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PUBL 10 ISII BY
1 10 - Dovotk. to the cause rif Republicanism, the in•
tereeta of A gri a elture, the :lava ncetnent of 'Education,
imid the beet g,cd ot Putter county. owning no guide
bxeept that of Principle, it will endeavor to aid In the
Work of more fully Breedinnizi fig our Country.
cements Inserted at the following rates,
speCialbargains ore made, A `'square"
. revier or.B of Nonpareil types :
nsertion.. , .....- . ....... tii f.O
or 3 insertion, ... '.. ...., .......... 2 00
:uncut insertion less than 13 40
pear l OOO
Ards, 1 year 0
tor's or Executor's Notices • 300
Editorial Notices per line.----- 20
sient adcertisements must be paid in
to notice will be taken of advertisements
~-,, unless they are accompanied by the
i sfactory reference.
irk, of all kinds, executed with neatness
lAA 10 lines of I
• 11 "quare, 1
soh sub ,, e'
Isar All tra
.titint a distani ,
taantY Or eat .
'Free and Accepted Ancient 'York Masons,
111011,ALIAILODU E, No. 342, F.
tux Stated' 1 1
412,1 Meeting' on the 2.1 and 4th 'wed ays of each ii
'month. ILO! in the 3d Story of the Olmsted Block..
D.C.Lnatopq,See. WM. SHEAR, tV,
T. ELLISON. ITC I).,
PRACTICING FIT YSICIAN. Coudersport, Pn.,
restieettn ly informs the citizens 01 the villace andh
vicinity that 1 c will promptly respond to all ealls fort
professional s :vices. 011ie,. on Firs.t. street, first dour,j
went of his re: idenee. 17-40
• V AND COUNSELLOR. AT LAW.
port, teal attend the several Ceurts
Cinneron counties. Ali. buseue•s eize
care Wi❑ receive prompt attention.!
street, it residence.
In Potter an(
trusited to hi
Unice on Mail
STE!) and IikRUAISEE,
care with pr'si
the several eAI
In the secoi,d
Y 9 AT L:. W, et titlet • port, P
s . .
.nd to all business entrusted to their
titttat-:a and titklity. Will al-o at
orts adj.tinitur counties. tillieO
stoney of the olint-ted
LAW, 4.ll.sclor,port, Pa., will
, votros.teil to Lim Witt wart .
At...VVAS 4 2 , Mrt ,, of adjoinin:: coutij,
It seco.d reet,near the Allegall} bridge
And prompt t)t i J
t Office 1.)1]
• 1.... - VI. UNION., . 1
ATTORS . 17 ANTI) COUNSELLOR. AT -LAIN ,T
Cou.ierkporl, l'a.., wIl attend thu (tom IA in L't,t , .
'el . and .thc nijoirilllg C.OOlll 1•,•. •
F. D. DITTED, 31. D..
EEYSICI ..,:`: and Surgeon would rmtpeet fully In- ,
form tit eitiv.-1,.: or Coutlerevort and eternity
that he ju t- opened an 011oto in the emale'spoit
Hotel, and m,ill . be ready at all tinma to make mo :
feasMonl ealht. Ile i-t a regular graduate of Itutram
Madioai co eof .ISGO.
liegegl Jan 1. '67.
T aionrsos, • •
- rNEALErti 1" Dras, Medicines, Points,
'Vanpiades, Lamps toal Fancy articles, Book-of
all kinds —School and NI issslloaeous, Starit.ner2,,lnks, ,
&e. In Mtddtings old Jewelry More.
I 31.CiLLEIL • 3icALMItNEY,
TrOil "; 81* E-AT LAW, 1 i Alt iet, , STjr:G; rellioa.T .
i Ageno for the Culleetion of Chkitesegail.st tik.
plied Statesaud.,tate tiovenisnent-,-u.•in :,.., Pe11.,i0.. , ,
BounV,A.rreitrfi of Pay,&c-..1,1. 1 reas 1.1.. x. 95, • ,arr..hore
w II . i I / 1.1.. E R:, Y. c...Ne.t I.A.Ks ET
•.;11. W. :Thati:II.ARNEV., •
REAL EgTATE and INSURANCE AGENT.,:,j-
Land Bought and Sold, Taxes raid and Titlej,
investigated-I loseres promo ty agoinet fire In the beet
companies it the Coutttry, - and, l'ersone aZ O / 1 A At
dents In the p•avelere Ineuran , te Company of Raft
ford. Buelness transacted enytly 17-20
1." 1 . A. STEER' NS ES.: Co.,
AI E Elt onda , Fanet
rG i t B .h; A a I r r B o viin Dry s
„ o t u ; d
•nd overyth cg I1811:,11y,krpt in a good country Attn.°.
Produce I t
t sold l7
C. IL SIMMONS, •
MERCII2I.NT—WELLSVII,LE N. Y., 'Whole
sale aiid Retail Dealer ijt Dry Goods, Fancy and
Bmple GoodH.Clvtlintr,LadicA Dret.3o“ods.GrocerieN
Flour, Feed; s‘e., Retailer supplied on liberal t4.rrns
• CIEARLE: S.: JONES,
ritcriA."r—Dealeni lin D ragA, LLedici Pninte,
Oils,fancy A rtnjle! , , Stationery, Dry Goode,
Groceries, Sec:. Main Street, co derspnrt , l'a
D. E. OLMSTED, •
MEFtCII/I.lCl7—Deale r r in Dry Goode..iitendy-made•
Glathing, ()rockery, Groceries, Vieur,
rnric, &c., Main street, oourlcripoit,
ERCTlliNT—Dealer in Dry Goode, C.: receries,
Proviitions,llardware, Queensware, Cutlery,
•nd all (lend. n,uitliy found in a-country store. n'6l
b 11. S. OLMISTEM,' . .
HARDWARE Merenant, and Dealer in Stoves,
Tin and Sheet Iriel•A‘:"at , o, Main st reet, Conde].
•port, Penh!a. 'nu and Sheet !Iron Ware made to
•rder, In c,hid style, on short male,
: .C.VEliMlLYlLA,lhtnrittit.tnn, Corner of Mititi
. and Seconitstroetn,eoutlernport,Potter Co.ra,
A Livery St tblo in also Itejlt: in cowiect lon with thin
Hotel. Doi y Stares to and from the Railroads.
Potter Jinirnal Job-o.lLite:
HAVING -lately added a fine new nagortinent - of
JOB-TVTE to our alrcaq lafut natortment.
We are now prepared to do all klnda of Wor'.;-, cheaply
and with take and neatness. Ordcos solicited.
Lewisville; Potter county, Pennsylvania.
-DpunToN LEWIS. Pr6prietor. Having
31.9 taken thin excellent ffoteb the proprietor wiehe,
o make the acquaiutance of the traveling public and
cola confident of uivi TI4 eatiefaction to all who may
all on hlm.—Feb:•l2, 66 tf
pig 10 , Monuments and Tomb-Stones
E r " Of 11111:M4s, will be furnished ou roasona
J ble terms and short notice by
-11CIVI 11c;altlence t'Eulalin ' 134 ruifrs s utt . o f
Coudersport, Pa., on t11.! - Sioneui•loo ' ilig "
it owl, or leave your orders at the l'o-t fe6hi
. . ,
1 DAN BAUF,R,
FENSION, BOUNTY and WAR CLAIM AGENCY'
, Vuasions procured fur Soldiers of the present
. Vex who msg.; tisabled by reason of wounds received
ordtsea‘e ealiraeted while In the serxiee of the United
States ; and pensions, bounty, and arrears of pay ob.
tattled for widows or heirs of those who have died . or
been .killed while. in senrice. All letters - 3f inquiry
promptly nnewere I, and oh receipt by mall of a state
ment of 'the case of claimant, I will forward the ne
cessary papers for their signature. Fees in Pension
eases as fixed by law. Refers to Hons. lease IleUson,
A. G. Olmsted, John S. Mann, and N F. WKE
A ..Knoxi Esq
DA . RR;
ClaIM Agent, Coudersport, l's. .
Itch ! Itch t: Itch
SCRATCH I SCRATCH 1 SCRATCH 1
Italic° the Itch in 4S Hours!
Alpo cures SALT RHEUM, ULCERS.
BLAINS, end :ill ERUPTIONS OF THE SKIN.
Prlce3o cents. For sale by all firrhnfists. By send:ou
eo cents to WEEKS & POrTER, Sole Agents,l 1:0
Washington street, Boston, It will he fo,waroed
/nail, free of postage,to any part of the United States.
Juno 1, 1866, sp.uotioo wky lyr.
, A"'"!!T 1 • . .
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• -- ,... 40, :.
•ON . S V • 1• • .
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14 i ,'
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',,, I OP
:: • I
'. Governor JOHN W. GEARY.
When the congratulatory cheersi of the peo
ple had subsided, Got. Geary proceeded to de
'Ryer his inaugural address, as folloWs:
I FELLOW Cirmess- 2 ,Honored by iIM selection
of the sovereign people of my oatiye State as
their choice for Chief Magistrate 011 the Corn-•
monwealth of Pennsylvania, it is with mingled
feelings of humility and gratitudefell( wcountry
i at I have
appeared in the presence of my :
men, and before the Searcher of all Hearts, to
take the solemn obligation prescribed as a qual- i
ification for that exalted 'station, '!'to support 1
the Constitution of the United StOes and the
Constitution of Penn Sylvania, and to perform
my offical duties with fidelity."
Profoundly sensible of everything thatts im-
plied„hy this Manifestation of the peopleis con- 1
fiance, and more deeply impressed with the
vast importance and responsibiliteS bf the office
than elevated by its attendant hot+, let it be
our first grateful duty to return fervfnt thanks
, givihgs to Almighty pod for his constant prey-, ,
Wetted and unnumbered blessings to us a peo
pki, and especially mine to implore His aid and.
counsel in the discharge of civil trtlys, who has
been my shield and buckler amidst scenes of
peril and death.
In addising you on this occjion, in ac
.cordaime with a custom ,originating with the
Republican fathers, I propose briefly to express
my opiniods of questions as;concern our
common constituency, and relate 'p : our corn-1
.mum respousibilities. 1' . I
Like e!! rieS of the Old Wnrld, our ration
hashed its' internall commetions From the
last of these we have scarcely yet, emerged, and
during which "war's I desolation" i passed over
our laud, leaving its influences principaPy up- 1
on those nnfortunate!States WhosC people re
belled against the government, and notwith
standing:the agonizing sacrifices of a great civ
il war, the States that maintained the gover
ment and determined that the Union should
be preserved, have ctinstantly advanced in bon
or,"wealth, population and general prosperity.
This is the first time 'that a change hag ~c .
curred iii the Executive Department of this
State since the commencement of; the war of
the rebellion; a brief reference, therefore, to,
that conflict. and to its results, may not be in 7
,app: cyriate. . j I
1W e eaVe the consolation of knowing that the;
c‘infest between the ! Sol.' h and Smith was no(
on our part, one for ambition, Mil military , re-
Tloll'll, for territerial acquisition, nnr was it for
a •violatiOn "laity of the rights of the South,
but it was for the preservation of our own rights
toil privileges as men, and for the: Maintenance
icf justice, Liberty and the Union. 1 The objeet,
of the Smith 'W.V.§ avowedly the dissolution Of
,he Union and the establishment; of a confed-j
eracy based upon "the corner stone Of huntaa,
slavery.'' To have' submitted tei this on' our
OA, and 'to hare shrank from a Manly resist.'
:Mee under .such -circunistances, wouid haver
been deeply and lastingly degrading,and wouldl
have destroyed' the Value of the priceless lega-!!
'cy bequentoed t-.) , tisipy our faherS, and which
we are oblige to tsanstnit unimpaired to fitture
generations. The imtriotic and . I.Jiiion-loving
people felt, that the alternative was that of life
or dec,th l to the Union ;and under the anspiciouS
guidance of Abraham Lincoln, that virtuous and
patriotic; Chief Ma t istrate, with the blessing or
Dim who dir,•cts the destinies of 'ttid ions, after
imen action and arbitrary voilence it the part
of the South, the appeal to arms was made
We' had a just cause, and oureilizims approving
it with a degree of ntranittnty lteretolore: un
known, in this or any other country, left their
various employments:their homes and all that
wits.,•lear to them, and hasten «I With enthusi
asm to the scenes where duty :and danger call
ed, and as the surest pledge of their unsweri- r
ing love.and fidelity to the Union they utthesi
tmingly offered their lives fur it. preservation.
Nor was any other tribute withheld, in prd
viding the means necessary fur the support Of
our fleets and armies. Nearly tWo millions of
soldiers entered the' finhl frein 'time to time on
different terms of enlistment,. 'The citizens
generally .e.thi-hited the highest degee of patri
otism in the, prompt payment of faxes; in their
liberal contributidns in the shape 'of loans to the
government; and the world wits faitonisheil by !
the amount expended in their lantevolent care
for the tick and wounded, through the agencies
of the sattitaary and Christian Cononissions and
ether eltarlti , le'. associations. More than Six
hundred sanguinary. battles mill skirmishes
were fotight, ill which nearly three hurn4d
thousand of our hernicdefenders laid down their
lives in their devtainn to tle nation—ttfer etod
and Liberty"' . •! i
I : t
I n every phase of this tr. •rible Conflict, Penn
sylvania bore an lamm.able and conspietnius
part. She contributed three hundred atal sixty
six thousand three hundred and:tWeniyisikvol- i
utsteer soldiers to the rescue of the natien; and :
nearly every battlerfield has been moistened
...sill the blood, unit whitened with the bones!
of her heroes. To them we owe` our victories,
lunsurpassed in brilliancy.and in the importance
dl their tonsoquenees. To the dead—the thrice,
honored deed-we-are deeply ', indebted, for !
' Without their selWites it is possible our -cause
might not have been successfuh) .
It is natural and eminently pope - t‘ 061 tctre,
as a people. sboxildleel a deep and lasting ill=
terest in the present and future Welfare of the
soldiers who have homes() distinguished a part
In the great contest which has resulted 'in the'
maintenance of the life, honor and prosperity of
the natian. The high claims •o l f the private
soldiers upril the country are universally 'ac
knowledged, and the generous sentiment pre
vails that that amplest care should be taken i by
thegovernmertto emnpensatethemtequally and I
generously, with bounties and pensions, for their
services and sacrifices
• L desire that it may be distinctly understood
that. I do not speak of myself. in connection
with this subject: but I anilappy to avail my, 1
'self of this opportunity to speak :kind words of '
Penns y lvania's private soldiers, and the noble I
offieers who counnanded them I i
The generosity of the peopl& of Pennsylvania',
to' the Union soldiers has been infitated, lint not
equalled, by other States:. There is something
peculiar in the loyalty of Penntiylvania. She,
seemed to feel, frOm the first, as if upon her de
volved the setting of i a superior : , :ainple. The
filet that she carried Upon her: standard the
I brightest jewel of the ' Republic!, • that in her
bosom was conceived and trom her commercial
capital was issued , he Declaration of Lndepen
deice. gave to her contributions; in men and
money, and her unparalleled charitable ortran- -
izations, all the diguitv and firer: of a model
for Others to Copy. 'file rebel foe see=med to
feel that if he could strike a fatal blow at Peon
sylvfinia, he would recover all his kisses, and
establish a. resistleSs prestige in the old world. But thanks to Divine Providence, and to t the
Debote6 . 11 tbe ?Pitleipies of Ii Daipoetleg, aqJ the Diehiiintiop of 'g.itehetthe QQ3 ffebls.
OUDERSPORT, POTTER COUNTY, PA., TUESDAY JANUARY_24, 1867.
enduring bravery of our Citizen 'soldiers., the
invasion of oar beloved State sealed her more
chisely to the cause of freedom.
The result of the battle of Gettysburg broke
the power of the rebellion, and although the
fitful isssue was delayeil, it Was inevitable from
the l date of that great event. That battle res
cued all the other free States; and *hen the
arch of victory was completed by Sherman's
successful advance from the sea, so that the two
conquerors could shake bands over the two
fields thatcloSed the war,;,the soldiers of Penn
sylyania were equal sharers in the glorious con
No people in the world's history have ever
been saved from so incalculable a calamity, and
no people have ever had such cause for grati
tude towards their defenders.
And here I cannot refrain from an exprass
ion.Of regret that the General Gevernment =has
not taken any steps to inflict the proper penal
ties Of the Constitution and laws upon the lead ,
ers of those who rudely and ferociously .inva
ded the ever sacred soil of our State.
t is certainly a mcirbid clemency, and a cen
surable forbearance, which fail to punish the
greatest crimes "kuown to the lad's of civilized
nations;" and may not the hope be reasonably
indulged, that the Fedral authorities will cease
t 4 extend unmerited mercy to those who bum
gUrated the rebellion and controlled the move
dents of its armies? I f this be done treason will
be "rendered odious," and it Will be distinctly
proclaimed, on the pages of our future history,
that no attempt can be made with impunity to
destroy our Republican form of government.
And while we would remember ^the soldier
who has borne the battle," we Must not forget
'this widow and his orphan children." Among
.iur most solemn obligations is the maintenance
of the indigent widows, and the support and
education of the urphan children.of those noble
j men who fell in defense of the Union.' To af- j
firm that we owe a debt of- gratitude to those '
Who have been rendered homeless and father
less,by their parents' patriotic devotion to the
country, is a truth to which all mankind . will
:yield a ready assent; and ttiongh we cannot
j eall the dead to life, it is a privilege as well as
duty, to take the orphan by the hand, and be
'to him a protector and a father.
Legislative appropriations have honored the
liv ng soldiers, and entombed the dead. The
people at the ballot-box, have sought out the
meritorious veterans, and the meritorious spec
tacle is now presented of the youthful survivors
of those who fell for their country, cherished
and educated at the public expense. Even if I
j were differently constituted, my official duties
would constrain me vigtlantly to guard this
sacred trust. Biff, having served in the same
cause. and been honored by the highest marks
of public favor, I pledge myself to bear in mind
the injunctions and wishes of tlip peoplh, and if
possible to increase the ellicien.S , and multiply
the benefits of the seheols and institutions, al
ready so creditably established, for the benefit
of the orphans of our martyred heroes.
The infatuation of treason, the downfall of
slavery, the vindicath;n of freedom and the com
plete triumph of tile government of thepeople,
are all so many proofs of the "Divinity that has
shaped our ends.'' and given sct many promises .
of a future crowned with success if we are only
true to our mission. Six years ago the specta
cle of four millions of Slaves, increasing steadily
both their own nuMbers'and the pride and the,
material and political power of their masters.,
presented a problem so appalling, that states- I
men contemplated it with undisguised alarm,
and the moralist with shame. To-day these;
tour millions, no longer slaves, but freemen,
Irwin! , intermediately proved their humanity
towards their oppressors, their fidelity to soci
ety, and their loyalty to thmgovernment, are
peacefully incorporated into the body politic,
and are rapidly preparing to assume their rights
.as citizens of the United States. ' Notwithstand
ing this unparalleled change was only effected
after an awful expenditure of blood and treas
ure, its consunimatiun may well be cited as the
sublimest proof of the fitness of the Americab
people to adininister the government according
to the pledges of the Declaration of I ndepeng
We have but to estimate where human sla
very would have carried our country, in the
course of another generation,, to realize the
force of this commanding truth. And as we
dwell upon the dangers we have escaped, we
may' the better understand what Jefferson
meaht when, in the comparative infancy of hu
man, slavery, he exclaimed, 'tremble for my
'country when I reflect that God is just. , •4
• A:single glauce•at what must have been/our
fate had slavery been permitted to•increase will
be sufficient. 1860 the slave population
amounted, in exact numbers, tie three millions
nine }rewired and fifty-three thousand ;set en
hundred and sixty. Taking theincrease, 23.29
per cent , from 1890 to 1860, as,the basis of cal
culatkin for every ten years; in 1890, they would
have numbered at least upwards of nine mil
lions. What Christian statesman, as he thanks
God for the triumph of the Union armf, does
not shudder at the terrible prospect presented
by these startling figures ?
But while there is cause for "constant solici
tude in the natural irritations produced by sued'
a conflict, he is but a gloomy. pr'ophet who dues
nnt anticipate that the agencies, which accom
plished these tremendous results, will success-
IfullY cope With it'd put down all who attempt
too govern tho nation in the interests of defeated
ambition and vanquished treason.
The people of the conquering Niirth and West
have comparatively little to do but to complete
the, good - Work: Vies cOnlyno.nd the position.
The courage of the soldier and' the sagacity of
the star' swan, working harmoninuslyhave now
mraled and confirmed the victory, and Malang
' more is required but a faithful adherence to tire
doctrines Whieli have achieved Such ttari•elous
'The overthrow of the rebelliOn has changed
the' whole system of Southern sOciety, and pro
portionately affected other interests and see
tions. Demanding the eolightpurnent , of nail=
lions; long benighted; it fOrces 'upon the North
and West the consideration Of a more perfect
and pervading educational policy.
Much as we have boasted, and have reason to
boast, of our common, schools, we cannot deny,
when we compare them with those of New Eng
latid, and contrast them with the preparations
for the education of the Southern people of all
classes, that we have tiTueli #o overe:Mue; if ire
would equal the had, or stikmlg.th the other.
The reeent doirvent ion of County Schoa Sup;?r:
intkraknts Of Pennsylvania exhibits some stu:rt,
hug facts; which deserve the attention of the
people and their representatives. Yet it is not
by legislation alone that jany people can lie
brought to understand their relations to each
other as citizens. Their best instructors are
'themselves. However liberal the appropiia-
FREEDOM AND SLAVERY
EDI:CATION' OF VIE PCOUI,E.
tions may be, if these are mit septided by that
commendable spirit which inwels the parent td
impress upon the child the necessity of a sound
moral and intellectual training, yoiir represent
atives are generous, in vain. Everything
pends upon the people ; hence thegreat com
plaint, preferred by the Conventio of teachers,
of shortness of terms in some dist icts, of the
small attendance of enrolled sell( lars, of the
employment of unqualified •instructors, and of
the want of proper ,school houses, results nn=
questionably not so much from the indifference
of the State, as from the negligence of those
who are invited to share and enjoy the bless
ings of a cheap and admirable system of popes
lar education. , [lf my fellow citizens will only
recollect the difference between the opportuni
ties of the present generation and those of their
fathers, and how torch is to be gained by a cul
tivation of modern facilities, they' krill require
little exhortation to . the discharge of duties
which relate 'almost exclusively to themselves
and to those nearest and dearest toithem.
The importance Of common selools; in are
pnblicau government, can never be fully esti
mated. To educate the people iS the highest
public duty. To permit theM to remain in ig
norance is enexcusable. Everything, therefore,
should be encouraged that tends to build up,
strengthen and elevate our. Statel en the sore
foundation of the education of the people.
' Every interest and industrial pursuit will be
aided and . promoted by its operations ; every
man who is educatedis Improved fit usefulness,
in proportion as he is skilled in labor, or intel
ligent in the professions, and is in every respect
More valuable to society. Education seems to
be essential to loyalty, limn° State in the full
enjoyment of free schools; ever rebelled against
the government. .
Pennsylvania should be the vanguard 'of ed
ucation. She should remember that as she has
been the mother of States, she siMuld also be
the teacher of States. "The great problem of
civilization is hew :to .bring the higher intern
. gpMe of the community, and its )fetter Moral
1 feelings, to bear upon the masses of the people
'so that the lowest grades of intelligence and
morals shall alWays be approaching the, higher.
and the higher still rising. A church
of superstition solves part of this problem, and
a good school system does the re. t.
THE STATH MILITARY.!!
Nothing, after the edueatiori df the people
contributes more to the security of a state
than a thorough military system.l The fathers
of the Republic, acting upon the instinct of
preparing for war in time of pe4e, embodied
this knowledge among the primary obligations
of the citizen; Yet the rebellinn found us
almost vdrolly unprepared. OM . cor.fidence
in our institutions was so firm that the idea
of an attack upon them from :any qdarter,
much less from those who had been the
"spoiled children" of the government" was
never believeb passible; however threatened.
fire first clash of arms found us equally un
diceived and unorganized, and we very soon
experienced that the contrivers of the great
slave conspiracy had not only :strengt'rened
themselves by the stdlen ships, arms and for
tifications of the government, but had been
for years designedlt mszucting their youth in
the science of arms; and when, the blefody
tempest (Vetted upon us they ,core ready to
spring at the heart of the Republic, while the
citizens, in whOse hands the government was
left, were compelled to protect thethselves
and their counf:ry as best they ,mild.
When we reflect upon the terrible sacrifices
we endurei to rifaiiitain our libiirtiesiand an
ticipated that glorious period of our countrY
when the whole continent will be dedicated
to human freedom, and when the despotisms
of the earth will Construe our example into a
standing threat against their tyranny, we can
not disregard the' consideration of this impor
tant subject. .
before rail:lrked, Per:nsylVtinia Contri
buted dyer three huthired thousand troops to
the national cause: Deductiag the loss of
nearly thirty tuoitsand woundsall'3.disease
.incurred in the field, what an inartierise army
has been ;eft to circulate ',among and to edu
cate the mass of dur population i Properly
comprehending this thought. we have at once
the secret of our past success, our present
safety and our future poWer. dt would be
easy to create an emulation in the scieni.ie of
arms among the youth of the State, by prdpei•
organization, and to dissienate, in all our
schools, that loyalty to, the Whole country,
without which there caul he no permanent
safety for our liberty.
In their late report, the visitors to west
PoMt Military Academy. !hid 'a significant
stress upon the necessity of Stich precep-I
in the future, as would tench the student'
of that' institution their first and unavoidable
obligations to the principles upon which the
government itself repose's.' The neglect of this
kind of instruction was felt in almost every
movement during thelrecent conflict; and •it
is not going too far to say that Many who dis
regarded their oaths, - and who drew their
swords against the governmentlthat had edu
cated and nourished them, foimd a mere
tricious consolation in the fact that they were'
peirmited to cherish an allegiance to the State
in which they were born, which conflicted!
with and destroyed that love of Country which'
shoMd he made supreme and above al dther
political obligations. •
If, in mir past and recent e::p,eriencej there
has been exhibited the valuable' and splendid
achievement of our volunteers in the national
defense, there has also been shoWn the necess
ity for Military skill, and that knowledge of,
and familiariy with; the ruleS of disdipline so
esseirtially necessary in their prompt and ef
fectual,employment. In order,' therefore, to
make our military system effective, we should
have particular regard for the lesson, that to
prevent or repel danger our Stam,should al
ways have a well' disciplined foreed,prepare to
act with promptness and vigor an any caner
gency; nor should we forget that it is impos
sible to tell how soon our warlikd energies may
again be required in tlr r field.
DOKE RESOURCES AND DOME LABOR
In nothing have onr trials dtiring the war,i
and the resulting triumphs to our arms, been '
' so . full of compensation as in the establish
ment of the proud fact that We' are not only
able to defend ourselves righinst assault, but
What is equally impfttant, to depend nio'n and
live eron our o'len resat:re:* At the. dine the
rebellion was precipitated upon us, the whole
business and trade of the nation was paral
yzed. Corn in the West was used fur fuel,
lend the producer was compelled to lose
only the interest hpom his capital, but, the
very capital Lc had inve;ted. 'Aber was in
excess, and men were every where searching
for einploymenh Mills and furnaces were
anatidoned. Dciniestic intercourse was so tri
fiing that the stocks of a number of the most
important railroads iii the country fell to, and
long remained at, an average price of less than
fifty per cent, but the moment dangerAdthe
Union became emminent, and the necessity of
self-reliance was plainly presented Rothe only
means of securing protection, and the gradual
dispersion of our mercantile marine by the.
apprehension of the armed vessels of the reb
els, the Atheriean peoplebegan to practice up
on the maxlims of self•defepse and self-depen
dence, From haying been, if not absolutely
iniptiVerlshtid and almOst without remunera
tive enterprise, depressed by-unemployed la
bor and Idle capital, r all their great' material
agencies ere brOught into motion with a
promptitude, and kept - in operation with a
rapidity and regularity, - which relieved them
from want, their country from danger, and ex
cited the a azement of civilized nations.
Protects n to the nifioufactufes of the coun-,
try, when r ghtly viewed, is merely the defense
of labor a ainst competition from abroad.
The wages lof labor in the United States is
higher than those in any.other country-;,con
sequently Our.laborers are the More elevated.
Labor is the foundation orboth individual and
national wealth; and those nations that have
best protected it from . foreign competition,
have been the most prosperous. It is clearly
therefore, the interest of the nation to • foster
and protect domestic industry; by relieving
from internal taxation every sett of labor, and
itapodng such heavy duties upon all importa
tions of foreign Manufactured articles, -*fis to
prevent the possibility Of competition from
abroad. Not only should individual enterprise,
and industry be thus encouraged, but all pub- '
tic works; it liberal and properly restricted
genersl railroad system, and internal improve
meats of every kind, receive the fostering care
and most liberal aid of the government: We
Are rich in everything necessary to meet our
wants and render us independent of every
other country, and we have only to avail Our
selves of our own resources and capabilities.
to progress continually onward to a degree of
greatness never yet attained by any nation.
Our agricultural, mineral and manufactur
ing resources are unequalled, and it should
be'our constant study to deiise and proSeeute
means tending to their highest development.
Why, then, should not the wisdoni argo•-
ernment make available the teachings - Of ex
perience, and at once legislate for the mani
fest good of the, people? Why permit our
manufactures to beg that they niay live?
The gcivernment of °resit Uritain hes, liv
her protect ive systein, 'piled duty upon duty."
for more than one hundred and fifty lyears,
and hence upon her protection is fouid:ed her
manufacturing supremacy. Yet her emis
saries come to this count'ry, and for sinister
purposes, extol "free trade," speak scoffingly
of "protection;" and endeavor to persuade our
[people to believe and adept the absurd theory
that "tariffs hindef the dei'elopitient Of indus
try and the growtti of wealth." . 1.
The great RepabliCati party, id the Conven
tion which nominated Abraham Lincoln, in
Chicagoi in 1850, as if preparing for the very
war which most of our statesmen were at that
period anxious to postpone, adapted a, reso
lution, "which,". to use the language of an
eminent Pennsylvanian, "declared that the
produce of the farm should no tenger be com
pelled to remain inert and losing interest
while waiting demand in distant markets; that
the capital which daily. took the form of labor
power should no longer be allowed .to go to -
waste; that the fuel: which underlies our. soil
should no longer there remain to be a mere
support for foreign rails; that the power which
lay then petrified in the forth:of coal should
everywhere, be brought to aid the bumart arm;
that our vast deposits of iron. ore ShOtild .be
made to take the fond of engines and•other
machinery; to he used as substitutes fur mere
Muscular force; and .hat all our wonderful
resources, material Wand moral, must and
should be at once deVelopetl. Such Was the
idteut and meaning of the brief resolution
then and there adopted, to be at the earliest
practicable moment ratified by Congress ns
proved td be: the case when the Iticirril!_ tariff, i
On the memorable id of, March, Iii:?:1; We-VI
made the law of the land. To that law aid
ed as it was by the admirable action! - Of the
Treasury in suprlying machinery of circula
tion. :We stand
.now indebted for the fact
that we have, ini the shortspab:d of five
produced mote,fred; . btiiit able hoiiseg and
Mills, oVeried wore mines, constructed more
roads than ever before, and so greatly ::added
to the wealth of the country that the prOperty
of the loyal States would this day • exchange
for twit the quantity of gold than could. five
years since have been • obtained . for all the
real and personal property, southern chattels
excepted, of the whole of the: Stated and ter
ritories of which the Union stands; coamoSed."
If the principle of protection proved to be
such a talisman in the time, of war, shalt we
reject it in time of ;peace 7 If tin answer
were needed to this
, 411...5ti0n.; reference Could
be had to the repeated concessions tp this
principle by the regent free-traders "Of the
Smith: Scarcely doe of the ambitious me.i
who led their unfortoriate peoplii into rebel
lion, but new freely admits that if the South
had manufactured their own fakdics, on their
-own plantations, and cultivated skilled labor
in their great cities, they would have been
able to prolong theirContlict with the govern
, therit-; and now to enjoy substantial, instead
of artificial prosperity, they must invoke the
i very ageneirs they had so long and fatally
disregarded. Words need not be multiplied
upon this important theme; either to make
my own position strcnger;,pr to InipresS tipOn
the people-the collie of adhering to a system
Which has proved itself werthy of our CO
. tinned support, and of the . itnitation of its
.1 former opponents.
The exhibit of ithe flnamMS of the Cornmon-
W , talth, as presented in the lat 6 aniMal mes
sage of my, yredecessor, arid the report of Om
State Treasurer, is certainly very gratifying;
and the flattering prospect of the speedy ex
ting,uishinent of tIM debt bicb has been
hanging for so many . ydats, 'Lite a dtirt:
over the prospects of our State, combined
with the hope that a reasonable reduction
will be made in our habitual amtual t;xpendi
tures, will cheer , the people onward in the
pathway of duly.
Among the moat delicate and importa-t ob
ligations required of those in mlicial positions
is a strict and faithful Management of the
TERZSI--$1.50,P R ANNUM.,
public reVeillies and expenditures of iNe.Ctrtrt:
rdotiwealthL Taiation should be
where its burdens tibiy be least felt, did
where it is most just that it should be,borne:
Every resource should be earefull hasbatfill
ed; and the strictest econcifily practiced, so
that the credit of the State shall bel main
tained on a firm find middling basis, and the
debt surely mid steadily ditiiiiiisiled; I,ittil its
final eitie,guishment. w itunecesssry deny.
this would; ld niy opinion, Ud incenipatiblei
with our true interests.
Ths,t these expectations are capable of
speedy and certain constimmation,has already
been demonstrated. The pnillic intprpye
ments, the cause: of our heavy dela, Whiah .
seemed to be an incubus upon the prddrlerit .
or the State, 80 long as they were manage
by her agents, haye been sold ; the tax on rea
estate has been abolislidd; and considerable:
redtiCtions hate (dreads , bee riinde bn it'd
This important branch of the adnitinitafti:
Lion shall receive my constant and zealLidd
The general and etsdntial principles; of law
and liberty, declined 61 the Constitution of
Pennsylvania, shall be watchfully giarded:
It will be my highest ambition to adtrlintster
the government in the tree spirit of that in:
strument. • Care shall be taken I-that the la*.i
be faithfully excentedi" aiid the dtit:iiionis
the courts ibspeettd and enfcireed, if; within
their authoriied jurisdiction, Influenced only
by corisider..tions fur the public welfarey it is
my imperatiVe ditty to see that justice be im
partially adminiStered: That merciful pro:
vision, the partiOning poiner, confsrred upon
,for correcting only
the errors of criminiti jurisprudence, tied- 1;e:
curing justice, shall not be perreited to iziti .
indiscriminate protection of those who may
be justly sentenced 'to bear penalties for In
fractions of the', laws, made for the Sectirity,
and protecticin 'Of sciciety. Those - "cruelyr!
or' "excessively" ptininedi or erroneously
convicted, are alone Halite td its beneficent
p r otection, and only siieh 'shciul expect ?ti
exercise in their. behalf. \ ~
Whenever the people deemit eipedient or
necessary, &dui actual experienee,• to alter
the laws or to amend the Corlsili - nticin, it Li
their undoubted right to do so, itetaii'din 4 to
the mode prescribed within itself. Isiiel'S ' f 2
peat, what I have said elsewhere, tkit. , -s,;
long as the peorile feel [list the power to alter
or elange 'the Charadter of the goveroi s ne•it
abides in thent, 'sd long Wilt theY (Sc int oree)e,l
with a sense of rdetirity and of dignity i.; hie
theyever sprite from the eorisciOu.ness that
they Boldwithin their own hands a reaniidi
for every pcilitical evil, it correci ive' for even}
governmental abUse and usurpation." - ,
THE NATIONAL SITUATION
'We are tonfessedly in a - tranSitichi state.
It is tmarvelous bow prejudice has uivrii•li - ,1
in the furnace of War, acid how; trim' the .ltFtfy
ashei of 614 hatreds arid did pashas, the truth
rises purified and trfurnpliacit. The eont ist
between the Executive and a Congiels twice
elected by substantially the saute suffiagos,d,
contest sit, anomalous in dur eiperienee not
to haVe been anticipated by the framers of the
National COnstilution, has poly served to de:.
velop 'l.he remarkable energies of our people;
and td strengthen them for future Condicts:
The eautest is cutually decided: , . , •
The victorious forces, physieal and moral;
of the patriotic millions, are simply pausing
before they perfect tile work of reeonattrittiori:
Twenty-sir StriAes :have not only hfc.4.ti Saved
from the c,chiflagrittion of War,. but have heed
crystaliied in the • saving. The ithrestored
ten, still disaffected and Still deli:int, fatal to
be PrOvidentially delaying their tretuht td the
Unicirl,, so - that 'when thee re-eater trtgoid its
obligations and its tilessingt,3 they will be Yhi
better, able - .to fulfil the etre arid one the
other! Their Condition ista fearful *Otani
to men and nations, and especially to duiaelves.
Until slavery fell we did not ftillyciddet.:
stand! the value of Republican inStittticins.
Accuitoined to tolerate, arid in ninny Cases td
defend slavery, we did not feel that its close
proxiMity, so far from assisting; was gradually
de-troving, ourliberties; and it wits efol,v when
rebellion tore away the triaak, that vit:e Save the
fea u e; of the monster that was eat:
ing out the vitals 011ie Republic. .
If We are now astonished and stocked at
the etxhilation of cruelty and ingratitude
aitioni , those Who, having inaugurated and
Prosec i? uted a causeless wit(agairist a generous
and having heed pe"....tteu td
escape the punishm they deserve, are once
niore arrogantly cla coring to assume control
of the destfriles of this great nation, how':
much greater cause would we have for Orir
prise 11)0 slavery been permitted - to increase
Bottst 411 ;we nifty of our matt rbd and our
moral victories, yet is it not tvtte that there it
no such thing as a Republlcdd government in
the t4ii Suites that Vegan and tarried on tfi',g
war ?i Tliere is not, 'to-day; a despotic Slate
in Foircrpe si , here'the rights of the individual
man are so defiantly trampled_ under foot, a 4
in the iections Which were supposectici bare
been brought to fu'l submission to. Gov
ernrn nt of the United. Stites: haft
ease has suggested its Proitiderithil cure.
The abhorrent doctrine,that defeated treasod
shalllnot only be niagnaninidtigly parchnied,
but introduced "toyet ett.origef pfifileges, be
cause of its gitilty failure, seems to have heed
insisted upon, as if to strengthen the beliei
and the contrasting doctrine, that a nation;
having conquered its freedom, is its bestgriar:
dianjand that those lib° were defeated in hoil:'
orable battle shOrild betcodstrained to 8001
to all the terms cT the.conqueror.. , .1
The yiolators of the mhst 9olenchi atTigaz
tion‘i, the perpetrators of the most atrocious.
crimes in the annals of time, the murderers of
our heroic Soldiers on fields of tattle, and id
loathsome dungeons and (barbarous pris'Ons;
they] "must not, shall not; re-appear in itthe
.council chambers of the nation', to aid in its
legilation, or control itsldeetlnies, unless if
shall be on conditions whicli will preserve one,
institutions froni their baleful purposesatal
inflt:ente,and Secure republican forms of ov::
ernMeni, in s their purity and vigor, do •441 f
section of the country.
Tht they are indisposed to areept uclj
conditions, is manifest froni their reeertlinr7
even arrogant rejection of the proposed aniVid:
ments of the national Coastitution—samenct-,
merits which.are.believedl by many, true and`
patriotic citizens and statesmen, to be toe"
mild and generous.
They have, however, been fully con-shire.,