Carlisle herald and expositor. (Carlisle, Pa.) 1837-1845, March 10, 1841, Image 2

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    FroTuthe Natiorat,lnttlligence: --Extra.
Inaugural Address -•
' .TiitfosuAx, - March 4, 1841, • .;
i .,Called•frimn - a:retirement which I had
supposed was, to continue for the, residue of
my life; hrf'li tire - EThicF•Eiceu't' truce
of 'this great'and • free nation, I 'appear be- .
fore you, fellow'citiZens, to take the.eathd
• . which. the constitution prescribes, as a tie- '
cessary qualification for the performance of
its „A nd .in ebedienc.e3n custom..
coe Val • W o'ut GO re r innen t, t 'iv lint •
• helieve to he your expectations, PprOc'eed . ;,
in - Present to yon a summary of the. prinei-
Pies - Willed% will goiern inecin the diScharge
of the. duties whiettl shall lict" . ttalled I Upott
to perform. • the remark of a Roman Consul,
_idan burly period:Of tbat belchritted ,Repub=
. lie, that. a most •strikine, contrast was ob.;
: :•Scrvable in' the conduct „of candidates for
offices, of -power and trust, before and . after
„obtaining them—they seldom carrying out
in the,latter case the pledges and promises.:
• rita'de•in the. former.• • However : much . the:.
• world may have i mproved',, in_ many re-.I
- Spects,in thelapse of upwards of two thou
:sand yeard;Since the 'remark was made by
• the virtuous. and ithlignant Roman,, I fear
thata/striet examination of the annals •ef. ;
sonic of the modern.electivddoverornents,.
- TWould developer similar_instanees of violat- -
•ed contide l nee.
.Although the fiat "of the people
forth,' proclaiminoMe the Chief Magistrate
this.,glorious Idol) „moth i nig „it pen their
part remaining to-be aonn,'it may- lie thought.
that:a:motive may exist to keep up the dr
lusion under whichahey may be supposed
• to•have acted in relation to' my principles
and opinions; and perhaps there may he
Sorne•in this assembly Who have, come here .
either prepared to. conderrnk those I. s h a ll_
now deliver, sir, approving: them, 10 . doubt
_ the sincerity with which they are uttered.
But the lapse of a few-mouths will 'confirm
• or; dispel; their fears. "che ontline 'Of prin
. ciples•logovern, and measnres tobe adopt
. ed, by' an . Administration not yet, bevsn,
- be-exchanged for lim . yistablo his-.
tor}': and I shall stand, either •exonerated•
• :by My cauntryrnen,,or clas.r,red- whit- the
•those promised-tit-at-, they , :
• might deceive an d :clattered With 'the
tion -to betray,
However stronginny be my present puT
: pose to realize. the expectans ()fa magna-:
nimous -and
_confiding people, I too well
• 'understand the infirmities of Introan nature,
• and the dangeroustemptations to which 1 .
•Shall he exposed front the magnittula of the
power which it' has been the pleasure of
he pool:10;10 commit to my hands,: not to
• place my chief contidll-( 2T , (11/01), the . , aid of
that Almighty. Power which has hitherto . •
• • .protected tile r :lnd enabled Mato briog to
• favorable islTnes other int - portant, hut still '
inforior,tr'usts, heretofore confided
to tilt' by tiny country.
The broad foundation upon which our
constitution rests, being the pcople-,--a
breath of theirs •having made; as a breath
can unmake, - Change, or modify - it-=it - ran ,
be assigned to_none of tt,e. great divisions
or Government but to that or Democracy.
.If such is its. theory; those who are called,
upon its 'administer it must recognise, as 'its
' leading principle, the duty of shaping their
measures so as to ,produce the greatest
• good to the greatest number.' •But,• with
theseAroad admissions, if.we could com
pare the sovereignty acknowledged to ex
ist in the mass of . Our people, with the
'power 'claimed by.other sovereignties, even
--by- those-iv - hieii - have b4n cotAdered MO - st
. purely- democratic, we shall' find- a :most
• essential (Wren:lle:o. All others - TaP-elaim
Ao„.power..litnited .only by: their-,oWn will.
. • The majority of our *citizens, on
. the con
. trary, possess a sovereignty with an amount
.of power•precieelyequal to That which has
;been granted to theth by the parties to the
national compact, and nothing beyond.—
We admit of .no Government by Divine
tight—believing that„,pso far as power is
enncerned,thebencfirient Creator. has, made
no distinction amongiA men, 'that all are
upon an equality. and .that the onlylegiti
• mate right to govern is an express grant of
.power from the governed: The constitu
tioti the United. States is the instrument
containing o this grattrof power to the seve
ral departments • 'corn posing_ . the ;Govern
ment. On an examination of that instru
ment, it will be l'eund to contain declarations
`;"of pawer granted, and of 'power withheld.
• The latter is' also, susceptible of division,
...into -power whielt the majority had the
riff o ht•to.grant, but which they dad. not think
proper to - intrust to their agents; and, that ,
theycould not l have granted, not '
being possessed by. themselves. In other.'
words there are certain rights possessed by
each_indiVidual..American_citizen, which,
in compact with 'the others, he has ne ,
.ver stirrendire4. - - Some of 'them, indeed,
..• is , nnable to surrender, being, in the.
language.of our system, unalie.nable. •
• - The bobsted, ',privilege of , a Itomatrciti
. zen.was a .shield only against, a
Tett) , proviriaial ruler„
Mitcrat,otz-Athens-mittlet. 'self
under a.sentence of death, for 'a supposed
; violation of the national. faith, •which no
'one understood, and which at times was
the :,anbject - of. the mockery of all, or of
banishment from his home,, and
__Ns Country, with or without an alleged
; that it was. the act, notof a single
'tyrant, or hdted ariatecracy,'but of
sembied emmtrymen.• Far (Kermit is the
power of our'scivereigitly. - It can interfere
1) one's 'faith, prescribe forms of
worship one's obseryauce, inflict no
:punishment but after _well ascertained guilt, '
;the:result ofittvestigation under' rules pre
• ocribetlby,the 'coustitution ThAsai'
premetts.privi privil eges, and thoeie..soarcel
important ; `of giving• Otpression to his '
thottghts ;and; opinions, either by Writing or '
spbakiagoinrestrained but tt.slthet liability
'for injury to:others, and 'that of 'a - full• par- •
' ticip6tion In:all the adr.aniages Which cloud
,• from the •Governmenl,Alic,sektioWledged.
property of all, the. Ameridati citizen fie.
inves , frqs . no" charter granted:by his fed-•'
low.tnana •He'claims'them'beasutte he .ittr
•Itirtfeello Man, - 'fishioned by 'the Same Al
..tnightyhantl,-as the: rest .of hiSspeeles,• . .l
AM" petitled , to a fultshare date bleseingdi
;~. „ ~~,
' NotWithstandipg the jonited.sovereigtity ;
Poriseisetl4)y. the people of the U. States,.
and rieted grant of pOwer the - Go-
.Vernment Which- they ..have adopted, e-.
nough has been given to acconiplisli ., all the,
objects .for which it-was - created,,;-, At-has:.
been found owerful in war, mi t t, hit
Justree.bas..beeenthninistered,:a`re..iiitima . tri
cation -effected, domebtie .trafiquility pre- .
served, and - personal 'see - tired to the
citizen. Its was to he expected, however,
from the defect-of language, and the.neces
, ._. . .
,siteily - i sententioos•manner in, which the it grants,"iarmvesteil in the Congress of the
constitution is written, disputes have arisen United 4ates.' ItwoUld be a solecism in
'i as to,the aniOnnt of power which was ae- , language to say-that,inty portion-of theie is
tnally granted, or-. was intended to . grant- not included iethe whole... ••. •• • '
'Phifs'ig:nitire paii . ‘olativ• the, - case in vela=' It- may Said,' indeed, tbetithe eerl - 8 11 -
; • r. .
- tion to that 'part of • the instrument Which tution . ' has given the [ executive the Power
i treats' . of the LegiSlaiive branch. .And not id 'annul the. acts of the Legislative body,-
only- as regards. , the exercise ofcpowersi by reliving to them- his-assent. -So.a M-
I Claitned tinder it -general ; clause, , giVing ., to •.milar power has 'necesiarily resulted from
that briilythernittherity to .paSs••;rill laws - to ' that instritinentlo lhe'Jtidiciaryr and•:Yt
I earry ;into. effect the' specified powers; but . the Judiciary forms no part of the Legisla-
in relation to ' flee latter also. :- • : ''.• • 1 ture. iThere is, it is true, this difference
I Itis,-howeVer, consolatory trireflet that between these &mita of. power: the Eke.:,
Most lof: the - instances of alleged departure
. , , cuttve can Put.his negative upon the acts oft
front tntt•• letter or the spirit of the consii i
the Legislature brother cause thin; that nf . '
union, have ultimately 'receiVed therianC-want of' - conformity - Jo thtri .-
lion of; l a-majerity of the people. And the while the Judiciary can only declare: void
fact that many. ofottr_statesmen,. most_ dis-: I , those Which violate that instrument.' ;BMA
: - tinguished fin' talents and plitriotism, httve .: the,decisionef the Judiciary final in such
been, at oust sue or other of their patient :mease, whereas, in 'every instance where
Icareer, on - •both•sides,of each of the most ' the veto of the:Exceutive is applied it may
I warinlyAlispiited efiteStiebs• Ilitees.upon its'h - (F . 6 - I , 'iir - eo• - •fitiby ' - ii - o - le ofte : thirds of.both
the inference that the error, if errors there ! , ,Ilouiegof Congress: •The negative upon
Werii,, are attributahle•te 'the intrinsic tdif- 'the acts of the Legislative., by the-Ex-eau
tulty,• in many instances, of ascertaining
' the:hien-111111 , 4-o f the.-fraM;ers_ol7.l.l.con“.l•!-- indi v idual„ : would , see m .to„.bnani ricongru
tutien, rather-than• to the influence - of any ! ity In our system'. :Like some others of a
Isidistur 'or unpatriotic motive.- I shnilarehara,cter, howover, it appears to be
But the great danger' by our institutions I highly, expedient; and if used Only With the
does not appear tometo be in a usurpation ! , forbearance, and in the spirit which was in
by the :government; of power not grantedi,tended by its authors; it may ,be productive
by the-people, , butby.The_aftetimulation, in 1 of great geed, and be foetid one of the best
one of the Departments --- oftier whielrwasi paregnards - to the _Union. : - At - the -- p - el iod - of, -
assigned to others. Limited as. are • tl!e 'the r formationof the constitution, the prin.-
idoWers which haycilteen granted, slilLeiple does:- not-appear - __to 'have...enjoyed_
enough hi.vo ben . granted to constitute al notch favor in the State Governments:._ It
despotism, if concentrated in one of the De-• existed but in twO,•and in one of .these there
Figments. The 'danger is - greatly height- was a plural Ekeentive:. : • • .
flied, as it luis been, al ways . observable.that ! . If We woUld Searclifer the motives which.
men are jealus of .encroachments of!, operatedup p
on sembly which f the ;puiely atriotic and Mt
one department upon another than open I lightened asramed the con-
I their ow reserved rights. • ''• ! stitution, for the adeption .. of a provision
r\lh ill:-e
-th ed-nsii tu tion- of-4 ho- - -Vriited - :: so- apparently- repugnant_to: the_leading deL - ,
I c.,7n tatc.s- li`r.St."..ctinie - T froin the loinds of the I momatic principle,that the majdrity. should
ovention Which framed it, nary of the i goern, we , must reject the idea that they
sternest lepublicans of the.tfay were alarm- !antioipated,from-it-atty -benefit,•-to:the-ordi--;,
ed at the extei tof _ the_pOwer Which had:l:nary .course of legislation. They . -knew
been grantedito the. Federal Goveintrent, ! too well
.the: high degree - of intelligence'
and moreparticularlyofthat portion -Which which existed among- the people,. and the
had:ltem) assigned•to the Executiv'6hranch. enlightened character ol the State . Legisla-
There were in it feature's Which' appeared ; tore, not to have the fullest confidence that
not to be-in harmony with theirideas of a 'the tWO.bodies - elected by them would' be
simrtle representative Democracy, or Re- I, worthy reP - resentatives 01 such constituents,
rptiblic.___AntLArowing. tho_tenancy• of and, of course, that they would:requirono
• power to increase itself, partictilarly when aidin conceiving and maturing the measures
AZ:tic reised byipingle individual, predictions which the circumstances . of . the country
were _made that; at'nrivery remote period; might require: . And it' preposterous to
the,Government would terminate in virtual suppose that-a thought could for a moment'
monarchy. It _would not-tmeonte me_ have beelf:entertained,Jhat the. President,.
say that . the fears-tip these patCt.its . .have placed at_the capital, in..the centre of the
been already realized. But, as I sincerely country; could better understand 'the wants
believe that 'the tendency of measures, and and wishes of the people than their own
- of - me - es-opinions, for sorne.____years_past,_ immediate •tepre.sentatives, who spend a
has beeniti that direction., it is, I conceive, part of everyyear amongfifem, living with
strictly proper that I should take this, OCT 'them, often laboring with them, and bound
cm:ionic; repeat the assuranees.l.have here... to them by: the triple tic of interest, duty
torero given, of 'my determination - to arrest - and affection: 2 • - •
. therm,, ,the progress of that tendency, ditreally ex- ' 'l'o assist or control ;Congress, in
ists, mul restore ...he g o vernme•nt 'to its its enlinaryJegislation, could .not, I con-.
pristine health and vigor; as far as this can ceiee ; have been the motive for
be effected
,by any legitimate exercise of, the veto power on the President : .ThiS ar
the power placed in :lily hands. • gument acquires additional force from the
I proceed to state, - in as summary' a man, fact of its never4iming-beenthus_Jmed-hy.
ner as I 'eau, my opiniotiof the•sources•of , the first six Pregidents—and tWo of theta
11 ' .66;144 m 1.1611- lifave "beeii 7 . 4o.- extensiverY were metiibefe ofthe•entiVelitiett; - Mte - pre;
complained of. and the correctives which siding over its deliberatibns, and the. other
may be applied. 'Some of the fernier are having a larger share in eonstin - mating the
unquestionably- to -be found in thedefeets• labors of - that angtist- body than-any:other
of the constitution; ntliers,,,in rimy judg-; person. But if WIN were never returned
meat, are attrituable to a misconstruction to Congress by either of trio Presidents
of i some of its.previsions. . Of the former above referred to, upon the ground of their
is the eli g ibility of 'the same individual to being inexpedient, or not as well adapted
a _second term of the' 'Presidency. The as they might be to the wants of the people,
sagacious mind of Mr. Jefferson 'early saw the veto was applied upon-thitt of want of
and lamented. this erioromd attempts have
.conformity to. the - Constitution, or because
been .made, made, hitherto without success, 'to errors had been committed from a too hasty
apply the aniendatory .power of the states enactnimit. m . .
to its •creetie ' . Then.
re is'another ground for the adoption
. .
As, however. one • mode cif 'correction is
in the power of every Presidem, and conse 7
i quently i I Mine,. it woulkPe useless, and
; perhaps ii %idiot's, to• enum4rate the . evili
Of whiel,kivtie
,opinion of
-many of
felfOw cluieti'S,ltifis error of •the Sages who
framed thb-conStitution may have•been the
source, and the bitter fruits which we - are
;still to-gather from it,•tf -it continues to dis-.
fi g ure our systm. It may be observed,
Ihowever, as a general remark, Ahat.repub
lies can leomMit• no greater' error than to .
I adopt or cOntinuo:Any features. in. their Ay-s
-tem of government which may be Calculat-.
ed to create or increase the love of power,
'-iii the bosoms . of those to whom necessity
''obliges them. to commit the management of
their affairs. And, surely; ; nothing is more
i likely to produce . such a state of mind than
, the lona continuance of. an officer of high
• .:
trust. Nothing can be more, corrupting,
nothing* more destructive of all thosehoble
Jeding , ti,Which,_belong to the character-of
n devoted republican patriot. ,•'. . .
j . When this'corrupting*sion once takes
possession of the burden mind,. like 'the love
of gold it
_becomes insatiable. 'lt is the ne
ver-dying Worm . in - his bosom; grows with
his growth, and strengthens with the do-.
dining years of.its victim. . If this is true,'
it is the , part of wisdom for a republic to
limit the service of 'that officer, atleast,,t,O.
whom she has entrusted the - management
61 her foreign relations; the, 'execution of
her laws, and the 'command-or-her armies
and' navies, to A period so short, as to pre
vent hie forgetting that he is the accountable
agent; not the. principal-the, servant, not.
the master..:. IT,ntil an aifiednient of 'the
4 . . ..
'constitution can be effected, public opinion
: may secure'the desired object. I give my
i.aid to it, by renewing the pledge heretofore
„given, that r .under no Arc instances,. will I
Consent to serves 'sedondter.•
1 . ,- ,:l3ht if - there - is - tlanp, , er-to - public; - liberty
from the acknoWledged defects of the con
stitution in-the- want 'of limit to the Continn
onto of , the Executive power* the same
tends, .there , :ieJAPprehend . , net:MUch leis
froth •a, misiOtietruction4d . .that,:instrumeni;'
as it ieistdellin . ,pnwni - acitially given. :- I.
nannnt:enneeitie.llietibrs faireorteltOtioki.,,
lity4n- -.e Wier. i,of ite,..piotisiotWsiOulOW
• , i. ~.-,'"'', ---,'-'
_ .
a..; . ,t , bU',.?,.:',%.2,,t, , , , : -
.--li t ,
~ *'(4 . Ir 4 f(.01 , Jr - niJiH r i :• •• , p . (it( nll. .moo
_W v i .0 . 20 . . 1 i wc_+
(bumf to . ebn.ltitute the '1 resident a part ;of ;
the 4t6gtatative power, cannot be Claim- .
itlfronftlie\-,poWer, 'recommend,' bAtCe,
although enjoined aa a. ditty .Upon „him, Ms
- pil - vilege which he ,
holds in common with
eve ry.:l)t h e Le it Oti gli Neve
the Vropriety.ofthe Trictiatife's reconinientled
in the 'one case thartiit'tligother, iti the:ob-,
ligation& Ot ultiinate - ileCiaion there, Can ho
no.,differetice,, ;1 11111,0e language, oldie :eop
stitution, 3 ail the jegislative poviere.ivliio
of the Veto principle, which had probably
More:influence• in tecolDmending it to the
convention than,artr'other. I refer to the'
security which .it gives to the justand eqn
itable_action _of_the_Legislatureport.all_
paki - olthe Union: , • . • .
It could not but have occurred to the con
vention that, •in -a country so extensive,
embracing 'so great a variety 'of soil . and
climate,.and consequently, of products, and
which, from, the same causes, must ever
exhibit_a_great_ditference in _the arrzent_o.f
the population of its various sections, cal
ling fora, great diversity in the employ
ment'of the people, that the legislation of
the'riajority might not, always justly re
gard the rights and interests of the minority.
And r thWacts of this character might be
Passed, 'under an 'express grant by the
words of the constitution,, and, therefore,
not within the coinpeteney..Of the Judiciary
to declare void. That however enlightened .
and — patriotic - -they' might.:-suppese-,--frem
past experience' the members:6f Congress
•,tnight be, and_bsowever largely partaking in
the.general, of the liberal feeling of the,peo
ple, it was itnposslble to expect that bodies
so constituted should not sometimes be
Controlled bylocal interests and sectional
feelings::- It was properoherefore, to, pro
vide some 'umpire, from whose 'situation
and Mode of appointment more iridepen
dence and Treed= from such influence's
' might be expected. Such a, one was . af
forded:by the Executive ' ' Department, con
stituted by the constitution." A 'person
1 1 elected to a - high . ' office, itayitig his con- .
stituents in everection, state, and 4plidf
vision 'nf the Must consider hiil elf',
bound by the .incitif tiolenin sanctions; to'
guard, prote'et and 'defend the .rights of all,
and of every portiOn, greet Or 'small; from 1
the injustice and oppresidon'olthe rest:, '
. I consider the-veto poWer, therefore,'
given by. the - Ithe Executive
of. the'United. States, solely es - weonserva
live power. .used only, first,. to
,protect iheC,cionstitution • from „ViolaOn'i
itecondly,the'people• from the , elfeeffi 'of'
bmly* h ire . their will. hail:loop
probably-;.disregarded,'or not well under
:'oPcoolllio - ati olio', violative OVUM lights: 4 .6f
. •
minorities. •• In reference to thie seConitof
these objects, I may observe that 1 ConsiiMr
it the right and _privilege of PeOple:to
decide disputed points .of the constitution,
arising frciro the general grant of power to-
COugresis to-carry- into; ;effect the •po . wers
Aladisoiii•-•‘.that 'repeated 4recognitiens nif
tier .ya . r . jesl.ciretiiiistanCei,'ln acts of tlip le
gislative, executive, and judicial .brandies
irf the goverruperit-,, accorn peeled by indica
.tions irilliffcrent..iundes of the concurrence .
of the general wilt of. the nation-, as afferd.;
ing to the President : sufficient authoiltY for
his . considering. such .dispulod. points .as
settled." . „ •
Upwards of half. e'century lei elapsed'
since - the adoption of our present form of
government.. 'lt Would lie an object more
highly desirable than the gratification of
the, curiosity of .speculative statesmen, if
its precise situation could be - aSeertained, - .a,
fairexiiihit niadeof the-::operations-of-each
of its Departments; of the power's which ,
they respectively claim and 'exercisf, of
the collisions'Whicli have occurred between
them, or between the whole government i
-and:those-of-the states, -- or eitheroLthernd
We - could then com Pare our actual condi-1
floe, after fifty years trial of our system;
with what it was in the commencement of,
its operations,.and ascertain whether the
predictions-of the patriots whb opposed its
adoptibn; 'or the 'confident( hopes of its
advocates have been realized. The - great
d tea (1-=i) f-ther-fertn et-seems-0-h ve , --be en,-
that the reserved powers of the St.tes
_woublibe_absorbed hy.those_ofthe r _Federal
G,overinnent, and a consolidated power es
tablished, living to the-states the shadow, i
only, of that independent action - for which
they haktio
.zealously contended, and 'oh
the preservation of which they relied a;-., the
last Inipe_ . olliberiy. _ .' . . .
- - -With - Out denying that the result tohic
they looked. withso much the_ result i
apprehension is
in..the...way..of being....realized,it. is 'obviOuS
that they did not clearly see thel.mode• of
its aceornplishment..Thie 'General Govern
ment has seized upon Mine of the reserved
rights of- the Stales. 'As 'far as, any. open.
Warfare-may have .gone,4llo...statevintihori
ties have amply Maintained their rights - ;- - - - '
l'otir, casbal observer,our .System presents
no_appearanep of 'discord betweeit the dif
. compose'tt.. Eve
the addition of troity'new. ones has -pro
-duce& no jarring:- _Fhey-mova=-in=their-re
spective orbits in perfect harmony with the
central_ headiantl , with each .other: But
- theie - is Still an under current - at work.; lay'
which,' if - not seasonably' checked, the
worst 'apprehensions .of our anti-federal
patriots will" be realized. And net only
will the state authorities be overshadowed
ecutive- Departnient ,of the General Go
vernment, but the character of that govern
ment, if not-its designation, be essentially
and radically-ohinged, : .--------L--,
'This state state of things has been in part ef
fected by causes inherent in the constitu
tion, and in part by the never-failing ten
dency of political: power - to increase itself;
. By making tne ?resident the sole distrib.
utor of all the ?attonage of the Govern-
Illellt,• the fratiors of the-constitution do
not appearto Wye pticipated at how shoit
a period it wotd.R" . enome a formidable in control thefree operations, of
the State Govirnments. 'Of trifling im
portance at first, it had, 'early in Mr. Jef
ferion's'administiation, become so power
ful as to create goat alartu'in the- mind of
might exert in ontrolling the freedom of
- the elective ftenctise. - -- If such - could have
then been the eines of its influence, how
much greater mist be-the. &toiler at thii"
time; quadrupled in amount, asit'certainly
is, and more completely under the control
of the Executive will, than theit‘construc
tion of their potters allowed; or the for
bearing charattei of all the early Presk
dents permitted them to make ? But it is
not by the 'extent of its patronage alone
that the Executive Department has become
dangerous, bUT by the use _which .it ap
pears may be mailei of the-appointing-pow
er, to bring under its control the wlible
revenueOf the coentry; ' :.. '. -- -----
'. The 'constitutiaqhas declared it to be the
d i tty of the President to . see, that the laws
are executed, and it maken• - him the Com
-mander4n-Cltief-s$ the-Arnay' and -Navy. of.
the United:States:4V they opinion of the
most approved.-01hrs upon that speciesof
mixed governmentiwhichi . in modern Eu
rope, is termed ‘! donarchy." in contra
distinction to, - "*spotism," is ,correct,
there was , wa nting,, other addition to the
_pnwers_o.our.Cltif_Magistrate to - stamp.
a, monarchical claracter 'on our Govern
ment, but the control of the public finances.
And to me it ambers strange, indeed; that'
say one should &obi - Mat - the - entire - con=
trol which the irosident possesses over
the officers who .gave the custody of the
public money; tl , the power of removal
with or tVithout. - -ethe, does, for all mis
chiivous purposestt least, virtually' sub
ject the treastireshl oto bis-disposal. The
first -- 12miairEm i ceranlirbis' - `Mtettrpritr
seize the.sacred reasure, silenced the op
petition of the o icir to whose charge it
had been commitfe4 by-a significant allu
sion to his. swordt ' I ' '' .
.... .
By a selection o political instruments
i )
for the
.care of t ' übliU money, a refer ,
,would be
theirao "' scions by a President,l
onld be qUite a e' actual an argument as
that of Cteser to e ?omen Knight.' :,I inn
not insensible .(i the great difficulty that
exists in devisin 'i proper 'plan for the
tale-keeping and -in ursement of the* pub
Ito revenues; and 1 -now - the, importance,
yhich has ben to lied hymen:of great,
Vhilities'and patii i ' tothe.dlyoree, as it .
is called...of :Me l '. .r - Bury from the hank ! .
ing institutions - I not the divorce which
. s complainedol of, . the UnhallOwedunion
of the -, Treisurv- . ..' i 'the Eirecutive,De-.
,partMent,whieh'h pled suett extensive
alarm. --- To.thisAdn rto our Republican
institutions, and, that mated
. by the 'filth!".
ence given, to
- that, . ecutive through the
-instrumentality iof:t federtit - -Officers, - I
: propose to - apply ell he remedied which
*may he at
,Itny comi ty d - ,-;._,'-it'ciFai.ceitOnly .
*treat error in thn f . Mere of the' consti
tuilon, nOt to hail 0 e 'the O ffi cer nt.lhe
lieadOtliii_ - _TteistirY aparttnentLeratitali
iridePendent 'titthtiE eutive:l/2'.1-leidiould
• .
, ...
at leastliave been , :remoVable only upon•the
demand; of the-potinlar branch, of the IA
; g h ishithr.,e. ~,,,,:. ';. ' • ' -..-''''.' ..•,. •
1 I hairedelerinined. never to remove a
-tSecretary of the Trea'siiry without cornntn
-, nicating all 'The - 'eirciimitances attending
.-Lime.h . _rernoxil_to_batb litoises-Of-Lo' rigres •
The influence 'of :the ExecutiVe in -co&
trolling the freedom ,of, the ele.Ctiv.e Iran
;raise • threugh the
. medium •of •the public
I`o llicers can' be - '6trectually cheeked.. by re
-1 Hewing . , the prohibition'published by Mr.-
Jefferson; forbidding their interference in
elections further ~-than giving their own
'votes; and their own independence secured
! by an assurance. of phi-feet immunity, in
exercising' this sacred friVilege of freemen
under the dictates of: their own unhiaSsed.
'judgments. Never, with my consent,shall
an officer' of thelieople, compensated. for
his services'out- ortheir pockets, become,
. .
i the. pliant instrument of 'Executive will. '.
1----.There-is: - ith - part of - the - means-placed-in ,
the hands , of the 'Executive Which . ' might
'be used with greater effect, for,unhallowed,
purposes, than the control of: the public.
I press.. The maxim which our ancestors
derived from, the-.mother country, that "the
freetihni of . the press is the great bulwark.
of civil and religious liberty:" is . cine of the,
most precious 'legacies which they „have
left us. We have learned, too, froth our
own as ,:well: as the
. .experience of other
1 countries, that golden shackles; by whom
soever-or by whatever' pretence imposed,
nre'ts-fatal-to - it-as'flte-iron - bothls , s of - Des=
ficitism: ' .'The . .. presses- in the 'necessary
-employment -of- ; the--Government,,-should
never be tised "to clear the guilty, or to
- 6
varnish erimes.'? A-decent and manly ex
amination of the acts of the Government
should be not only toleratettbut eneohraged.
Upon oter occasions I . have given my'
opinions, at some length,. upon the .im-
propriety offExeCutive interference in the
legislation of Congress: That the article
In-41e-constitution. making it 'the-duty:of.
the President to communicate incarnation,
and authorizing
,him to. recommend mea
-sure-ay:was not intended Or inakb - hind the
.of legislation,. and, in particular,
that-he --photild- never --bosiloskod—to -far
-, '..1f - 6 ,--7 .' Tf - Id
schemes of ;finance: 'lt would be: `very
strange, indeed, that the-constitution should
strictly forbidden one branch of -the
Legiilittire iiit6elliting-iti - the - originm:
tion - of . sii:-.11 bills, and that it should be
- tottiidered'pro p tha raii . al tote th er - differ - 7
ent 'department. of the_Government should
'be permitted to do . so.• Some of our best
political maxims and opinions have :been
'drawn froM our parent Isle. There are
others,--,however, which cannot be-intro
duced into our system without singular in
congruity; and the production .of much,
, mischiefr-7Andthis-I—oonceive- to be:one,
No Matter in, vhich.of tbeAiousea of Par
liament a bill.may . oviginate,.nor
introduced, a. minister, or a member nf the
-opposition,-by-the fiction- of law, or rather
of constitutionaLprinciple, the sovereign
is supposed to have prepared it agreeably
to his will, and then submitteffit in Parlia
ment for their advice and consent.
Now, the very reverse is the case here,
not only with regard to the principle, but
- the forms prescribed by the . constitution'.
The principle certainly assigns to the only
body constituted' by
. the• constitution (the •
legislative body) the power to make.laws,
and the forms even direct that the enact- 1
ment • should be ascribed 'to them. 'rho
Senate, in relation to revenue bills,. have.,
the - right to propose ninentlinenteLandsci,
has - thnExeentilreJrYthe - pewer given him
to return them to the House of Represen
-tatire-S; with - hie objestions; Alf NS
power, also, to 'propose amendments in the
existing revenue laws, sugerested. by his
observations upon their: defective orinju
rious operation. But the delicate duty of
devising schemes of revenue should be left
where the constitution has placed it-with
the immediate representatives of the people..
For similar reasons.the mode of keeping
the public ireasure should, be- prescribed by
them; and the farther removed it may be
from the control of.the Executive, the more
wholesome the arrangement, and the more:
in accordance with Republidan principle.
I Connected with this subject is the char
acter of the currency: , The idea of making
it , delusively metallic, hoWeyer well in
' tended, appears to me to be fraught With
more. fatal, consequences than any other.
scheme,having no relation to the personal
right's of the citizen, that has ever been de
vised. If any single scheme could pro , .
duce, the effect of, arresting, at once, .the
mutation of condition, by which' thousands
of our' most indigent feltoW citizens, by
the poSsesSion of wealth, that -Is the one.
If there is one measure. better calculated --
than another to produce,that state of things
so much deprecated - by all true' republicans, -
by which the rich are daily adding : to their
hoards, and the poor - sinking deeper-into
penury, if is an exclusive metallic currency.
Or if there is, a process by which / the char
acter-of the country :for genernsity and no
bleness of feeling marbeilistroyed by the
' - grent - inerease'and- necesiaty-toloration-Of
usury, it is an exclusjukmetallic currency,
• Amongst the Oth(r duties 'of a. delicate
charadter, winch . the President' 'is called
upon to .:perix'itm, is the Supervision 'of the
government Of the territories of th.e. United
States. /hose of them which arellestined
to becOmponelnbers of, our great political
family are. compensat6d by their rapid pro-.
gress from infancy to manhood,. for the
partial and- 'temporary deprivation of. their
political rights.. It is'in this District, only
where. American citizens are to be found,
who, ruder a eettlediy.stem of policy, are
depriyed Of many important:pOlitinal privi
leges without any. inSpiring hope ,as to:the
future.. - Their only :consolation, ,under
Circumstances of such
.deprivation, is Air
()Nits devotedexterior guards ofo .camp •-•*
thst,theirsufferings Secure tranquility: m(l'
Safety .withai... Are . there any of their
countrymen 'who Would
_subject- them to
greater sacrifices, to any other humiliations
than those essentially necessary to the se- ,
curity of , the object ,for, which ..thby
thus, pepardted from-. their : fellow ',dazing - I
Are their rights . . alone . iiiat,,,to be guaranteed
tiy° the application..Of
,thoio,giecit principles
upon alLoni.constitutions are found
••We-_are,'toltlib..,the.greatest of *Welt.
Orators,' and;-Statesmen at the
riteneeinent of the war of :the Revolution, ,
the most. sturtid.then: in England :spite of
"their • Aliterican ',subjeCts." Are ,. there,
indeed, citizens of any of our States, who
have dreamed of their subjects in the ,
trict of Colombia :SuCli . dirtains.ian never
The peciple 'of die . District of Columbia,
are': not the. subjects. of the pe_ople.of. the
Stales, but. free American citizens. Being
the latter. condition when the Constitu
tion was formed; no words used in that in
strument Could have' been intended to ~de=
prive th'em•of that character. If theie is
any thing in‘the great principles of-tnaliena.;
ble L rights, so empliatiCally insisted :upon:
in our. •Declaration of Independence;- they
could neither make, nor the United States
accept, a surrender, of their •liberties, and
become the subjedo of their Soitner felloW
Citizens,: If. this. be trueond it _will scarce;
ly be denied by any one who has a - correct .
rdea-ofliiwown rights_as.anAnaerican_citi
-zen,..thergreat br.Congreis Of exelusive
jurisdiction: in - -;lll64l,istrict of -COltiinhia,
can be interpreted, So far es..respects the
aggregate people of the United States, as
meaning nothing more thanto allow Con
greie power-necessary: - to
afford a free and safe exercise of thefunc
tions. assigned to the General Government
by the.CoNitution. In all other respects
the legislatioN of Cohgressihould be adapt
ed to their peculiar position and. wants and
be comfortable with
,their deliberate opin
ions-of-their- own-interests.
I have spoken of the necessity of beeping.
the respective Departments-of the-Govern-.
ment, as well - as all the other authorities
of our country, within their 'respective or
bits. This is a matter of difficulty in. some
cases; as the ',ewers which 'they respec
tively.claim are - often not defined by 'very
distinct..lines. Mischevious, hoWever, in
theirlCndencics, collisionYPlTthis - kind
may be, those tvhicla arise bettireen the
• respeCtive, conimunities, - which.for certain
purposes compose .one
.nation, are much
• more so; for Eo such nation can long exist
without,the carefuicultiire of-those feelings
of confidence-and.affection which are„ the . ,
effective-bonds:of -union - betweenfree .and
'confederated- States.. Strong as -isk the tie l i
of•interest, it has been oftenn - found ineffee•
teal. -Men, blinded by their passions, have
been: knowtrto-.adopt-measures...for_theirl
country in direct opposition- to. all the sug
gestions of policy.. The alteinative tiren,
is,ito..tlestrOy..or keep down - a bad passion
by creating and fostering a good one; and
this seenas to be ,the .corner stone upon
Which our American f'politieal architects•
have-reared tine fabricof our Government.
• The cement which was to bind it, and per
, Petnate its existence . , was the affectionate
-attachment-between-alEits-inembersr-- , ----- , -
.a o insure.the continuance of this feel
ing, produced at - first by a' 'community of
'dangers, of sufferings and of interests, the
advantages.of each were made accessible
to all. No participation in any good, pos
sessed by atiy' member - of an extensive
.confederacy, except in domestic govern
ment, was withheld from the Citizeolof
any other member; By a proeessattend 7
ed with no difficulty, no delay, no expense
but that of removal, the citizen of one might
become the.citizen of. any other, and. sue,
cesmively of the whole. - The liness, too,.
separating powers- to, be exercised by-the•
citizen of one State from those of another
kern 'to be so distinctly drawn, as to leave
no - room fol. misunderstanding. . The cid
zensLof-each:-State--ritiite in- their person's
ell the privileges which that' character
confers, and all that they may claim as
citizens-of the United States.; may_
in ito
case can the same person at the same time,
act as
,the citizens of - taro separate States,
and lie - is therefore positively - precluded
from any interference- with the reserved
-powers of any State but that of which he.
is, for the time beingo citizen. He nifty
indeed offer to -the citizen of other States,
his advice as to their management, and
the form in which it is tendered is left to,
his own discretion and sense of propriety.
. • It may be observed, hoWever, that or`;
ganized associations: of
.citizens, requiring
compliance with their , wishes too .niuch
resemble the recommendations of Athens
'to her allies—supported by an armed and
poweiful fleet. It was indeed,'to the am
bition of the lea - dint - State 'of Greece to
control the domestic concerns of the oth 7
ers i -that'the destruction of that
confederacy and subsequently of all. its
members is mainly' to be attributed. . And
it is owing to/the" absence of that sPirit
that the Holvetie confederacy :has for so.
many years been ,preserved... Never
there - been seen - in the institutions of thP l
separate members - of any confederacy - more-1
iro(nants-oifjiseord. Idthe principles and
fermi of governmentand - Teligion, as well'
as in the 'circumstances of the several can
tons, so marked a discrepance Was,obser
-vable as to promise anything but harmony.
in theirintercourse or permanency in their
--And yet, for ages, neither has
been interrupted. Contents with the pOsi
titre benefits which their union produced,
Wit tr - tireir - Itt rinir ef7i::
_aggression which -it secured,. these
sagacious people respezted the institutions
of each Other however Yepugnant to their
own principles an*iirejudiees.
.• • Our Confederacy, felhati T eitizens,..can
only be preserved by the same forbearance.
Our citizens must ,be , cOnten‘. With - the • ex
ercise Of' the powers with which the Con
stitution clothes them. The attempt of
those of - one Stoic) control the diameStic
institutions of • another, can only ,result in
feelings of distkust and jealousyi•the certain
harbingers of disunion; 'violence, civil war,
' and the ultimate destruction of our free in
stitutions. Our Confederacy is 'perfectly
illnetraterl by the terms end .principleti - gov,
- erninginon co-partnership. •There
a fund .OV poweris to be exercised under
the direction,of thejoint councils of
mendierii - brit that,which has been re- -
served by the individual members is.intan
gible by,this eommen, government or the
individual. .members - :•coniposing P.- To
attempt It,-.finda nu, support• in the pritici
ples .o.r.ourConstitutior. It should be Mir
constant and earnest endeavor mutually, to'
cultivate a spiiit.or concord and...jtarmony
among - the yarinini:parts - olour-;Confedera-
RY-EXPeriePoo - 41AUnditnttaught - Ps
that; the' agitation by Oithienfolone.cpat(
- 1-
the Union of a subject not confided to the
General Government i . but exclusively un
der the guardianship of., the local authori
ties, is productive of no other consequences
than bitteiness, alienation, discord,, and in
furrie - the very cause which Is' Intended
to le a vanceo... all - the-great _ interests
which , aPpertain to our country f that of
Union, cordial,' confiding, fraternal .
is bylar the most important, is the
only true and Sure .guaranty of all :the WI ,
ers. . ,
In consequence of the. embSrraised state
of business and the currency, some of the
States may meet with difficulty in their
financial'. concerns. However - .deeply- we'
may :regret any thing . iniprUdent'or exces
sive 'in the engagements into Which States
have entered for purposes of their own, it
does to .disparage. the .State
Governments, nor to discOurage:them'from
.making proper efforts for their , own-relief ;
mi"the_contrary,'lt is . ourAluty_te,mia9Urage
them, to, the extent of our constitutional
authority, to applyk. their . best - means,. and
'cheerfully to make all necessary sacrifices,
and submit to all necessary burdens to ful
fil their engngetnehts and maintain their
credit; foi .charaCter -- ..and - credit - of -. the
several . States form part of the character of the
,The ,re
sources of the •counity are,almOdant, the
enterprize and activity of our people pro
verbial; and we may well hope that wise
legislation: and „ 14.
prpdent administration,
the - respective - "Governments,—each-acti n,
withifiits own sp
prosperity: .
— Unpleasant' and -even dangerpus as col- .
lisions may sometimes" be, between the
constituted authorities or the citizens of our
coentry, in relatiori to the lines which Se
-prate, their respective jurisdictions, the re
stilt can be Of no vital injury to our insti
-lulio-ne;11, thavarderit - patriotisin; that de
iiktLattachment -to liberty, ifiat, spirit of
moderation and forbearance for- winch our- -
countrymen were 'opce distinguished,.eon-..
tinue to be cherished. .If this continues to
bed the ruling: passion -of, eur. souls, - the
I weaker feelings of the mistaken enthusiast
will be corrected,„the Eutopiaa dreams of
thejeheming politician dissipated, and the
complicated intrigues- of the 'demagogue
rendered harmless.- The spirit of liberty
lithe sovereign lialmfor eyery injury which
our institutions may receive. On the eiiii;7 4
irary„. o core- thatFaiibe used iffille''eeti:
straction of -Situ { Government;-no division
of powers',-no distributiOli_of checks in its
several departmehts„WillProve effectually
to keep us airee People, if this'spieit
suffered to decay ; and decay it will with= •
out constants - nurture. f To the neglect of
this duty, the best historians agree - in at- .
whose existence and - fall their writings.
. mede us. acquainted. The same
causes will ever produce_ the same effects;
and as long es, the love of power•is a domi
nant passion of the human bosom, and- as
long -as the understandings of men can be •
warped and their affections. changed by
operations upon their passions and pr,eju- :
dices,-so long will the -liberty Of a people
depend :on their own constant attention to
its preservation.
The danger to all 'Well-established and --.
free governments .erises from . the unwil-/
lingness of the people to lielieveAn its ex
istence -- or from the influence .of - designing
men,, diverting 'their attention' ' frojn the '
quarter whence
approaches- F -63)1" source
Tferm which-itcan never come: This is
the old trick of those who would usurpthe ,
government of their country. In-the name
of Democracy they speak, - Warning - the --
.people against the influence of wealth and
the danger of aristocracy. History, ancient
and niudern, is full 'of such examples:- . .
Ccesar became, , the master of the- Roman
people and the . .-Senate . under the pretence
of supporting the democratic claims of the •
former against the aristocracy of , the latter;
Cromwell, in the character of protector of '
the/liberties of the People, beeame.•the,
dictator of England; Mid Bolivar possessed
'himself of unlim;fe - dpower, with-the title
of his dountrY's'Liberator.t There is, on'
the contrary; 'ho' single instance_ on iecortl.;
of an'eicielisive, and well-.established„repub- • •
lie 'being Changed into an aristocracy.-;--
The tendencies of all such governments in .
their decline is, to monarchy; .and the , ati
.. '
principle to liberty there •the
spirit'of faction—a.spirit whicl 'assumes
the character, and, in times of great excite
ment, imposes: itself upon the People as :
the geifuine,spirit of 'freedom, and like the
false Christs Ay hose 'coming was , foretold.
by the•aviour, seeks to, and werelt - pos.,:
sible --- Would; -- inipose - upon - the true .and
faithful disciples of liberty. •• ' ':- • • ~ '
---- it - 1111n-perieds. like this that it. behoves..
- the - People to-be most watchful of Those
to whom they have entrusted power; And
although there is at times much difficulty
in - distinguishing the false from the true .
spirit, a calnk-entl2dtspesSionate•investiga-.
Ltion will detect , fille counterfeit as_ ell by
the character of its operations, as 001021 , -
sults that are prciduced. ' The true spirit of
Wily. attfioligli—d-evotederseveririgs
bold and uneompromising in prindiple, that ,
secured, ji mild and tolerant add scrupulous
es to • 'the, menus i'employ.a.;: Whpit,the"
spirit of party, ii , sspielog.te,be 'that df lib-. - ,
erty, is harsh. filidictive had' intolerant,...
and totally reckless - isle the character
. 01 '
the allies which it brings to the aid of its' . -
cause. When the genuine spirit'of liberty
animates,the bady . of a people to - alhOroptk
amination of their . affairs, it leads' to, the
xexcision of every ,excresence which : . may
.have 'fastened•itsell upon any of the ..Der '
partments . of the Government, and restores
the system to its pristine health and beauty. -
But thwreign of an intolerant spirit Of party
. .peopld,'iteldom fails to, re--
- iiitr, in'tkVao_gerous accession io,theE3F,°6-•
Jive power ' intraoml4and , established'
amidst unusual 'profesiions of :.tleVciqb# P. ••
democracy, , ' - ' - . 7 ' ' , •',.. i.” • • .
The foregoing-remarks relate almost exclusivelit -
to mittera. connected with "our domestic , et:Mem-Mc
It may. he proper, however, hnt I , akauld give 'some • ,
'indications , to..sny, fellow-citizehi o 1 my pi o0Ose&
course; of conduct in 'the Management of dor foreign o _,
relations - . ' .1 assure them, therefore, that it is my in--
tendon Mose every tneata in my licnVer to preserve t
the friendly - intercourse whichi,pod so happlikstilb!.
silts with every foreign. nation and' that;alth nglf, tr..,
courseoloilvvil informed is-to the state, of,,nn "peto--.
ing n°0190014 with' any
,of thens,l• see'lh , StAtIP-0 . ,
-soma &limiter of: the:Sovereigtio, as wellstahi. the
mutual Wit-cal-of our own and of thc.clocernme4Al ,-..,
ere, wi