Presbyterian banner & advocate. (Pittsburgh, Pa.) 1855-1860, December 20, 1856, Image 4

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BOOKS sent to us for a Notice, will be duly
attended to. Those from publishers in Phila..
dolphin., New York, ace., away be left at our
Philadelphia Office, 27 South 10th St., below
Chestnut. in ease OfJoseph 111. Wilson, 800.
THE CHURCH OR CHRIST, in its Idea, Attributes,
and Ministry. With a particular reference to
the Controversy on the subject between Roma:l
ists and Protestants. By Edward Arthur Litton.
First American edition. Philadelphia: Smith 4 J
English. New York: Anson D. F. Randolph.
pp.. 468, Bvo.
The True Idea of the Church has been a sub
ject of dispute for ages. Protestants have their
various shades of difference, some of which
are of much importance, and which prevent
a cordial fraternal 'union, and interfere 'with
a, harmonious testimony against error and a vig
orous co-operation in the establishing and the
spread of the true religion. But the main con
troversy is between Protestants and Rornanists.
Is the Church a visible Society, 'with her visible
head, her external unity, her priesthood, and her
sacrifices? or is she a society"of true believers,
where the pure. Word, of God is preached, and the
sacraments are riAtly administered? If the former'
is the , true idea, Romanism has decidedly the ad
vantage, and the godly should cling to her com
munion, and work for her purification ; but if the
latter is the proper description. of the Bride of
Christ, then all good meu should separate, them
selves' from Rome, as from an apostacy, protest
, •
ing agaimst her corruption, and enjoy the simple
rites, and spiritual worship, and holy communion
of the faithful in Christ Jesus. '
This questionmust, manifestly, be determined.
by Scripture. We must search, also, for the.
Church of Christ, - the New Dispensation, in the
New Testament Scriptures. That which was old •;
the Mosaic) order, the Temple and its priests and
sacrifices, vanished away. When the fulness of
time had come, Christ introduced his kingdom;
and his apostles expounded his doctrines, and or
ganized his followers. We look, 'then, in the
society called together and established under the
ministration of the Spirit, for the true idea of
the Church.
The work of Mr Litton is able, and highly in
structive, as against Roraanists, and their cousins,
the Puseyites and High' Churchmen. To distin
guish between Presbytery and Independency, and
their various Modifications, was not the author's
object; but the great question being settled, as
to the Romanists and their imitators, the differ
ences among evangelical Protestants may be com
placently endured.
We commend ,the work to a careful reading.
Law, N. G. A. M. 1.-; .or, ; Explorations and Dis
coveries during four years' wandering in the
wilds of South-Western Africa. By Charles
John Anderson. With numerous illustrations,
representing sporting adventures, subjects of
natural history, devices for destroying wild
animals, 12.n0., pp. 521. ' New York :
Harper 4 Brothers, Franklin Square. 1858.
Africa continues to be the favorite field of
daring' explorers, and adventurous sportsmen.
The press literally teems with their narratives
and with scarcely an exception, they have been
valuable helps in portraying the features of the
interior of that vast continent. This volume con
tains the narrative of explorations and discov
eries during four years is the wilds of the South..
Western parts of Africa, between the years 1850
and 1854. In the first journey, the region iof
the Damaras, (formerly all but unknown,) and of
the Ovambo, till now a terra incognita, were
explored. ' In the second journey, the Lake
Ngami was reached, and a way has been discov
ered by which commerce and civilization may
eventually reach these regions. This book is less
philosophical in its tone than the valuable one
which Dr. Wilson lately, published on Western
Africa; but it is filled with stirring scenes of
adventure, with narratives of hair•breadth escapes
and descriptions of strange scenes, which will be
quite new to most readers. As a work of travels ;
it is far more exciting than the 'journals of. Den
ham and Clapperton, while it is, no doubt, as
truthful. We doubt not but that it will be read
with as much avidity as the story of Gordon
Cumming, while it is, much more literary and
valuable in so far as the enlargement of our
knowledge is concerned.
ESTIMATE OF METHODISM , Conta ining , oniaining Lust por
tion of Cooke's Centuries which refutes to
Methodism. By Parsons Cooke. Boston :
Whipple E t Co. 1856. pp 417, 12mo.
This is rather • a caustic treatise, provoked by
petty annoyances, is the city of Salem, Mass.
It is well known that Methodism is exceedingly
aggressive in it; spirit. It was so in its origin,
and Bo it continues. Hence its many conflicts.
If its combativeness' were exhibited only against
the powers of darkness all true Christians would
rejoice in it; or if its assaults were even chiefly
against ignorance and error, it might be borne.
with ; but, alas, the objeets of its attacks are'
principally those whom itself acknowledges' to
be Evangelical:brethren. It is true that Metho
dism does' more than almost any other form of
Protestantism, to reach the ignorant and to preach
the Gospel to the poor.; but it does not go to the
heathen with any great degree of effort, nor to
lands enveloped in Popish darkness. This may
proceed from two,thoughts`; first, that every man,
be he Christian, or what not, needs to be Made a
Methodist; and, second, that it is much more
pleasant to operate in a civilized, Protestant,
Christian society, than in the benighted portions
of the earth. Still, Methodists are immensely
useful. They stimulate their neighbors, and
they :do much work which;ltt for them, would
be sadly. neglected.
Szambiis, Doctrinal and Practical. By Rea
lratiani, Archer Butler, At. - A., late Professor
of Moral Philosophy in the 'University of
Dublin.'&amid series.. Edited'from the Au
thor's NIBS. By James Amiraux Teremie, D. D.,
Regius Professor of Divinity in the University
of Cambridge. First American from the third
Cambridge Edition: Imperial, 12m0., pp. 399.
Philadelphia : Parry . f t MacMillan. 1857.
When the first series of Butler's sermons ap
peared, we expriseed our earnest hope that an
intelligent public would discern their merits, and
Warrant the publishers to proceed with this
second series. We have noted the comments of
the press on these surpassingly eloquent dis
courses, and we are glad to find that the award
of the Reviews and Magazines of Great Britain
has been amply sustained on this side of the At
lantie. From Canada, New Brunswick, and
different regions of our country, the testimony to
the power of the lamented Butler has been uni
form and spontaneous. In our notice of the
former issue, we stated that the second series was
more eloquent and attractive than the first.
This opinion we repeat again, and we are satisfied
that all yeaders of these remarkable discourse&
will agree with our judgment. Eloquent and
rhetorical as these discourses are, let readers
remember that they are posthumous; prepared
without any.view to publication, and then imagine.
what their fullness of matter and gorgeousness of
style would have been, had they received the fin
ishing touches of their author's hand.. We shall
'now look with'great anxiety for the appearance
Of :the celebrated lectures delivered in the Uni
versity on the Philosophy of the Ancients. '
• Cheseman,
D.. D. 12mo„ pp. 828. Philadelphia: Parry
4-Waal/kn. 1856.
Dr. Cheeseman's position in this work is, that
the fortunes of Ishmael and those of the Church
"have been remarkably - blended from first to
last. They cross each other's track in the pa
triarch's tent, in the visions of the prophets, in
the creed of Mohammed, in the empires of the
Saracens and Ottomans; so that in treating of
Ishmael and his descendants, we necessarily fol
low them through the Church ; for here their way
lies." The relations of Ishmael to the Church,
and his influence on its destines from the days of
the patriarch to the fall of the Ottomans, are
discussed by the author in a styleclear and ornate,
while the historical references and quotations
which abound in the work, show the author to be
intimately unpainted with the historical inci
dents connected with his subject.
French Society in the Eighteenth Century, from
unpublished documents. By Louis De Lora enie.
Translated by Henry S. Edwards. 13m0., pp.
457. New York: Harper 4 Brothers, Franklin
Square. 1857.
The value of this remarkable work, as a con
tribution to the social history of France in the
eighteenth century, is already acknowledged in
Europe. It has formed the subject of a length
ened historical review in the last number of
The Edinburgh, and as soon as the merits of
the volume are disbovered in our country, we are
persuaded that the book will be in great demand.
Beaumarchis,, whose real name was Caron, was
a tradesman's son. He became eminent in litera
ture, in politics, in commerce, and in society.
lle.experienced to the utmost the facilities then
presented in Paris to such a man for rising to a
certain height, while.he felt the obstacles which
hedged him in, and made him still wince under
the consciousness of his plebeian origin. llis in
timacy with the court, and with the upper classes
,of society, as well as his relations to other ranks,
'by means of his literary and commercial associa
:tions, rendered his history one of the'most remark
able exponents that could be found, of the actual
state of society in the French Capital in his days.
The_author has displayed wonderful zeal and suc
cess in collecting his materials, and he has suc
ceeded in portraying a remarkably life-like pic
ture of the times.
Rots, CIIILISTIAN AND PAPAL. Sketches of its
Religious Monuments and Ecclesiastical Hier
archy, with Notices of the Jesuits and the In
'quisition. By t. D. Sandia, D. D., formerly
Curate of the Magdalene, Professor of The
ology in the Roman University, and Qualificator
at the Inquisition. 12m0., • pp. 261. New
York: Harper Brothers. 1856.
This work is fully calculated to subserve the
object of the 'publishers in issuing it. When
strangers visit Rome they find themselves to a
great degree dependent on the explanations ,of
monks and priests relative to objects of interest.
Guide books prepared by Romanists never utter
anything which conflicts with the established
faith, while, in many respects they are useless to
Protestants because they do not touch on the
ceremonies and forms which to Protestants,
because of their novelty, are entirely unintel
For such travelers, or for stay-at-home folks,
who can only read of what others see when
abroad, this book has been prepared. Its author
is well known in the literary and religious world.
Dr De Sanotis was formerly a parish priest in
Rome, and in consequence of his learning and in
fluence, he was invested with several offices of
trust. When converted to the Protestant faith,
he labored for some years as a devoted minister
of the Waldensian Church at Turin ; the Capital
of Sardinia; and lately, he has been chosen as a
Professor in one of the Swiss Universities. He
is every way qualified to prepare such a work.
I It is replete with illustrations, which will give a
lively idea of the objects described in the body of
the work.
THE BIBLE IN ma Wouii.suor ; or, Christianity
the Friend of Labor. By Rev. John W. Nears.
12m0., pp. 344. New York: C. Scribner, 377
and 379 Broadway. 1867.
This is a well - written, excellent book; and we
wish that all the sons of toil in our land, especial
ly in our great cities, were possessed of a. copy of
it.. It is: exactly the kind of book to suggest to
operatives the themes on which they should medi
tate ; and its perusal would, we doubt not, be
instrumental in saving many whose minds are
unfurnished with healthful principles, from falling
into the meshes of a low and groveling skepti
cism, which is often found to have its haunts in
great manufactories and workshops. We trust
that the work may be extensively circulated.
iTnz STORY OF COLUMBUS, simplified for the Young
Folks. By Sarah H. .firadford, unhor of "Sil
ver Lake Stories," "Ups and. Downs," &c.
18mo., pp. 255. New York: C. Scribner, Broad
way. 1857.
This neat little volume, which is appropriately
illustrated, is well suited to engage the young.
The story of the great navigator's life is told very
clearly, and in an attractive manner, while the
lessons which it teaches are unfolded. It is an
excellent boys' book.
N m -
s visit.
By Hefty Holyoke, author of "The Surprise.”
lbmo., pp. 211. New- York : C. Scribner,
Broadway, New York. 1867.
This is another capital little book for young
folks. The tale is attractive, the moral good,
and-the illustrations are pictorial.
BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE. November, 1856. New
York: Leonard Scott co.
The contents of this number are quite up to
the level of Blackwood's usual standard of excel
lence. The different articles are—Rushkin and
his Theories, Sublime and Ridiculous; The Athel
in gs, part VI.; The Scot Abroad, the Man of Art;
Scandinavia; A Cause Worth Trying; Touching
• Temporalities ; Baden Baden: Table and other
Talk there ; ,and The Art of Cavilling.
Hartre&s STORY Boo Ks. No. 25. The Great
Elm Tree
This is a continuation of the narrative com
menced in " The 'Three Gold Dollars ;" and we
doubt not ; but that the number of young readers
for whose amusement and instruction this little
book has been prepared, will find it as attractive
as they need desire.
Eike (*iible.
Chatechetical Exposition.
Romans i : 21-25.
Verse 21. Because that when they knew God,
they glorified him not as God, neither were
thankful, but became vain in their imaginations,
and their foolish heart was darkened.
Q. 1. Are we to suppose that the Gen
tiles here spoken of, had a knowledge of the
one living and true God? A. They had a
consciousness of his existence and their ac
countability to him ; but they had no cor
rect knowledge of his nature and attributes.
Q. 2. What may be meant, then, when
it is said, they knew God ? A. The mean
ing may be, that they had this knowledge
within their reach if they had availed them
selves of it.
Q. 3. Are men responsible for the knowl
edge of God which they might have, as'well
as for what they actually have ? A. They
are ; God will reckon with men for the knowl
edge which they might and ought to have,
but refuse, just as certainly as for what they
do ha,ve.
,Q. 4. Does this seem to be justice ? It
does; for when God places within the reach
of men, the knowledge of himself which
therought to have, and they refuse it, they
may be reconed with for it, because if they
have it not, the fault is their own.
Q. 5: - What illustration of this can you
give ? A. Suppose a man refuses to read
the Word of God, and to hear it preached,
and thus remains ignorant of God and duty,
it is certainly just in God to reckon with
him for what he might have, though he re
fuses to have it.
Q. 6. Does the guilt of such a man con
sist in merely the want of that knowledge
which he might have A. No; there is
the additional sin of rejecting what God
Q. 7. Are we to suppose, then, that
such as Roman Catholics, who are trained
in error, and remain in error, will be reck
oned with at last for the knowledge which
they might have, but refuse ? A. Most
certainly; for if God has given them minds
capable of thinking and reasoning, and
has placed the truth of his Word in any
way within their reach, if they do not use
their powers of mind and his truth, as they
ought, the fault is their own ; though others
also, may be exceedingly guilty, in causing
them to reject the truth.
Q. 8. What truth is here presented, as
very important to be remembered ? A. It
is that God will reckon with all men at last,
not only for the knowledge of him, which
they have, but also for that which they
might, but refuse to have. •
Q. 9. What is meant by, they glorified
him, not as God? A. They did not render
to him that reverence and worship of which
God is worthy.
Q. 10. What is implied in not being
thankful? A. They did not regard God as
the fountain of all good to them, nor render
that gratitude which they owed him.
Q..11._ What is the import of being
vain in their imaginations? A. They be
came silly and, senseless in their opinions.
concerning God.
Q. 12. In what sense is the word heart
usually employed in the Scriptures? A.
To designate all the powers of the inner
man, and is equivalent to mind or soul.
Q. 13. What is the meaning of their
foolish heart being darkened ? A. That
their morally stupid mind became ruoreand
more dark and obtuse, in relation to God
and duty.
Verse 22. Professing themselves to be wise, they
became fools.
Q.. 1. In what manner did they profess
themselves to be wise ? A. By disregarding
the voice of God; as it speaks in man's con
science and in the works of . God ; and by
assuming that their own reasonings were a
sufficient guide.
Q 2. When it is said, they became fools,
is it meant that they became insane A.
No ; it means that they lost the most excel
lent and valuable knowledge, which is the
knowledge of God; and that they became
disobedient and wicked.
Q. 3. What is the usual signification of
the term fool, in the Scriptures? A. It desig
nates the wicked in contrast with the right
eous, who are called wise.
Q. 4. Why are they thus designated ?
A. Because the wicked choose that which
is worthless and ruinous, and the righteous
choose that which is truly good, even God.
Verse 23. And changed the glory of the incor
ruptible God, into an image made like to cor
ruptible man, and to birds, and to four-footed
beasts, and creeping things.
Q. 1. What connexion has this verse
with the preceding ? A. It shows in what
respect they became fools, while professing
to be wise.
Q. 2. What is the import of the words ;
incorruptible God ? A. Who is imperish.
able, Spiritural and Eternal.
Q. 3. How did they change the glory o
God into an image of corruptible things?
A. By attempting to represent , his glorious
Godhead by images of creatures ; and by
conceiving of his attributes - as being proper
ly represented by these images; or, by ex
changing the glorious God, for creatures
and their images, as the objects of their ven
eration and worship.
Q. 4. Is there any evidence that the
Gentiles did thus change the glory of God ?
A. History records that they became so de
graded in their idolatry, that they made
images of their deities, in the likeness of
birds, anitbeasts, and serpents, and insects.
It is well known that the . ancient Egyp
tians worshipped dogs, and snakes, and croc
odiles, and even vegetables. It is said that
the whole land of Egypt was covered with
temples and groves, dedicated to dogs, wolves,
lions, crocodiles, and the various creatures,
that creep, fly, and swim. And thus to the
end of the 23d verse, the Apostle shows
that the Gentiles were sunk in ungodliness,
or impiety. •
Verse 24. Wherefore God also gave them up to
uncleanness, through the lusts of their own
hearts, to dishonor their own bodies between
Q. I. What is the object of the Apostle
in this and the remaining verses of this
chapter ? A. It is to show that the Gen
tiles were sunk in unrighteousness, or im
morality; and that this was a punishment
inflicted for their impiety, or abandonment
of God.
Q. 2. Why did God give them up to
uncleanness ? A. 13e.cause they forsook
him, and wnshipped idols.
Q. 3. Do we not find that this sin and
this punishment always go. together ? A.
Certainly we do, for uncleanness has always'
been a characteristic, and leading vice among
idolators, as is evident from the history of
nations, and strikingly verified in the apos
tate Church of Rome, whose history is so
glaringly a history of idolatry and lewdness.
Q. 4. What is implied in God's giving
tliem up .? A. Not only that he permitted
them, but also withheld such rebtrainta and
influences as would have saved them from
this uncleanness.
Q. 5. Was it just in God thus to give
them up? A. Certainly; they abandoned
and dishonored God; and justly he abandoned
them, and left them to dishonor them,
Q. 6. Was it necessary that God should
influence them to this wicked course`? A.
No; the lusts of their own hearts, were
cient when left unrestrained.
Q. 7. What do we learn here in relation
to the heart of man in its natural state ?
A. That it is exceedingly depraved and prone
to what is vile, when its own lusts will lead
to the vices described in this chapter.
Q. S. How did they dishonor their
bodies between, or among themselves? A.
By the grossly obscene and filthy practices in
to which they fell.
Verse 25 Who changed the truth of God into a
lie, and worshipped, and served the creature
more than the Creator, who is blessed forever,
Q. 1. What is the connexion of this verse
with the preceding? A. It is descriptive
of those whom God abandoned to their vile
lusts, and again declares the reason why he
did thus abandon them.
Q. 2. What was the change they made ?
A. They changed the truth concerning God
into a lie concerning God ; or they changed
the true God into a pretended God, a false
God, that is, an idol.
Q. 3. Is there any connexion between
their dishonoring their 'bodies and their wor
shipping and serving the creature more
than the Creator 2 A. There is; for the
retributive justice of God is manifest--they
exalted the creature above the Creator, and
he left them to - denade even the noblest of
the creatures, in the vilest manner, far be : -
low the beasts of the field.
Q. 4. Do such facts afford any evidence
of God's existence ? A. They are evidence
of the clearest kind that there is a God;
and . just such a righteous and holy God as
the Bible reveals.
Q. 5. Why does the Apostle throw in
the doxology, who is blessed forever, Amen.
A. It is customary with the sacred writers,
when setting forth the impiety of the
wicked, to give expression to their feelings
in this way, both to exalt the glory of God,
and also to afford relief to their own minds.
Q. 6. What is the meaning of the word,
Amen? A. This word in the original, at
the beginning of a sentence, signifies verily
or Ony. In this sense it is often repeated
in the Gospel of John—" Verily, verily I
say unto you." And at the end of a sen
tence, as here, it signifies, so let it be; and
expresses cordial approval of the sentiment
Report of the Postmaster General.
December 1, 1856.
Sta:—Since my last annual report, the Post Offices have
been increased 1155, and numbered on the 30th of June last,
25,565. Three hundied and thirty-nine of the postmasters
were appointed by the President, by and with the advice
and consent of the Senate, the yearly commissions exceed
ing $l,OOO. On the 30th of J line, 1.362, the number of post
offices In the United States was 20,901, shelving an increase
to the last four years of 4,664.
On tho :10th of June last, there were in oyemtion 7,972
mail routes. Thu number of contractors was 6,322. The
length of Mos:, routes is estimated at 239,842 miles, divided
as follows, viz
20,323 miles of railroad,
14,951' " steamboat,
60,453 " coacn,
163,916 " inferior grades.
The total annual tram:Sin:non of mails was 71,g01,597
miles, costing 60035,474, and divided as follows :
21.,a09,29e miles by railroad, at $2310,889; about ten
cents and six mills a mile.
4,240,170 miles by steamboat, at $860,715; about twenty
cents and threo mills a mile.
19,114,991 miles by coach, at $1,329,356 ; about seven cents
a mile.
26,143,440 miles by modes not epecitled, at $1,534,974; Ore
and seven-eighths cents per mile.
Compared with the service of June 30th, 1855, there is an
addition of 11,734 miles to the length of mail routes; 3,906,-
731 miles to the tinal annual transportation, being about
5 6-10 per cent., end of $690,236 to the cost, or 124-10
per cont.
The aggregate length of railroad routes has been increased
1,950 tulles, and the annual transportation thereon 2.603,.
827 miles, about 13y, per cent., at a cost of $237,300, or
11 410 per cent.
The length of steamboat routes has been increased 332
miles, and the cost $235,260, although the annual transpor
tation is less by 219,657 miles. This resulted mainly from
putting In operation, in January last, a daily route between
New Orleans and Oalxo, Illinois, 1075 miles, at a cost of
$320,000 per annum. But fur this route there would now
appear a diminution of steamboat service, amounting to
743 miles in length of routes; 1,002,257 in annual trans
portation, and $93,730 in coat.
The additionto the length of coach routes has been 1,230
miles; to the annual transportation, 255,873 miles, and to
the cost, $113,377, or 9 8-10 par cont.
The additional length of inferior routes is 8,182 miles;
annual transportation, 1,283,088 miles; cost, $ 104,309; or
about five per cent. In trans portation, and 7 340 per cent:
in coat.
The portions of additional service in California are 706
miles in length of routes, and 185,274 miles in transporta
tion, cooling $8,223.
In Oregon, no material change bee taken place, and no al
terations or additions have been made to the service stated
in my annual report of 1655, in New Mexico and Utah.
In Nebraska and Kansas, 2,238 miles have been added to
the length of routes, and 250,470 miles to the annual trans
portation, at a coat of $88,843. The whole service in these
'Territories now stands thus, viz :
Length of coach routes, 984 miles; annual transportation
thereon, 115,64 s miles; cost, sl7,B3o—about 15y . , cents a
Length of inferior routes, 2,152 miles; annual transpor
tation, 210,186 miles; cost, $20,275—ab0u tnine cents ana SIX
mills a mile. The total length is 8,116 miles; total trans
portation, 325,834 ; and the cost, $88,155.
The railroad service within the last four years has in
creased at a very rapid rate, showing the growth of our
country. and the enterprise of its citizens. un the brat of
July, 1842, the total length of railroad routes was 3,091
miles, and the cost of service was $432,568. On the first of
July, 1852, the number of miles on which the mail was con
velcd on railroad, amounted to 10,146, costing $1,275,520,
making an increase of 7,055 miles in ten years, at an addi
tional cost of 842,952. Between the first of July, 1852, and
the first of July, 1856, the railroad service was increased
10,117 miles, exhibiting the fact, that within that time, this
description of service has been more than doubled.
Within the same period, the service on horseback, and by
modes not specified in the contracts, was increased $16,802
miles in length of routes. and 5,292,8)9 miles in kennel
transportation. The coach service, taken off in soma local
ities!, owing to the construction of railroads, has been given
to other States and Territories, or other parts of the seine
State, as their growing population and consequent increaso
of mail matter demanded; so that, notwithstanding the
great extension of railroads, the coach; service has been re
duced but 209 taxies. The • steamboat. service baa been de
creases 1,479 miles.
On the 30th of June, there wero s in service 860 route
agents, at a compensation of t2135;4294. 34 local agents, at
V 21,758; and 1,108 mail measengors, dt $127,251, making a
total of $414,438. This amount; with . the increased cost of
the new service, commencing let July test, (sl26,ll6,)added
to the cost of service as in operation on the 30th of June
last, ($6,035,474,) makes tho total amount for the current
year $6,576,028. This is independent of the cost of Ocean
mail service.
The Panama Railroad Company has been paid for trans
portation of the mails across the Isthmus during the fiscal
year ending June 30th, 1888, the sum of $l4l ,308.18. For
the first quarter of the present fiscal year they received
$44,658.34. At the last session of Congress, took occasion
to cull your attention to the large same paid the Com
pany for this service, and transmitted to you the corres
pondence which had taken place between the Department
and the Company, in relation to a proposed reductiun in
their charges.
This report was laid by you before Congress, but no defi
nite action was had thereon. In referring again to this'
subject, it will be necessary for me simply to repeat the
reasons stated in my correspondence with the company,
and in my letter to you of the 16th of April, 1856. Prior to
the Ist of December, 1881, the mails were conveyed across
the Isthmus under an arrangement with the New Grena
dian Government, and the average rate paid for transporta•
Lion,including the expense of route agents' in crossing the
Istmus, was a fraction over seventeen cents a pound. In
October, 1851, a temporary arrangement was made with the
Panama Company, by which they were allowed twenty-two
cents a pound, the maximum rate authorised by law. At
this time, the amount of mail matter transported was com
paratively small, and the service was performed partly by
canoes, and partly by mules. The greater the amount of
mail matter carried, the greater would be the cost of trans.
portation ; and It therefore seemed to be but just to pay
according to weight. No attempt was mode to reduce the
price, although the cost of the service bad increased from
$40,387 in September, 1851, to $119,727 in September, 1854,
until the railroad was completed, and the company had pub
liehed their tariff of rates. Ten cents per pound was to be
their charge on express freight for passenger trains, as well
as for the baggage of passengers," bat as the company al
leged that this aid not induce the expense and responsibil
ity of putting the goods on board of the steamers, or their
conveyance from ship to shore, in which case their charge
was fifteen cents a pound, I concluded not only to allow them
that price, but in view of the importance of the work, and
wishing to' deal with them in a liberal spirit, fixed the com
pensation at eighteen cents a pound. As announced In my last
report, the company ref used to acquiesce in that decision, but
were paid at that rate until the 24th of December, 1855. In
April following, the difficulties in Nicaragua had closed the
route through that State,
which made it impossible'for me
to. have the mails of the United States conveyed by any
other route than via Panama and I was then notified, that
unless the Department should give them twenty-two cents
a pound to the future, and pay them the amount ($18,01.13.88)
withheld by my order, reducing the price to eighteen cents
a pound, the mails of the United States should not be taken
across the Isthmus. In view of the financial troubles
and probable bankruptcies which a discontinuance of the
mail service would have caused to hundreds, if not thou
sands, of our citizens, on both our Atlantic and Pacific coasts,
I was compel led to submit to what I considered agrees impost
tion,aud the order of the Department reducing the rate was
rescinded, and the Company have continued to be paid at the
rates of 22 cents a pound up to this time. The Panama Rail
road is forty-eight miles in length, and, in its conatruction
and equipments, cost, it is said, eight millions of dol
lars. The service performed is twice a month, each way.
To show the exothitancy of the demand made by the Com
pany, it will only be necessary for' me to refer to one of the
railroads in the United States, which receives an adequate •
compensation for the services rendered the Department;
and a like reference could be made to the compensation re
ceived by other railroads, with a similar result. The NOw
York and Erie Railroad is four hundred and sixty miles in
length, and cost over thirtyone millions of dollars. The
service performed is nineteen trips a wook, for which they
receive $22,000 a year. The Panama Company, with a rtad
costing about one-fourth as much as the Now York and
Erie, performing but a tithe of the service, received thelast
year 540,083.36 more compensation, and for the present year
are likely to receive an amount nearly double that paid to
the latter, Company . . Viewing this as an attempt to draw
from the Treasury more than was properly dye, ltonght,in
my opinion, to be proniptly rebuked; and I would, there
fore, recommend the immediate passage of a law limiting
the compensation to a sum not exceeding fifty thousand dol
lays per annum. 'Chili would be is liberal and just remuner
ation for all the services rendered to the Government.
In my previous reports, I have referred to the necessity
far increased mail facilltiee between our Atlantic and Pacific
coasts. The great and increasing trade and correspondence
between these important points, demand a weekly service;
and 1 would aakthatpower becourerred on the Department,
to enter into a contract to convey the malls twice a month,
anemia:lug with the line via Panama, by the route via Nic
ittaiNaor TebutuitoPec, at a sum not exceeding two hundred
thousand dollars a ybar.
The expenditures of the Department for the past fiscal
year, amounted to $10,405,286.36, viz:
For Compensation to Postmasters,
Ship, Steamboat, and Way Letters,
Transportation of the Malls,
Wrapping Paper,
Office Furniture,
Mail Bags,
Mail Locks, Keys, and Stamps,
Mail Depredations and Special Agents,
Clerks for Offices,
Postage Stamps,
Stamped Envelopes,
Payment to Letter Carriers,
Miscellaneous Payments,
Balance due to Bremen,
Balances due to Brest Britain,
The gross revenue of
,the Department from all eources„ in
the past decal year, Wee 86,020,821.66, viz
Letter Postage,
Registered Letters,
Stamps Sold,
Newspapers and Pamphlets,
Emoluments Returned,
Letter Carriers,
Dead Lettere,. - .
Extra Camper'sAtioxi to Postmasters over
Miscellaneous Receipts,
If to the gross .rovenne derived from iwetages, and the
otber'sonrces embraced In the foregoing statement; be added
the permanent annual appropriation - of $700,000, granted
by the Acta of 3d March, 1847, and 9d March, 1851,f0r. mail
and delivery of free inattenthe entire rev
services rendered to the Government. inosllsotfroaneepoyertaralt-155d0n
e is to be added
as before statel, were 410,405,286. 36 , to which
will amount to s7,Gaila ,821.e6. The expendituresot the year
the sum al *3,194.75, fur accounts closed by
N c i r h e o di le t
i • Hicolanin. p r om el i mi seld b e y ntsZ e ' u le ve ss . s . 6l2 ; 9 ced u or fe rU j t l l m v o in u g nt t h o e r
yt' the
smt. Audits ,
u,, e $
udi lyO ureo 7,-
over the gross revenue of the year, w asf
expenditure of
th it e t y p e resirs " t s h t a a t "' the exce s z 6.imo pe o2.
The "Act to Reduce and Modify the Hater' o ge,
his act the live
sail nn
t f oe o f: r otherrac
IY, "51.
Byt establishedb - the
PP Meech 3d, 1251, went
Act. of 1845, were reduoea To three cents prsepaid, and
raolniurtoitiref7ireiij'ell'and letters, )
d noles within
and doub.e Sro distances over three Gunman' , f
cents unpaid, for any distance under three thousand m iles,
the United States. Them rates coutinueu until the Ist o
rates of three
d j
April, 1865, when the law requiring ple-pso
letters took effect, and established the presentrnout of inland
and ten cents, pro paid in the fiscal yaar which eude une
30th, 185 0 , the first after the adoption of the reduced rates,
the revenue was diminished about 22 per cent ; and for the
period of four soars terminating on the 30th lune, 1356, the
average annual increuee of revenue from letter postage and
stamps sold, was only 9 33-100 per cent.; nearly roar per
cent. of which overuge won derived from the extraordinary
lacrosse in 1864. which exceeded the previous year 21 9-100
per cent. In 1853, 1855, and 1(66, the business of thecoan
try wee neither seriously depressed n9r °tuba:Tamed; and
yot the average increase in tame ire was lees than 53.6
per cent., from which, it is fair to vouclude, that low rates
of postage have ceased to stimulate the correspondence of
the country.
It is estimated that the expenditures for the year 1857
will amount to $10,658,675.
In my last annual report, in referring to the deficiency
in the Post Office revenue, I expreated my regret that
Congress had not abohthed the franking privilege when
they passed the Act of 3cl (latch. 1851, reducing the rates of
postage. The experience of tbo last year has satisfied me
more fully, that this privilege should be speedty abolished.
For months during this year, free matter by the ron passed
through the mails into every part of the United Ste ea in
terfering greatly with the regular transmission of the cor
respondence of -he country. When this free matter passes
from the railroads, it is almost impracticable ro forward it
by the ordinary conveyances. The evil is yearly increasing,
detracting largely from the revenues of the Department,
and impairing its eflicienuy.
By the Act of 1825, the revenue of the Post .Office De
partment was entirely in the control of the Postmaster
General, the objects of expenditure being generally left to
his discretion, and he was simply required to pay all the
expenses. Thu extension of the postal system over our
rapidly growing country, required a more thorough organi
zation, which was effected by the Act of July. 1636. That
act required "specific estimates" to be submitted at each
session of Congress, and when an appropriation was made
it was limited to the aggregate sum of those estimates,
and there was- no authority to exceed them. The appro•
priatlon was made out of the revenues of the Post Office
Department, the theory being that the Department should
sustain itself. The beneficial effects of this act, intended
to secure a system of right accountability, have been im
paired by various causes. After estimates have been sub.
mitted, additional 'service. involving large expenditures, has
been required by law without any additional appropriation.
The railroad service, which has been rapidly extended in
every section of the country, though much more advan
tageous, is far morn expensive than the old modes of ser
vice, and the increased revenue arising therefrom, has not
been in proportion to the increased outlay. The reduced
rates of postage having largely reduced the revenue, it has
not been possible to confine the expenditures of the De
partment within its income, and the Postmaster General
has been compelled to apply to Congress annually to ap
propriate the deficiency from the general Treasury. These
causes have removea in effect the salutary restraint im
posed by the Act of 1830, and left the head of Mit Depart
ment, iu a great degree, uncontrolled in his expenditures.
This state of things should not continue. The laws shone&
be so framed as to produce a sufficient amount of revenue to
defray all proper expenditures.
If my views regarding the abolition of the franking
privilege—a measure which would greatly reduce the ex
penses of the Department--be not adopted by Congress, I
would recommend the passage or a law enabling the De
partment to charge the ordinal', rates of postage on letters
and printed matter which now pass free through the mails.
If. in addition to this, the clause in the Act of 30th August,
1852, allowing a deduction of fifty per cent. on newspapers
and periodicals when paid quarterly or yearly iu advance,
be abolished, as recommended in my last two annual re
ports, and the Department be relieved from the expense of
ocean mail ateamships and Isthmus service, it would, with
a proper economy, soon sustain itself. The power of the
head of this Department over the Treasury would then be
confined within proper limits, and the accountability con
templated by the Act of 1836 again established.
The operation of the' Act which went into effect the Ist of
Apr 31,1655, requiring prepayment of postage on letters from
one point to another within the United States, has proved
generally very satiaractorys Without alluding to other ad
vantages, it affords the only slue means of guarding the
Department against loss from fraud or carelessnees; and I
beg to renew my former recommendation for the passe ge of
an act making prepayment also compulsory on all tran
sient printed matter.
By the Act of third of Starch 1845, the Postmaster Gen
eral is authorized, under the restrictions and provisions of
the existing laws, to contract for the transportation of the
malls of the United States bet Ween any of the ports of the
United States and a port or ports of any foreign power,
whenever in his opinion the public interest will thereby be
promoted. It IS made his duty to report to the next en
suing Congress a copy of eech of these contracts, with a
-statement of the amount of postage derived under the
seine. Theca contracts must be made with citizens of the
United States, the mail carried in American vessels, by
American citizens, and the contracts may be made for a
term not exceeding ten years, and must contain stipula
tions reserving the right to the two Houses of Congress to
terminate them at any time by a joint resolution. The
power given by this act is one uuder which large expendi
tures, involving millions could be created, but neither of
my predecessors or myself has ever used the authority
thus given. Believing that Congress should reserve to
itself the right to say to how many and to what foreign
porta the mails of the United States should be transported,
and the amount of money which should be expended for
that purpose, I would recommend the repeal of so much of
this act as confers this great power on the Postmaster
The contract for the lines between Now York and Bre
men, and New York and Southampton and Havre, will ex
pire on the first of June. 1857. For the moat part the ser
vice has been performed to the satisfaction of the Depart
ment. If this service is to be continued, the Department
should at once be authorized to advertise or to take arch
other steps as may bo deemed wise and expedient by Con
gress to secure that object. Tee present contractors state
that they are prepared to build other andanifter ships than
those now on the lines, provided their contract be renewed ;
and if the service is to go into other heads, the new con
tractors should have ample time given them by which they
may be enabled to commence the new service immediately
on the expiration of the present contract. In relation to
these mail lines, to foreign ports, I may be permitted to ob
serve that if the present system is to be continued of sus
taining them in whole, or in part, out of the fonds of the
general Treasury, no reason is perceived why one portof the
United States should be preferred to the exclusion of others.
From the port of New York, there now renslour lines, em
bracing the branch from New Orleans to Havana, which
receive from the Treasury the yearly gum of one million
four hundred and ninety-eight thousand dollars, and ap
propriations continue to be asked for other lines running
item the same port. The establishment oh steam lines from
any port adds considerably to its trade and importance, end
the advantages arising therefrom should he aistriboted
equally, as far as practicable, among the different States of
the Union.
The French government having made provision for the
transit conveyance through Bagisud, or books, pamphlets,
newspapers, magazines and other printed matter from the
United States addressed to France, Algeria or cities of Tue.
key, Syria and Egypt, where France has postal arrange
ments, on application of the French Director if eneral of posts
in the month of March - last, instructions were issued from
this Department, authorizing the transmission via:Eng
land, of all such printed matter ou prepaymeut of the same
rates of United States postage ae are chargeable thereon
when dispatched to France direct.
A proposition has been received from the British Post
Office for a reduction of the postage between the United
States and Great Britain, from twenty-four to twelve cents
the single letter. In answer, this Department has indicated
a willingness to agree to this proposal, provided The transit
charge on mails passing through England, from sod to the
United States, is reduced to twelve and' a half cents an
ounce, the price paid by that government tbr the convey
ance of the British and Canada malls through the United
States. This Department has been for years endeavoring to
have an abatement made in this transit charge, which is
considered excessive, and in the present instance the condi
tion was rendered necessary, inasmuch as a reduction on
United States and British correspondence will Involve, also,
a reduction of the sea paatege on the United States and
Continental closed mails, the effect of which would be
greatly to reduce the receipts from the United States Mail
Steamship lines, unless there is a corresponding reduction
in the British transit tax, so that by lower rates correspond
ones would be increased sufficiently to prevent loss. So far
as Great Britain is coucerned, in the event of a reduction
simply in the Atlantic postage, it in not likely she would
suffer airy, serious diminution of her postal
.revenues, since
she would doubtless be compensated for any loss oh that ate
count by the increased amount of transit postage she would
realize under such an arrangement. This condition was,
moreover, coupled with an offer on the part of this Depart
ment to have the transit price for all closed mails, in both
countries, fixed at the unifarm rate of twelve and a half
cents an ounce, a concession which would secure to the
British, and California, and West India closed mails, the right
of transit, in some cases, at one-half, and in others at only
one-quarter the price now charged under the treaty. I was
the more ready to make this concession first, because I re
gard it as of the highosta importance , that the correspond
ence between this country and Europe should be relieved
from the onerous tax to which it is now subjected, in order
that the people on both sides of the Atlantic, in their so
cial and business Intercourse, may be as little trammeled as
possible; and second, bemuse it is likewise vary desirable,
as well in foreign aa in domestic poatal arrangements, that
simplicity and uniformity should be observed.
Arrangements have been made between. this Department
and the postal authorities of °resit Britain and Canada. pro
viding for the registration of valuable lettere tran.smitted
between those countries and the United Suttee. The United
States registration fee is five cents; the same'as on regis
tered letters to any placebo this country. (The articles of
agreement are annexed.)
Articles of agreement have been drawn and executed on
behalf of this Department, providing for a regular exchange
of mails with Holland. The project is favorably regarded
by the government of the Netherlands, andassurances have
been received lending to the belief that., with a slight mod
ification touching the Belgian transit postage, it will be ac
An informal arrangement has been entered into with the
Free City of Hamburg for an exchange of mails, by means
of the direct line of Hamburg eteamere plying monthly be
tween that city and Now Yore. The single rate of postage
established for letters is ten cents; no malls for places be
yond Hamberg being transmitted by this line. •
With Mexico no postal convention has yet been concluded,
but it is confidently hoped that the pending negotiations on
this subject may result in an arrangement mutually edema
Lagoons to both countries.
The statistics of the foreign mail service are fully stated
in Appendix A, annexed to this report. I will, however,
briefly mention some of time principal results in this Ho
portant branch of the service, as compared with the opera
tions of the fiscal year ended 30th Jilue,lBss:
The aggregate amount of poatage, foreign and domestic,
on mails transported by the United States Mail 'steamship
Lines, was $1,035,740.88, which is a demesne of $24 593.44
from the previous year. The decrease of postagee by the.
Collins line was e1:1,117 86; by the Havre pure $50352, and
by the Charleston and Havana line $615 Gt. By the Brem en line the postages were increased
0 52. 5 15 5 9 y 3 t5 .77 0 ; N b 0 );
the New
York and Callfornia lines fo
and Vera Crux line $311.89.
The total amounto sms
fittte 7 r o, po be e i tag nif e a ti d o ec u resm ßriti f sh rom m i :ns t
during the year was $
year of $32,0.18.74. Of this amount $601,031.40 was col
lected in the United3Statee, end $298,017.30 in Great Brit
ain, showing an excess of $304,414.10 collected iu this
country. The unpaid received from Great Britain, exceeded
the paid received 456,434.84; and the paid sent from the
United States exceeded the unpaid sent $148,959.16.
The total putter portages on Prusaian closed mails was
$209,465.71, which varies but little from the preceding year,
N t Y o l3 s on 299 t1: 5 1 8 p . 0 4 5 6 ta .
The on pr t o h p i o a r c t iri on a oa th r i r d espo poe n ts d g e e nce . a ll m ec o t u ed nt b e y d
the United States. was, however, largely increased, the ex
cess collected in this country being $80.388.83. This excess
during the previous year was $29,7 as 78.
The amount of letter portages on Havre malls was g16,-
139.08, all of which was collected in this country. Last.
on tb t e tao p fg oe z
r ta b g re es elog o thesen udoed.cel
fyne r$
5 mail; .se,xs7csoo h 9
.a a sn m az
or $1,574 .1
ii. so taken p s 2l l lo.
m 600,9
n 5 l s, o th 2 tt
i 5
the preceding year.
ltwiltushoor observed,
amountthatthe of
C °reu e
resix)ud Lt s. ntzyiallen of eery considerably, bet '
the revenue desired therefrom to the United States Yaet.
48.915 64
48 563.94
• 8,638.27
74,800 08
Office has likewise been materially lessened by the largely
Increased collections made iu this country, as compared
with any previous year. During the year ended with June,
1850, the excess of British postages collected by the United
Mates, over the total amount of United States postages col
lected by Great Britain, was $64,820.64. This eacs,a curing
the last fiscal year was increased to $84,530.83, notwith
standing the diminished amount of correspondence. Like
results are exhibited in respect to the mails exchanged with
Prussia and Bremen,showing that under our postal arrange
ments with theists countries, the priampal of optional pre
payment operates very unequally against the United States,
the expenses of collection being chiefly borne by this De
partment, which not only collects Its own, but also a very
large proportion of the foreign passages, and accounts for
the same, in full, to the foreign offices, without receiving
any compensatory benefit in return.
The gross amount of United States postages on mails con
veyed during the year. by the Collins line, was $415,807.44;
by the Bremen line, $128,937.64 ; and by the Bavre line,
$88,483.89 Deducting the United Rates inlandpostages on
these mails, the net revenue from ocean postages by the
Collins tine was V 39,740.14; by the Bremen line, $86 5 492.88,
and by the Havre line, $71,884.10.
The general results of the foreign mail service during the
year, as exhibited in. the appendix, will be found on com
parison, not to vary materially in other respects from those
of the fiscal year ended June lath, 1855.
Notwithstanding the unusual extension of mail facilities,
and the increase• of railroad service, the number and cost
of mail bags have been very considerably diminished. The
reduction in this item of expense amounts to $14.512.75,
or 31 per cent, less than the expenditure incurred for this
article in the preceding! year. Measures which have been
adapted to prevent abuses and secure increased vigilamas
and accountability in respect to this species of public pro
perty, as well as improvements which have been introduced
in the system of bagging and distribution, are believed to
be the principal circumstances which have tended to pro
duce this favorable result.
A report will be presented to Congress, cortaining a
specific statement of the fines imposed, and the deductions
made from the pay of the contractors, for failures end other
irregularities which have occurred in the conveyance of
mails during the year. It will be seen that these fines and
deductions have amounted to the sum of $4.02,740.t 5, 'Dur
ing the previous year, they amounted to $124;510.68.
Banks of Pittsburgh, roar .
Banks of Philadelphia, par
Bank of Chambemburg, 3 $
Bank of Gettysburg,
Bank of. Middletown,
Bank of Newcastle,
Brie bank, .dx;
Farm. & Drov. Wayneab'g,
Brat:Odin bk. Washington; par
Harrisburg bank, 3.4
Honesdale bank,
Bank of Warren,
York bank, 34
Belief Notes, M
An other solvent banks, par
OH 0
State bank. and branches, .14 I
All other sinvent banks,
All solveisS banks,
New York City,
" Country,
AND COUNSELOR AT 'TAW, and Solicitor is Chan
eery: Office, No. 188 'Fourth Street. above the corner Of
Smithfield. Pith:bin-0u Pa . #y&i v. •
EL Si BLACK, Manufacturers of Bar, Sheet, Hoop and
Angle Iron, Nails, and Spikes ; also, rat Itar-Punched Rail
road Iron.
Warehouse No. 99 Water Meet, between Wood and
Market. 0c25.6in
N 0.32 North SECOND Street, above Market, Philadelphia
The largest, cheapest, and best assortment of PL UN and
FANCY BLINDS of any other establishment In the United
RICPAIRING promptly attended to. Give us scan,
and usxtilaly ynorgalvest. fan-ly
AL: Depository is now well furnished with all the Publics•,
lions of the Presbyterian Board of Publication, and especially
with those that are suitable for Sabbath School Libraries.
There is also a good supply of nearly 400 additional volumes,
selected with, special care, from the numerous publications
of the Massachusetts S. S. Society, and the American S. P.,
Orders from any part Of the country will be promptly at
tended to by addressing the subscriber. Money may be sent
by mall at OUT risk:
Also, a good supply of stationery.
novl7 JAMBS A. 11tWIN, Librarian.
weer Market and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, have for
Dry and. Green Salted Patna Kips,
.Tanner's Oil, Tanner's
and Currier's Tools at the lowest prices, and upon the best
terms. •
Agi- All kinds of Leather in the rough wanted, for
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taken in exchange for Hides. 'Leather tored nee of charge
sna ortilann ontremisurien ' il&-ftroo
HENRY'S Commentary, containing 740 beautiful 11-
lustradve Engravings, besides maps, So.; also, 100 closely
printed pages of Supplementary Notes to each Book of the Old
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after Henry's death,) has boon revised and enlarged by six
eminent English Divines; also,
large additions on the
Apocalypse, from the best writers on Prophecy. Altogether,
this is by far the beat edition, and it is the cheapest now to
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W3l. S. RB, I ILL.
Theological Bookseller and Bible Importer, No. 20 St
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Manufactured by
The oldest and most experienced ELECTED WATERS in the
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The most elaborate and richest patterns
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No:15 South Ninth Street, above Chestnut,
Near the Girard House,
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—JAMES P.OBB, No. 89 Market Street, between
Market Mouse and Fifth Street, would call the attention of
his friends and customers, and all others who may Laver him
with their trade, that for the future he will be found at his
New Shoo Store, as above, with an entirely Now Stock of
Boots, Shoes, Gaiters, Slippers; Palm Leaf. Pedal, Tustin, and
Braid Hata, Ac.; consisting in part of Gents'-Fancy Opera
Boots. Congress Gaiters, Oxford Ties, Ac., Ladies', Misses'
and Childrend Fancy Boots, Gaiters, Tied, Slips, Ac., very
beautiful; Boys' and Youths' Dress Boots, Shoes, Ties and
His stock is one of the largest ever opened in this city, and
embraces everything worn by the ladies of Philadelphia and
New York, and, ho trusts, cannot fail to please all. Great
care has been taken tin selecting the choiceirt godde, all of
which be warrants.
He also continues to manufacture, as heretofore, all de
scriptions of Boots and Shoes, and his long experience of
over twenty years in business in this city is, he trusts, a suf
ficient guaranty that those who favor him with their custom
will be *My dealt with. ap.26-tt
Churches, Academies, Factories, Steamboats, Planta
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vertical ails, any distance, however small, or completely
found ; thus lessening the anger of a fracture from repeat-
ed blows of the clapper in one place. This yoke also com
bines the movable arm by which the bell may be raised or
lowered In its bearing, if desired, thus increasing or dimin
ishing the force of the blow. The recent adaptation of Iron
oases, in which they mould all sizes, increases their working
facilities, andalso enhances the quality of the casting ; which
improvements, with those of thirty years during which the
establishment has been in operation, have gained for their
bells en unequalled celebrity for volume of sound and quality
of tone, and for which they have just received, January, 1855,
the first premium at the World's Fair, many from this coun
try and Europe being in competition; and which is the nine.
teenth medal they have received. Being located at the Jtmo.
tion of railroad, canal and river routes, they can ship in any
direction at a moment's notice. 'For farther information,
apply fer'ciroulars. Addrees '
West Troy, Albany Co., N. Y.
COILED, Without Pain er Surgical Operation.
The readers of the Banner and ddroceata will recollect I
published a notice last Winter, headed as The Last Call to
Stuttering and Stammering Perions," in which lannounced
was the only chance they would ever have of getting cured,
and all who desired the cure should either send for it by ,
Dna or call themselves before the 10th of March, as on that
day I had made arrangements to resign my profession, and
retire from the practice. Since the 10th, I have personally
consulted forty, and sent the cure by mail to sixty indi
viduate. In every instance perfect satisfaction has been
rendered. In justice to all who are so unfortunate as to
stutter or stammer yet, I have thought proper to give
another opportunity of being cured, and therefore would
respectfully request them to send me $2O, (which is less
than my usual fee,) and I will immediately send' them my
cure. By so doing they save the expense of traveling. I
am a responsible man, and if my cure is not effectual I will
agree to refund the money. Recollect. this cure never fails.
, Address Dr. WYCKOFF, Box 7413, Pittsburgh Post Office.
There has been a floating population of impeders travel
ing the country, professing to cure impediments of speech
by my system, and many have had the audacity to advertise
in my name, and give the names of men fbr reference whom
they never knew or saw. When persons who stammer
called, those men would represent me, and in several in
stances produce a certificate purporting to be mine, vesting
in thorn foil power and authority to practice as my Agents.
I have frequently warned the Public of these men, as they •
are. not in full poatesaion of my system, and cannot cure.
Through untiring perseverance. I arrested two of them,
and others will sooner or later share the same fate. This
cure for Stuttering or Stammering is one
,of my own' ,
discovery, fur which I have a copy right, secured by lair,
and have successfully practised the earne fur the term, of
nine years. - •
My references are of the highest order, such as the Medi
cal:Faculty of New York, Philadelphia, and the University
of„ Virginia, all the Press of Pittsburgh, Washington,
Greensburg. and Uniontown, Pa., besides fiftr thonsand
persons in different parts of the country. •
This cure for Stnttering and Stammering Is performed in
less than
ng one,hour. There ie no pain or eurgical operation
attendi it.
The beauty of all this ie, it will cure children of five, and
adults at the age of one hundred years. A. person Who is
cur by it, can never again stutter, evemif they try. I of
fer to forfeit $lO,OOO if any person can evtir afterwards Stut
ter; by * application of the cure. •
It was formerly Customary to announce, that no pay.
would be required unless a perfect mire was performed.
That was done slime the peopilithere would be no risk in
giving me a trial. But now, ininiMiach 'as the leading Citi
zens of Pittsburgh, know.mrcure never fails, it would A/e
superfluous to make another such announcement. •
DR. rrycKork
. .
NEW JERSEY 6 DE Ltareas.
All nolvoza. banks,
All solvent banks,
'NORTH CanowsNA.
AR So lv ant banks, 2
All oolvent
solvent blinks,
All solvent banks,
All solvent banks,
`State bank and bruncbel, %
Bank of State of blLseonri, -X
Mar. & Fire Ins. Co. checks, 5
All solvent banks,
All solvent banks,
ICON CITY i.;tsilli s ti - Zrol.:111L r
An institution. for the I.lusitu,s moo. Ortrtertoi,
Located at Pittsburgh, opposite the Post Office.
Having a larger patronage than any smilittr
of the West,
His Exey., Gov. Jas. Pollock, PM. ii. NI. Riddle.
Hon. Wm. Bigler, Ex-Gov. tlon. J. L. Brady,
Col. Wilson McCandless, H. A. Pryor, 11mi . ..
Col. William Hopkins, B. L. lwabnesteek; Esc.
Capt. D. Campbell, I , ld. Campbell. Esq.
N. P. Fetterman, Esq., Ater .nder, Bradley, Ley
Principal—P. W.VENSIN S.
I. I. HITCHCOCK, (author of "A New Method of !re,.
lug Book-Keeping,") Professor of the Science of ACC,iIJI6I:,,
and of the Art of Book-Keeping, end Teacher of Arithmenc,
and its application to business.
JOHN FLEMING, (author of the "National System (4
Book-keeping,") Lecturer on the Science of Accounts, and. ou
Business, its customs and usages.
cerian Writers, (who hare no superiors as Penmen:: i rt•
lessors of Epistolary, Commercial and Ornamental PegniaL.
ship, and Lecturers on Mercantile Correspondence.
JAMES 11. HOPKINS, Esq., of the Pittsburgh Par, L.
Careron Commercial Law.
D. BACON, Professor of Mathematics, Lecturer on Pciht.
cal Economy and Commercial Geography.
JAMES W. KENNEDY, of "Kennedy's Bank Note llw
view," Teacher of the art of Detecting Counterfeit
.Conducted by a full and efficient Faculty.
Book-Keeping, full Accountant's couree t includiniz
Arithmetic and its applications, Commercial Cal
culations, all Lectures, Practical Penmanship,
(a Life Scholarship)
Same course for ladies, (apartments separate)
Penmanship, practical, time unlimited,
Ornamental Penmanship, as agreed upon.
Arithmetic (new system) time unlimited
Ifigherithithematics, Surveying, Engineering, .13 echanir
Architectural and Ornamental Drawing and Coristrutth
Languages, Elocution, &c., as per agreement.
To furnish the best means for acquiring a Thorough
bless Education, in the shortest time, and at the leact o
As here taught, embodies all the knowledge and imprm e •
menta taught elsewhere, with some valuable addition, nr..
where else applied, so that graduates here will be fully able
to manage the books of any business concern.
(A newstm) and its application to business is here (and
here only) included in the commercial course.
Practical and Ornamental, by A. COWLEY, and W. P.
'COOPER, Teachers of the Spencerian aysteni t unsininwhc
Penmen; who drew the first Premiume b Ornamental, au s.
ineas and Lacliee'Penmanahip, atithe Last State Fairs , in 012;
and Michigan.
Delivered daily on Book-Keeping; the Usages, Laws an i
Ethics of Commerce; Finance and Banking; Political Lon.
omy, Commercial Geography, Counterfeit Money. &c. An
acquaintance with all being necessary to the highest sucrebe
in business.
May enter at any time; no vacation; review at pletwure;
time unlimited.
Tuition, full Commercial Conrso,
Stationery, &c., about . . . •
Board, per week, can be obtained for
Three hundred Students have entered this College fronuchis.
city alone (besides others from abroad) since last October.
Numbers from other Colleges apply here to complete their
education, so that they may be flirty qualified for successful
business action. •
Specimens of Writing and Circulars containing full infor•
motion, sent by mail free of cbarga. Address,
Iron City College, Pittsburgh. Pa.
dee 5-ly
Founded in 1840, and incorporated by the Legislatme of
Pennsylvania, with perpetual charter.
Hon. James Buchanan, Hon. Moses Hampton,
lion. Wm. Wilkins, Hon. Charles Naylor,
'Hon. W. H. Lawrie, Oen. J. K. Moorhead.
P. DIJFP, President, author of "Boil's Book.keephw."
"The Western Steamboat Accountant," ~
&C. • Pi ofecr cf
the Principles and Practice of Double - hntry iook-keepin_.
A. T. HOWDEN, J. S. lIIINCAI4, and W. H. DUFF, A,,e•
elate Professors of Double-Bntry Book-keeping.
J. D. WILLIAMS, Professor of Commercial and Ornareel.
tal Penmanship, the hest Business and Ornamental Pentriat
in the United States. , -
J. S. DITNCAN, Assistant Professor of Penmanship.
N. B. HATCH, Professor of Commercial Law and Politics
Hon. Judge SHANNON and J. M. NTRHP4TEICK, Eir
cial Lecturers on Commercial. Law.
Rev. DAVID FERGUSON, A. hf., Lecturer on Commercial
Ethics, (late Professor. of Aneient and Modern Langur.EN.
of Washington College.)
'P. DUPF, Lecturer on the History and Principles of Com
merce, Banlang,
JOHN MIJRPHY, Teacher of the Art of Detecting Coua
terfeit Bank Notes; the only thoroughly qualified Teacimr
of this Art in this part of the country.
Exabraees a full course of Classical, Mathematical an -Eng
fish Studies
P.:HAYDEN, A. M., Principal and Professor of Laagu e
APEL; Professor of French and German Language,
D. SHRYOCK and G. ANTON, Professors of Vocal and lh
" This is universally admitted to be the largest and nlrc:'
perfectly organized Commercial College in the Unikj
- The 'teaching of Book-Keeping, Penmanship, and other
collateral sciences have been brooght to a degree of perfet
tion'not attained in any other of the kind in the country.
Atban adequate idea 'of the arrangements. of this institu
Lion can only be obtained from US pamphlet circulars_ thQ
are mailed free to all pacts of the - country, with specimen::
of Mr. Williams Penmanship, when desired. jell-ti
. 1886.-Tbe Winter-Session of this Inititutiun oprns
ou the Lit of November next. The last Catalogue number: ,
160 students, from ten States of the Union. The course of
instruction is full and thorough, both as to preparath,n fur
business and for College. Students have been entered ty the
Principal at Tale, Pnnceton, Dickinson. Lafayette, Jeffemn,
Washington, and Delaware Collette& Laced in in the coun
try, easy of access, healthful, free from temptations, nr,d In
the midst of beautiful scenery. The moral and religion.;
influences in and around the Institution are all the st
anxious parent can desire. For Catalogues, containing full
information, apply at this office,or to
J. H. SIIUNLKER, M. A., Principal,
Academia, Juniata County, Ps.
A nixrpouto piromALE. smrgiNAny,
The Winter Session; of five months, will commence the fin:
Wednesday in November.
: , .ftpenses,for Boarding, Fuel, Light and Tuition in the En
glish branches, $6O per Session. Ancient and Modern Lan
guages, each $5. Lessons on the Piano, and use of Instru
ment, $l5. Painting and Drawing, each $6. Or the pay -
went of $BO, will include the whole.
A daily stage connects with the cars at Newark, Del., and
also at Parkesburg, Pa. Address
J. M. DICKEY, or
Oxford,Bept. 20, 1855 SAMUEL DICKEY. Ozfr-d, ra.
t„.7 0 1 ACADEMY.—The Tenth Session of this Institution
will open on the 3d of November, and continue five months.
Prof. S. Dana, (graduate of Yale,) Principal and Teacher
in Male Department.
Miss Mary L Dunlap, (graduate o; Steubenville,) Teacher
In Female Department. • .
For farther information, address any member of tie
W. M'ILWAIN, President, Rev. T. GILHERBON,
J. if. ROBINSON. Treasurer Rev. W. W. WOODEND,
R. IL iI'OREA, J. W. ROI:1E813N.
County, Ohio, under care of the Synod of Cincinnati.
Principal, Rev. J. W. Scott, ili.iD., aided by eight 11FeMEILI:
teachers. Expense from slo, to $9O per session of t'e
months. Sehohirships at rate - still lower. The bulidiris
and grounds are unsurpassed: Every modern convemeve
and comfort hats been_ supplied. Rooms all heated vitt
steam, and lighted with gas. Seasiona open early in .Itim•
ary and September. /or circulars or information in dem-,
apply -to DR. SCOTT, or REV. W. 8. SOGLERB, Oxford, Ohio
Tuscarora Valley, Juniata County, Pa., one-fourtl.
a mile from the Perrysville Station of Pennsylvania RIO:*
The Summer Session Neill commence on Monday, the 16th
of April. Whole expense per session of twenty-two weekz,
for Board, Room, Tuition, Washing and Incidentals,ss.s,pq
able one-half in advance.
oa- See Circulars. DAVID WILSON,
marl/i-ly Principal and Proprietor, Port Royal P. 0
DIXON. ILLINOIS —This Institution, under eissr_e
of .the Presbytery of Rock River, is now open for the
tion of students. Having, a location pleasant, healthful. sic
ray of access, with, an able and' efftcientCorps o?teath. r-.
it ie hoped that it will receive the patronage of the putiis.
For terms of tuition, board, &c.. apply to any number
Rock River Presbytery, or to the President of the Institu
tion, REV. W. W.
jylSly .
Summer &Salon of.thia Inetitatewill comment? 0
Tuesday, May Ist.
Circulars may be had at the Drag store of A. W. Gsylcl:
18th and Cheetu at streets, Philadelphia, at the Book stov e
7.31. Wilson, 9th and Arch .streete, and at the I:ducat:a
Boston, 265 Chestnut street, or address
Bev. J. M. BAYLEY-
Media. Del. Co.. 13-_
SCIIUOL, MOUNT HOLLY;N. J.—Designed to P"'
pare, boys thoroughly for college or business. For a r"!
parrot], Ac., address hey. Man= MILLER, A. M., Priu'
pal. Number of well qualified-assistant teachers sol" t ;
Boifilinge and grounds extensive.• Situation pleasant
healttful. Access eeey by reitroad from New York tra
phiho.ipbta. • lieholesseekeeleeyi at any 6111.0. ieli r
C 0 TT:A 03 k,8:31011IR AR Y FOR yorse
LADIES, Pottstown, Montgomery County Ps.
The • Winter' Beviiibii"of this Institution will connsew ,
. 14 °Yeinber 4 th.- • PorlE m
reolsrs, with fell partioniaaddre i
IEV. W. It. WOW:.
Principal and Proprietor.
Vial.. W. W. HALL., AUTHOR OF Eno's.
.411t07-Of Halls Journal of Health., a monthly at $l.OO 6
Yea6 . o confines himself now, as for many years past, olds
to the treatment of diseases of the
obis . 42 Irvine Piece. NO. , Tot*
"s office.l.7
subscriber, being provided with Steam Prionce
Presses, and a great variety of Printing Types and other ts'
tunes, is prepared to extents every description of Seei 4
Pamphlets, Cards, Pills, Labels, kc.
Blank Deeds, Bleak Books Paper and Station/1.170 ,11 ' 01
on hand. J. T. SERTOCK ,
No. 84 Mtn Street, Gazette Baildivp
MINNA. 'la.& 1865.
FROM $6.50 TO $4OO.
dhurch and Parlor Lampe, Watches. Jewelry.
Spoons, Ppectscles, Teaware, Plated on Alabaster. Er n°° '
Forks. Watch Repairing done in the beat manner.
Corner of Market and 4th Ste.,
416, TURING Steeple, or Tnrrett Chicks, of ,T enrol.;
construction and d amain t workmanship. They are 01E4
than can be foun elsewhere in the United Slates, and war
ranted to give eal faction in time and durability. address
Tittabergb, I's.
. 2..0