The Potter journal. (Coudersport, Pa.) 1857-1872, August 14, 1866, Image 1

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VOLUME'. 17,i,
IL /Ws MeiliAlltlirElt, Proprieicit.
eari'aevoted to the et - use of Republicanism, tbem
te rests of A grio vl tu re, he advancement of Education,
•isritethe best goed contity: -o.omlng no guide
eicept that. of Principle, it. Will endeaVor to aid in the
Work of more fully Freedoralting our Country.
Dar Advertisements InSortea af th'e following rates,
except where special bargains are Made. A "agnate"
le 10 lines of-Brevier o'r 8 of Nonpareil types :
.. ',Near°. 1 insertiou' slso
equare, 2 or 3 Insertions ....... ..... 2 Do
Racti sulisequent ineertlim less than 13--1000
square, 1 year
Be bless Cards, year - 500
Administrator's or Executor's Notices 3 00
apeolal and Editoribl Notices per line.— 20
5...77A1l transient advertisements must, be paid in
advittice, noticelwill be takeh of adverti.ements
' from a distance, unieSs they are accompanied by the
money or eatisfactOryl reference.
Bar Job Work, of all kinds, executed with neatness
and despatch: ' I • .
Free and Accepted Ancient 'fork Masons
TPULALIA LOD,G , „E, Igo. 342, F.,A. M; Stated
LEA Meetings on thel, 24 and 4th " , edacstays °leach
month: Hall, in the ad Story of the Olmsted Mock.
0. I'. 1E L480.N, 11. D., ,
respeetfully informs the citizen.; of the Villlrge and
vicinity that he will rromptly reqpond to all dulls fur
professional services. Office on First street, first door
.west of his residence. 1740 • •
JOII iT S. 1.11,L.NN
2-1_ Coudersport, P.., will attend the serurai Courts
in Potter and Came . a counties. 411 business en•
trusted to-his care viii receive, prorup;, attention✓
Ulnae on Nlititt street, in residence.
it Coudersport, 1'3., will attend to n 1 business en
wilted to It le cite with pram ptuess and thltrlity. Wilco
au the sceond storey .( the Olmsted Block.
. .
, ' • ISA'IC'BENSON, • - •
A.I7OI3;NEY-AT-GA.W, Coudor , pqrt, Pa., ll
Il k . attend to all b ineea oniruated to/font witt care
ant promptaega. AtCantls.Cou:ta of 3.lJoiainz ointn
cies. Oifioetia Seco oil street near the Alle , ank bridge
'Cou4orsiiiort, 1 a., Avdl attend the Uourts iu rot
nnd 'the ailjoinint counties.
TrORS,EYS-AT LA7, 11.inytAnege, Penn'e.—
Agent-ilor the i Celleetiatz .11) . C:1:tints the
tx, fed Statue and:Sta 61;oVerattient.- ~ ,u ch Penet ens,
Boenty,dsreare 01174.y,&c.-.S.direzt6 x 05, ;:trri,hueg
. , .
EAt 'ESTATEIand NS ft INCE .. O .,GE NT.—
1I"1P *ranll4: Abneht Sold,!flotua paid. and Titles
1./1 veatigated.:'Tnlnr a property ncalust file in the best
ontpanlea in tlib'Country, and 'Persons Aeei
dente In the Travele inatranle Company of Ilart
ford:—Baninesa trarmAtted prat:L*l . ly. 17.29
e u s ar r d e,
io D n
o G u o r oe . %
4 T o n r iz
land everything penally kept In ss guud country gtore.
rroduce bought an.' Bold • 17 21.3
. .
C. fi. .5531.3.10315,,
311ER:sale 14:10..37'PalleTiTstled
Staple Goode.lottling,f,lics DressGiants.rneeries,
Floar, Feed, Sc.e, It.A.Alas supplied on liberal terms
ca.lau..Es to,. JONES,
flkirEßCHAi4T—D4lets £n Dings. Mediciner, Paints,
in Oils, rktr,y lArtyClea, Btationery, Dry Goods,
ltpircerl*lirti, Main tr .. eit, Coudersport, Pa
.::.; • . - D. lE. OWL %TED,
-Arti,thlng-.1".-t,rpegg;n(li)rrO'ce.GrVesd,s Ae„au'rlY;T:eadn
Porte,' rrOvi,..lotis, ee. ~ ISltin street, Co l . yreport, l'a
COXlhrift ?CriiTiC i
, t, pi- t .. b •aler'iu n (5 'er i
ry orr A, rocer.e.,
ill_lClPCrulTeltsiNott.ra,-lEra'rlvrA,re, Q;eensjare, Cutlery,
tut all Goo uivally fotna in a countr.t store. ritil
.. 1 " ILIJ - OLMSTED,
. .
lI2i.R.DWATIS ercnArt, and beAi,sr fn Stores,
Tin and Sheigt Iron.V4Tare,lialnq;reet, Conder
sport, Pond'n. Tid and Sncet Iron \V re made to
order, in good 13 tyle., l / on short, notite.
F. GLASSUOS, PROPRlrfort,Zorner of laain
nnttlieenndntreets.Coadersport,rotter Cal's.
.kiforery 8t able ills() kept In conneotinn with this
ITet ei. Daily Stilis to And from the. lisproads..
Pottet Journal Job-Office.
Ts APING lateltadded a fine new nasortment of
JOB-TYPE o our already larr . lasecrireent.
we are now prepardd to do all kiwis of Wort, cheaply
and with taste and neatness. Orders solicited.
Lewjsitille, 'Potter . ounty, P .nsylvania.
Duirroltr LEWIS. Proprietor.. Hieing
1.1 taken this eac9llent Hotel, the proprietor wishes
o make the acquntidance of the traveling'', public and
eels confident of giving satisfaction to all who may
on Min.—Feb. 12,60 tf
lo g Monuments ands Tomb-Stones
of rdl will be furnished on.reasona
IV We terms and short notice by
" • C. rennle. Reeldeacci: Mihail, 'IS mill:8 south of
Coudersport, Ps on the Stnnemahening
Road, or leave your orders at the Po.toface. feG`f
Pensions procured for Soldiers of the present
at. who are disabled by reason of wounds rec,4ved
or disease contracted while in the service of the Ut.ited
States; and pensions, bounty.; and arrears of pay ob
aained for widows or heirs of those who have died or
:been killed white lin service. All letters 3f Inquiry
promptly answere,,and on receipt by mall of a state
ment of the case of claiinaut,.l will ferwaiq the ne.
canary papers for ; heir signature. Fees In pension
,curs as fixed bylaw. Ilefore to Dons, ;sane. Munson,
A. G. Masted, John El, Munn, and F. W. Kinn', Esti
••• ;DAN
Claim Agent, Coudersport, Pa.
Junee GI
p.,s(),4•Peir Fant agents
every are
to. sci. ourturaoran
: • inswing ea ones. Three new kinds, „ Under and
upperLfead, - - - Vi r srranted Ovs.:yours. alovo salary
or lade ooramlssious paid. The °tax Machines sold
•111 United States fur loss,tban On, N 'sh kb aro l u ny
'licensed`-by: flows, Monist'. e. (royer & Sa
-kirr,Sleter &••Cti- & rkictielder. At..t. tainr clierlp ma
shies& ar e infringement& and yhe sailor pr • user arc
liable to arrest, lithe, and tiaprisonrimut. Circulars
rres...•.A.ddtels.'orcalL upon Shaw an Mark,' Binds
iird,arres, e pta cago, Zlll.Don.- 26.18915.
ti3hl;frb4li •
,• . .
• **lotire, the ilogir I
);i3O Cures
BIAIN ericl• RUM/0; 1 d 813 : 1 N.
tnesbotents. Iforstelby. all draggle* By sendil
e n , l cente2tc!WEßs9 do l'arrzir ErcaihlAgeals,-,17
lakitagton'strect; Boston , it" will lie' ftsrwarded'b
mall, free of peatage,t any part of the United States.
J Liao 1, Ise*, orpasotle ° 6 wiry 1
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The Spirit l -finst the Work- of the First
gehiien ,Of the Thirty-Ninth Congress? .
&vim' of thel.Poll4 . of ROMlStiliction.
i• . \
When'the Thirty-Ninth Congressassembled
at Washingten,l December 4,. 1865,:it found
the national affairs in uuprecedented!confu
sion. &ven4 't
ial n hs before the President had
declared all arrcle'd oppositioh to the Govern-
ment ended.: Fyn mine, months Congress had
not been in session. When it Adjeurned,March
4 the war still ii.,4;iiii. Sherdian Was sweep
ing throtigh North Carolina, and had not yet.
I reached Fayett+ille. Sheridan • was moving
up. tlie Shenandoah. beating the Rebels under
Gen. Early on his way to Lyn c hburg. Peter
sburg and. kin:timid still bristled with Rebel
gunil and
,Grant l vast arm;y; lay mud-bound
•befede their wall . Led was Inppealing to the
people of 'North arolida for provisions,and at
the entitle time t Southern press was loudly
boasiingthie Grant and Sherman 'Would !be
beaten in detaiL , l . .No one could certainly say
when the war ' - i onld end, though jail knew
that the•eed was near. Recruiting,. stimulated
by an orerlittneir,g draft, was proceeding in
the North, antrthe Rebellion presented a bold
'and defiant frdithl Abraham Lincoln was still
President, and ori the vlery day of its adjourn
ment the Senate Was convened in extra session
CO take !tart in hls rei ituguratiou. None of
1 the, men 'who listened that day to theinaugu-
I rdl Adliresb of, AddrewJohnson imagined that
l in a feiv•'weeks' h 6 won d 'become the head of
the Government.; The f tore was bright. The
Clouds of warlw ere disperSing, and the Thirty-
Eighth Congress; ends "its existence in the
faith, that our; Na 'roubles were nearly
over, and trusting implicitly in the abilityiend
; icitegritY of the Presiden t who by four years
i of war had been thoroughy tested and taught.
For nine month's the ;administration pf the
. svasi to be!triisted to the Execu
tive alone, yeenc one fire:tined that the
tional PO '
ti lm as to be reversed. I ' •
Hard -had the Membets of Congress reach
ed thei homes h fore the whole country was
filled ith rejOiei g over tbd fall of Richmolid;
and, t iiimplilaft r trtuinphi came tl;e surren
der of Lee and is wwile! army. Then the
i i
shootings, the th tu ult, he tinders of a thou
sand cannon were silenced by the siegle pis
tol-shot thatlended tho lifel
of Sera am Lin
coin. Even while his funeral procession pass
ed slowly ilir•olidli the landl Sherman received
fr:om the hand lof 'Jblin;oh the !alit broken
sword of the Rebellion. The terms r be grant•
ed to ilie iMemylweiti thought far too lenient
by the people, a cA ,were I instantly „;.eseinded
byrthe pew Pr ident.l ; Then, a .persons few ersons
insulted Congre s by 'declaring that ;God had
removed Mr. Hi edit' a
because sterner mind
was uended for thet work. Of reconstruction, as
if, like-,a poor Politicion4lleaven was only to
succeed, in its pOrPeses by-the • assassination
of a odd man. ;Still, the nation felt safe,! with
[Mr. Johnson. Had he not said that treason
was a dritne th4 - must He. Made odious, and
that traitors thilstt•be pitnished ? He would
hang thein as high! as Haman,: he naid, but
the viali of the filter; was not yet lifted tore
veal Only the fPul assassins, and Wirz, the
wretuihe'l tool of worse men, swinging, upon
the gallows. No Otte looked forward to the
iong.,lwearisome imprisonment of Jdtf. Davis,
and till humiliating spectacle;of al Goverd
mentla raid, either Ito try or release its chief
enemY.l , Tite people lied net yet .recovered
from the shuck Of 'Mr. Lincoln's death before
a Presi4ecitial Praclamation,i dated May 2,
offered a•reward•ot, $106,000 for 'Jeff. Davis,
Ited charged him with inciting, and procuring
the assassination.' His .arrest speedily fol
lowed,' and the rebel leader was placed in
Fortress Monroe, and up to this time the ter
rible charge haS never been Withdrawn nor
proved l• About the time:of his capture, the
Presithint in repeated speeelids declared that
the a:tempt to assassinate th 4 Republic was
a greater criniel•than the murder otan indi
vidual, and deservdd as severe a punishtnent.
1 In this spirit ' MaY 22 he apologised for ex
tending raO•cY, to deetain misalled-"Sons'of
Liberte ill Indiana; and hope that bis action
would riot be; donstrded into a preference of
elerhency : to iJstice. • His. Proclamation of
' Amnesty folloWed, dray le, a nd excepted 14
classes, iniwhich were included nearly'all the
influential:Southern citizens. ; Itfully 'carried
oat his'anbobhced 'policy of dealing severely
with the,leaders of the . Rebellion.: Eayly in
May the trial of thc assassins began,'and an
effort was!made bythe prosecntioe, itrbehalf
i of the•Go4ornmeng to prove Davis pre-cOg
niz.ant,of the crime. From all these events
lit was reasonably Supposed that the PresidPrit
l oultl:continuelto Cuforee the stern principles
Which tie, had so !Often and so einphUtically
defended. '• • • Il• * • • •
But! before midinmmer a new policy was
indicated. , In June delegates from the. South
were first admitted to private interviews with
the Pre.sident. On the 17th 'of June his prOc
lamation.providirig• for the restoration of civil
government in Geergia and' Alabama! was is
sued, and it disappointed the nationi,bY its
deliberatc ex4lnsi4n of;hlacks from the-cate
gory of loyal 'citiOns entitled to vOte.' Pew;
4owever. were dip posed to censure Mr. Itliti.:
son severely for this ,omission, thosgh a ina
joritY of thelTnicili party held that•the Gov
ernment had la perfect right to entrust State
reorganization ;to all loyal, citizens, without
the sll,glitestrefereneeto the dead IOW-s which
Weii:pased ba the, slave 'system; Other anti;
mations' of oPp Ositlon . to tho' established' prlii
ciples of tbd . Unitml party Tree's . Boat ,gi yen :
The President's :nppeintments ; of ;Provisional
I Governors for ; the, Southern' States, Were re
ceived with joyi by, the' late' Rebels; ' and *with
sorrow `:by the; North, Governor Perry, of
Sordb Carol ni4 shortly after his appointment,
Said lull. pablit speeeli,l.nlyl3,' ,, Thereismot
now in'the Spitbera States any one who feel. 4
more bitterly. the degradatioa of 'going hack
into the 'Union than I do." . These:words
Motley it' Was thonght, al/bold - have' kedured
his instant. : dlsiidas Etl-. f i rma- dillie, - hal they
Were "coupled Itvitti. significant, praise, of the
presidenprtise; which, opirly iiiteitpretid
Was, elnsure. l Governor, Perry' 11, s
people, that the death of 11 , 1r...iihicolif s ous no
'loss te:theScrith"
,whili 1114, had; 'every: : hope
:that *r i .lJolinelin, azatio d elhvehOlditigpern
oeretvxdplcl. iie Art ... celve tage , l lerunediatejY
following thescrevents:--, Ten in:Areigitdita, 4 ,
uncle;•the'very eyes of the Government—,,the
'Deboila to t he .Tilißelpies of Iflie letc)cetilog 'qqa the is4el - 1)111glion of Uol „ 7.ifehtithe aqa
1 •
...Ella Optrit of secession, Which seemed to Itav
; pieiisbed with Lee'it . peini,',..feilved •liltli Pew
yiger. Southeinleaders - ppenlyTellonedGOv . -
ernOC,,PerrE In 'deeleridg the regroration'ooe
Union ,a. degrading :13'0.004y:I;.In I Alabania
the qonr.eqiipp prohibited . ; n egroes fromteiti,
Tying ill the,,courts.. .Tlie peopfe.Wbeb4d! l foi .
four , years done fain Iheir,powertitl.deitiq
the Union, now coolly,talic of j.,altlng
an immediate part in.the:Government. : .Goy.
\perry, in 'November, again. eulogi2ing,.;the
Presidentiedupled with hislcompliatents.a.per
eMptOry dernand•tbat, when:Congress.met,the
Clerk of the House shonldl.:call the names ..of
menelected - from:thetterecOostructed"States.
IP theetuale month Ilr:' Johnson wrote to Gov.
Perry,' \ who hesitated about adopting the
amendment abolishing Slalvery i that the cla”•
giving Cohgress the power 'to enforce it by
7 /
appropriate\ legislation, 'Aally limited - on
gressional control over the subject! Thus
sssured that Congress had no riglit tb legis
late Ter the negro after he hid been ' freed,
Gov. Perry's fears were allayed, / ," and South
Carolina • adopted\ the alnendment. " People,
wondered at.Ntr. Johnson!lx strange exposition'.
of Caugressional . enaptmeate(aed . their cur- 1
priselwas not diminleljed / wheu'le publicly
disclaimed any intention/ to dictate to the
Rebel States, adding taut .he wished only. to
Mildly and kindly adviSe..lThese.signs,which
alarmed loyal men, delighted the old Northern
friends of the Rebellion, and\cs early as An
gust a Copperhead convention indorsed.' -Mr.
Johnson's policy. In Sepiember \ the Majority
of the .Copperhead- papers _began- to praise
him. i Still/the Union • party did not oppose
him ;. lit dissented •frotn the tendeneles . of his
policy,l i hut 'it waited, endured, 'add\ hoped.
Its organs even, declaimed 'against' 'the' Cop
perheads who insulted him' by afsrming;tbat
he / had:deserted the party Which elected•hipi,
/ sCoinlng The idea with au indignation Whleh
1' time has shown' to have, been the Most in
' tensei though unconscious irony. '. - "Ati
Johnson," said:TllE . Tßiavon;in•replyLtAthese
terrible. accusations of the,: Democrats, "has
fittingly characterized thernipahlefatnity of
John seeking a Self-aggrendizement
'.through the ruin of. the' great party'Which t
eleCted him,. and po'naan has, ever 1....a,a deep-
loathing than he for , the tharaeter of 4ea- t
edict Arnold." betober: and NoCembee the
President employed in atfempting.toFeconcile
his old policy.,:ivith the new one,, but: with less I
success. than he'probably- desired: „-Vire*,did I
not complain of: his,ricag,naniruity tO :Rebels , 1
that We heartily approved if its
dangerous:_ tendencies had been 'nentrslized
by justice to-black . Unionists... 'The bitter
- conviction was forced upon us tbattlie kind
of Merey:4e extended to the' enende§ . - 91 the
Union *as destined .to be nuinitigated cruelty 1
to its friends. • ' '1 1 •` •
Thus When Congress itl33einhled; DeCernbey
4, it found that g,rent things' jid•beia .
during the legislafis r e vacationlt had ileft
the war raging ; found At' 'ended.' It 'left
Jeff. Davis, a tyrant at Richmondit found:
him a pri3oner in solltnry.,echthnement,,,nnd
charged trait conspiracy in murder. It. le.ft
Abraham Lincolu the ruler of Atte nation ; it
fotind r -not aim, :but his,, grave. It found
Andrew ,Johnson the Auecessor of his place,'
but practically the repudiator of his policy.
It was confronted with new men, nud .d u
.ties, with a political situation unprecedented
in the history of the country. On•the Very
opening day of the - session, the•representa. I
tives from the Rebel States attempted to take
part malts proceedings l Fortunately for the
nation, Mr. Edward McPherson, the Clerk of
the House, had the ability to undeistand, and
'the courage to execute his duty. 'The IlduSe
was organized by the representatives' Of the
loyal States alone, and the election of Sehuy ler
Colfax removed all immediate danger.; • But
the future was dark with peril:3'6f 'Unknown
magnitlide. ~ Action Was dernanded. We hold
it well for,the United States that Thaddeus'
Stevens on, that day offered the famous reso
lution by ladich Congress was saved fromthe
disgrace of laving Rebels to legislate upon
the conditions of their OM:lreton - h. 'Re.roked
(by the •Sendtors and House of .Representa
tives in Congress assembled), That ft joint
Committee of FS shall .be.appointed,•nine of
whom shall be members of the House , . I
. and six
of the Senate, who :•shall Inquire 'lnto the;
- condition of the States Which formed the so
chiled• Confederate States 'of America,-and
pport•whether they,or any. of thetti,ate' entitled represeitted In eitlAr'House orCopgre4s
With leave to, report at 'any .time, by bill or
otherwise;and until'sneh'
report . tare
beertMstdennd finally acted upon by don
-iiress; no Member shall'he received in either
HouseTrom any of the - so-called Confederate
States, and all papers relating to .tl , 4 Repre
sentatives of the said StUte.4 shall:he referred
to the said. Committee." This resolution; &lye
Congress the. basis of.a policy froin the
ginning.,lt was passed in ;the Hohse by a
rote of 123 to 2G, receiving the apkoval, of
Mr. Raymond and a few • others, who have
since opposed the principles- it. embodies.
Though the last clause was struck out by the
Senate, its efficacy was not impaired. • .
The President's' message, which Was read
the-next day, though More. moderathan had
been expected, placed him at once inopposi
don to the' Union his assertion that
''a concession of the elc;ctive franchise to the I
freedmen by fiet.of,the,l'reSident of the Erni teal
States must have heen extended to nill colored
'men; wherever lounil, - 'and - so Must r i . have es
ttiblislibd a change l of suffrage in- the ;North
eit;•Midclle,,Unii• Western States, not less than
in the Southera undiSouth -Wester)." This
argnment, if valid io °Le Fespect tyd.s valid in
all; from, that daild this no iinsilitis dired
to deny that want power`lb iiiteilere; with
the Rebel' States in this•itiatand•--, implied
Want ;of pniver altogether; e held. then, We
hold now, that the' President hart pree4ely
the same auhorize loyal black Fiti
ions to ,vote liel`hadl.l6 -appoint' Pievis
iBnal Governors: Oil argiiiietit"6o' ittedthe
aliiiinportant -fact that. the"Tßebellion 7l had
placed the Isl'orth and Soritlf:in..veri:difihrent
relations to, the GOvernment. _ _ f i •
:Early Session the_ spirlt : or• Coogreas
found ,p.sp,ression• . in numcronsii proposed
amendmentfi 'the Conitaiitien,rproviding
for the cainhifshMent of civil.i l ightefor
eitizens,' Without distincilon'orcriliiii and de
nutdditig,:;that:•representatron dn :' ; the lower
Hormel shonld•Abazhe'sed Upppi the Tatillhed
number 'of raters. each Sato.l.Bills pro- )
hibitinfr the. i assumptieis or. pajrnont 044
Irelierdebe, or Vie' repttdiation 'of any. p aitrof
sue National debt, were offered and referred
tO,the respective .committees. Others con
Xemelated•the establish pent of impartial suf
rage in VI e s ,DlStriet of olumbia. All of these
I /
inealiure.s . received tb, determined opposition
of the Dernecratic inerity. Another differ
ence-betviven the resident end Congress Was
caused by his• raroval of the Provisional Gov
ernor.of Alaktme., and presentation of .the
State.Gover Mint Co the officers elected by
the' peOple. This 'action 'was - thought to ti._
letiiiiVnln to a ‘deelaVation that CongreSs had
no tont of of the \ s`object, which Was espee
lialfy ' rprisitig, asst was. then employed,in
legislating for the restoration of the States.
December 20, the Sena% in.reply to a reso•
Ilution.requesting informatiun as to - whether
/the Rebellion bad been suppressed, ete., re
peived a message from thaPresident, inelosing
special .reports from Gen. Carl,Schurz end
Gen. Grant upon the condition °Nile South.
The message was characterized by Mr. Surti
ner as an attempt to "whitewash" tie un
happy ccndition of the Rebel States, andniany
facts were cited by him to show that the Prqs
ident was mistaken in his statement that‘a,
spirit of nationality was succeeding, the sec
tionatanimosity of the South. The report of
Gem, Seburi contained the strongest eVidence
that the late Rebels had little sense of national
obligations, and were chiefly anxious to regain
political; power, and compensate themselves
for the loss of Slavery by keeping the negroes
in abject servitude. Both Houses adjourned
Dedember 21, until January 5. Up 'to this
point no important measnres had' been ma
tured, though many had been proposed.
. • January 5, Congress, resumed its .session,
and acting upon the information the Presi
dent had furnished in the repotis of Gens.
Grant and Stiliarz. Mr: Williams introdheed a
resolution deelnring it the sense of the House
that the United States troops should not he I
withdrawn from the South. Gen. Grant
shortly after indorsed this opinion. , In virtual,
reply to this and similar acts Mr. Voorhees of
'lndiana, January 9, iotroduced 'a resolution
dtc.lariug that Congress- indorsed the whole
policy of the President, but the matter pus
refe\red to the Committee on Reconstruction
by a I
large majoriti. The next day 3h. Kelley
of Pennsylvania stated in the House that the
\ -
President had personally assured him he was,
in favor of negro suffrage in the District of
Columbia \and in Tennessee. This, subject'
continued te , be debated till the bill estab
-1 fishing inipaVal suffrage' in the District
finally passed the House, -January 15,1 by al
vote of 116 to h.' In the Senate the subject
was repeatedly taken up, but not acted upon.
Continual atteMpts were made from time to
time to bbtain the ddnaission of Senators and
Representatives frorn\Rebel States, but tlitir-
Oetleetiall when presented Were either lnid
On the table or referred o the Committeeitin
in'tlie ebsence of a de
elated p,olley ? such Men as ershel'lT: John
sonl\ of Georgia could hardl have Itopedl 6
gain admittance to the Senate February, l l9,
the liouse,lby a series of resolutions offtit•ed
by Mr. Longyear of Michigan, ''itr•tually es
.serted the right of Congress to deal with the
whole subject of reconstruction, declaring the
existing governments of the ,Rebel States to
be provisional" and temporary, and offeing its
, constitutional authority to guarantee t each
' a Republican form of Government. In the
meanwhile the President had a few intervi vvs
with colored delegations, and 'a greftt nutty
with f Rebel.
,embassies,• ands hi 6. publishe
speeches showed 'that the negro loyalists had
'littler reason to hope for .reward, while the
' pardened traitors had - less tnfear Tun ishmcint
BUt Presidential: Opposition, and that of the
Democratic minority, were not the only diffi-
culties which Congress had to overcome. The I
.; ,
Unioh party ia ad bat one object!, 'but it was
divided opon..the best. nienes to attain te, 'it-
Three,ideas of, reconstruction were 'unfolded
early in the session. They May.' he elassihe - fi
thas : • 1 • 1
Mr. SUroner's :idea, that. no Rebel St 1
I should be readmitted to kt's old place in the
lUnion tilt it had;'Wade its; black and whitel
' citizens equal before the law.
Mr. Ste,wart's idea, that universal aratiesty
should lib offered the South, and universal
suffrage imposed. ' ' • 1
1 : The popolar idea embodied in the • Civil
Rights :biltand the ConStitutipaal amend's:teat
re forming the basis of
plans representd,tiep
th... .. , I
To e first of these there 11 . 113 Mtl .
'ohjeCtion other than its impracticability. ' -d
the force-or this MeySatuner seems to' hare
finally acknowledged, It must be•conceded,
even by those who -most earnestly opposed
him; that he honestly - - and bravely did his
best: for fteeddra r and that the failure of his
plans was• not from any want of earnestness
or ability, in advocating them.
"But whD stall tie
Tizi.r.flian God, stronger than Destiny?'
Mr. Stewart equally"failed in his More pop
ulitrpolicy—a policy in' which we firmly be
lieved fronithe first, and• have not ceased to
, advocate. :But while•inen like Wendell 'Phil-
Ilips.ttand apart and influence the nation solely
by the uncompromising declaration of Prin
-1 elides, Congress ' has "another duty. It is,
cha;lged with the creation oflfeasures, and if
l_thesc, sometimes fail Co embody principles to
, the fullest extent, let it be ronembered that
no iiractical statesman has ever yet succeeded
in reconciling facts:with his ideal. - "--
. The. backbone- of the .XXXIXtIa Congress
wasrthe Reconstruction ,Corunilttee of Thad-
den§ Stevens. That. Committee, denounced
by every traitor, and by every luau who in his
heait - sympathized. with, traitors, has done a
noble work. It gave ,Cougiess it:center. L i
• shaped a policy I . vhich.has been triumphantly
ex.e uteland baffled all.the plans rinclseheMes
of t ie minority' to entrap:Congress into a de•-•
, par tire from its principles. By referring to
!it the innumerable questions 'concerning , re
[ conigtruction Cbligress secured consistent. and
' deliberate, anti On.... Those -- who declaimed
against it as a tyranny" forgot that it had no
more power than any other Cerainittee; and
itbat it could do "nothing withoUt•the'conserit
1 of Congress, of which" it Was the creature
I One of the moSt, important,; measare.s . which
had Committee,birth in this is the concurrent
.resolution,,refuirted February 29, that rio•Rep
lresentative or Senator shall be adrultted'from
any of the 11 Rebel Stat 4 till Congress shall
:have declared such State..eutitled,,tondmis
siert.: ..This,roolation papsed; the,,iloifse..,thi
same-d4plty2 409 Ailaa, to 444 Nays, sod- was
debated in the Senate till March 2,!•whatt,it
*ai, passittlM-20. ta I.B.....Thiabplied_aadli iir i: ..
rod the door that had previously; been locked':
Vainly, Representatives and Senators from
Rebel States preaented their cridentielif; in
every case they, were laid-pa the table or re-
ITerred to the Committe'e:- The Committee,
acting, by authority of congress,,
labor to obtain a thorough' atiowledge of the
condition of the Southern States, and freely
1 . used' its power to send for persons and papers:.'
It- :scorned no evidence. Union, and Rebel
soldiere were summoned before it, and even
the Vice-President of the Confederacy, Alex.,
under H. Stevens, gave his testimony. • 'The,
results of, this vast antiforofound investigation;
were 'embodied Id the report of'Jene 8, in
which the Committee declared a policy which
Congress has,, in. the main, consistently care
ried out. It may be said. to be embodied ite
the three great measures —4llO Freedmen's
Bureau bill,' the Cilia Rights bill, and the
amendment to the ,rUhited States Constitution.
The bill to enlarge' the poweri of the Freed
men's Bureau was early itelthe session intro
duced into the Senate, and it passed that body
dantary 25. The history of this important
measure may, be briefly traced. The House
‘eontenued 'to debate it at length ; the Demo-
Melte of course,oppeisine itstep byestep, Itwas
• e
amended and adopted FebruarY 6, by a vote
of 131 e to 33, and referred back to the Senate.
Most of.the House amendments were approved
by tne Senate, by which the bill was aenin;
passed February 8. On the'.9th, it stoodtri-;
umphantly approred by two-thirds of each
branch pf Congress, and 4nly needed the-Pres
ident's signature to become a law. It received!
Mr.,Johnson's veto on Februaey 19, aceorupa. I
riled by a long message in which his reasons
were set forth. 3 WO could not repeat his ar- I
emments, nor those by which they were re
futed. Pei haps the most dangerous of all
the ehjectibes advanced by-the President. was
"that at the time of the consideration and
passing of the bill there wris no Senator or
Representative in Ceng,resi ftem the 11 States
which are to. he mainly tiff,cted by lte pro
visione." This objection; If stilted at all.
would have, made worthless ell Of the legis
lation refer:ir e ; to the Rebel States. There
were other iteints in the Presieent's Message
more painful, as showing the blindess or
indifference! to the condition of the fre dmen.
but there was none more 'alarming, fo it in
dicated that he was readyet once to g,ve the
traitors whO bad fought fiercely foe four years
to -destroy the Union, 6.4 equal voice with in determining the terms of ita-re-
I construction. On February 20 the, Senate
failed , to pass the bill over the . veto, by 30
Yeas to 18 Nays. . Six,ienators who had voted
fee the bill,now 'sustained the veto. The
'reasons given by Messrs. Dixon, Doelittle,
Morgan, 'Norton, Stewart, and Van Winkle,
for this sudden change of policy were various,
Init.. the .dist - epaiecies made : no difference ;
theiretetiert tries the Only, matter of impartance.
The failure of the Senate was hailed with ae.
lelanrationsin the South, and by: the'Copper
heada:- . Mr.• Yalandigham's voiCeeequld not
-express his delight, and 'he bad 100 cannon
fired in Dayeen, Ohio, to. faintly signify his
admiration for the yresidente -This joy was
bat ehhrt-lived, foe the Senate and House!
nit/test immedietely in troditeed; eesolu Bons' to ,
continue in force the existing Bureau. ! These 1
inea'surea eel:fanned to be deteated,'nuit,"May
1, the House passed art approppatioe of 511,-
000 . ,600 for the Bureau by a vte 'of 79 to 41.
- May 2, tleo House 'passed a bill continuing
the Bureau for two Years by the decisive vote!
lef 96 to 22. The I Senate in - Coe meanwhile
li'ad been chiefly occupied, with the • Civil:
Rits bill, but, June 27, it attlipted'a bill for i
the ontinuance of the Freefiaan's Bureau,
Idiffere g from the House bill in a very bn
1, portant mutter
_—it 'did not guerantee peeees-
'Stoll LO t e, freedmen of the lends on. the. Seal
Islands of 'outh Carolina, whidh they held be
order of G ' . Sherman. JulY, 3, the House i '
agreed with the Senate •amendment, and the;
bill was sent to the President I fur his signa-
I lure. On the 16th it was returned to Cen-;
I C - ress without his approval, Mr. Jeheison of-_l
firming that the Clyil Bights . .bil made thi
bill 'finperfluoris. This singe:jar argument ;
failed te.convinee:Coegress, and on the same
day the , bill was adopted ia both Houses by)
two-third. majoritics—in the IS.enatee by 33
Yeas to 12 Nays, mid; in The Reese. by 104 I
.Yeas to 83. Nays„! Thus this important meas.;
nre for the protection of the Southern blacks,
which, in ite firse and best:form, passed thel
Senate, January 25, was for nearly six menthe i
threatened with defeat by the opposition of!
the' President, and it finally became a law'
'shorn of much of iteoriginal force. But the
iwinei:Ple it embodied was triumphartt, and the
fidelity of Congress 'received the earnest
thanksiof the'nation, I- • ' ' ,
The second . of the great measures fer the
reconstruction of
~ihe Delon i was the .Ciiii,
Righte bile. introduced is ;the Senate by Mr.'
1 Trumbulfi. After-,some amendments the bill
I was passed, February-2. •I In the House it was
I debated - thbreitighly,„ and! on March 9 recbm
mitten to the Judiciary Committee for alter
ation• in its , details', The House,. March. 13,
adopted it as amended byte vote ,of 109 to 38.
;The, Senate. March 25, passed it, and it was
cent to the President / IL received the usual
veto March 27, the President opposing not the
terms of the bill . but its Pbrpose. ;Mr. Trum-1
hull, a few days afterward said in the course
of a very !able speech, revi4win,g the
.dent's message, that Mr. Johneon, thoegli
shown the bill while. it Was before Congress,
and requeSted to make known his objections
that, - ,if possible, it might be modified to snit
his wishes, never sig,tlified any opposition
:uptil'after its.passage. .' Apeil 6, the bill was
passed, by the Senate, over the veto, by .33 Xey.s. The ;House, on •the. 9th,
,•I , ,
neutrallzed the vet? by to 41, 'and ' `
rote wits received with tnnitiltnoree cheering.
Mr. Raymond•of NeW York was the only Re
publicaninember who rated to sestain-the
veto. The hilt thnei became n law, hut well
founded feats, NVere 'expreised that the Presi
delot would n?t enforce it./ Events soon jns
tified this ap9rehension. Gen. Howard of the
'irre;edmen'e Bura:att received reformation near
the end of June thatllie bill was entirely dis
yegarded in 'parts of Maryland, and a case
cited, where !the Criminal Court of Calvert
County had4old mea iuto Slavery Tor various
Periods, tod truly represented the spirit
throughout. l.he South.: Still the principle,
hal been affirmed, the :courts, were, jegally
bound to enforce .it,•Gengress had ,done.. its
• hest 7 and fonthe!recui-exention of the late the
President wits xespon.sible. .IWhen--wee cone
eide,r -the bpi, .wea.relsatisfied ehat e ciatwess
could' scare, cily - fut ve fririeid ff better'one. Ii
establishes universal and impartial coadititiatt
of eitiaenghip and gives .to all citizens - kill:
spective of race and, colOr, - the right to.testitir
in the emirts,'sue, make 'contracts, lee:l'l46-
hibits illelgalpunishinent, 'and; in Thief, tAii`A
the freedmen from an anomaloult . and unjust
condition; of serfdom. •The question oftltl/Je
fragc is riot touched by this, bill, Cengr,.ga
having, attempted to reach it by ether mean!.
The thitd measure of reconstructlon - wnh
reported by the Committee on Reconstructlei
January. 22. It was a joint resolution 'pro
posing an amendment •to the. ConsLituti;n,
basing representation and, taxes..upon PoPrn
tion,;exceptthat where the elective franchise
ii.deniedlor , abridged; on account of race'er
color, all of such race or,Colcir slionld
be exelnded from the 'comFutation = It !was
referred back to the Committee by the Route
January 30, and next day was reported bnek ;
with the lause concerning taxation excirded.
The Hot* then passed it by a two-thiid's
vote of 120 to 46. Iu the Senate it met vilitti
a different fate. Mr. Sumner, whose pellet
we ,have lreedy stated, February 5, offeriztd n
substitute declaring that in all States lately
declared [to be in rebellion there
. shouldf 11
no denia of rights, civil Or, political, On kil,..
court f o Galin. or race. lie saliported thib
measure tin a speech of remarkeble 'earitesti
-I[lft's• Mi . . Summer's substitute was. neL I
v ,'
passed, hilt the original resolution was lie f
' rented in the Senate March 9, by. 25 Yeatt lc?
22 Nays, on the motion to adopt. The stilt i i
i ject thearested with the Reconstruction peta
mitten until April 30, when Messrs. Fesseedea'
[ and Steclens:presented a report upon willvt.b
it was thought the Union party in
would' agree. It offered another ainendineet
to. -the Constitution, forbidding State's, - et
abridge the rights of eitizena; etc.; npporticei -
in rept esentation according to population,
but redecing the basis of representation adieu
the elective, franchise was dented to, inale leit
izens not less than 21 years of age. . It{ eX.-
eluded until July 4; 1870, s l alt personi in,
voluntarily aided, the •Rebeillon, from' % Otiuit
for President, Vice-President', or Members of
Congress ; it prohibited the payment ol] the
Rebel debt, either by the Uniac eti States or by
t ,
the Statei,which contrted l ~ le this shitpe
it prise.eff the House, Xhy' ] f?, 1 e vote' of
[to 37. The Senate continutaleto debafe it k;t•
i several Yveeks,',:Mr. Stewart Powerfully ur'ging
for a time his policy of universal:runnetnytauit
urtiversal.suffrege, but, there eh:wee
for the adoption of this plan. - the reioln tine,
in an amended form, Was pasted, June 't, 1,1;-
1 .3317eas[tri 11 Nays. ' On the :131.11, it t-Whil
!adopted . in .the.s_House, ' br.120 .to. 32:. Tile
First Section was amended;ta define eitlzeti
ship,moraclearly,and:the Third i
received :ea
important change. . The clause - dispeltiet.e4a;
all Rebels-till 1 - 870 ' , was stricken put Rip jt
was declared, instead; .tlitiChnr - Nhtioti.,[rlp;r
State officer ,who hid 'given thisellebeliiba aid
should notisecorne:a.Senator or Repfeeentt
.tive,,,,au 5.:/ectoe for President, or , Vice-.PrbSl
- or hold civil or militrry 'Office undeatlfe
[ 'United States. CongresS was gieen Pt:tire - hi)
remove this disability by:a two-thirdslt:tbig.
The President was reviested I send .the
'.amendment to the sevecal States:for ratificap
,tioa Mr:Johnson; June 22, - sent Congress a
message stating that Copies had,,beea trans
mitted to the States by Mr Seward; Pustly he
a: ministeriel duty; The President disapproved
the Positive . langhtige, :chiefly
_npola.the old ground r -if quicksands can " t ile
so.,tertned—that the Rebel .States • were; not
represented .in •Congress wheo. the attieli[l
meat was passed.: Thais, this great_ measure,
after [ Congressional consideration , of live
mouths; was matured, and[is no* before , thit
people. Few. of lb e. Sta tes.haye. thps far -rat
ified it, ()wine . ° •
to the non-session.of. the Leg. ; •
!Stature, hut Connecticut, Now e rfanapshire,
and Tennessee are already upon the record.
l:lnlhis plan of reconstruction Congress met
the determined opposition of the President, .a
misfoxttine which nentralized i much c[f [dfs
effect. Mr. Joimso,n,made na,secret of hip
hostility to the Union party,,very.early, "in
l session, end in his celebrated speech of . felt . 'l
[nary 224: In which he: addressed reitirge
I_crowd, in the street, - he dent:funned ' , Charles
[ Sumner,. ; Thaddeus Stevens,'"aud the 1/tsion
I _ma jority ge.neraliy. in Congeess,,.art tra Rees e -,
!,eipially criminallii the Southern Rebels...Oh
this occasion he also introduced' tiaieW befit
kat ternairbY calling JolitilV, :Forney, Bette
(tag of thaSennte, a DeacbDuCk.,, INtiVeen
; tent.with this,.the . President, atter y.t.todenta.
' ing, the whole policy of Congress as disinien,
'accused its Radical leaders of anlatterept't.i
procure his assassination. "It must beremern
tiered, hewever, that he had previously made
a similar charge against jeff.:D,ivis, and if
that, precedent is of value, Cougreis array hope
that Mr: Johnson will. finally become its I.)Pst,
frietill. 'Under this ;Presidential ;opposition,.
the policy of Cengresi'ar last triumphed
the .case of Tennessee.: The attetnpt to force
its members into Congress having &tied, after
the passage of the joint resolution, proposing
an umcr.dmeut to the Constitution, the, Union
men.of' Tennessee regolveno a doPi. it; and
though the PreSident's infittefice in' hi owe
State was-thrown against the_ amend/new,: it
was passed by the Legislature, July lu. he a
vote of 43 to 13. The question bf the admit ;
sion of her representatives_ came, up et .telye
in CotigresS, antra bill for the re.,toration' of
the State to her former p'ace - in tile Unlati
was finally paSsed, July .23. The next flay
the President returned the bill:with bie:qtgea
ture' but protested against the retie:al terms
in which it was framed. It is iteportent te
note that a bill from the Reednitrubtiou tiia
mittee, providing that any State'ratifying.the
Constitutional Amendment' mighisenti retire'-
:set:datives be :Congress_ was defehted du .[tie
House, hy 75• to 48,, Congress thus refltedeet,
pledge itself in advance, and make the Aineti . ll.-
ment the sole 'est of re-admission of Rebel,
States. The restoration' of. Tenoesseit is is
deciSive proof that the Congressionatplaa - iif
Reconstruction, if the..Vressident,
would speedily lead to the admission ,[[f eA,ery
Southern State. To snit the case of .4.1, Par
tot son, one of the Senators froin Termersi'e,
the son-in-law oftbe President, who had field
an office under,' the ~/Lebel; Gaverutuent,' the
Senate - yoted-to !modify the test 0a.h,l but the
House by a int? vote refused toe •nt!ur..' SI%
Paiterson final] obtained-his see t - aittiMtser
-difficulty. -With these measures in,i'l . raint , r
bilis,intended to enforce their prinettlea.raste
copusteted.- : Ofittlis kind was ,111..Jtaa . 4.[LIW,
OfferedFeb.,B, odispose of the nuAie inis
in the South;ir(Stath a way 'as. to -46 J.i
• . (.4, 2 1•n r ,P.4.0.11 . fetir1h page,: __"..... . ._...
_ 1
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