Presbyterian banner & advocate. (Pittsburgh, Pa.) 1855-1860, February 14, 1857, Image 2

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

ititifan Tobricatt„
Tiltitnior 4 lols . briiiiirdiiiiiiel or in Chita,
sl.2sLorolhipirircqi i4,residonoem of Subsert.
borills l l ll . l3 . -° •ileol i riiiinectuir, on Third Pao.
it in it RIVAL S . should be prompt; a little
while before the year expires, that we may
ts for a adY'supply.
.1 1 ilit indlintes that we
• desire a renewal. If, however, in the haste
Pt mailing, this signal should be omitted, we
bops l ot rtill'xiot ‘ fm;get 'nil. •
REMITTAISCP.S.--:Sand pa yment by lilt
hands,, when convenient. Or send by mail,
eneloilifruoitirOrdhiarjeste, Sind
nobody wit:. a knowledge of what you are
doing. Per a large amount, send u Draft, or
large' ittit.w. For ONO or two Fermi, Send Gold
or small notes.
TO MAZE ORANGE, Send postage litantps,
or better SOO, mend for more papery say $2
for Seventy nansboroo or 111 for Tharty.three
I:IMAM all Letters slid Common!cation*
to ItE.V. DAVID ;Alclfibfell V. VlitOtputgai
WANT ,OF SPACE obliges us to lay aside a
number of excellent communications. The
writers have our cordial thanks for their
REVIIA:—Nre learn that' a powerful re.
vival is in 'progress at Bellefontaine,
sixty persons had nnited with, the church,
and some, twenty-five, more were awaiting
the next eoznutunion.,
THE ECCLESIASTICAL Ywirt in the peon,
nary accounts of our , Boards, closes with
this month. It is:hence, desirable that all
moneys collected, should be forwarded
without delay,to the respective "treasuries,
that they may - he' embraced in the 'Annual
Statement Payments made, after plarch
Ist, will be they nest fiscal year.,,
The Presbyterian and the r. Y. Observer.
These giants of 'the religious press, are
engaged in violent conflict. The OCCASION,
was a remiiiof the' foriner relative to the
slow progress pf Old-School Presbyterianism
in N. Y:—.but one "first claia.7 church
having been added to the number, in twenty.
five years, while the population had increas
ed four-fold: The latter dissents from the
statement, and defends New York. The
Presbyterian claims a N. Y. minister as au
thority, and maintains a right to speak, in
the family, of family matters, with a view
of stimulating its improvement. The dis
cussion is tart, and rather personal.
Washington College, Pa.
The " Proceedings and Addresseir " at the
Semi-Centennial Celebration of Washington
College, are before us, in , a neatly executed
pamphlet, from - the press of Shryock, in this
City : Price 18 eta
It was our privilege to be present on the
occasion described, and to hear the Adress
e& They were eXcellent, and the publica
tion was a duty which the College owed to
itself, and to its worthy Alumni, the, speak-
We . have here, I: TEE' CRUCIFIXION
OF CHRIST, by Rev. Franklin Moore,
ALUMNI, by. Robert H Koonts,
Washington, Pa.' 111. HISTORICAL , AD
DRESS, by Rev J:dmes L Brownson, Wash
Dr. Thomas H .Elliott, Allegheny City, Pa.
Productions, such as these,'are highly"in
stractive: tvery Airmails will, of 'course,
possess a copy; aid" other persens , may read
with benefit.
Day of Prayer for, Colleges.
The twenty-sixth day of .this mouth was
appointed, by the list General Msembly, as
a season of speoial prayer for' our youth
Colleges, and other institutions of learning.
The order is ailollows
Itesolved, That, though Christians should pray
habitually to the 41 Lord of the harvest," yet, in
thankful remembrance •of the signal'marks of
Divine favor, with which„the observance of a
special season of prayer has heretofore been at
tended, this Assetnbly recomniends that 'the last
Thursday of February, 1 5 357, 'be obseried by the
churches as a day of prayer 'for the bleising of
God on the work of the ministry,' espeoially in its
relation to the baptized children of the Church ;
and for the out• pouring of the Spirit on.the youth
of our land, particularly those under instruction
in our various institutions of learning:.
On the day named, many Chinches be
sides our own will he itrofessedly engaged
in the same seiviee • and if all shall ,he
truly engaged, the blessing will be great.
Let the private devotions of each individual
have reference to the subject. Let there be
importunity in family worship. And let ,the
sanctuary—every sanctiiirY—be crowded,
by parents and their children, and by, all the
people, with earnestness of, desire. Pastors
will delight to lead the solemn exercises, and
to adapt their preaching, and their praying,
to the deeilly interesting object:
Church Members Removing.
Multitudes of communicants change their
habitations, removing, mostly from the East
to the. West. Thousands of these are lost
to the church of their- fotmer connexion.
They are far.fram.a PiesbYterian congrega
tion; are unknown as Christians ;, there is
no one to look after them they become
careless; they live without ,the ordinances,
or they unite with some other denomination,
which may be nearer to them, more alert
than we are, and perhaps' somewhat prose
A. minister at 'Louisiana, Mo., Itev. David
0. Irvin, suggests,, as a remedy:: s Ist—That
members should, as far as practicable, be dia:
=missed to some existial church', rather than
td the church "most convenient.' 2d. That,
whatever be the form of dismission,, the
pastor and session granting it, shall write to
the pastor and session whither the'einber
removes, stating the fact of his rierriberShip,
and requesting a due attention to his spiritual
A proper obierviinoe of these acts of-kind
ness toward our migrating brethern, follow
ing a previous puliit and personal instruc
tion as to the duty of keeping up an un-:
broken - tonnezion with Christ's fatally,
would, we doubt pot, : save to our Church
vast multitudes, and grestly,strengthen the
oause of Presbyterianismtiu the , rapidlY set
tling Weft.'
The Neglect of Baptism.
In reading the lAe number of the Prince
ton Review, we took'some notes on its sta
tistics relative to Infant Baptism, which we
intended as the basis of an article. Our cor-
responaent, 44 G. W. 5.," however, has
„, •
ticipated us, and his' trea . ted the anbjeet so
ably, that but few remarks from our pen are
The tables given by the Reviewer, the de
ductions and suggestions, are all greatly val
uable, and the - Churoh is under an ohliga
tton for the article. But it is liable to the
criticisms which-have-been made.
We had noted, as causes for the large ra
tio of baptisms to the communicants,in the
early history, one to six, cOmpared to that of
the late history, one to`twenty, the following':
1. Then, it was very customary to baptize the
children of all in the congrega'tion, who had
beSn; themselves, baptized, and who walked
orderly, though neither parent was a column
nicating member. • ,
2. It was then so common, in Some'
places; at least, as it now to enter the
Church young: i'ersons, then, were
wont to marry fiat,' and settle in ,life • so
that a very large portion of , the communi-r.
cants were made to sustain' the relation of
3: The marriage relation was then enter
ed into, (as it is in newly settled ,cointries,)
,earlier in life, and more generally.
4. Baptism was.more appreciated; as be
coming, as a' duty, and as a real benefit; and
the neglect of it was regarded as both a die
grace and a sin.
5. .Church,offieers looked 'more after the
state of,their. charge', by visiting, catechi-
6. Our Church has declinedin denomina
tional zeal. -. There is less effort, We,fear, to
make converts--to bring iii parents, with their
large families of children. And even the
ardency of desire to keep :our own chil
dren in the communion in which they were
born; has declined..,,
We simply: state these thoughts, leaving,
our readers to elahorate them for themselves.
The' article in the Review will, doubtless,
be extensively read, ,by .Ministers' and El
ders. We commend to them, also, the re.
marks, of 44 G.' W. S.
The agitation of the subject is opPortnne.
It was greatly needed. As to the ratio of
children born in; the Churoh, to the number
of communicants, we still think our esti
mate of last summer, one to ten, was about
correct. It is the result of observation, for
many years, in a tolerdbly densely settled
part of the country. It is too large, we
know, for city life, and smaller than in the
newer districts of country. '
The remedy for the painful neglect, now
becoming so prevalent, of - this holy, hlessed,
and blissful ordinance, of God, is with the
officers, of the Church. Let the people be
taught its Divine authority, and be instruct
ed in its benefits; and let official and so
cial duties be faithfully discharged toward'
the baptized, that the benefits of the cove
nant may be fully enjoyed, and a reforma
tion will be speedily inaugurated ;` and Zi
on's righteousness
,will shine with bright
Threatened Ruptue.
The union of the New . School Presby
terians and the Congregationalists, in their
Educational and Missionary efforts, was, for a
One', intimate and cordial. But e±"perience
ha's shown that the elements are discordal
and cannot coalesce. There have been
seperate 'counsels and divisive adieu, for the
last two or three years, With reference to
their interests in the West, where ;each de
nomination is exceedingly,anxious, both to
hold its own, and to grow. •
In accordance with this'feeling, 'the New
Yorli'ministers, Pis. SMith, Adares, Skin
ner,.and others, recently signe a strong re
commendation of Rev. S. K. Snied, agent
for Yellow Springs College,
,lowa, to their
chniches. Upon'this the Puritan' Recorder
"We lut,cl supposed that Congregationalists and
New School Presbyteiians had agreed to : make all
their contributions' to: the cause of education at,
the West through the College Society. It np
pears, however that our Presbyterian friends ad
here to the “Union " only so far as suits their
convenience as a denomination. We ask you to
note the poSition of theie,Presbyteriatt ministers
as. one of many thingk which indicate that the
union between Congregationalists and New &hoot
Presbyterians is becoming . merely nominal, and"
ought to be done , away." ; .,
This certainly looks like dissociation: We
'do not; . however, condenin either of the
parties ; though both have been wont to talk
very largely in favor of Trnion, and to,speak
of .us Old School folks as Seperatists.
tint union, as we regard it, , does not 'consist
in the amalgamation, of dissimilar materials,
:but .rathev in • each ,member of the body
possessing the true life, and being intimate=
ly attached to, and direCted by, the 'One
Head, and 'performing its own part in its
own place and sphere ; none being hostile
to, nor reproaching, nor injuring another.
When Christian denominations:recognize
each other, and live in love, and oppose the
common foe, there is a union such as is
regarded with approbation by the Master of
the family.
If, then, there should - be a rupture, such as
that which is threatened, it may be only the
bursting of bonds of human conception, and
which will leave each party less trammeled,
and more vigorous, to act in `promoting the
one great cause;
The Hoamatologioal Arpuz!.ent for the
Unity of the Humanßiee
Nen of Science abound in their:investiga
tions into the arcana of nature. In this; often
without being aware of it; they are contrib
uting to the establiihing of the truthfulness
of Divine Revelation, and to the elucidation
of Biblical teachings. Sometimes they have
used their discoveries, with a great flourish
of trumpets, as weapons of power against
God's Word; but their triumPhs have ever
been but brief Science haSalwaysrecoiled
frOin the injurious application. She has' re
fuied to, abide_ in the false position. tAs oft
as important discoveries have been Makin
the'previnusly hidden thingsof God's works,,
thire'llive -been• Christian men, ready and
able, to.sbow that these are but new elizei
datioas and confirmations of God's Word.
Thus Science proves herself the hand
maid of revealed religion. The Author of
Nature and of Revelation is one and the
same; and his teachings in the two books of
instruction harmonize perfectly.
• Among the latest discoveries in the field
of scientific research, is the. fact, that the
hunian blood is physically different from the
blood of beasts; and that this difference is
so. appreciable, under the . : Microseope,
it can be ascertained with certainty. The
globules axe Welr defined, - peculiar;and
This physiological fact is one of great in
terest in itself, and its applications are ser
viceab 'o truth. BY it the culprit, with
drops of blood on his weapon and his rai
ment, is proved the murderer. This fact
also furnishes us with a resistless argument
for the unity of the human race. And to
this 'use it is well appropriated by our cor
respondent; — L'AvEisuu, to whose article we
invite particular attention.'
The Scientific , especially, are requested to
examine. the fact, , andhiote the justness of
Its application. The argument is new, but
it is valuable; and the fact being clearly
proved that the blood of the 00,1110afiall,
Mongolian, African, &c. &c., is one, the con
:elusions intimated by our correspondent are
resistless. The theory of Agassiz, Nott, and
others, of different primal families, pales and
vanishes under the accumulating eVidenee
of essential and minute physiological MUM'
136, discovered; by Scientific investigation.
If all men are physically of one blood, it
is strong confirmation of the troth that Mo
ses, when 'he received the history of the
Creation, and Paul, when he taught the
,prcsd. Athenians, were under the instrue- ,
lion of Nature's Author; and hence that all
the nations are from one original family.
This vast empire is, at present, greatly
agitated ; The Insurgents are pressing the
Government severely. The English and
Americans have assailed Canton in a way
,c • threatens desperate warfare; and the
Frei h are just `n waiting tb insist on the
same terms demanded by the others. The
progress of the Gospel, and the success cif
our Missions, are so deeply affected by the
posture,of '.fffirs, that we are greatly pleased
to:be able to lay before our readers a state
ment, by Er. flapper, showing the origin of
the antou troubles and the ends aimed at,
~ ,
by the English, ench, and Americans.
The right, and the morality, political,
social, and reigious, of forcing a p ople, at
the cannons' in ,uth, to admit us into their
cities and payees, and t. receive our trade,
we should not like to be called, upon to •de
fend; but when such things belong to civ
ilized historyy, and are connected with'the
credit or discredit of the Gospel, and with
the success, or the hindrance, of Gur mission
ary operations, we cannot but feel an interest
in them, and regard it a duty to make of
them as correct, a statement as practicable.
Dr. Rapper's intimate aecinaintance with
affairs in 0:t &on, from his r€ si 1t bet there
and his ; private letters, in addition to the
'newspaper accounts, enable him to give us
reliable information.
The P.resbyteriai Critic.
A friend writes to us : " ' All the talents'
cannot, keep, alive the Critic. Surely you
should:write an epitaph for it. '_lt deserves
this' at your hands. Why not be first ?"
Now, we always like to beamong the first,
in deeds of generosity; but, in this case, we
were deprived of the possibility of giving an
early notice of the decease of the distinguish-
Isd departed. • The Critic ceased, last spring,
• .
to visit us. We expressed our regret to one
of the Editors, and were very politely assur
ed that the failure was not intentional, and
,that we .should. be regularly honored. Not
seeing , our friend for months, we became so
licitous, and, on inquiry, learned that there
had been a. peaceful expiration. Hence our
surprise was great, at learning that the final
exit was a thing so recent. But now, it is
o more
The Critic started into being, like 'Min
erva from the head of Jupiter, in full vigor,
and armed cop-a-pee. For one year it had
its promised existence, appearing 'monthly,
with exhibitions of strength and sprightli:
neiss. It started a second year with a semi
existence—lto appear 'bi-monthly. The first
No. reached us, but since, we saw, it not.
The reason assigned for the discontinuance
of the Critic is, the call of one of the edi..
tors to it professor's Chair, and
. the unwill
inguess of the' other, alene, to, continue the
.But we anticipate the establishing of
a magazine to 'occupy the , vacancy yhichif
had promised to'fill: 'A' journal is needed'
which shall combine great talent in its
management, and allowitself much latitude
in discusaion. There are matters of living
interest connected with our Church, and
with its relations to other churches, and to
human society, and to' literature.and science
in all their departments, to which the Maga
zine is just adapted; and we shall rejoice to
see distinguished ability,learning and'piety,
unitedly, enter this field of usefulness: We
even hope , to see'such a journal ; and should
brother Peck, whose capabilities are eminent,
see proper to resuscitate the departed, either
with the old, or with a new name, it will find
a cordial welcome with us, as well as with
For the Presbyterian Benner and Advocate.
- = The Troubles in China. `'
- PinghIIIIGH, Feb. 6, 1867
Mr DEAR Da. WlClssav :—The interest exci
ted in the minds of: the community by the recent
bombardment of Canton, by the British forces,
will jUstify the occupying of some space in your
paper, with an account of the proceedings of
the British at Canton, in reference to the right of
entrance to the city, as connected with the
present difficulties. , It may be premised that the
prejudice and hostility against foreigners existed
more strongly at eanton thail anywhere else in
the ' country. In the 'treaty between Great
Britain and China, which was made at the close'
of the Opium War, it was stipulated that British
Consuls and merchants, might reside at each of
the cities of p - antion, Amoy, Fttohau, Niugpo, and
Shanghai. The language used in, tiny treaty,.
in regard 'to• the plade of residence, is hot so
specific as , to ufean, beyond' all controveriy,'
side,the walls'of the several eiths; As there was.
• , :;altta
no particular prejudice against foreigners at the
other places, and as the right to enter had no fic
titious importance, there has been no continued
opposition to free intercourse with: the, part in
side the walls, at the other cities. But the peo
ple and authorities at Canton have manifested,
from the time the - treaty• was Signed, 'a disposition
to continue the exclusion, of ;foreign officials, as
as' merchant's;. froth inside the city. Indeed;
there is great reason to believe that it was
specially designed to exclude officials, as well as
to disparage foreigners in the eyes of. the people::
Canton is'he resicleaCe of the Chinese Commis:*
sioner, with whom the Representatives of the
three treaty powers, viz., the United States,
Great Britain, and ,Francephave official inter
course: Considereci''lmportint - by' the
Chinese that they should not have access to his
official.residence. -The•Chinese prefer •to conduct
their correspondence with foreign Ministers in
writing, rather than during personal interviews.
The narrative will show how .pertinaciously the
Chinese have persisted in their efforts to keep
foreigners out of the city, and how badly the
British have conducted the negotiation. Soon
after the signing of the treaty at Nanking, on
August 29th, 1842, the British Commissioner, Sir
'Henry Pottinger, was invited to an entertainment
by the liberal and, enlightened statesman, Key
ing, at his official residence, inside the walla of
Canton—the palace which was recently destroyed
,by the ; British forces. Keying being Tartar,
had none of the exclusive prejudice of the, Can
tonese; Sir Henry'accepted the invitation. But
as soon,as, it was known amongst the people, op
position was mede to his being entertained inside
the city. In consequence of this popular oppo
sition, Keying wrote to Sir Henry, explaining the
'difficulty, and „requesting him to accept of his .
hospitality olaside of the city. A man, who had'
enjoyed' so much intercourse with Eastern na
tions as Sir Henry, ought to have seen, at once,
`how thisi would serve as a precedent, and refused
to accede'to any'change'of the place of recep
tion, 'But the invitation was accepted for outside
the city. ; Though the Chinese :claim Sir Henry's
example as giviiigenp the question, the British
did not withdraw their claim to the right to free
and unrestricted intercourse with the city. And
When the Claim Was. refused, Sir John Davis; who
succeeded Sir. Henry in 1846, took strong mea
sures to procure, the admission of the right by
the Chinese: The British continued to hold,
sifter the i'treaty Wee: Bigueo, two islands, as se
curity for, the payment of the indemnity 'of
twenty- one'millions of dollars, which they exacted
•of the Chinese for the confiscated opium, and the
expenses of the .war. Sir John refused to denier
up' one of these unless their claims to en
ter the , eity of Canton was admitted. In conse
quence of this r a, distinct admission of the right
to entrance, and a prornise.that the right should
be' enjoyed as soon as the people were prepared
for it, were given by the late Emperor of China.
But the indefinite, language of the promise was
the occasion'of fresh controversy. Who was to
judge when the people were ready? Up to 1847
no progress had been made toward enjoying the
','right, and there was no disposition manifested to
comply with the• promise. ' Sir John Davis re
solved on using coercive measures. He planned
a. secret expedition from Hong-Kong, and in the
latter part 'of . March, 1847, the 'British forces
went up. to. Canton, capturing all the forts that
guard the approaches to the city, and spiked
some eight hundred guns. He took military pos-
session of, the residences occupied by the foreign
community. He made certain demands of, the
Chinese, and having arranged all the forces so as
to, command the city, he declared that unless his
demands, were complied with, by a certain hour,
he - would order the guii to be opened upon the
city. His terms were acceded to one half hour
before the signal to open fire was to be given.
But instead of stipulating for the immediate en
trance to the city, the time for its enjoyment was
fixed to commence two.years from that day. The
Chinese, when they saw the British forces
-retire, and the city still closed to the entrance of
foreigners, considered it as a triumph—their feel
ings were greatly exasperated by their course.
'This irritation was kept up during the whole of
the two years., The lest months of the time
was occupied by the Chinese in raising volunteer
troops, collecting ammunition and provisions,
and raising large contributions to' meet the ex
penses. And by the 6th of April, 1849, the
day when the stipulation to open the city was
'to be carried into effect, there was a force of fifty
thousand volunteer troops to resist, the carrying
out the stipulation. But before this time, owing
to the 'state. of ' Europe in 1848 and 1849, the
British Government had sent out instructions to
Sir - George Bonham, that he should insist on the
fulfilment of the stipulation. by all peaceable
means, but ,her must not resort to any forcible
means. These instructions were known to the
Chinese Governer General before the .stipulated
day arrived. And though it was believed• by
many if the question had been, open the city, or
be involved in'war with Britain, the Chinese Gov
ernment would have fulfilled the stipulation, yet,
as no such immediate. consequence was to follow,
the gates 'were kept closed against foreigners.
The present Governor General was" then Governor:
The late Ereperer conferred special titles of honor
upon the Governor General and. Governor for their
management, in keeping the British' out of the
city.; the Emperor also, distributed honors among
those who had. been 'distinguished :for their co
oPeration in raising men and moneV. The Em
peror ordered that, six triumphal arches should be
erected in as many different places around the city,
to commemorate this great victory over the British,
Their arches were ,erected on solid granite pit
la 6, with • an over-laying arch r on which was in-
Scribed an account of the reason for their
erection. , •
The question of entering the city has, never
been opened"sitice thit time.
,The arrogance of,
the Chinese was greatly increased' by their' sup
posed victory, whereas the British were marking
up their scores for future settlement, and biding
their time.
In regard to the'origin of the recent collision,
it was as follow,s :. On the Sth of October last, a.
coasting vesiel, was entitled to carry
British colors froni having been . registered at the
Britisit colony of ; Hong-Kong, was anchored in
the rlVei opposite' the city. y his vessel was com
manded -by an Englishman,' but the crew were
Chinese sailors It was , boarded , by a Chinese
military' officer, in command of some Chinese sol
diers, who seised, and carried off twelve "of the
sailors, stating that they. were charged with. The Captain immediately applied to
the British Conant. He immediately went
on board, and endeavored to dissuade the
officer from carrying off, in this irregular manner,
men who were'sailing under the British flag; and
stating that if there was any-charge against any
of them, lie, as the,magistrate having jurisdiction
in the case, would'give every facility for the pros
ecution of the matter. ,The Chinese officer, feel
hig lie was safe in carrying out the commands of his
superior;' and impatient of the interference of a
British`official, was net very courteous to the Con
sul, and persisted in parrying out his commission..
The Consul then addressed a communication to
tile Governor, General; complaining'of the indigni
ty,done to the British flag, and the violation Of the
stipulations of the treaty pertaining to such ea
ses. He deinanded that the twelve men should be
returned to the vessel, that a promise should be
given - that there would be no repetition of the in
sult, and that the British flag should be saluted
with twenty-one guns'-As no such apology wai giv
en, even after the British Minister took up the
correspondence, the matter was placed inthe hands
of the British Admiral, to exact reparsition by.
force. Very soon after the commencement of hos
tilities nine of the men were sent to, the Consu
late, with a note. But neither 'were received by
the Consul. Sometime after, the other three,
against whom the charge was sustained, together
with the witness, were sent in company with the
nine others, to the British Consulate, but neither
were-they then received. They must be sent on
board the :vessel, from which they had been taken.
The facts in regard to the participation of
Americans are as follows. In the ,early stage of
the difficulties , an American, steamer, on 'a pleas
ore. excursion, having a picnic party composed
of French and Americans, gentlemen and ladies,
went' up an' unfrequented river, which is called
the Inner Passage from Maeas to Canton. When
somelerty miles from Canton, the steamer came
near a city called Ileang-Shan—as they were near
ing a fort, built, it is said, to guard , against pi
rates, guns were fired across their, bow. to stop
their piogress. After the course of the vessel
was changed, no subsequent gun was fired. The
American Consul at Canton, Mr. Perry, •wrote •to
the Governor General complaining of this pro
ceeding, on the part of those in command at the
fort. It is stated he received, in answer to this
communication; a polite reply, promising to ex
amine into the matter, and to give injunctions for
bidding the like in future.
But subsequently, when the American Marines
were guarding the. Foreign Residences, thus leav
ing all, the ,British force free to engage, against the
Chinese, after an American Consul had accompa
nied thh British force into the city, at the sacking
of the Governor:General's palace, on Saturday
evening, Nov. 15th, a number of Americans were
going from yhampos, (the anchorage of Foreign
Shipping, which is some 12 miles below ,Canton,)
'to Canton; in a taan.of-war's boat. 'While pas
;:sing somelditti,lrbliik are situated on debit bank
of the river and about six miles from Canton,
they were fired into fr6m the forts. :They turned
back, and went to the U. S. vessel, theyortsmouth.
Was it surprising, in the state of exasperated feel
ing among the people, and when the American
flog had been in some manner compromised in the
thiit 'the' bital 'tra's 'fired upon by some
of the Buhalterns in a petty fortl l e,oommuui•
cation hacrbeen sent to the OoYdriscii - General,
stating to him, that in guarding the Residences of
Foreigners, they must not be regarded as co-ope
rating with.the British, that the government must
not be held responsible for: an act of one of its
officers which hrd been disavowed by a higher of
ficer, and then complaining of the action of some
of the 'military . , officers, iticlitaniapd at ; thesiForta,
in firing•upon 'American ci diens - when - passing,
who can doubt as to what would have been the
purport - of the - reply - frourthir Chinese ' Commie=
sioner? Instead of this course, however, being
pursued, the next morning, though it was the,Sab
bath, withoutany 'communication with Dr. Park
er, our own Commissioner in China, the vessels of
war were moved up the river, and fire opened up
on the forts: On Monday morning, before the '
firing was renewed, Dr. Parker having arrived at
Whampoa, the Naval Commander had an interview
with him, and, as it is understood, by his inter
ference, the attack was suspended, and a oommu
nication sent to the Governor General, demand
ing an apology within twenty-four' hours. No
such apology was received, as . after the lapse
of the stipulated time, the attack was rene.ved on
the forts, and the whole four, which mounted souse
166 guns, were dismantled. Subsequently the
Americans withdrew from guarding the Foreign
Residences in Canton; and were awaiting the pro
gress of affairs.
The French were also waiting future develop
ments, and ready to avail themselves of any, op
portunity to press the settlement of their com
plaints against the Chinese Government.
While it may be interesting to know the past
history, and the present posture of affairs, it is a
much more momentous matter to consider what
is to be the ,developments of the future. , The
British Admiral has signified his intention to re
frain from further aggressive measures ; to remain
on the defensive, holding military possession of a
part of the city of Canton, till the Chinese Gov
ernment should accede to their requisitions, or,
in case it does not, till the British Government
communicated its instructions.* The Chinese ap
peared, at the last dates, more determined in their
resistance than at any preceding time. It would
be very unfortunate for the future peace of the
countries, if the matter should be adjusted on the
terms proposed by the . Admiral. After all that
has been said and done, about the free intercourse
with the city, the Admiral proposes to arrange it,
by insisting merely on British officials being per
mitted to visit the Chinese officers,, at their offi
cial residences inside the city.
It was stipulated in the several treaties made
with Britain, the United States, and France, that
they should be revised at the exPiratien of twelve
years. This time has' expired; but though all
three Governments have made efforts to secure
such a revision, and the increase of commercial
privileges, the Chinese Government has post
poned any action in the premises. The British
and American Ministers went up near Peking, to
present a communication relating to it. The Em
peror appointed a high officer to receive their
communications ; he politely bowed them away
from the vicinity of the capital, to the designated
Commissioner of Foreign Affairs at Canton. Let
ters from the Queen of Great Britain and the Preai
dent of the United States have been returned un
opened. •
The London. Times now urges, as the British
Government have been thus precipitated into a
war with China, they shciuld insist on the inter
course between the two nations being placed on a
satisfactory basis. That they should not only in.
stet on free intercourse with the city of Canton,
but that the Minister should be permitted to re
side at Peking, the capital of the Empire, instead
of being restricted to official intercourse with a
Commissioner resident at Canton. This measure
is one of the greatest importance, and one which
all the three treaty powers could safely unite in
demanding, as one calculated in every way to
subserve the interests of permanent peace, and
the best interests of humanity.
If the Admiral waits for instructions from the
British Government, they will not be received till
the latter part of this month. There is time and
call for special prayer to the Ruler of all nations,
that he would overrule all things for his own
glory, and to prepare a high way for the progress
of the Gospel. For this, let much prayer he
offered. Yours, very truly,
* The assault , on the city , was renewed, as we learn from
more recent advices.;---Eo. ' '
Ehatern Correspondence.:
NEW YORK, Feb. 7, 1857
MR. EDITOR:—" How can Presbyterian-
ism be made more effective,among the labor
ing classes I" was a question recently dis:
cussed here by a companY of gentlemen.
Not . that it fails altogether to reach them
even in cities, where it seems more prosperous
among the commercial and professional por
tion of the community. 'There is nothing
in it, as a system, to exclUde the poor from
its benefits, 'as is seen by the great numbers
which it embraces in its communion, especi
ally in districts where it predominates, and
also by such efforts as Dr, Chalmers success
fully, made to gather the dregs of a city,
population into a church under its auspices.
Certainly, Presbyterianism is not wanting in
those fruits of faith Which show themselves
in active labors, and liberal offerings, to
gi'Ve the Gospel to the destitute at home
and abroad. No class of Christians does
more to sustain the general benevolent op
erations mitide their Church; as .well
those more directly under its control. It is
not for want of soundness in the faith,or a
persuasion of its obligation to " ; preach. the
Gospel to the poor," that it fails to bring
them, in greater numbers, underits influence.
It may, indeed; be questioned, whether an
impartial survey of its history, in all lands,
and periods, would convict it of greater inef
ficiency this particular, than
nominationS; and yet, at the present day,
and especially in large cities, it is not to be
denied that it makes little or no` impression
upon multitudes that continue in unbelief
and, irreligion, notwithstanding all the
agencies employed for their recovery. Nor
is ibis painful state of things limited to
cities. Too many witnesses testify to the
wide-spread and growing neglect of Divine
ordinances, which , prevails in many. of the
oldest and stablest portions of the country.
Various explanations of these facts were
prOposed; an the misconception and prejn
dice that Presbyterianism 'is compelled to
encounter. It is often caricatured as harsh
and forbiding in its doctrines, and aristo
cratic,, or tyrannical, in its discipline. 'Some
of its most precious truths are, perverted
into "damnable heresies," and then used as
powerful hindrances to its progress. Its
Calvinistic system, even when apprehended,
excites the opposition of the natural heart,
while it is often misapprehended, or its dif
ferent parts viewed out of their logical and
Scriptural relations. From the very fact
that it accords with the Gospel more strictly
than other systems, it, encounters amore
active hostility, though it demonstrates,
thsreby its Divine origin and authority.
There is often, too, a deficiency in the at
tainments and diligence 'of its Eldership.
Their numbers are too few to supervise the
whole congregation, or they resign family
visitation, Catechetical instruction, and 436.-
er duties, almost exclusively to ministers.
There is, moreover; a want of adaptation in
much of the preaching of the present day,'
to the capacities and
,wants of the illiterate.
The strength of many pastors is exhausted
in the
. preparation of discourses fitted , for
the press, and delivered 'without sufficient
warmth or animation to arrest the attention
of any but the cultivated and discriminet
ing. Then wealth.and 'luxury have raised:
both, the style and cost „of many places of
worship, to such rt':legree, , that plain, riot to.
Say poor, people are ernbarrassed by their
display, or deterred by their expense,- from
attending uponthem: The method Of eon
' ducting public services,,tends.often to repel
rather than attract those who, like children,
I - are reached through senses quicker
by direct appeals to the intellect. For ex
ample, their severe simplicity, and the little
share that„ is taken in them by the congre
gation. The minister preaches and prays,
the, choir. singsochile. thapeople, ait through
out, too often, as mere spectators of the
scene.. The want of sociability, the wide
distinctions in society, particularly in cities,
with the envy and jealousy which are nat
ural under the circumstances, doubtless
have their influence in keeping the poor
'from our sanctuaries. There ought to be
added to these, a prevalent conviction that
the Sabbath is literally a day of rest to the
laboring man,, and_ that he ie. entitled. to
spend it in social recreation, or in excursions
to the country, while the isolation and se
clusion of a great city, free from the re
straints he must feel , in a small community
where his habits could not escape observation.
Not to multiply these suggestions, how
ever, it was stated in reply, that the gospel
is adequate to overcome the most inveterate
hostility and prejudice of the human mind.
It triumphed over Judaism and heathenism
in the earlier ages, and under the preaching
of the apostles It wins many trophies at
this day, on Mission ground, while it has few
of the external appliances, and resources
that attend it in our land. Its peculiarities
are not, therefore, to be suppressed, but
. made, • if possible, more , prominent: The
simple doctrine of the Cross, rather than
such topics as temperance, politics, or slavery
must be used to attract, as well as edify, and
save the people. The standard of ministerial
attainments is not to be lowered, though
some modification seems to be called- for in
the methods of training for the pulpit, while
beginners should aim to be less abstract, and
scholastic in
. their discources. Expository,
and extemporary preaching should be made
frequent, and the effort be triade to bring the
simple truth directly home to the heart, as
well, as the intellect. A class of preachers
might be employed, who have superior popu
lar gifts, though not all the polish, or literary
furniture of thoioughly educated ministers.
The number of Elders should be multiplied,
and their gifts and graces more thoroughly
exercised. Twenty, or thirty is no uncommon
number in Scotland, and,. if of the right
character, such a session would contribute
greatly to the relief of the ministry, and pros
perity of the congregation. Catechetiqal in
struction, family visitation, missionary labor
among the poor, should be more diligently
prosecuted, and shared in by all com
petent Christians, as well as by the session.
Then, as to oro c .anizations and edifices, free
churches have been tried, and failed, and
while a few buildings in localities not con
venient to the poor, are, doubtless, too cost
ly, others are within the reach, and the
means, of the humblest. dalleries are free,
or rents, in- other parts, Fare so low as- to
render the expense merely,nominal. It was
mentioned, for example, that in ,a certain
church, of modern style, and capable of seat
ing, with ease, thirteen hundred, a large
number of pews on the ground•floor, and
also the galleries, were forever free, while
the rates were so graded, that eligible
pews could be obtained for eight dol
lars, by those who prefered to pay. The
truth is, there is ,a large class in every corn=
munity, tbat are unreacbed by any agency or
demomination. Methodism, with all its
sociability, and activity, has failed to save
them, and now, as if confessit , its failure, it
is changing its policy, and abandoning its
free sittings and illiterate ministry, and is fast
aspiring to our standard.
The whole city has been moved, this week,
by a horrible tragedy, in Bond Street.
Your readers will, probably, have the partic- '
Wars before they read these lines, and it is
needless, therefore, to mention'them in de
tail. The victim is Dr. Harvey Burden,
dentist. He was found dead, last Saturday
morning, in his own bouse and room, by his
office-boy. On examination of the body, it
was seen that be had been strangled, and
also stabbed in fifteen places, inflicting
wounds which must have caused speedy
death. Most of the house was occupied by.
Mrs. Cunningham and her family, with two
or three boarders. Suspicion, at once fell
upon them, and, for a. whole week, the most
determined efforts have been made to dis
cover evidence of their guilt, but, hitherto,
with little success. Mrs. C. claims to have
been secretly married to Dr. Burdell, but
the minister, who performed the ceremony,
failed to identify him as one of the •parties.
It has been shown, that, there have been
quarrels, and even law-suits, between them,
but nothing to indicate their - relation as man
and wife. On the other hand, Dr. B. lived
in evident apprehension of exposure, or -of
violence, from this woman, and the assump
tion is, that, one of the boarders, with whom
she was on terms of great intimacy, persona
ted Dr. 8., at the marriage, and that it was
arranged, between them, to put him out of
the way, in order that she might claim his
property, as, his widow, by producing the
marriage certificate. The whole matter is
invol ed in mystery. It is, most extraordi
nary that so foul a deed should have been
committed, so quietly, in a house, , occupied
by eight or ten persons, and so near tooth ers that slight noises have often, been heard
from it, while the perpetrators managed it so
adroitly as to preverit discovery, at the time,
and to' baffle detection, after 'a whole week's
investigation, on the part of the police, the
authorities and citizens.
Certainly, crime is making rapid strides,
and Satan has 'come down, among us, with
great wrath and power. May it prove, " be
cause his tizneis short.".
Yours, &a., B. ‘,
Rev. F. SKNOCH of the Fourth Church,
Louisville, has receiveds a call to become
pastor of the church in `Pequa, Ohio.
Rev. L. B. W. SHRYOCK has received
and accepted a call to become pastor of
the church in Crittenden, Grant County,
Rev E. B. °LEGHORN late pastor of the.
Seventh Street Church ; Washington, D.
C., has accepted the appointment of Sec
retary for the Southwest, from the Amer
ican •Sunday.Scnool - Union, and will have
his office in New Orleans,
Rev. WH. MATHEWS, late of Morgan, Cal
houn County, Ga., has removed to
Perry, Ga.
Western Correspondence.
CHICAGO, Feb. 3, 1857.
WKINNEY :—I write you from this city,
where at the call of the president, the Board' of
Directors for the Theological Seminary fore the
North-West has convened. They are holding
their meeting in the' North Church of Chicago, 'to`
which the Bev. It. Brown has been recently call
ed. There is a pretty full attendance of the
Board—not less than'two-thirds of the'rnetnbers
being present. The representatives of the Synods
of Cincinnati and Indiana are pretty generally
here. None of the Directors from lowa are here,
and but a portien of the representatives from Wis
This is likely to be a most meeting.
Questions of great importance are
to Come before'
it, and be decided by it. Re trust that great
wisdom may characteriie their deliberations.
Feb. 4th—The Board einivened this Morning.
• with the , President,Rey,. o B.- T. Wilson, in the
chair, and Rev. D. Monfort, D. D.. Secretary
After lie reading atid4Oriection of the' inutes
of the kit Meeting, the Secretary read a letter
from Rev. A. B. Brown, D. D. deelinin I's ap
pointment to the chair of Eeclesiology. He su i y
declines accepting the appointuant, without as
signing a reason for his action. I cannot Itu , e
gret the Dr's decision, in common w o I who
know him, either personally or by reputation.
Rev. Mr.. Ewing introduced the following :
" Resolved, That this Board cordially re,. g.n . ze,
the right of the Synod of Mo., in virtue of tor te
-IP.tion they have ever sustained towaids the
Seminary : of New Albany, since their first connec
tion with it, to be represented in this Board, and
take their appropriate part in the direction a n d
control of the Seminary of the North West, assuon
as they shall have appointed Directors under the
new constitution."
This resolution, it will be perceived, opens up
the - question which it was thought was disposed
of at the last meeting of the Board. Mr. Ewing
made a speech in favor of his resolution, in which
he stated that he had recently visited St. Louis
for the purpose of satisfying himself as to the
action of Missouri, in reference to the New Albany
Seminary, and upon a careful examination lie
asserts that there has been an unbroken series of
acts on the part of that Synod maintaining her
connection with the Seminary. Upon motion of
Dr. J. M. Stevenson. Rev. H. I. Coe, who eas
present, was requested to make statements of his
opinion, who stating that he had nor the docu
ments with him necessary to enable him to give a
detailed statement, the matter was made the osier
of the day for the afternoon.
The Financial Committee then reported, through
their Chairman. The substance of the repot tv os
e ,couraging, though not of such a character se to
fully meet the expectations of all the I riericheof
the Seminary. Some 16 or 18 acres of land have
been donated, conditionally, by the "Hyde Park
Land Company ;" the land located some six miles
from the Illinois Central R. R. Depot. Some 15
additional acres have been offered by that R. R.
Company,- in the same neighborhood. In addition,
it is confidently expected by the Committee that
a chair will be fully endowed by a cash donation
of $30,000. The Professorship so endowed to be
called the "Done Professorship." The report of
the Committee ends by recommending the adop
tion of the following resolution :
"Resolved, That in view of the facts and
figures presented by the Executive Committee,
the Seminary be, and it is hereby located at Hyde
Park, in Cook Co., 111., in the suburb of the city
of Chicago, with the understanding that, ultima re
ly, in accordance witli`rirrangements made by the
Committee with -the owners of property at /I}de
Park, the sum of $lOO,OOO be, expended under the
direction of the Board of Trustees upon the pro-
Perty, the work to be commenced during the sum
mer and fall of 1857, and prosecuted. from time rn
time. with all the earnestness and industry which
may best consist with the interest and prosperity
of the Institution, and warranted-by its means—
and, in view of the liberality and spirit with which
we have been met by the donors, that the board
of Trustees be directed to meet without delay, on
the reception of a charter for the Institution DOW
in an advanced stage of progress before the Leg
islature, and cause a complete and liberal plan tor
the necessary buildings to be prepared—a build
ing committee chosen, &c., &c. That this final
location of the Seminary is made on condition that
the Associates in the Hyde Park Co. place in the,
hands of the Trustees a satisfactory title to the
blocks No. 34, 85, 86, 37, and the land in front
of the same, and with all lawful accommode tiers
which may now, or hereafter, pertain to them—
that the Illinois Central R. R. in like manner, deed
to the Company, (Trustees) blocks No. 49. 50 and
51. and fractional block No. 52. That Paul Cra n
dell, Esq. shall place in the hands of the Trustees
certain obligations, in legal form, for 60 acres of
land in the vicinity, as per agreement with the
Executive Committee, and that certain other ar
rangements be, perfected, now in course of negotia
tion, by which $30,000 may reasonably be ex
pected to be realized, to found the "Done Pt o
fessorship" in the Institution."
Pending the consideration of tbis report, it was
resolved to take up Rev. Mr. Ewing's resolution,
and hear Rev. Mr. Coe upon it, without waiting
until the afternoon session. Mr. Coe was beard;
and Dr. J. M. Stevenson answered him. exhibiting
in his remarks the grounds upon which the
friends of New Albany acted in declining to send
propositions to the Synod of Missouri to co ()Fer
rite in the conduct and conteol of the new
Institution. His main points are Ist. Their co
operation from 1841 to 1853 was merely nominal.
2d. The funds furnished and pecuniary aidrender
ed were but of the slightest character. 3d.
Their action, four years ago, virtm.lly cut them
off when they passed the resobationlncludieg the
words, " we disapprove the action of the Directors
of New Albany in the appointment of Professors."
This`-action was taken, it was claimed, just at a
time when co-operation was more than at any
other, time demanded, and, under the circum
stances, was tantamount to a withdrawal of their
aid and co-operation. - From Bro. "Stevenson's re
marks, I feel convinced that the friends of New
Albany have sincerely believed that Missouri had
drOpt her connexion, and that it was no diseour,
tesy to fail to send them the invitation sent to
other Synods. Pending thii discussion, the Board
adjourned for dinner. Yours, Nonni-Weer.
CHICAGO, Feb. 46, 1857
DR. MoKnorsv:—l reported the action of the
Board of Directors up to the hour of adjournment,
for dinner,, The Directors have, again, Resembled,
and Dr. Monfort having resigned the Secretary
ship of the. Board, the Directors proceeded to the
election of a Secretary, which resulted in the
choice of. Rev. R.. Mathews, of the Synod of Chi
cago, • The Board then resumed the consideration
of Rev. Mr. Ewing's resoluti on, to invite the co- o
ration of the Synod of Missouri. The mover
proposed, an amendment to the original motion,
so as to signify the fact, that no blame is to be at
tributed to the Synods 'originally adopting the con
stitution for the Seminary, - and proceeded to speak
upon ,the resolution, reading extracts from the
minutes of the Synod of Missouri, showinm their
continued and unbroken connection with New Al
bany. Rev. , Mr. Spence followed, .taking the
ground that the Board of Directors had no author
ity, from the Constitittion, to take action upon
this resolution, asserting it, as his conviction, that
not a member of the Synod .of Cincinnati, of
which the gentleman is a member, had the re
motest idea of excluding Missouri, but all would
rejoice to see her 'connected in the proper and
constitutional' manner. Dr. Monfort followed,
reacling.from the Constitution, to show that Mis
souri, or. any other Synod of the Presbyterian
Church, may unite, by consent of two. thirds of
the Synods co-operating. He recommended the
Board of Directors to postpone action until after
Missouri had'appointed their 'Directors, if they
wished to unite. During these discussions, Mr. C.
A. Spring stated, that, he had just received .. the
first cash donation to this great enterprise. It
came from St. Augustine, Florida, for $3OO, pay
able, May Ist, 1857.
Rev. S. T. Wilson, Rev. Mr. Hughs ,Rev. Dr.
MOiLfort, - each, at different stages in the progress
of •the disoussion,. - mtroducsd motions, designed
as sabstitutes to. Mr. Ewing's resolution, but be
fore coming to a final vote, the whole subject was
referred. to a special committee, consisting of
Messrs. Ewing, Hughs, & Monfort. •
Whilst the Committee was absent, the Directors
took up, the consideration of the report of the
Executive, or Finance,
.Committee. Mr. C. A.
Spring, by request, entered. into explanations as
to the value of the lots, or blocks, of 'land, dona
ted, conditionaEy, to the Directors.. Mr. Spring
read opinions of eminent judges of landed prop
erty,lifthe neighborhood, which showed the land
to be worth at very low estimate, at the present .
time, some $50,000. In additlon, there is a pros
pect of securing some 60 urea, additional, worth,
at present,- some $9,000 Or $lO,OOO Mr. Spring
spoke very confidenly of the ability of the friends
of the Inititute to secure the endowment of one
Professorship, to the amount of $30,000. The
total value of the whole donations, which may be
regarded as certain; is now about $lOO,OOO. at the
lowest , estimate; and, about $130,000, by the
It is understood, that, all this is outside the
Presbyteriait Church in Chicago. It is confident
ly expected that a large additional contribu
tion will be made, by the warm-hearted sons of
the . Chiirch, in reference to which, nothing has, as
yet, .been done.
A plan of endowment was presented by Mr.
Spring, as part of the report of the Executive
Committee, of which the following is a summary.
It is recommended that a certain day beret apart,
in all the churches, in the seven Synods, engaged
in this enterprise, on wbioh, ministers shall preach
upon a subject _connected with theological educa
tion, and distribute cards, among the members of
the church, enjoining it upon them, to tile the
matter into , prayerful consideration, and give to
ward the endowment of this great institution as
God has blessed them. These cards to be return
ed, as soon an_may be, to,the pastor of the church,
,dan return them to the Directors, at an early
date: • ' '
`Before final aetiouZould be taken upon this
report, t!ltt,,Pommitte, e, upon the question, re
specting the Synod ef Missouri, reappeared in the
Board; and'presented the following report :
Whereas, , the ; constitution of the Seminary
- provides "that any 'Synod of the, Presbyterian
Church, may be admitted bite the Unidn of