Carlisle herald. (Carlisle, Pa.) 1845-1881, December 01, 1870, Image 5

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Disastrous Fire—Large Quanti
ties of ITay, Corn and Oats
Destroyed—Ptirtial insurance
on the Property.
A nimilv Roa, , ted to De:1111 iu
Perri• Count\
York ComAy Alms-lions° Tarn La iil ii
To the &nate and House of Represothi_
lices:—A year of peace and general pros
perity to this natioilhas passed since the
last assembling of Congress. We have,
through a kind Providence, been blessed
with abundant crops and have been spared
from complications and war with foreign
nations. Id our midst comparative har
mony has been restored. It is to be re
gretted, however, that a free exercise of
the elective fianchise has, by violence
awl intimidation, been denied to citizens
in exceptional eascsni;t several of the
States lately in rebellion, and the verdict
of the people has thereby been reversed.
The States of.-Virginia,-Mississippi and
Teas hitve been restored to our national
councils. Georgia, the only State now
without representation, may confidently
be expected to take her place there also
at the beginning of the new year, and
then, let us hope, will be completed the
work, reconstruction. With an ac
qule'scenCe im thiclsirriAllie wlfisls pect
plc in the national obligation to pay the
public debt created as the price of our
Union, the pensions to our diobled sol
diers and sailors and their widows and
orphans, and in the changes to the Con
stitution which have been made necessary
by a great rebellion, there is no reason
why we Mundt' not advance in material
- 016veri brippiTlCSS- ati no other na
h ion ever did after so protracted and de-
vastating a war.- •
Soon sifter the existing war broke out
in Europe and protection of the Piked
States Minister in Paris was invoked in
taco• of the North Germans domiciled
in. French ten:Rory, instructions were
issued to grant the protection. This has
been followed by an extension of Ameri
can protection. to citizens of Saxony,
Hesse and Saxe C'oburg, Columbia,
Portugal, Uruguay, the Dominican Re
public, Ecuador, Chili, Paraguay, and
Venezuela in Paris. The charge was an
onerrins one, and requiring constant se
vere labor as well as the, exercises of
patience, prudence and good judgment,
"It has been performed to the entire salts- .
faction of this government; and, as I alp
officially informed, equally so to the satis
faction of the government:or NOrth Ger
many. As soon as I learned that a re
_phblic had been proclaimed at Paris, and
that the people or France had acquiesced
in the elian,ge, the minister of the United
States was directed by telegraph ,to
recognize it and to °ilia' my congratu
lations and those of the, pecide of the
United States. The re-establishment in.
Fiance of a system of government, dis
connected with the dynasty traditions of
Europe, appeared to be a proper subject
for the felicitation of American?. Should
the present struggle result in attaching .
the hearts of the French to our simpler
forms of representative government, it
will be a subject of still furpier satisfac
tion to our people.• While we make no
effort to impose our institutions upon the
inhabitants of other countries, and...while
wo adhere to our traditional neutrality
in civil contests elsewhere, we cannot: be
Indifferent to the spread of American
^political ideas in a great and highly civic;
ized country like France. We were
asked by the »ew-governintrnt to use our
good offices jointly with those of European
pourers qn the interests of peace. An
swer was made that the established policy
and the true interests of the Unite(
States forbade them to interfere in
. European questions jointly with Euro
I-ascertained inform:illy and unoTh
eially that the govermnent of North Ger
many was then disposed to listen to such
rppresentations -from
,ally, Powers, and
though earnestly wishing to see the
blessings of peace restored to the bellig
erents, with all of whom the United
States are on terms of friendship; de-;
eliped, on the part of the government, to
take a step which could only result in
injury to our true interests, without ad
vancing the object for which our inter
vention was invoked. Should the time
come when the action of the United
States Can hasten the return of peace by
a single hour, that action will be heartily
taken. .
I deemtd it prudent hi view of the
number of persOns of, German' aril
French bit:th living in th 4 United States
to issue, 'seen afteV oflhial - notice of,a
state of war had been received from both
/De:lunation dofinin,
duties of the 'United .States as a neutial
.poWer and the obligations of persons
residing within the - smile to observe their
laws and the laws of other nations. This
proclamation. was followed by , others as
circumstances called for therm The ,
people thus acquainted in advance of
their .duties and obligations have, as
sisted-:in . preventing viol:4l6mi of the
,neutrality of the United States.
. It is"not Understood that the condition.
of • the - insurrection in Cuba has ma
tonally - changed'aim° the close Of the
last session of Congress. In' an_ early
stage of tho contest tii -- "Ndhorities
of Spain inaugurated a system of
arbitrary arrests, of -eloso codlnment
and military trial . and execution of,
persona ',suspected of complicity with
the insurgents, and of summary embargo
- them and' their properties,- and ,the
sequestration. of their• resources by
Oucittivo warrait. Such proceedings,•
sib far, as they . .affected the person or
property of 'a'citi*nn . of the United
'States, were 'violations , of the Airomises
of the treaty of 1705, , ' between the
NalleallE°3llLlM MIME 3113121M0 1 31Ea wilem€llo
United States and Spain. Representa
tions of injuries resulting to several per
sons claiming to be citizens of the United
States, by reason of sttch violations,
were made to -the Spanish government
from April 18, 1809 to Julie last. The
Spanish minister, 'at Washington; .had
been clothed with a limited power.
aid in redressing such wrongs. That
power was found to be: withdrawn in
view, as it was said, of the favorable
situation in which Cuba then wa4;`Which,
however, did not lead to a revocation
or suspension of the extraordinary and
•arbitrary fundtions exercised by'the ex
ecutive power in CUba, and we were
obliged to make our complaints at Mad
rid. In the negotiations thug opened
and still pending, the United Slates only
claimed that for the future the rights se
cured to.their citizens by treaty should
be respected by Cuba, and that as to the
past a joint tribUnal should be estab
lished in the United States with full
jurisdiction over all snob &dins, Before
such an impartial tribunal each claimant
would• lie required, to prove his -case.
On the other hand; Spain would be at
liberty to traverse every national fact,
anii - trns comifibte equity \Mild be done:-
A case which at one time threatened
seriously to affect the relations between
the United States and Spain has already
been disposed of in this way.
The claims of the owners of the Aspin
wall fur the illegal seizure and detention
of the vessel was referred to arbitration
by nuqual consent, and has resulted in
an award to the United States for the
owners of the sum of $19,102.1 - ? o-in
Another and long pending claim of a Bice
nature—that of the whale ship Canada,
—has been disposed of by friendly ar
bitratiim durirg the present year. It
was referred by the joint consent of Bra
zil and the 'United States to the decision
of Mr. Edward Thornton, Iler Britanie
Majesty's Minister at Washington, who
kindly undertook the laborious task of
examining the -volluninous mass of
correspondence and evidence submitted"
by the two governments, and awarded
to the United States the mu of, s lolr
710.09 in gold, which has since beck
paid by the imperialgovernment. These
recent examples show that the terms
which the United States has proposed to
Spain for adjusting the pending claims
are just and feasible, and that they may
be agreed to by either without dishonor.
It is to be hoped that this moderate de
mand may be acceded to by Spain with
out further dehiy. Should the pending
negotiations unfortimatdiy and unex
pectedly pass by without result, it will
then become my duty to coMmunicate r
that fact to Congress, and invite its
tention ou the subject. __,
The long deferred peace -conference
between Spain and the allied South
American republics has been inaugu
rated in 11'ashin,gton tinder the auspices
of the United' States.., Pursuant to the
recommendation contained in the reso
lution of the House of Representatives
of the seventeenth of Decener, 1806,
the ; executive department of the- govern
ment offered its friendly offices for the
promotion of peace and harniony be
-t-ween Spaiti and the 'allied republics,
but hesitations and obstacles occured to
the acceptance of the offer. Ultimately,
however, a conference was arranged,
and was opened in this city on the
twenty-ninth of October last, at which I
authorized the Secretary of State to pre
side. It was, : attndcd by the Ministers
of Spain, Peru, Chili and Ecuador. In
consequence of the absence of a repre
sentative 'from Bolivia the conference
adjourned until the attendance of pleni
potentiaries from that republic could be
adopted towards compassing itychrects.
The allied and other republics Of Spanish
origin on this continent may see in this
fact a new proof of our sincere interest
in their welfare and of our desire to see
them blessed with 'good govermnents,
capable of maintaining order and pre=
serving their territorial integrity, and of
our sincere wish to extend our own com
mercial and social relations with them.
The time is probably - not far distant
when in the natural course of events,
the European political connection with
this continent will cease.. Our policy
should be shaped in view of this proba
bility so as to ally the commercial inter
ests of the Spanish American States
more closely to our own. and thus give
the United States - all the prominence
amt_all -the advantageS which Mr. Mon
roe, Mr. Adams and Mr. Clay contem
plated when they proposed to join in the
Congress of Panama.
During the last session of Congress a
treaty for the annexation of the republic
of San Domingo to the United States
failed to receive the requisite two-thirds
vote of the &unto. I was thoroughly
convinced then that Dm best interests of
this country, commercially and mater
411y, demanded its ralificatiop, Tinto
blis only_ confirmed me in this :view. I
trafiffibilfbelieve that the moment it is
known that the United States has 61 1
tirely abandonod.the project of aceept
ing as a part of its territory the island of
San Domingo a free port will be negoti
ated' for by European nations, au I.; on
the Bay of Santana a large commercial
city will spring up, to which we will be
tributary without recelVing correspond
ing benefits. Then will be sten the folly
of neglecting to great a prize. The gov
ernment of San Domingo has voluntarily
- .'sbught this annexation. It is a weak
.V__rwey z numbering.probal.,Ay Ices ;than
120,000 souls, and yet possessing one of
the richest territories under tho sun,
capable of supporting a - population of
ten millions of people in luxury. The
people of San Domingo are not capable .
of maintaining themsolveS in their pits
mit (icinda - ion, and must look for outside
support. They yearn for the protection
of our free' Institutions . and. laws,' our
prO • gress and civilization. Shall wq re
fuse them?' .. •
Tho acquisition of San Domingo is de- .
&rabic because of its geographidal posi
tion. lecommandA the entrance - to thp
Carribean sea, and the isthmus transit
of ememcree. • It possesses the richest
soil, best and capacious harbors, most.
salubrious climate, and the. most valu
able products of the forest, mine and soil
of any , rain. suolt ' India Islands., Its
possession by us will, in a few years,
build up a coastwise commerce of itn ,
mouse magnitude; Which will go far to
ward restoring to us orir lost Merchant
marine. It will give to; us the . 1 articles
Which we consumo so largely and do not
•Produee,Stlius equalizing our Of... Ports and
imports. In.tase of -foreign war it will
give us command of all the islands re
ferred to, and thus pievent an enemy
from'ever again possessing, himself of a
rendgzvons upon our very coast At
Present, our coast trade. between the
States bordering on the Atlantic and
those bordering on the Gulf of Mexico is
cut in two by the Bahama's and Allies
twice. We must, as it were, pass throith
foreign countries to get by sea from
Georgia to the west coast of Florida.
Ban Domingo, with a stable government
Under which ,her immense resources can
be developed, will give remunerative
wages to tens of thousands of laborers,.
not now upon the island. This labor
will take advantage of every available
means of transportation to abandon the
adjacent islands and seek the blessings
of freedom and its seqUence, each inhabi
tant receiving the reward of his own'
labor. -
,Porto Rico and Cuba will -have
to abolish slavery as a measure of self
preservation to retain their laborers.
San Domingo Will -become a large. con
sumer of the products of northern farms
and manufactories. The cheap rate - at
which her citizens can be furnished with
food, tools and machinery, will make it
-necesSary—thateentiguausislands should
have the same advantages in order to
compete in the production of sugar, cof-'
fee and tobaceb, tropical fruits, etc,. This
will open to us a still wider market for
our products. The production of our
own supply of the articles will cut off
more than one hundred millions of • oar
annual imports, besides largely increas-•
ing our exports. With such a picture it
is easy_ to see how our large, debt abroad
is ultimately to be extinguished: - With
a balance of trade against us, including
interest on bonds held by foreigners and
money spent by our citizens traveling iu
foreign hinds, equal to the entire yield'
of the'precions metals in this country, it
is not so easy to see how this result is to
be otherwise accomplished: The acquisi
tion of San Domingo is an adherence to
the Monroe doctrine. It is a measure of
national protection. It is asserting our
just claim - top controlling influence over
the great commercial traffic soon to flew
front west foeftst by way of the Istinnus
of Darien. It is to build up our mer
chant marine. It is to furnish new
markets for the products of our farms ,
shops and manufactories. It is to make
slavery insupportable in 'Cuba and-Porto
Rico at once and ultimately so in Brazil.
It is to settle the unhappy condition-of
Cuba and end an exterminating conflict
Is to provide - honest means of-- paying -
our honest debts without overtaxing the
people. It is to furnish our citizens with
the necessaries of every day life at
cheaper rates than ever before, and it is
to find a rapid. 'stride toward that great
ness which, he intelligence, industry and
enterprise of the citizens of the United
States entitle this country to hold among
nations. In view of the importance of
this question I earnestly urge upon Con
gress early action expressive of its views
as - to the best means of acquiring San
My suggestion is that by joint resolu
tion of the two houses of Congress the
Executive be authorized to appoint a
commission to negotiate a treaty with
the authorities of San. Domingo for the
auquisition of that island, and that an
appropriation be made to defray the ex
penses of such commission. The ques
tion may then be determined either by
action of the two houses of Congress
upon a resolution of annexation, as in
the case of the acquisition of Texas. So
Convinced am I of the advantages to flow
'from the acquisition of San Domingo,
and of the great disadvantages, I might
also say calamities, to flow front non
acquisition, that I believe the subject has
only to be investigated to be approved.
It is to be regretted that our represen
tations, in regard to The injurious effects,
especially upon the revenue of the United
States, of the policy of the Mexican gov
ernment in exempting from import duties
a large tract of its territory .on our
borders, have not only been fruitless ; but
that it is even proposed in that country
to extend the limits within which the
privilege adverted to has been enj'oyed..
The expedieuerof taking into your seri
ous consideration proper measures fee
.counterrailing, the policy referred to will,
it is presumed, engage your earnest at
tention. It is the obvious interest, es
pecially of neighboring nations, to ~prov
ide against impunity to those who may
lraVe committed highway crimes within
these borders and who may have sought
refuge abroad. For this purpose extra=
claim treaties have been concluded with
several of the Central American republics
and others are in progress.
The sense of Congress is desired as
early as may be convenient upon the pro
ceedings of the commission of claims
against Venezuela, as communicated in
my messages of March 10, 1869, March 1,
1870,,,and March .31,-1870. It..has .hot„
been deemed advisable to distribute any
of the money which hates 'reeehled
from that government until Congress
shall have acted upon the subject.
The massacre of French and Russian
residents at. Tien-Tshi, under circum
stances of great kith:tray, were supposed'
by some to have been premediated and
to indicate a purpose among the populace
to exterminate all foreigners in the
Chinese empire. The evidence fails tq
establish such a supposition, but shows a
complicity between the local huthorities
and the mob. The government at Pekin,
however, seems to have_been_ilispoSed to,
fulfill-its treaty obligations so far: as it
was - .able to do' so. Unfortunately the
nos of, the war hetWeen the German
state's and 'France reached China soon,
after' the massacre. It would' appear 1
that the popular mind bedame possessed
with the idea that if this contest ex- I
tended to ChineSe waters it- would neu
tralize the Christian influence and powers,
and that the time was coming when the
superstitious-masses might expel all for
eigners and-I:estop:1 mandarin influence.
Anticipating trouble from this 'cause," I
invited France and, Northern Germany
to • make an authorized mispenSion of
hOstilitiesj in the,_East'when they were
tempOrarifr suspended by act of the com
manders, end they agreed to tint together
for the future protection'in China of the
lives and properties of Americans am!
Europeans. .
Since the adjournment. of Congress the
ratification of tiff treaty nrith,,. Great
Britain for "abolishing i n() !nixed courts
arid Tor the suplwession of theslavetrede
haa been exchanged. It is believed that
the•slave trade is now confined to the
eastern coast of Africa, whence the
slaves are taken to Arabian markets.
The ratification or the naturalization
convention between Great Britain and
the United States has alsobeen exchanged
during the recess, and thus a long stand
ing dispute between the two govern
ments has been settled in accordance
with the principles always contended for
by the United States.
In April "last, while engaged in locit- -
leg a military reservation near Pembina,
a corps of engineers discovered that the
commonly received boundary line be
tween the United States and the British
- possessions at that place, is about forty
seven hundred feet south of the true
position of the forty-ninth parallel. That
the line when run on what is now sup
pOsed to be the true that
parallel, would leave part of the Hudson
Bay company at Pembina, within the
territory of the United States. This in
formation being .communicated to the
British government, was requested to
consent and did consent that the British
occupation of the fort of the Hudson Bay
company should continue for the present.
I deem it important, however, that this
part of the boundary line should be
definitely fixed 133; - 1 - 1 FRU`fiarniiriission
of the two governments, and I submit
herewith estimates of expense of such a
commission on the part of the United
States and recommend that an appropri-.
`alien be made for that purpose. The land
boundary has already been fixed and
marked from the summit of the Rocky
Mountains to the Georgian base. It
should now be in like manner marked
from the lakeoftlie Woods to the-sum—
mit of the Rocky Mountains.
I regret to say that no contusion has
-been reached for the adjustment' of the
claims against Great Britian growing
ont.of the course adopted by that gee
eminent during the rebellion. Tile cabi
net at London, as its views have -been
expressed, does not ,appear to be Willing
to concede that her majesty's govern•
meut was guilty of any negligence, or
did or permitted:my act during the war '
by which the United States has just corn-
O&M.. Our and ttnalterable ermine=
tions.are directly the reverse. I there-
I fore recommend to Congress to authorize
I the. appointment of a commission to take
proof of the amounts and the ownership
of these several claims on notice to the
representative of her majesty at Wash
ington, and that authority be given for
the settlement of these claims by the
United:States -so-that -the•-governMent
I shall have the ownership of the private,
claims as well as the reocufsito :control
of all-the demands against Great Britain.
It cannot be necessary to add that when
ever her majesty's government shall en!
tertaia a desire for a full and friendly
'adjustment of these claims the United
States will enter upon . their considera
tion with an earnest desire for a conclu
skin consistent with the honor and dignity
of both nations.
The course pursued by the Canadian
authorities' toward the fishermen of the
United States during the past season has
not been marked by a friendly feeling.
By the first article of the convention of
1818, between. Great Britain and the
United States, it was agreed that the in
habitants of • the United States should
have forever, in common with their
subjects, the right of taking fish in cer
tain waters therein defined. In the
Waters not included in the limits named
in the convention, within threcrmiles of
parts of the British coast, it has been
the custom for many years to give
to intruding fishermen of the
United States a reasonable warning of
their violation or the technical rights of
Great Britain. The imperial govern
ment is understood to have delegated
the whole, or a share of its jurisdiction
or control of these inshore fishing
grounds to the colonial - authority known
as the Dominion of Canada, add this
same independent but irresponsible
agent has exercised its delegated powers
in an unfriendly way. Vessels have
been seized,' without 'notice or warning,
in violation of the custom previously
prevailing and have been taken into the'
colonial ports, their voyages broken up
and the vessel's condemned. There is
reason to believe that this unfriendly
and vexatious treatment was designed
to bear harshly upon the hardy fishermen
of lbe United States with a view to
political effect upon this government.
The statutes of the Dominion of Canada
assume a still broader and more unten
able jurisdiction over the vessels of the
United States. They * authorize officers
or persons to bring vessels voyaging
within three nunine milesoof any of the
coasts, bays, creeks or harbors of Canada
into port, to search the cargo, to examine
the master on oath touching the cargo'
and voyage . , and to inflict upon him a
heavy pecuniary penalty if true answers
arc Inotugiven ;_and if such. , a -vessel is
found preparing to fish within - three
marine miles of any such coasts, bays,
creeks Or , harbors' without-a-license, or
after the expiration of the period named
in tile last license granted to it, they
provide that the vessel with her tackle,
etc., shall be forfeited. Lt is not known
that, any condemnations have been
made under this statute. Should the
authorities of Caneda attempt to enforce
'if;, it will
, then become my duty to take
such steps as may be necessary to protect:
the rights of the citizens of the 'ended
States. It has -,beeli claimed by her
majesty's officers that tlie'iishing vessels
of the United - States have no right to
enter the open. ports of'. the British
possessions in North "America,,,exceit
for the purposes of shelter and repairing
damages, of purchasing food and obtain
ing water; that, they ]rave no right to
enter at the British custom houses, or to
trails there except in the' puirchase of
wood. and water, and that they must
departv - iiithin twenty-four hours, after
notice to leave. It is not known that
any 'seizure of a Ailing vessel carrying
the flag of the TJUited States, has been
made under thislclaim... So .far as'the
claim is, fon:ided alleged construte.
tiou of the convention of 1818, ittanuet
be acquiesced in by the 'United States.
It is hoped .that it will not he insisted,
I upon by her' majesty's
.During the conferences - Which ',preceded
the negotiations Of tlici convention of
1;318, the British com Missioners proposed
to expressty . , exclude* the :fishermen of
the United States from the privllege of
carrying trade with; any Of his
Brittunic 114OstY's Subjects 3 residing
within Olo'limits . asSigneil for their vise, •
and also, that it should not be lawful for
the vessels of the United States engaged
in said fishing, to have - on board any
goods; wares or metchaudise whatever,
except suchns may be necessary for tho•
prosecution of their voyages to and from
said fishing grounds,-and that any vessel
of the United States which' shall con
travene. this regulation may be seized,
condemned and confiscated with her
cargo. This proposition; which is identi
cal with the construction now put upon
the langudgo of theAonvention, • was
emphatically rejected by the Ameriean
commissioners, and thereupon was aban
doned by the British plenipotentiaries,
and officio one as it stands in the conven
tion was substituted. ,If, however, it be
said-thatthis claim is founded on provin
cial-or' colonial statutes, and not upon
the convention, this government cannot
bilt - iegard them as unfriendly and in
contravention of the spirit, if not of the
letter of the treaty for the faithful execu
tion'of which the imperial government
is alone - responsible.
Anticipating that an attempt May
possibly be 'made
. by the Canadian
authorities in the coming season to repeat
'theft• unneighborly acts toward our
-- fishermenr-I-reaornmend—you_te confer
upon the executive, the power to suspend
by proclamation the operation of the
laws authorizing the transit of goods,
wares and merchandise in bond across
the territory of the United States to Can..
Lada, and, further, should such an ex-
I treme measure become necessary, to
suspend the operation of any laws
whereby the vessels of the dominion of
Canada are - permitted-to enter-tire-waters
of the United States. A like unfriendly I
disposition has been manifested on the I
part of Canada in the maintenance of a I
I claim of right to exclude the citizens of
the United States from the. St. Lawrence.
This river constituntes a natural outlet
to the ocean for eight States, with an
aggregate population of 17,600,000 in
habitants, and with an aggNdato ton
nage of 661,367 tons upon the waters
which: discharge it. The foreign can=
coerce of our ports on these waters is
open to British coimictition, and the ma
jor part of it is done in British bottoms:
If the American, seamen be excluded
from this national avenue to the ocean,
the monopoly of the direct' commerce of
the lake ports with the Atlantic would
be in foreign hands, trans-atlantic voy
lacroWbaring an access to our lake ports
would be denied-to American vessels on
similar voyages. To state such a propo
sition is to refute itsjustice. Ddringthe
administration of Johns Quincy Adams,
Mr. Clay - unanswerably demcinstrated -,
the natural right of the citizens of the
United- States to the navigation of this
-river, claiming that the act of the Con
gress of Vienna in Opening the Rhine
and other rivers showed the judgment of
European jurists and' statesmen,' and
that the inhabitants of a country through
which a navigable - river passes have a
natural right to enjoy the navigation of
that ricer to and into the sea, even though
passing through the 'territories of
another Power. This right does not
exclude • the co-equal right of the,
sovereign possessing the territory
through which the river debouches into
he sea to make such regulations relatiVe
to the police of the navigation, as may be
reasonably necessary ; but these regula
tions should-be framed in a liberal spirit
of comity, and should not impbse need
less burdens upon the commerce
has the right of transit. It has bear
found in practice more 'advantageous to.
arrange these regulations by mutual
agreement. The United States are ready
to make any reasonable arrangement as
to the policy of the St. Lawrence which
may be suggested by Great Britain. If
the claim made by Mr. Clay was just,
when the population of the States bor
dering on the lakes was only 3,400,000, it
now derives greater force and •equity
from the increased population, wealth,
production and tonnage of the States
on the Canadian frontier. Since Mr.
Clay advanced his argument in be
half of our right, the principle for
which he contended, has been fre
quently and by various nations , recog
nized by law or by treaty and has been
extended to several other great rivers.
By the treaty concluded at Mayouce, ^ in
1831 the river was declared free from the
point where it is first navigable into the
sea. By the convention between Spain
and Portugal, concluded 1835, the
navigation of the Douro throughout its
whole extent was made free for the sub
jects of both crowns. In 1853 the Argen
tine Confederation by - treaty throw open
the free navigation of the Parana and
Uruguay to merchant vessels of all na
tions. In 1850 the Crimean war was
closcd by a treaty, which provided , Ibr
the free navigation of -the Danube:' ;hi
1858 Bolivia, by treaty, declared that it
regarded the rivers Amazon and La
Platte, in accord:nice - - with - the - fixed
principles of the national law, as high
ways or channels open by nature for the
commerce 'of all nations, In 1850 the
Paraguay was made free by treaty, and,
in December, 18011,- the Emperor of Bra
zil, by imperial decree, declared the
Amazon to be open to the frontier
of Brazil to the merchant ships of all
nations. The greatest living British au
thority on this subject while, asserting
the abstract right of the British claim,
says it seems difficult to deny that Great
Britain may ground her 'refusal upon
strict law, but it is equally "
-deny,—first, that So .doing she exer
cises haleddy an, extreme and hard law
secondly, that her conduct with respect
to the navigation C;Fthe St. Lawrence is
in ;glaring and discreditable., inconsis
tency with her conduct with respect to
the navigation of the, Mississippi. On
the ground that she lc).4"sessed a small
domain in Which the Mississippi' took
its rise, she insisted. on the right'to navi
gate the entire volume of its waters On
the ground that she possessed both banks
of the St. Lawrence where itdisembogues
into the sea, sho doilies to the. 'United
States the , right of navigation„ , though
about one-half of 'the waters oil ;Ltilcoa
Ontario, Erie, • Huron, ;and Superior,
and the whole of Lake Michigan, through
WWI the river, flews, are the prop'erty
of the . Unlted States. The nation is inL
'Wrested in securing eheantransportatien
from the agricultural States of the west
to the Atlantic seaboard. To tire cat
zens of those Stated it seems a greater
-return for 'their labor. To. the inbabi
, tants of ,the.sealmard, it afforde eheapet
''food, and tb , the Ibstion an increase in
the annual surplus of wealth, It is to
be hoped that the government of Great
Britain Will see the justice of abandon
ing the narrow and inconsistent claim to
Whichler Canadian provinces have urged
her adherents.
Our : depressed commerce is a' subject
to which I called your special. attention
at the last session and suggested that
wo will in the future have to look more
to the countries south of us and to China
and Japan for its revival. Our repre
sentatives to alLthoso governments have
exerted their influences to encourage
trade between the United States and the
countries to which they 'are accredited ;
but the fact exists that. the 'carrying is
done almost entirely in foreign bot6oms,
and while this state of affairs exist, we
cannot control our due shard of the com
merce of the world. That' between the
Pacific States and China and Japan is
about all the carrying trade now con
ducted in American vessels. I would
recommend a liberal policy towards that
line of American steamers, one that will
insure its success, and even increased
usefulness. 'The cost of building iron
vessels, the only ones"that, can compete
with foreign ships to the carrying of
trade, is so much greater in the United
States than—iiii---eountries,--that—
without some assistance from the govern.
ment, they cannot be successfully built
here. There will be several propositions
laid before Congress in the Course of the
present session looking to it remedy for
this evil, even if it should be at some cost
to the national treasury. I hope such
encouragement will be given as will
secure American shipping on the high
seas and .AmeriCan ship building — at
The condition of the archives at the
Department of State call for the early
action of Congress. The building now
rented by that department is a frail
structure, at an ititonvenient diStance
from the executive mansion and from
the other departments. It is ill adapted
to the purposes for which it is used, and
has not capacity to accommodate the
archbies, and is 'not, fire-proof. Its
remote situation, its slender construction,
and absence of a supply of water in the
neighborhood,' leaves but -little hope of
safety for either the building or its con
tents in case, of the accident of a tire.
Its destruction would involve the loss of
the rolls containing the original acts and
resolutions of Congress, of the historic
record's of the 'Revolution, and of the
confederation, of the whole series of
- diplomatic -and -consular...archives since
the adoption of the Constitution, and of
the many other valuable 'records _and
papers left with that 'department when
it was thp principal depcisitory of the
governmental archives. I recommend
an appropriation for the construction of
a building for the Department of State.
I recommend to - your consideratiomthe
propriety of transferring to the Depart
merit of the Interior, to which they seem
nitre appropriately to belong, all powers
and duties in relation to the territories
with which the Department of State is
now charged by law or usage, and from
the Interior Department to the War
Department the Pension Bureau, so far
as it regulates the 'payment of soldiers'
Pensions. I would, further recommend
that the payment of naval pensions be
transferred to one of the bureaus of the
Navy Department, •
The estimates of the expenses of the
government for the - next fiscal year are
$18,244,346.01 less than for the current
one ; but exceeds the appropriations for
the, present, year for the saute items $B,-
072,127.50. Iu this estimate, however,
is included $22,338,278.37 for public
works heretofore bogus nailer Congres
sional provisions, and of which only so
much is asked as Congress May choose
to give. The appropriation for the same,
works for the present fiscal year was
The average value of gold, as com
pared with national currency for the
whole year of 1869, was about $1.34, and
fot 'eleven months of 1870 the same rela
tive value has been $1.15.. The approach
to a specie basis is very gratifying, but
the fact cannot be denied that the insta
bility of the value of our currency is
prejudicial to our •prosperffy and tends
to keep up prices, to the detliment of
trade. The evils of a depreciated and
fluctuating currency are so great, that
now, when the premium on gold -has
fallen so mach, it Would seem that the
timeluts arrived when by wise and pru
dent legislation Congress should look to
a policy which must place our currency
at par With , gold at no. distant day. The
tax colleßted from the people has boon
redueec ‘ lne than $80,000,000 per an
num. BY steadiness our• presqnt
course, there is no reason why, in a few
short years, the national tax-gatherer
may not disappear from the 'door of the
citizen almost entirely. Will the revenue
stamps - -by postmasters
every community, a tax upon liquors of
all sorts, and tobacco in all forms, and
by a wise adjustment of the tariff which
will put ;minty only upon those articles.
Which we could dispense with, known
as luxuries, and on those which we use'
more 'of, thaMpioduce, a further reduc
tion of expense, in addition to a reduc
tion of interest account, may be relied on
to make this practicable. If revenue re
form means this, it, has my hearty sup
port. -Itit implies a collection of all the
income for the support of the government,
for the payment of the principal and in
terest of the public debt, 'pensions,. etc.,
by . directlytaxing the people; then Imm -
against revenue reform, and confidently
belituhr the people aro with Me: If it
malts a failure to provide tho'necessary
means to. dofrarall time expenses of the
governMent and thereby, repudiation of_
the public debt and pensions, then I am
,still more opposed to such kind of rove:-
nuo reform. .IloVefino reform : has not
been defined 'by any of Its advocates; te
my knowledge, butlieems to be accepted
, liomething which
s elpply 'every
males Wants without any cost or effort
on. his part. A true revenue reform can=
not' bo mado in a day, but must be tli6
work Of-national legislation and.of time:
As'soon as the revenue Can . bo.disponsed
:With, all
,duty should be removed' front
coffmoeayed 'othor nAlelT3 -of tinivel4
satuso not produced by ourselves. Tlio
,nocbssities'Of the country, compel us to
,collect revenue from out 'imports.,
army of assessors and eolle r otote 'not' 4
pleasant sight to Alm citizen, I, llt a tariff
for revenue is necessary. Such tariff 134'
far as it acts ,as ( ati.thcoriragernout
home production, affords employment to
labor at living wages in contrast to the
pauper labor of the old world; and also
in - the development of home resources
under theact of_Cmigress of the fifteenth,
day of July, 1870. , . .•
The army has gradually been reduced
to that on the first day of January, 1871.
The number of commissioned officers
and men will not exceed the number
contemplated by that law.
The Law Department builting is an
old structure, not' fire-proof, and en
tirely inadequate in dimensions to our
Present wants. Many thousands of dol
lars are now paid annually for rent of
private buildings to accommodate vari
ous bureaus of the department: I rec
ommend an appropriation for new
War :Mopartmentioindin f nuitod to the
present growing wants of the nation.
'The report' of the 'Secretary of War
shows a very satisfactory reamtion in
the expenses of the army for the, last
fiscal year. For details you are referred
to his accompanying report.
The expenses of the navy for the
whole of last year, from 'December 1,
1869, the date of the last report, are, less
than $19,000,000; or about $1,000,000 less
than they were the previous year. The
expenses since the-commencement of
the fiscal year since July I—show for
the five mouths a decrease of over $2,-
400,000 from those of the corresponding
months of last year. The. estimates for
the' current year were $28,201,075.37.
Those for next year are $20,681,317, with
$955,100 additional fur necessary and
permanent iMprovements. TheSe es
timates are made closely for the mere
maintenance the - naval—estab
lishment, as it now is without Much in
the nature of permanent improvement.
The appropriations made for the last
and current years were evidently in
tendedby Congress and are sufficient
only to keep the navy on its present
footing by the repairing and-refitting of
bur old ships. This policy must of
course gradually but surely destroy the
ravy, and it is in itself far from coo- -
nomical as each year that it is, pursued
the necessity for new repairs in ships
and navy yards becomes more impera
tive and more costly, and our current
expenses are annually increased for the
mere repair •of ships, many of which
must soon become unsafe and useless.
I hope during the -present session of
Congress to be able to submit to it a plan
by which naval vessels can be built and
repairs made with great saving upon the
I ^ ,preseilt cos!, I.e_,can hardly be wise
statesmanship in a government WhiCh
represents a country with over live
i thousand miles of coast lines on both
oceans, . exclusive of Alaska, and con
taining forty millions of progressive
people, : with relations of -every nature
with almost every' foreign country, to '
rest_iitlt suchipaPprate means_
j of
forcing any foreign policy; either of pro
tection or redress. Separated by the
ocean from the' nations of the Eastern
Continent, our navy is our only means of
j direct protection to our citizens abroad,
or for the enforcement of any foreign
The accompanying report of the Post
master General shows a most. satisfae
•tory working of that department. With
the adoption pf - the recommendations
contained therein, particularly those re-1
lating to a reform in the franking privi
lege and , the adoption of the correspond'
once Cards, a self-sustaining postal sys
tem may speedily be looked for, and at
no distant day a further reduction of the
rates of postage be attained. I recom
mend the • authorization , by Congress , '
to the Postmaster General and the
Attorney General to issite all the com
missions to officialii appointedqhrongh ,
their respective department. At pros,-
ent these commissions, were appoint
ments are presidential, are issued by
the State Department. The law in all
the departments of the government,
except those of the 'post aide and of
justice, authorizes eilch to issue its own
cousin issions, always favoring practical
forms. I respectfully call your
tion to one abuse of long, standing,
which I would like to see remedied by
this- Congress. IL is a reform in the civil
service of the country, I would have
it beyond the mere fixing of the tenure
of office of clerks and - employees, who
do not require the advice and con
sent of the Senate. To make their
appointments complete, I would have
it govern not the tenure but the
manner of malting appointments.
There is no duty which so embarasses
the executive and heads oftlepartments,
nor is there any such arduous and thank
less laborlinposed on Senators and rep
resontatives as that oftintling,. places -for
constituents. The, prcgent system does
not secure the best men, mid often not
even fit men fur public places. The ele
vation nod purification of the civil ser
vice of the government will - 'ho hailed -I
With approval by the whole beoplel
of the United States. fieform in I
the management of • Indian affairs I
has received the special attention of the
administration from its inauguration to
the present day. The -experiment of
making it a missionary work. was -tried
with a few agencies, given to the denom
ination of Friends, and has , been found 1
to work most advantageously. '„ All '
-agencies and superintendents not so die-
posed of were given to officers of the
ninny; The act of Congress reducing the
army renders army officers ineligible for I
civil service. Some of the Indian agolu-''
hieing civil offipers ,I deemed it •my
duty to give ult.the ngencics 'to such re
ligions denominations 'as had heretofore
established missionaries among the In
and perhaps . to some other
denominations -'Who would_ undertake
the work on saline terms, '
i. e., as a missionary work. The
skieties selected are allowed to, name
their own agents, , subject ,to the, ap
proval 'of the 'executive, -and :are „Mc,
pected to watch over, .and aid them ns
missionaries to Christianize.and civilize
the Indians and to tract them in the arts'
of peace. Tho goviirnment watches over
the official ants: of these' agents and re
pukes of them as strict an liceountability
as if 'they were appointed in any other.
manner. 'ltintertaid , the-confident hope
that the policy now pursued hum
few years. bring' all the Indians upon
reservations, whore they will HY() in
fiotises; and; haviu , schoOl-houses,'
mhurebeS,ifind,Will be pursuing peacefuf
mud solf-instaining avocations tund,wheo
;they , may•ho visited by the law-abiding
white man with the same, impunity that
he now visits the civili2ed white settle
ments, I call your special attention to
the report of the Commissioner of la
dian affairs for full information on this
,subject. During the last fiscal year
8,093,413 acres of public land were dis
posed of. Of thisfpnibtity 3,698,910.03
acres were taken under the homestead
law, and 2,199,515.81 acres sold for cash.
The remainder was located with mili
tary warrants, college or Indian Scrip, 'or
applied in satisfaction of grants to rail
roads, or for other purposes. The '
entries under, the homestead law during, I
the last year covered 981,545 acres more
than those during the preceding year.
Surveys have been vigorously prosecuted
to the full extent of, the means applica
ble to the pturtiose. The quantity
of land in market will 'amply supply,
°the present demand. The claim of
the 'settler under the homestead or the
Pre-emption law is not, however, limited
to lands subject to sale at private entry.
Any unappropriated surveyed public
land may to a limited' amount be ac:-
quired under the former laws, if the party
entitled to enter under them will comply
with the requirements they present
in regard to residence and cultivation.
The actual allot's' preference right of
lands which were misurveyed at the time
of his satlement. His right was formerly
confined irvithin much narrower limits,
and at one period of our history, was
conferred only by special statute, there
fore enabling him, from time to time, to
legalize what was then regarded as an
unauthorized intrusion uponthe national
domain. Thc...opinion that the public
lands should be regarded chiefly as a
source of revenue is no longer maintain
ed. The rapid Settlement and successful
cultivation of them are now justly con
sidered-of-more importance to our well
being than is the fund which 'the sale of
thorn would produce. The remarkable
-growth and prosperity of our new States
and Territories at the West—the wisdom
of the legislation which invites the tiller
of-the'soil ; to secure a permanent home
On terms within the reach of all, the
pioneer who incurs the dangers and pri
vations of a frontier life, and thus aids
in laying the foundation of a new pm-,
monivealtit. renders ,a signal service to
his country and is entitled to its special
favor and protection.' These laws secure
that object and largely promote the gen
eral welfare. They should, therefore,
be cherished a.s a permanent feature of
our and system. Good faith requires
-us_to.give_full_ effect, ,to ,e;sisting,,gyants,
The time honored and beneficent policy
of setting apartPrtain_sections of public
lands for educational pbrposes in the
new States should be continued: When
ample -provisions shall have, been made
for these -objects- I submit as-a--question.
worthy of serious consideration whether
-the:residue-of ounnatjonal domain should:
not be wholly disposed of under the pro
visions of-the homestead and pre-emption
In addition to the swamp and over
flowed lands granted to the States in
which the - y arq situated, the lands taken.
under the -agriculturalc college acts foi
internal improvement purposes, finder
the act of September, 1811, and the acts
supplemental thereto, there had been
conveyed, up to the close of the last fiscal
year, by patent or other equivalent evi
dence of title, to States and corporations
27,836,257.03 acres foz: railways, canals
and wagon roads. It is estimated that
an additional quantity of 174,735,523,
acres is still duo under grants for like
Tho poliey.of thus aiding the States in
building works of internal improvenient
was inaugurated more than forty years
iiitiee lit the grants to Indiana and Illi
nois, to aid these States in opening canals
to connect the waters of the Wabash
with those of Lake Erie, and-the waters
of the Illinois with those of Lake Miel;i:
It was followed with some modifica
tions in the grant to Illinois of alternate
sections of public land within certain
limits of the Illinois Central railway.
'Fourteen States and so dry corporations
have secured similar subsidies in con
nection with railways completed or in
process of construction, as the reserved
sections are raised at the double mini
mum:- The sales of then[ at the enhanced
price has thus in many instances indem
nified the Tretvittry for the granted
bonds. •
The construction of sonic 'of these
thoroughfares has undoubtedly given a
vigorous impulse to the development of
our resources and the settlement of the
more distant portions of the country. It
may however, be wet insisted that much
of our legislation in this regard has been
characterized by indiscriminate and pro ,
fuse liberality. The United States should
not loan' their credit in aid of any enter
prise undertaken by States en: corporal ien
Tler grant lands in any instance, unless
.projected work is tit acknowledged
national importance. "
I am strongly inclined to the opinion
that it is inexpedient and unnecessary to
bestow subsidies of either description,
but shOuld Congress determine other
wise I . earnestly recommend that - the
rights of 'settlers and of the public be
more, effectually secured and protected
by appropriate legislation.
During the year ending September 30;
1870, there -were filed in the Patent Oflico
10,411 applications far patents,' 3,374
caveats and 160 applications for thd ex
tension of Patents.: 13,6epakents, in
cluding; - roissues 7 and designS, weto
issued, 110 extended and 1;089 allowed,
but' issued by reason Of the nonpayment
of the, final fees; The receipts of the
office during the fiscal year - were. $136,-
401.29 in excess of itgexnenditures. •
The w6rks of the Census Bureau has,
been energetically Mosecuted, The'pre
liminary Keport containing muckinfor
illation and,. speciA value-'-and interest
will be • ready , for. delivery during the
present session. The' remaining volumes
will be convicted with all the despatch
consistent with -perfect accuracy in ar
ranging and classifying. the returns. We
shall thus, at no distant 'day, be fur
nished with an authentic , record of our
condition andresources— It will, L doubt
not, attest the, growing prosperityof tho
• Although during tho decade which lias
just closed, it wai: - .Sovercly tried by the
great war waged to maintain its integ
rity, mid to secure: and perpetuate our
free institutions, during the laiikilseal
year, the sum paid to pensioners, inelmit
ing the cost of disbursement, was
780,811 11, and 1,753 homily 'land war
rants were issocd at its cliff-C. Ithz.
names were on the pension roll.
The labor:z of the Pe ion (Mayo hay.
b:-en directed to the severe rc•rn`irt
the evikl.ent , t. ,ulytilitt,d iu favor
claims and to the diseoxery of list I' ious
claims, which have been heretofore
lov..ed. The appropriation fur the rut,
ployment of special agents for the inve,!
gallon of frauds hasbeen judieiraisly w.rd
and the results obtained been nf
IlllqUePtionible benefit to the service.
The subjlpts of education and agrlind
tor, are of great interest to the sneee , s;
of our republic...air institutions, liappines;
and grandeur as a nation. In the int, r.
est of one a bureau has been estahti. le .1
halite Interior Department—the Bureau
of Education. In the interest of the
othei• is a separate department—that of
agriculture. I' believe great neural
good is to flow from the operations of
both these bureaus if properly fostn.r.l.
'I cannot commend to your careful
consideration too highly the re 01)11 - Of the
connufssioners Of edueation and agl
tore, nor urge too strongly such li! :al
legislation as to secure their efficiency.
In conelnsion I would sum tip tire pol
i-i-of_thearlministration to be a thor
ongh enforcement of every law, a 'fa ith tlil
collection of every tax provided
economy • in the disbursemetit or t iv
same, prompt payment of d ,, ht ~ f
the nation, a reductiOn of tas,., ,
idly as the requirements r,f ills
will, admit, reductions of taxation a .01
tariff to lie so arranged as 1,, aff t•ii,•l
to the greatest munher, himest 4 •and_
dealings with all ofher people, to I ln•
that war, with all its plighting
gnomes may be avoided, hut v. ithont
surrendering any right or nbligal m line
to us. A reform in our treatment of the
Indians, and in the whole el; II ser';ic , l
the country, and, finally, in seem ;ine,. rt
purr, untrammeled ballot, that o•\,•1 . ) ,
man entitled to vote may do jo.l. on , •.•
at each election, witlYnit rear of ni
tation or proscriptien- on account of Li
political faith, .color or nativity.
Exceicti; - e
WE at,' preparcLl, at :ill litact t, t o i t t inn
b,yzitiw , s, and ,1'10n . . , -;titatilm , for
il~ gaillz at loll:'
S.W.SAGEainI bUe - l:7treaf :etrice:i—are
new in order. But these luxuries
not be indulged in by the poor printer.
THE iaItALD is the best local
the county. Terms $•!.00 per yen rin
advance ; or!:?.slTif pan il tirthcr - mtpiit 7 .
tion of the year.
Ilnarovm..—ll6nry Kennelly, has
moved his Shaving Saloon foon.thelst,
merit of D. Sipe's bnildilig to Zit z. , C
corner, No. 10 North Hanover street.
'Fur: Ile-Union or the P26th P. V.. \i El
be Kehl in Chambersburg,
teenth instant. Persons tlesirtms ~r - tendin g can procure ticket:, at t•.,•nni ,11
rates, by making application M. tilt
principal stations on the C. V.
" CARLISLE haTa 111iii•!1
larger and better than the .dd one." --
Bloomfield Time?
This is news to as, and no dontd. ako,
to tie citizens of Carlhdc. You woro
slitifhtly misinformed that limo . Mt.
L. T. GILEENPIEI , II, the entelmi-,,:•, ,
merchant; at Main
has just rettirned from the eas'el.n -
ies with a large invoice or ace
beautiful (resi g n:, or the t,t
Winter gootls. lie is imw propme , l
welcome all who may fay.r him
visit. (luring the :vumoaching.
EXTENsIVE Fi1:1 , ..--The new trim a ,
tached to the York Comity Alm, 110:1
Was burned to the grid
last. All the farming imhleiO nt
&c.; together v,ith lot
bushels of potatoes, grain, hay, straw
fodder were cOnsUrned; 13 head or
and four nudes eini,hed. 'the
not known, but there is au immune: , or
$lO,OOO on the building,. and 2,001) ni
the contents. It was said to have hem!
one of the most handsome halos in 11
Lisu rano; on Ike Pooper11;.
--.A.botit is minntei.)4rnwe 12 o' vlovl:
Tuesday night find, fire was di.e.;vm,•,l
in the large ft': in 6 stable attaklmd
Cumberland Valley lintel. Tim r mtl
alariM, were promptly given, but ow im;
to The great ditlimilty in aroming the
firemen, and eitrzens generally, comid
ernble time elapsed before the engine.;
'reached the npot, the dames in the mean
time had made such great headway; I hat
all of to save the burning imild
Mr.-Faber lost '2O orllo barrels or corn
a, quantity of oats,. hay and at raw, to
gether with a lot of chickens , ; I nd
t ur k e y s ; Th e horses, wilgon, harn9ss
and hogs were. removed' in :tartly.
losses will reach 4;200, on which 'llure is
no insurance..
Mr. Garver, the owner of the properly,
VC understand, has an insuranee on the -,
stable' of igiqc), Ills loss, will lro front
$l,OOO to $1,;;00.
The ice house, close by, was considera
bly damaged by the heat from the born. *
ing building,-'Through the ell•oi•Ia of
the firemen' fluff snrnviuuling. properties
were saved from destinction. A frame
stable belonging'toMr. Neidich, almost ,
a square distant, was discovered to be .
names, ignited by the flying / sparks, and .
speedily extinguislied.
Peter Morris, piposnmu of the t'ilion
'Fire..p6unrcoy, while busily engaged,.
was struck by a falling girdee .and
pretty severely injured: A soldiee 'mined
Adams, mounted on ir,farldcr, endeavor
ing to make an aperture in Llto , wall of
•tho ice house .with like, was struck
with the stream from Llto Good Will En:
gine and knocked elrtheladder,truising .
• The tiro, was, no doubt, (lie wi:rk of
the incondiari, as there' . hail been no Oc
•casion to have any lire near the building
during the owning: ' • .