The Potter journal. (Coudersport, Pa.) 1857-1872, January 22, 1867, Image 1

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T 1-1 E
u. w. McALAK\KY. Proprietor.
®.-y Devoted to the cause of Republicanism, the in
tsri-staof Agriorlture.the adv mcement of Education,
feud the Lest /ocd <>t Potter county. Owning noguide
Except that of Principle, it will endeavor to aid in the
Work of more fully Freedoioizing our Country.
BoT" Advertisements inserted at the following rates,
Except wliere special bargains .<re luado, A "-quart- 1
l* 10 lin>-s of Brevier or 8 of Nonpareil types :
1 square, 1 insertion..-. *} •'®
1 square, 2 or 3 insertions - -
Kacli subsequent insertion less than 13 40
A square, 1 year , „„
feu iness Cards. 1 year -- ---- ® ™?
Administrator's < Executor s Notices 000
Special and Editorial Notices per line 20
By All transient advertisements must be paid in
%dvance,and no notice will he taken of adverti-ements
lit-fein a distance, unless they ate accompanied by the
vponcy iSr satisfactory reference.
13" Job Work, of all kinds, executed with neatness
fend despatch.
U'rec antl Accepted Aiicieiil A r!t Hasans
EULALIA LODGE, No. 342, F. A. M. Stated
| Meetings on the 2d and 4th " v ediies laysot each
Tnonth. Ilall, in the 3d Story of the Olmsted Block.
P.O.Larrabr b,Sec. WM. SHEAR, W.M.
O. T. KLI.ISO.V, *>l. !-,
1 PRACTICING PHYSICIAN. Coude r sport, Pa.,
restiecil'ully informs the citizens <>t tiie viliatre and
vicinity'tiiat he will promptly re-pon I to all calls for
professional services. Otlice on First street, lirst door
wrst of his residence. 17-40
Coudersport, P:.., Will attend the several Courts
In Potter and Cameron counties. All business en
trusted to his care will receive prompt attention.
Oftiee on Main street, in residence.
OlA!Vn;i> and LAUKVBIIL,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW, Coudersport, Perm's
WHI *M-eud to all business entrusted to their
Care with pr urtptne- s and li h Illy. VV ill al-o attend
the several courts in tie adj inimi counties. Office
in the second storey "f the Olmsted Block.
ATTORNEY- AT- LA W, -Oufedor port, Pa., will
attend to all business entrusted to him with care
und promptness. Al'eeds-O-uirts ot adjoining coun
tie*. Otliceou Second street,near the Allegany bridge
A Coudersport, l'a., xv 11 attetul tile t tout ts in i ot
'er aud the adjoinh g couut es. u
F. L KITTLK, H. !>..
I)HYSICI AN and Surgeon would respectfully In
form the citiz-ns of Coudersport and v cinitv
that he lias opened an Office in tiie Condi* sport
Hotel, and will be ready at all f.m.-s to make pro
fessi-mtll calls. 11,- i- a regular graduate Of Buffalo
JMedical Co lege df 15,;,). Jan 1. 67.
tuisos v TKthxpseft
DEALERS ill Drugs, Medicines, Paints, fills.
V*i ni.siies, Lamps and Fancy articles, Book- ot
all kinds —School ami M isseiluueous, Starionery,l n ks,
4cc. In Mannings old Jewelry Store. Jan-4,'67.
•\ TTOIt * EYS-AT LAW, liAaßtrWune, Fenri'a.—
J\_ Agent- for the Colleetion of the
I u.ted Elatesaud State<iovernmeiits,-u it as Pensions,
Bounty, Arrears of Pay,&c-Address Box 95, airisburg
Land Bought and Sold, Taxes paid and Titles
investigated. Insures property against flieinth*- iiest
companies in the Country, and Persons aga.n-t Aect
* dents in the Travelers Insurance Company of Hart
ford. Business transacted proir.ytly 17-29
MERCHANTS— Dealers in Dry Goods, Fancy
Goods, Groceries. Provisions, Flour, Feed, Pork,
•ml every!iling usu illy kept in a good country store ,
Produce bought and sold 17 29
C. li. XI.II HONS,
sale and Retail Dealer in Dry Goods, Fancy and
Staple Goods.Clothing,Ladies Dress Deeds Groceries,
Flour, Feed, Nr. Retailers supplied on liberal terms
MERCHANT— Dealers in Drugs. Medicines, Paints,
Oils, Fancy Articles, Stationery, Dry Goods,
Groceries, <ke.. Main street, Coudersport, Pa
I>. E. (>LHMTi:,
T\ /TERCri ANT—Dealer in Dry Goods. Ready-mad.•
Clothing, Crockery, Groceries, n>ur, Feed,
I'ork, Provisions, 3tc., Main street, Coudersport, Pa
MERCHANT— Dealer in Dry Goods, Groceries, |
Provisions, Hardware, Queensware, Cutlery,
and all Good* usually found in a country store, n'til
H ARDWARE Mercnant, and Dealer in Stoves,
Tin and Sheet Iron-Ware. Main street, Cornier
• port, Pent,'a. Tin and Sheet Iron Ware made to
• rJer, in good s'vle, on short notice.
H* C.YERMILYEA,PHowItB#OR, Corner of Main
. ami Secondstreets,f3ondeisport .Potter Co Pa.
A Livery Stable is also kept in connect ion with this
Hotel. Daily S> v.-e- to and from the It ii!roads.
Potior Journal Jolt-ffiliOes
HAVING lately added a fine new assortment -of J
JOB TYPE to our already late* assortment
wo are now prepared to do all kinds of work; cheaply
and with taste and neatness. Orders solicited.
Lewisville. Potter county, Pennsylvania.
BIIM'OX EE WIS. Proprietor. Having;
taken tiiis excellent Hotel, tiie proprietor wishes :
o make the acquaintance of the traveling public and \
eels confident of giving satisfaction to all who may
all on him. Feb 12.06 tf i
fffff ' Monuments and Tomb-Stones
Mf<r of all kinds, will bo furnisheil ou reaeona ,
GSjOIX ble terms and short notice by
4'. ijrotllllo.
jML-—Jite Residence: Eulniia, Imil-s south of,
W 'rtt|-l--r-']*—' Pa., on the Sinneinahening
Road, or leave your orders at tiie l'o-t Office. feti'if
Pensions procured for Soldiers of the present !
War who aaLdisabled hy reason of wounds received
or disease com racted while ill tiie service of the United
States ; ami pensions, bounty, and ui rears of pay oi>
tallied for widows or heirs of those who have died or
been killed while in serv ce. All letters jf inquiry (■
promptly answere!, and on receipt hy mail of a state
ment of the case of claimant, I will forward tiie ne-1
cessary papers for their signature. Fees in Pension
cases as fixed bylaw. Refers to Hons. Isaac Benson.
A. G. Olmsted, John S. Maim, and F. W Knox, Esq
JuneS 64 Claim Agent, Coudersport, Pa.
I toll ! T tcli ! Itch.!
Will Cure (ho licit in IX Hours!
Price 50 cents. For sale by all drnggists. By si-nd ng 1
0 cents to WEEKS & POiTER, Sole Agents, 170
Washington street, Boston, it will lie fo warded by
tn.iil, free of postage,to any part of the Uutted States..
Jtioo 1,1806, spaiotico wky lyr.
Governor JOHN W. GEARY,
When the congratulatory cheers of the peo
i, pie had subsided, Gov. Geary proceeded to de-
liver his inaugural address, as follows:
FELLOW CITIZENS — Honored by the selection
of the sovereign people ol my native as
their choice for Chief Magistrate ot ihe Com
monwealth of Pennsylvania, it is with mingled
feelings of humility and gratitude ihal I have
appeared in the presence of iny lelloweountry
men, and before the Searcher of all Hearts, to
take the solemn obligation prescribed as a qual
ification for that exalted station, "to support
the Constitution of the United States and the
[1 Constitution of Pennsylvania, and to perform
* my offieal duties with fidelity."
Profoundly sensible of everything tbatisim
s ; plied by this" manifestation of the people's con
; tidence, and more deeply impressed with tiie
| vast importance and responsibility of the office
, | than elevated by its attendant honors, let it be
j our first grateful duty to return fervent thanks
* givihgs to Almighty God for his constant prov
! j idence and unnumliered blessings to us a peo
-1 ! pie, atul especially mine to implore His aid anil
! counsel in the discharge of civil trusts, who has
been my shield and buckle] amidst scenes tit
! peril and death.
* j I n addressing you on this occasion, in ac
'.; cor dance with a custom originating with the
Republican fathers, 1 propose briefly to express
j my opinions on'such questions as concern our
common constituency, and relate to our com
i ntoii responsibilities.
Like countries of the Old World, our ration
' j has had its internal commotions. From the
i last of these we have scarcely yet emerged, and
; during which "war's desolation" passed over
■; our laud, leaving its influences principal'y up- ;
jon those unfortunate States whose people re- |
I belled against the government, and noiwith- j
i standing the agonizing sacrifices of a great civ- ;
il war, the States that maintained the gover- i
ment and determined that the Union should !
he preserved, have constantly advanced in hon- j
or, wealth, population and general prosperity, j
This is the first time that a change has oc- |
jcurred in the Executive Department of this j
j State since the commencement of the war of
i the rebellion; a brief reference, therefore, to
that conflict, and U> its results, may not be in
lapp: opiiate.
We itave the consolation of knowing that the ;
contest between the North and South was not
son our part, one for ambition, for military re
: nown, forterrih rial acquisition, nor was it for
j a violation of any of the rights of the South,
i but if was fur the preservation of our own rights
| iiiei privileges as men, and for the maintenance
icf justice, liberty and the Union. The object
of the South was avowedly the dissolution of
die Union and the establishment of a confed
eracy based upon "the corner stone of human
i slavery.** To have submitted to this on our
i pft t, and to hai'e shrttnk from a manly resist
| ance under such circumstances, would have
I been deeply and lastingly degrading,and would
i have destroy eel the value of the priceless lega
cy beqnoetoed tv us py our falters, and which -
: j we are obliged to L'lansnnt unimpaired to future j
generations. The patriotic and Union-loving
people felt that tire alternative was that of life ;
or dentil t<" the Union ;.and under the auspicious
guidance of Abraham Lincoln, that virtuous and '
patriotic Chief Magistrate, with the blessing ot j
j Hint who dovcis the destinies of nations, after '
| open action and arbitrary veilence on the part '
|ol the South, the appeal to arms .vas made j
We had a |u.-t cause and our cilizeiisa]>[>rovirig !
it with a degree of unanimity heretofore un
known, in this or any other country, left their!
vjiriotts employments, their Ironies and all that -
was dear to them, and hastetu d with enthusi-1
asm to the scenes where duty-and danger call
ed. and as the surest pledge of their unswerv
ing love and fidelity to the Union they unhesi- i
tatingly offered their lives for its preservation.;
Nor was amy other tribute withheld in pro- j
viding the means necessary for the support of j
our fleets and armies. Nearly two millions of
soldiers entered the tk>hl frFte time to time on
j different terms of enlistment The citizens
generally exiirbiled the highest degree of patri- i
otisni in the prompt payment of taxes, in their |
liberal contributions in theshape of loans to the !
government; and the world was astonished by i
the amount expended in their benevolent care i
' for the i'ck and wounded, through the agencies
of t he sanitaary and. Christian Comtnis-iionsand
ether cliarilable associations. More than six
| hundred sanguinary battles and skirmishes
; were fought, in which nearly three hundred;
thousand of our heroic-defender? laid down their
j lives in their devotion to the nation —"for uod
' and Liberty. - "
I n every phase of (his terrible conflict, Penn
sylvania bote an honorable and cot spicuous j
part. She contributed three huudred and sixty- :
six thousand three hundred and twentv-six vol
unteer soldiers to the rescue ot the nation; atul ■
nearly every battle-tit Id has been moistened
| with the blood, and whitened with the bones'
iof her heroes. To them we owe our victories,:
unsurpassed in brilliancy and in the importance !
; t'f their ttmsequences. To the dead—the thrice |
j honored depd—we are deeply indebted, for!,
without their seLvrcs it is possible our cause ;
might riot have befen successful
II is natural and eminently pTopeV tlirit we, !
! as a people, should feel a deep and lasting in- ! j
I terest in the present and future welfare of the '
! soldiers who have borne so distinguished a jiart '
| in the great contest which has resulted in the '
i maintenance of the life, honor and prosperity of' ,
' the nation. The high claims of the private ]
| soldiers u|>tin the country are universally ae- .
knovrledged, and the generous sentiment pro- t
! vails that thff .amplest care should he takon bv '
the govern inert-to compensatethemtequally and
' generously, with bounties and pensions, for tlieir 1
| services and sacrifices. !
j 1 desire that it may be distinctly understood i
! that I do not speak of myself, in connection ;
i with tliis subject; but I am happy to avail my- !
self of this opportunity to speak kind words of jt
Pennsylvania's private soldiers, and the noble |
officers who commanded them. j t
k Lite generosity of the people of Pennsylvania 1
to the Union soldiers has been imitated, but not ;
equalled, by other States. There is something j;
peculiar in tlie loyalty of Pennsylvania. She |
seemed to feel, from the first, as if upon her tie- 1
1 voiced the setting of a superior example. The '
i fact that she earned upon her standard the j I
brightest jewel of the Republic, that in her t
bosom was conceived and from her commercial ;
capital was issued die Declaration of I tide pen- t
; deuce, gave to her contributions, in men and j'
! money, and her unparalleled charitable organ- j i
I izations, ell the dignity end force of a model ( I
fo'others to copy. The feh'e? foe seemed to; i
feel that if he could strike a fatal blow at Penn- j 1
. svlvania, he would recover all his losses, and 1
establish a resistless prestige in the old world. 1
Rut thanks to Divine Providence, and to the ' t
sebokd to ti)e principles of Jrqe 3f)D ti)e of Jijoffliilji, qijfl ffctos.
enduring bravery of our citizen soldiers, the
invasion of our beloved State sealed her more
closely to the cause of freedom.
The result of ihe battle of Gettysburg broke
the power of the rebellion, and although the
final isssue wa delayed, it was inevitable from
the date of that great event That lnttle res
curd all the other free States; and when the
arch of victory was completed hy Sherman's
successful advance from the sea, so that the two
conquerors could shake hands over the two
fields that closed the war, the soldiers of Penn
sylvania were equal sharers tn the glorious con
No people in the world's history have ever
been saved from so incalculable a calamity, and
no people have ever had such cause tor grati
tude towards their defenders.
And here 1 cannot refrain from an express
i ion of regret that the General Gevernment has
not taken any steps to inflict the proper penal
ties of the Constitution and laws upon the lead
ers of those who rudely and ferociously inva
ded the ever sacred soil of our State.
It is certainly a morbid clemency, and a cen
surable forbearance, which fail to punish the
greatest crimes "known to the laws of civilized
nations;" and may not the hope be reasonably
indulged, that the Fedral authorities will cease
to extend unmerited mercy to those who inau* ,
gurated the rebellion and controlled the move* :
ments of its armies? I f this be done treason will
be "rendered odious," and it will be distinctly
proclaimed, on the pages of our future history,
that no attempt can be made with impunity to
destroy our Republican form of government.
And while we would remember "the soldier
who has borne the battle," we must not forget
"his widow and his orphan children." Among
our most solemn obligations is the maintenance
ot the indigent widows, and the support and
education of the orphan children, of those noble
! men who fell in defense of the Union. To af
j firm that we owe a debt of gratitude to those
j who have been rendered homeless and father-
I iess, by tlieir parents' patriotic devotion to the
country, is a truth to which all mankind will
I yield a ready assent; and though we cannnl
| call the dead to life, it is a privilege as well as
j duty, to take the orphan by the hand, and be
i to him a protector and a father,
j Legislative appropriations have honored the
liv ng soldiers, and entombed the dead. The
people at the ballot-box, have sought out the
meritorious veterans, and the meritorious spec
tacle is now presented of the youthful survivors !
; of those who fell for their country, cherished I
and educated at the public expense. Even if I
were differently constituted, my official duties!
would constrain me vigilantly to guard this
sacred trust. But having served in the same
cause, and been honored by the highest marks
of public favor, I pledge myself to bear in mind
the injunctions and wishes of the people, and it
possible to increase the efficiency and multiply
the benefits of the seheols and institutions, a1- ]
ready so creditably established, for the benefit
of the orphans of our martyred heroes.
The infatuation of treason, the downfall ofj
slavery, the vindication of freedom and the com- i
plete triumph of tlie government of the people,
| are all so many proofs of the "Divinity that has j
' shaped our ends," and given so many promises j
! of a future crowned with success if we are only i
; true to our mission. Six years ago the specta-I
I cle of f ".r millions of slaves, increasing steadily '
both their own numbers and the pride and the ;
! material and political power of their masters, j
i presented a problem so appalling, that states-:
i men contemplated it with undisguised alarm, 1
laud the moralist with shame. To-day these.
iour inillons, no longer slaves, but freemen,;
hiving intermediately proved their humanity j
towards their oppressors, their fidelity to soci-1
ety, and their loyalty to the government, are'
peacefully incorporated into the body politic, j
and are. rapidly preparing to assume their rights.
as citizens of the United .States. Notwithstand- j
ing this unparalleled change was only effected !
after an awful expenditure of blood and treas- i
ure, its consummation may well be cited as the !
sublnnest proof of the fitness of the American j
people to administer the government according
to Ihe pledges of the Declaration of I ndepend- !
We have but to estimate where human sla
very would have carried our country, in the j
course of another generation, to realize the
force of this commanding truth. And as we!
dwell upon the dangers we have escaped, we!
may the better understand what Jefferson
meant when, in the comparative infancy of hit-!
man slavery, he exclaimed, "I tremble for my I
country when 1 reflect that God is just !"
A single glance at what must have been our j
fate had slavery been permitted to increase will
be sufficient. In 18G0 the slave population
amounted, in exact numbers, to three millions
nine hundred and fifty-three thousand seven]
hundred and sixty. r ''aking the increase,
per cent, from IHSO to 18(1(1, as the basis of cal
culation for every ten years; in 1801), they would
have numbered at least upwards of nine mil-'
lions. What Christian statesman, as he thanks
God for the triumph of the Union armf, does;
not shudder at the tenable prospect presented j
by those startling figures ?
But while there is cause for constant solici
tude in the natural irritations produced by such
a conflict, ke is but a gloomy prophet who does
not anticipate that the agencies which accom
plished these tremendous results, will success
fully Cope with and ptit down all who attempt;
U> govern tho nation in the interests of defeated j
ambition and vanquished treason.
The people of the conquering North and West
have comparatively little to ck> but to complete
the good work They command the position.\
The courage of the soldier and the sagacity of
the statesman, working harmoniously,have now
scaled and confirmed the victory, and nothing
tuore is required but a faithful adherence to the
doctrines Which have achieved such marvelous
The overthrow of the rebellion bas changed
the whole system of .Southern society, and pro
portionately affected other interests and sec
tions. Demanding the enlightenment of mil
lions, Vng benighted, it forces upon tiie North
and West the consideration of a more perfect;
and pervading educational policy.
Much as we have boasted, and have reason to
boast, of our common schools, we cannot deny,
when we compare them with those of New Eng
land, and contrast them with the preparations
for the education of the Southern people of all
classes, that we have much to overcome, if we
would equal the me, or stimulate <>*lie-.
The reeert convention cf County Scitefcl Super * ;
intendente of Pennsylvania exhibits some start
ling facts, which deserve the attention of the
people and their representatives. et it is not
hy legislation alone that any people can be
brought to understand their relations to each;
other as citizens. Their best instructors are j
themselves. However liberal the appropria-
1 tions may be, if these are not seconded by that
• commendable spirit which impels the parent to
impress upon the child the necessity of asound
• moral and intellectual training, your represent
■ atives are generous, in vain. Everything de
i ponds upon the people ; hence the grrat com
plaint, preferred by the convention of teachers,
• of shortness of terms m some districts, of the j
; small attendance of enrolled scholars, of tho j
. employment of unqualified instructors, and of
the want of proper school houses, results un
questionably not so much from the indifference j
of the State, as from the negligence of those!
who are invited to share and enjoy the bless- j
ings of a cheap and admirable system of popu- !
lar education. If my fellow citizens will only ■
recollect the difference between the opportuni
ties of the present generation and those of their
fathers, and how much is to be gained by a cul
tivation of modern facilities, they will require
; little exhortation to the discharge of duties
! which relate almost exclusively to themselves |
1 and to those nearest and dearest to them.
The importance of common schools; in a re
publican government, can never be fully esti
mated. To educate the people is the highest
public duty. To permit them to remain in ig
norance is enexcusable. Everything,therefore, I
J should he encouraged that tends to build up, j
I strengthen and elevate our State tin the sure
i foundation of the education of the people.
Every interest and industrial pursuit will be
aided and promoted by its operations ; every
man who is educated is improved in usefulness,
in proportion as he is skilled in labor, or intel
ligent in the professions, and is in every respoct
more valuable to society. Education seems to
be essential to loyalty, ftr no State in the full !
enjoyment of free schools, ever rebelled against i
; the government.
Pennsylvania should be the vanguard of od- j
ueatioii. She should remember that as she ha j
; been the mother of States, she should also be j
J the teacher of states. "The great problem ofj
; civilization is how t< bring the higher intelli-!
; gcncc of ihe community, and its better moral |
| feelings, to bear upon tiie masses of tiie people I
! so that the lowest grades of intelligence antl!
; morals shall always be approaching the higher,
j and the higher still rising. A church purified
; of superstition solves part of this problem, and
a good school system does the rest.
Nothing, nfter the education of the people
j contributes more to the security of a siate
; than a thorough military system. The fathers
!of the Republic, acting upon the instinct of
; preparing for war in time of peace, embodied
j this knowledge among the primary obligations
jof the c'tizen, Yet the rebellion found us
J almost Wholly unprepared- Our confidence
! in our institutions was so firm that the idea
of an attack upon them from any quarter,
much less from those who had been the
"spoiled children" of the government" was
never believed possible, however threatened,
fhe first clash of arms found us equally un
deceived and unorganized, and we very soon
experienced that the contrivers of the great
slave conspiracy had not only strengthened
j themselves by the stolen ships, arms and for- J
I tilications of the government, but had been :
| for yeais designedh ins.ructiiig their youth in !
j the science of arrass and when the bloody!
j tempest ripened upon us they were ready to I
; spring at the heart of the Republic, while the I
• citizens, in whose hands the government was
; left, were compelled to protect themselves
, and tlieir country as best they could.
When we reflect upon the terrible sacrifices
' we endured to maintain our liberties.and an
ticipated that glorious period of our country !
when the whole continent will be dedicated j
; to human freedom, and when the despotisms i
; of the earth will coustrue our example into a j
' standing threat against their tyranny, we can '
I not disregard the consideration of this impor-1
taut subject.
| As before reriiarked, Pennsylvania eontri- j
bated over three hundred thousand troops to j
| the national cause. Deducting the loss of
j nearly thirty thousand by wounds and disease !
incurred in the field, what at? immense army j
I has been left to circulate among and to edu- j
cate the mass of our population j Properly
j comprehending this thought, we have at once I
lite secret of our past success, our present
1 safety and our future power, li would be;
1 easy to create an emulation in the science off
arms among the youth of the State, by proper
organization, and to dissemenate, in all our
; schools, that loyalty to the whole country, |
I without which there can be no permanent!
; safety for our liberty.
In their late report, the visitors to west |
Point Military Acadeinv laid a significant!
stress upon the necessity of such precep-
I tors, in the future, as would teach the student
' of that institution their first and unavoidable i
obligations to the principles upon which the
government itself reposes. The neglect of this j
kind of instruction was felt in almost every t
j movement during the recent conflict; and itj'
: is not going too far to say t.h it many who dis- 1
regarded their oaths, and who drew their;
j swords against the government that had euu- !
cated and nourished them, found a mere- j
triciotis consolation in the fact that they were
pCrmited to cherish an allegiance to the .State !
in which they were born, which conflicted
with and destroyed that love of country which
shou'd he made supreme and above all rither j'
political obligations.
It, in our past and recent experience, there '
has been exhibited the valuable and splendid
achievement of our volunteers in the national 1
defense, there has also been shown the nccess- '
ily for military skill, and that knowledge of, 1
and familiuriy with, the rules of discipline so 1
essentially necessary in their prompt and ef- '
fectual employment. In order, therefore, to
make our military system effective, we should '
have particular regard for the lesson, that to 1
prevent or repel danger our Stale should al- 1
ways have a well disciplined forced,prepare to '
act with promptness and vigor an any emer
gency; nor should we forget that it is impos- '
sibleto tell how soon our warlike eucrgics may 1
again he required iu field.
In nothing have our trials during the war, <
and the resulting triumphs to our arms, been 1 s
so full of compensation as in the establish- :
ment of the proud fact that we are not only :
able to defend ourselves against assault, but I
what is equally inapcrtact, to depend upon and 1
live upon our dwn resoiirc i. Xi the time the <
rebellion was precipitated upon us, the whole '
business and trade of the nation was paral- '
yzed. Corn in tne West was used for fuel, I
*: nd the producer was compelled to lose not ]
only the interest upon his capital, but the
very capital lie had invested. Later was in 1
excess, and men were everywhere searching i
for employment. Mills and furnaces were
aoaudoned. Domestic intercourse was so tri
fling that the stocks of a number of the most
important railroads in the country fell to, find
long remained at, an averrige price of less than
fifty per cent, hut the moment danger to the
: Union became cmrninont, and the necessity ot
self-reliance was plainly presented as the only
| means of securing protection, and the gradual
i dispersion of our mercantile marine by the
apprehension of the armed vessels of the reb
j els, the American people began to practice up
j on the maxims of self-defense andself-depen
; dencei From having been, if not absolutely
i impoverished and almost without remunera
tive enterprise, depressed by unemployed la
bor and idle capital, all their great material
agencies were brought into motion with a
promptitude, and kept in operation with a
rapidity and regularity, which relieved them
i from want, their country from danger, and ex
cited the amazement of civilized nations.
Protection to the maoufactufes of the coun
try, when rightly viewed, is merely the defense i
of labor against competition from abroad. :
The wages of labor in the United States is
higher than those in any other country, con- :
sequenlly our laborers are the more elevated.
Labor is the foundation ofTioth individual and
national wealth; and those nations that have I
best protected it from foreign competition,
have been the most prosperous. It is clearly
therefore, the inteieet of the nation to foster
and protect domestic industry, by relieving
from internal taxation every sort of labor, and
impo-ing such heavy duties upon all importa
tions of foreign manufactured articles, as to
! prevent the possibility of competition from
abroad. Notonly should individual enterprise
j aud industry be thus encouraged, but all ptib
| iic works, a liberal and properly restricted
; genersl railroad system, and internal improve
i ments of every kind, receive the fostering carc
and most liberal aid of the government. We
I ire rich in everything necessary to meet out
! wants and render us independent of even
other country, and we have only to avail our
selves of our own resources and capabilities,
to progress continually onward to a degree of
greatness never yet attained by any nation.
Our agricultural, mineral and manufactur
ing resources are unequalled, and it should
be our constant study to devise atd prosecute
means tending to their highest development.
Why, then, should not the wisdom of gov
ernment make available the teachings of ex
perience, and at once legislate for the mani
fest good of the people? Why permit our
manufactures to beg that they niay 'ive?
The government of Great Britain has, by
her protective system, "piled duty upon duty."
for more than one hundred and fifty years.!
and hence upon her protection is four.ded her
manufacturing supremacy. Yet her emis
saries come to this country, and for sinister
purposes, extol ' free trade," speak scoffingly
of ''protection," and endea\ or to persuade our
people to believe and adopt the absurd theory
i that "tariffs bidder the development of indus
try and the growth of wealth."
The great Republican party, in the Conven
■ tion which nominated Abraham Lincoln, in
; Chicago, in 1860, as if preparing for the very
war which most of our statesmen wore at that
period anxious to uostpone, adopted a reso
lution, "which," to use the language of an
eminent Pennsylvanian, "declared that the
produce of the farm should uo longer be com
! polled to remain inert and losing interest
I while waiting demand in distant markets; that !
! the capital which daily took the form of labor .
; power should no longer be allowed to go to
! waste; that the fuel which underlies our soil '
I should no longer there remain to be a mere '
j support for foreign rails; that the power which j
! lay then petrified in the form of coal should
; everywhere be brought to aid the human arm;
| that our vast deposits of iroit ore should bet '
i made to take the form of engines arid other
; machinery, to be used as substitutes for mere '
muscular force; and .hat all our wonderful '
1 resources, material an-1 moral, must and
should be at once developed. Such was the
intent and meaning of the brief resolution
then and there adopted, to lie at the earliest | 1
practicable moment ratified by Congress, as M
proved to be the case wheri the Mortal tariff, '
on the memorable 2d of March, wig '
made the law of the land. To that law, aid-j '
ed as it was by the admirable action of the j 1
Treasury in supplying machinery of circula- !
tion. We stand now indebted for the fact ; f
that we have, in the short spate- of five years, ■
produced ratee food, fc'uiit rdo.te houses and i I
mills, opened tuore mines, constructed more I
roads than ever before, and so greatly added j f
to the wealth of the country that the property I r
of the loyal States would this day exchange (
for twic the quantity of gold than could five '
years since have been obtained for all the I
real and personal property, southern chattels j 1
excepted, of the whole of the States' and ter- '
ritories ot which the Union stands composed." :
It the principle of protection proved to he ; r
such a talisman iu the time of war, shall we j *•
reject it in time of peace? If an
were needed to this qu'stion, reference Could i '
be had to the repeated concessions to this''
principle by the recent free-traders of the j '
South. Scarcely one of the ambitious nie.i j '
who led their unfortunate peopte into rebel-; 0
lion, but now freely admits that if the South ! "
bad manufactured their own f iklics, on (heir I
own plantations, and cultivated skilled labor ~
in their great cities, they would have been ] '
able to prolong their-conflict with the govern- I 0
merit-j and now to enjoy substantial, instead j !
ot artificial prosperity, they must invoke the "
very agencies they had so long and fatally '
disregarded. Words need not be multiplied 1
upon this important theme, either to makej c
my own position stronger, or to impress upon ' 1
the peopie the value of adhering to a system ;
which has proved itself werthy of our con- ! 1
tinned support, and of the imitation of its' c
former opponents. i f
The exhibit of the finances of tiie Common- i.
wealth, as presented in the late anflual mes- | I
sage of my predecessor, arid the report of the - s
State Treasurer, is certainly very gratifying; i
aud the flattering prospect of the speedy ex- i
tingulshment of tiie debt which lias been j
hanging for so many years, like a drifk cloud is
over the prospects of our Slate, combined j
with the hope that ft reasonable reduction . c
will he made iri our habitual annual expendi- ; t
tures, will cheer the people onward in the r
pathway of duly. j t
Among the most delicate and important ob- I ;
ligations required of those in official positions! i
is a strict and faithful management of the!
public revenues and expenditures of
utohwealth. Tajhit'on should lie ftftplfM
where its burdens may be least felt, bite
where it is most ju§ that it should be borne;
Every resource should be Careful y husband
ed, and the strictest econoniy practiced, ?6
that the credit of the State shall be main
tained on a firm and enduring basis, and the
debt Surely and steadily diminished; i qtil Us
final extinguishment. Unnecessary delay id
this would, in my opinion, be incompatible
with our true interests.
That these expectations are capable of
speedy and certain consummation,has alieady
been demonstrated. The public iropsove
ments, the cause of our heavy debt, which
seemed to be an incubus upon the prosperity
of ihe State, so long as they were managed
by her agents, have been sold ; the tax on real
estate has been abolished, and considerable
reductions have already beeri made on the
State debt.
This important branch of the administra
tion shall receive my constant and zealons
The general and essential principles of law
and liberty, declined in the Constitution of
Pennsylvania, shall be watchfully guarded
It will be my highest ambition to adidioister
the government in the true spirit of that in
strument. Care shall betaken 'that the lav**
be faithfully executed;" and the decisions of
(he courts rfespectfed and enforced, if within
their authorized jurisdiction. Influenced only
by consider o lions for the public welfare, it is
my imperative duty to see that justice be im
partially administered. That merciful pro
vision, the pardoning power, conferred upon
the Executive doubtlessly for correcting only
the errors of criminal jurisprudence, add ge :
curing justice, shall not be perveited to ilic
indiscriminate protection of those who may
be justly sentenced to bear penalties for in
fractions of the laws made for the secdrUy
and protection of society. Those ""cruclyl '
jor ''excessively" punished, or erroneously
convicted, are alone liable to its beneficent
protection, and only such should expect 'tj
exercise in the r behalf.
Whenever the people deem it expedient or
necessary, from actual experience, to alter
the laws or to amend the Constitution, it is
their undoubted right to do so, according to
the mode prescribed within itself. I i t J b re
peat, what I have said elsewhere, tint ' so
long as the peoole feel thst the power to alter
or change the character of the goveriiuie it
abides in them, so long will the'y He ;iNpre£jcil
with a sense of rccurity and of illgrlity v lint?
must ever spritlg from the consciousness that
they hold within their own hands u remedy
for every political evil, ,1 corrective for ever*'
governmental abuse and usurpation."
We are confessedly in a transition state.
It is marvelous how prejudice has |.-ri.-li 1
in the furnace of war, and how, front the *f y
ashes of old hatreds and did part!<3. the truth
rises purified and triumphant. The com st
between the Executive and a Congress twice
elected by substantially the same suffrages, a
contest sC anomalous !n our experience U ' not
to have been anticipated by the tranters of the
Xational Constitution, has only served to de
velop the remarkable energies of our people;
and to strengthen them for future conflicts
The contest is virtually decided:
The victorious forces, physical and moral;
of the patriotic millions, are simply pausing
before they perfect the work of reconstruction;
Twenty-six States have not onlv be> n saved
from the cdtifiagration of war, but li >ve beeri
crystalized in the saving. The hnrestored
ten. still disaffected and still defiant, seem to
be Providentially delaying their refufn io the
Union, so that when the? re-enter upori iti
obligations and its blessing? they will be the
better able to fulfil the one arid Cnjoy (he
oiher. Their condition is a fearfu] Warning
to men and nations, and especially too'nrselves.
Until slavery fell we did not fully under
stand the value of Republican institutions.
Accustomed to tolerate, arid in many cases td
defend slavery, we did not fee! that its close
proximity, so far from assisting, wa3 gradually
de-troyiflg Our liberties; and it wris Cnly when
rebellion tore away the nj;tk, that We saw the
hi Irons ft a u e- of the monster that was eat
ing out the vitals of tire Republic.
If we are now astonished and shocked at
the exhibition of cruelty and ingratitude
among those who, hating inaugurated and
prosefcuted a causeless war against a generoutf
government, and having been permitted to'
escape the punishment they deserve, are once
more arrogantly clamoring to assume control
of the d' stfrib's of this great nation, how
much greater cause would we have for sur
prise had slavery been permitted to increase
and multiply ? m . ,
Roast as wc may of onr material and our
moral victories, yet is it pot trite that there i?
no such thing as a Republican government ,iri
the ten States that begin and carried on lrf&
war? There is not, to-day, a despotic State
in Europe where the rights of the individual
man are so defiantly trampled under foot, as
in the sections which were supposed to have
been brought to fu'l submission to the Gov
ernment of the United States. BiW 'Tie dis
ease has suggested its Providential cure.
The abhorrent doctrine,that defeated treason
shall not only be magnanimously pardoned,
but introduced to yet strongef' privileges, be
cause of its guilty failure, seems to have been
insisted upon, as if to strengthen the better
and the contrasting doctrine, that a nation;
having conquered its freedom, is its best guar
dian,and that those who were defeated in hoo!-'
orable battle should be constrained tosifb'triii
to all the terms of the conqueror.
The violators <sf the most solem'ri obliga
tions, the perpetrators of the most! atrocious,
crimes in the annals of time, the murderers of
our heroic soldiers on fields of battle, and itf
loathsome dungeons and barbarous prisons,
thev must not, thall not , re-appear in the
council chambers of the nation, to aid in its
legislation, or control its unless it
shall lie on conditions which will preserve our
institutions from their baleful purposes
influence, and secure republican forms of gov
ernment, in their purity and vigor, in "vef/
section of the countrv.
That they are indisposed to accept sucH
conditions, is manifest from their recent an<?
even arrogantrejectionof the proposed amend "
meats of the national Constitution —amend-
ments which are believed by many true and
patriotic citizens and statesmeu, to he toe'
mild and g nerous.
They hare, however, been fully conrsh>we*