616
Tabernacle church, Salem, . . August 6, 1629
First church, Lynn, . . . . . . . 1632
South Marshfield . . . . . . 1682
The four largest churches are the follow
Park Street church, Boston, . . . . 705
Mt. Vernon church, " . - . . 666
First church; Pittsfield, . . 635
John Street, Lowell, • • • . . 518
Or deducting absent members, respective
ly :—Five hundred and eighty-five, four
hundred and eighty-nine, three hundred and
fifteen, and three hundred and eighty-eight.,
The ministers who have been settled a
half century or more, in one place are the
Dr. Cooley of East Granville, settled, Rah. 3,1696
Dr. Snell of North Brookfield, " June 27, 1798
Mr. Braman of< Georgetown, " June, 7, 1799
Mr Emerson of South Reading, " Oct. 17, 1804
Dr. Emerson of Salem,, ''April 24, 1805
Mr. Kimball of Ipswic, " Oct. 8,'1806
Dr. Ely of Monson, Dec. 17, 1806
In the fourteen cities of Massachusetts,
the proportion of Females to every one hun
dred Males was, in 1855, as follows ; in
Boston 108 ; Lowell 153 ; Worcester 104;
Charlestown 102 ; Salem 120 ; Cambridge
]10; New Bedford 110; Roxbury 111;
Lawrence 117; Lynn 111; Springfield:ll2;
Newburyport 123; Fall River 116;
Not only have the Literary L ut i t ,„ :
received largely from private
also from the fostering hand of th e s tat ,
while it is to be greatly deplored tha t
institution that has received most,
under the control of those, whose rsii„i ru ,
sentiments are opposed to those
large majority of the people of the Ct.l en .
wealth. The indebtedness of the
colleges of Massachusetts to the pub!,,, r .
Bury, from which each has received
suited in the following statement. ,t ; ,, :
Harvard from its foundation, in 11;:.:1;,
fore its charter; Williams, from its
in 1793; and Amherst, from its eltit r
1825: Harvard, in 221 years, has
$216,000, being 6977 per year;
in 64 years, $46,500, $726 per year; 2,„:
herst, in 32 years, $25,000, $7Bl per yel,r.
Niss Mitchell, the famous Astro - new t
Nantucket, is now abroad on a visit to
different European Observatories. It
been determined to erect or secure
Observatory for herself at a cost of 8:10 1 , ,
by donations from friends and adaiir ti .
Some ladies of Philadelphia have afro, ~
contributed one third of the sum, al ,
President Pierce, of Harvard and
Edward Everett are engaged in sccurik
The New Englander has been purelm,':
by 'Mr. Kingsley, son of the late Profe,
Kingsley, who will henceforth be both pr,
prictor and editor. He is said to be a fir
scholar, possessed 'of large and correc•
information, and to have enjoyed IL..
advantages of European travel. Arma
ments have been made both in this couDt:-,-
and Europe for obtaining able and int,2r
eating articles from some of the ablim
writers of the day.
The Baptists of Connecticut have ova
hundred and fourteen churches, eighty-m )
settled pastors, and a membership of sixteen
thousand two hundred and thirty-one.
There were added by baptism, last year,
hundred and forty-one. This denomination
has decreased somewhat in this State, swirl?,
as it is said to emigration to other parts.
Already six thousand looms have been
stopped in the Cotton _Hills of New ..E;, 3 .
land; and orders have been given for stow
ing many more as soon as the present suppli.
of yarn is exhausted. The cause is tx:
found in the want of cotton, but in the
great amount of cotton machinery employed.
The supply of manufactured articles is to.
great for the demand, at any thing
remunerative prices, when the high priee3
of raw cotton is taken into account. it
one time in England thirty thousand loran
have been stopped from the same cause, an:
the prices were quickly raised on account
the curtailment of production. Through=
the, Eastern States the crops have been
unusually good. Never were the labors o!
the farmer and gardener more amply repaid.
Thus far the Season has been remark:•
bly healthy in this and all the large cities c
the land. Wondrously have the peop:
been protected from "the pestilence th
walketh in darkness, and the destructic:
that wasteth at noonday."
The General °rash apprehended by
many close and experienced observers of li,
iness movements, has not happened. Thei
have been heavy failures, and many suspen
sions, and railroad securities are at a hear:: '
discount; but the general business of tea
country has suffered no interruption. her
buy as freely, invest as largely, and spetl
as prodigally as ever. Every week brine:
to light some new instance of dishonesty a
the part of those entrusted with the mear.:
of others because of the expensive style
living adopted. One of the Clerks of the
St. Nicholas Hotel has been arrester,.
charged with embezzling funds to tie
amount of from $30,000, to $lOO,OOO, anti
has, confessed to - Wring $5,000. It is se?•
posed that this want of integrity has bee:
occasioned by expensive habits, and a de•
termination to keep pace with others in t!•:
dangerous race of fashion.
The deluded followers of Walker
continue, to, return in the greatest destitu
tion, and :suffering severely from disease.
Many of them are fohnd in the Park, gel' ,
ing to obtain the means of returning bore:
and a large meeting has been held for the
purpose of procuring means for their relief.
If Walker should make another foray upon
Central America, it is not probable that the
present condition of those who ralliei
around him in his first attempt, or his deser
tion of them now, will be very strong sir.
guments toward raising recruits.
Mr. Peabody sailed in the Persia oal e d.
nesday, the 19th inst. During his sojor=
of about a year in this country, he travelec.
13,000 miles, and visited twenty-six SO'
of the Union, and also the Canadas. is
this time bis donations to various objEc'
have amounted to nearly half a million; ll'
subscribed $50,000 to the Atlantic
graph Company, and gave $lO,OOO tow,'
providing the Insurance on the cable. Ft'
vious to his departure, a magnificent
quent was given in honor of him, at New'
port, It. 1., by Mr. Wetmore, of N. I .
Over two thousand guests were invited. 1 :
is said'that he intends to return after 2 1
riod of three years, and make his per''' .
nent home in the land that gave him bull,
During his progress through New au*"
shire, he stopped at the same tavern wile' :
in boyhood he had paid for his lodging °`':
night, by working in the morning SCI
A vessel has been fez. some days cruising t? , -
the coast of New Foundland, for the purr'
of intercepting the fleet, consisting of
vessels, engaged in laying the great Atla'' • '
Telegraphic Cable, which we hope will a-s‘
arrived, and completed safely its w 1 '
fore this issue reaches our readers•
fleet left Cork on the 3d day of
just three hundred and sixty-five years at:` :
the sailing of Columbus from rios,
Spain; and on the 7th, the shore.cal.l.