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•'• Section. VIII The. senators shall be : chosen
in aikii6w,g to: be formed_ by,the legislature;
(hut no district shall be so formed as td enfi
tlef, it to elect Anon) .than ;two. senators, NI nlesa
' the nu in ber of. taiab le
_inhabitants in .any city.
.or county. shall, at any; time, be such as to en-:.
title it to elect
b.e _More than two, but no eity . cir
entitled to'ciect more than fOur.
senators;] • when a district shall be comn&sed
of: two or,more,eot nties,"they°shal'i ° lie adjoin
• .. ing;neitlier the Philadelphia nor any
—County shall •be. di v,hted in forming a district.
Seetion VIII. No .person . shall be a senator,
• Who shall not have attained
_the age ef.t.w.enty_..
ltve years and have, been a citizen, and,.inhab 7
.• • itant of the state, four Scars:next before
lectiOn; and the last year thereof aninliabitalit.
of the--district, for whiphohe, shall be chosen;
Unless he. shalt have .been,.absent. on the public
busineis.Of the United States or of this State;
/land no person elected as
j. -hold said , office after he shall have removed
from Stith district] •
'Section , IX. [The senators. who may be e
lected- at: the first:_,:generatoleetion. after the a
. _doptiort . .oLtholam'end num ta.. to. _the
Eion~ shall be divided - bOot - into - threeclasseS.:
The - seats of. the senators of. the'first class shall .
be' vacated at the expiration of - the first year;
.of the second Class at the'expiratien'of th'e 'see;
ondsear; and offtlie . third class at the expira
..._,tion.-of the" hird . year;..sothat thereafter one
third of the who-le number of sonators•maybe
choaen' every year. . The senatoraolected:be
. .fore the_arnendments to the conatitution . 'shall .
be adopted, .shall hold-their offices:during the
terms for for= which lthey'sliall 'respectively - haYe
been elected. • . , ..•.. .
'Section X. The'General Assembly shall - meet
on the first Tuesday , of Tanuarg,•in every..year,
unless soonar'eenVened by-the 'Governor.-
Section Each house Shall choose its
Spealter-andother officers; and the Senate Shall
oose Speaker - liro ,- ternpere=, When-Ithe
,_43pealcer-shall exercise the' office of Governor.
- Section 'XII. Each:aliallindge cif Abe'
qualifications of its members.. Contested elec ,
selected,•form,ed.'and in.regulated such mantle(
as •directed by. law. - AlnajoriVof
. each house shall conifituteiiiiiiiiiitifili - 0107b 1 F --
sinesa; . htit • a.smaller number may adjourn from
coinpel the_attentlance of 'absent/. menilfers,.. in
• s uch manner and undcr such ‘ penalties...4a-maY,
. . ,
: Seetion XllkEachiliouSe may, determine
• :the rules- of. its...proc,eed 'lmnish its merit- , .
bers for "disorderY behaviour,' and with-'the .
concurrence-of / two-A.114 : 11;s, ..expel a memberi .
• but not a - , sedond time- for_ the "same cause;
and shall hdve alLather_pow.ers necessary for
a - branch/of the legislature of 'a free State.
S / e..ton 'XIV,. [The legislaturretahall riot
,ILaffe power to.enact - laWs annulling. the con
„xractof marriage• in any case where, by law,
/ the courts of 'commonwealtg are o' may
hereafter be empowered to decree a divorce.]
Section XV.,sach house shzill keep a jour
--L-nal_oLits_proceefli rkgs,:and_mblishithem" week-
ly, except such parts ds - oiay require secrecy:,
and. the yeas and . ..nays of, the members on any
question shall atthellesire of any two of them,
Section XVI: The doors of each house and
, of committees Of the whole shall be open,• un
• less, when the business shall be such .as Ought
.• • to - be kept-secret.' . .
Section . XVIi. Neither' house shall, with
. • out the consent of the ether adjourn for more
• • than three days;. nor - at any 'other place than
that in. which the two houses shall be sitting.
--,,,2-,L--Section.XVlll...__The,Senators and reprcsen
. •tativeS shall receive a2compensation- for- their
: services.:tci : be_ascertained by law, and paid out
; . of the treasury of ComniOnivealth. .They
shall in. , all cases r excet treason , felony-and
- breach or surety of.the peace, be privileged
from. arrest during their attendance at the ses
sion of their respective houses, and in going
- . to and returning from the same. And for any
speech or debate in either house, they shall not
be questioned in any other place. , • ' •
§ection No'SenAor or representative
shall, during the.tiine for' hich . he shall have
- been elected, 'be appointed to 'any. eiyit.offlec
.. under 'this Commonwealth .which shall have
been created, ,or the emoluments of whiCh shall,
. have been increased
. during such time :sand•no
member of Congressor Osier person holding.
• . any offtce-.(except of attorney at law and in the
under States or. this Com-.
• monwealth,' shallhe a member of either .house
during„:his .continuance in
,Congress - or In of . -
flee.. • •
Seetiori ,XX. When vacancies happen in ei
ther house the Speaker shall issue writs of e
, lection to fill, such vacancies. • .'- ''
- Section-XXL --All bills for raising-revenue
shall originate in - the house of representatives,
=--,-- but the Senate-may propose= amendments, aiin
..other bills., ' . , • .„
Section XXII., NO money -shall be draw,ii
• ffroni the treasury but in Consequence of ap
propriations Made by laiv. -,,
• ' Section XXIII. Every bill which shall have
passed both houses shall be' presented to the
Governor. If he approve he,shall sign it, but
if he shall not approve he shall return it with
his objections to the housein whieh it shall have
originated, w,ho shall enter his; objections at
large upon their jOUrnals. and proceed to re
, consider it. If, after _ re-consideration - two
thirds of that: house: shall agree to pass the hill,
it Shall be , ;;;Sent with the objections' to the"other
house by which likewise it shall he,re-consid
ered, and if' approved _by f.Wo4hirds ,of. that
-' '-• ,- hobse it shall be a law .., But in , Such Cages the'
votes of both houses' shall be deiermined by
yeaS and nays, and the names-of the persons
voting . for Or.sgainst the 1)1111 1 101 be entered
on the journals of each house reSnectively. , If
aby-bill ,shall not be returned by 0113: Gcor:
nor within ten days (Sundays excptctl)' afterli,
-, :,..'shall have been presented to .hina . , ; it:shallfbe a
__,... 1:1W - in - like Manner as, 'if. he bad signed iti'un.
:‘, less the General Assembly by their adjournl ,
J.-iment; : prevent its return, in- which case it shall
be*law,--,unleis sent-back-virithin three days
%''.,4tnf‘their next - xifeeting:': ' • . ,
'c- l':,' §eetlon , XXlV. - Every. order, resollition o
vote to which - the concusren eqqf both' houses
'",t nay , be necewry (except on lifileition of,ad
iournMeri44l,l:llll,,Wpresent d to . the poyer
, .. , . ‘,. .
nor, and. s l4eforeit Shall take effect, be approved
- -V or, being disapproved; shall be repassr
ed•by twqztliirds'of • both Lhouses ,according to
the reles,andlim itations-prescri bed, in
,•' • • • •
..Section No Corporate, body 'shall
lie liet:eafter:• . created, renewed , or" extended . ;
t siX months preVious.public notice of the
' in - 16;74d - appkicationfor the same-in.,Suctrutan
asshall bc„preecribed by law. - . Nor shall any:
'Charter -for the :purpose -aforesaid,..-be. gi•artted<
fora longer period -than -.twenty years,
- every •such charter shall contain-'a clause • re-.
serving to•tlie legislature-the.; nw.ez46
revoke or annul the:same wheneirer• in. their
oPinion . :it maybe injurious to the:Citizens of
the.commonwealtlf,'in such mariner however
that no injusticee - shall - be done to„tlie eorpora - -
tors: • laW hereafter enacted,: shall create,
renew or extend
. the charter of, mord than one
Section I, The supreme , Execativ.3. vowel. , a this'
Cominenweaith slia!l be vested iii a GOvernor._ • •
• Section 11.•116 Governor shalFbe chesen en — the - Sei;
on--Tuesday-. of r s Octebe r,—by -the- citizens. _Cena.l..
monwealth; atand.places where they-shalt-respectively
vote for , repreetatives. The :returns of every elec..
thin - for Governor shall be sealed up, and transmitted / 6.
the seat of government; directed to the Speaker . oCthe
Senate, who shall open and publish them in 9.16' pres . ."
once of the, reeinbers of both houses of , the jegislature..
The_person haying the highest nurither of•votes shall
be Governor, But if two or more sitz6 be equal' and
highest in:votes, one_ of them eh be chosen Geyer
nor by thejoint - Vote of -the' me sere of both housee;: .
Contested elections shall befiAermined - byo Ceeitnit 7
tee to be Selected from botitlibusett: of the-legislature,
and - formed -. and 'relg,u4tdd. in, such manner as:-shall be
directed by law. - / •
• .Section 111. The Povernor shall hold his 'office- dol . :,
ring throe yea f‘ fiern. the third Tuesday of January.
lnextentuingitis eleetiort, and -shall not . be -capable bf
!foldingjelonger than six in any term of ; nincyrars.
an rave been A citizen and an' inhabitant of this State
sevenyears nextbefore his electioni 'Unless he - shall
kave:boen•absent on the public busfness,i;of the United
States °ref:this State.
--,Section_VilNArneniber..o Con_gtfts:or . rson holil
•ing.any °glee-under the United Statei,or this State shall
exercise the otilcb of Governor, • -
— Se — itioirVT: "The7:Giiiierlilialtatratitite'd-tinse-tcre
eekve-for, his' servicesi a—compensation, which-shall : be
neitherincrdds'ed not diminished during the period for
~. , . ,
which lie - shall have leen elected. .. • . .
,_ . .. _
Scotia) 11:1I; He shall be coremander-in-chief of - the
army and navy:of -this - _Consmonwealth; andof the mi-.
litia t _except when they shall be into the actual
-servCe-Of -the -United- States.- : - - :._-
Sectioh VIII. He-shall uppoint.n Secrdary (If the Co M
mOnwealth' during pleasure \ andlie shall nominate anti
by_nd with the advice and consent of the Senate_appoint .
all Judicial officers - of Celirts_nf record,' unleis otherwise
provided fot in this• Constitution.• lie shall have power
to fill all - vacaneies ihat may happen in such judicial %gl
ees during the recess of the Striate, by . granting; cordials,.
sions whick'shall expire' al-aeend of their next session:
'Frovidedi that- in acting on executive nominations
Senate„shall,.sit_willupen,doonaMyn.confirming of -re
jecting the nominations' orthe Governor, the vote shall be
taken by yeas and nays..:
. ..SeetiOn IX. Ho . shall - have power eo . rornit - fince - and
eases of impea.Oment.
-Section X. He may require information In writing,
front the officers, in the executive dePartment upon any
subject relating - to the duties of their respective offices ;
Section , Xl. He shall from time to time, give to the
deneral Assembly information of the state of the Com
monwealth, and recommend to,their considerationsuch
measures as ho shall judge expedient.
• Section XII. He ma. on extraordinary occasions,
.convene , the General Assembly; and \ in case of disa
greement between the two houses, with.; respect to the,
time of; adjournment, adjourn them at‘such time as
he shall think proper; not exceeding-four, manths,
Se,ction XIII. He shall take care that the \ laws be
Section XIV. In case of the death or reslgnatiOn ‘ of
the Governarror his removal from office, the . Speakin,
of the Senate shall exercise to office o f Governor, un
til another Governor shall: be duly qualified; but insuth
cake another Governor shall be.chosen at the next aunual
election of representatives, unless such death, reiignation
or removal, shall o,ccur within threecalendar months imp
mediately preceding such next annual election, in which
case ' a
Governor. shall be chosen at the second succeeding
annual l election of representatives. And if the trial of
a contested election shall continue logger than until the
third ,Monday rf ' , unitary next ensuing the election of
Governor, the Governor of the last year or the Speaker
of 'the Senate who may be'in the exercisi:or the ex
ecutive-authority, shall continue therein tuntil the de
termination-of such contested election, and until a Gov'.
&nig shall be duly qualified as aforesaid.
Siction XV. The Secritcny of the Cominonwealth,_
shall 'keep, a fair register of all ito efijaial acts "and pro,
•ceedings of the Gaveruor, and shall when reqUired;laY
the same and .all.papers, minutes and vouchers relative
thereto," before 'either. branch- of the legislature,, and
shall "perform such. other duties as shall be, enjoined
' ..` Section I. In elections by the citizens every whilefree
nsan of tithe, of Twenty-one„ years, ha'vin'g residedin
this State one year; and inthkilectititi district wh - ere he
fers to vote ten days innnediatel,y preceding such election,
and within two years P d State or Courity tax, which•
,shall-Issive been assessed at least ten daysbefore the" election,
shall enjoy the rights' of an elector. But ts cilizen'of the
'United States who had previously been a qualified voter
sf this Slate, and removed therefrom _ and_Teturned t : and
who shall'have': resided , in th . e_eleetion district, and paid
.taxes rafoecsaid.:Shiilni ;Willed' to vote : eller - residing .
The sky six nwsiths.,Proitided,.that'idsitifreeinen;
.citizens of the United States, betiveiii;the kges'Of twenty
one and tiventyllwo years, e and bovine residcd lathe - Slate
Atli year, and in:ace/iction diafriel'ten` flays trfo;•Csaid,
'shalrlie entitled to . vole, although they shall not have paid
..:.'"E.ectien-lii"Alt elections shallsbe lly ballot, except
those.hy roinisiintativecspacities who.
slaill•iotaviva voce. 1,
-",Psctionlll. r .Electors shall in all cam, except tree•
son, felOny, and breanh sproty Ptthe - peace, be ply.
llegnd - from arrest, during• their attendance on election
and 'in gointlo and ."returning from them. '
' . '
Secticia "1: The House of itelliceestatives shell haye
the sole power of impeaching. - •
'Section II: " All tmpeeehments shall be tried by the
priete; when sitting for that 'purpose, thetenators Eihatl
he'epolf oath or. iffirmation. - No person shall. be con-
Oc.ted without ttiO (iOncurrencei3Of'siwo` thirds of this'
members iii:auentt • . . .
Secrion The .Goyertior, and all othercivia officers
milder; ibia Commonwealth `shall,heeliable to, impeach-,
Ment for, any . misdemeanOr,Woffice; -Put. judgment; 'in
such cases, shall noti extprall , further. thattM repr!6Yal
,disqualificationtO hpld.,aaj? ,office• .
honour, ; .. trust. or ploilt,..tioder .
tie 'Finny, Whether convicted or,aequitted, shall , rieuer 7
A lreless be liable to-indictmeri . filiial,juitintiatland pum
, ishinfint according to law..
~ Section 1. - The jud!cial pow
wealth, shall be vested in a Sups
OrOyer and TerinineVand Genet
Court of Cciinitie.n Pleas Orplia
Court} anti a Qourt i ,6ll:44artirli
reach . counli; in flistiees.of,ll
other .cpurts as ttio regisliftirs' trr4y: - ffora - .time 'to
Jima establish....- •..." . •
Section 11. . The jai ~os.qf the Supreme Court,,ff the
seveicii, Courts if Com. non pleas, and of such other*CMirts
'qf Record ai aie:or" . shall be established by law,shfill-te
nOthinated Povernor, aiiil'by and with the consent
if the:Senfappofyted and . coininissioned-4 kin,. The
jt(ages - of h - e - . Sapteme - Ciirt - shit4lold - theirdice,gfor - 14 -
terinyf l iiiteeri years •Cf they shall solong hehave themselves
Thepresidentjudges ,f.the several Courts Cord.;
,moir Pleas and af.sueh other Courts if .Record ire are!or
Mall be es‘ablished by - 1i14,• and all other jydge's ;required
to be learned shalt /fold their dices for the
terin if tea years,ff they shall -so king behave themselves
tuclh . h ,dssociate judges if Elie Counts qf Conimonl
Pleas shall hold their offices fur the term of five' fears „if
they shall so long behave.'theinselVe.4 . _well; But for any
reasonable cause which • shall not be solliciiit groYnil; of
inipetiehmenl, the . COnernor. may renove: ani - ifthern on
the address 1f two-thirds rfeach'branelt q t- clte ista tur f :
The judges of the Supreme Court and(Me Presidents' of the
several ; eda - I.IS shall..at_stateib, times
.receive fur their services an adequate competisatiomlo • be
fixed bglaw," which. shall nut he diminished dtirip'g their
continuance 1:i! but. the j -Shalt` receive 110 fees • or
perquisites if,,diec,'Yor hold any other dice if profit un-
SeCtion . Until ollierYiiso
Courtsl shillrernitiiiyeits al present es=
Riblishodr. 7 -4 1 14 - Jizore than fire counties shall at any time
be included 4l . cine judicial district
, "organized for said
Courts. . - •
,Tbo jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
extend - over - the - ,State; -and- tlie-judges-thereof r
shall by virtue, of their offigeg, tie justices of-Oyer and
Terminer-and -Go Ile tel-Jail-Delivery,:in-:Alie-several.
countle's. • •
Seeti9l.: O. The- judtes of iheve6grifo . Common
•Pleas, in, each: county,-shall= by-.vrtue:of-theit. office ;.
'be.jesticq of Oyer and Terminer-and General jail de-,
liver}, fot Ile'trial of-capital and other offenders 'there;
in p.-any two of the said judgesobe preSident being one,
r sliall be a-quorum : s but they shall-not hold a court of
- oyer and tertniner,oi jail delivery, in any county, when
thijudges of kh . e. Supreme court, tir any of them,',Sloill
be sittingin r _the sortie county: The-party accusedies
'well as' the Commonwealth, may, under such-regula
tions as shall bb Prescribed by law, remove the iodjct=
ment and-proceedinge or a . transcript thereol,into the
Section VI: The Supreme Court, and the several
courts of common pleas, shall, beside the,powers hereto: .
fore usually exercised by them, have the • power of a
team-of -CI haneery,-so• far- , rie- relates-to-the-. perieta , at"-
ing of testimony, the obtaining of evidence trom . places
not within the State, .and the Care of the person% and
'estates of those who are-non compotes rnentis. And
powers to grant relief in equity,' as 'filiall be found ne
deisary: and may, from time to time, enlarge or diming
ish those powers or vest them in extol! other courts, as
they shall judge propor, for the due administration ,of
justice, ' •
Section VII: The judges of. the court 'of common
pleas of each - county, any two of whom-.shall;be -a
quorum; shall. compose•the court of Quarter Sessions
of - the peace, and organs' court, thereof ;and the register
ofLwill.stagether with the eaidliiilges t or any two of
them, shall compose the court Of eacli:conn-.
Section-.V111.-The judges of the courts oi" common
pleas shall, within their respective counties have the
_judges of the Stipreme Court, to'
issue \villa of c'er'tiorari to the justices of the peace, and
to cease ikeir._proceedings to helirOuglit. before them,
And the like - right and justice to be done. •
`Section IX. The . 'president of
. the court in each air
cult:within such circuit, and.the judges of thepourt of
commtni s pleas within •tieir respective counties, shall
be justicOs s ef the peace, so far as relates to cri,rninal
matters, .`, • • •
• . •
.Seotion X. A register's office, for the probate of with
and granting•lettere of administration, and an 'office. for
thelecoMing_of • deeds, shall he kept in each county.
' Section . XL The style of all process shall be "Thd
Commonwealth of - Pennsylvania.'", All
Shall•be courted rutin the name and by
the Commonwealth of Pennaylv3nia,2l
"against the peace and dignity of the 'Ohm?!
`ARTICLE . VI.
.*Section 1. Sheriffs and coroneirst - shall,-at - the - tlinis
and- plages of election of repriiebtatives, be chosen by
the citizens of each county.
, Giie person shall be
for each office, who shall be.' commissioned by sbe Gov
ernor. They shall 4ld, their offices fOr three years, if
they shall so long bobavg . thendselvas well, and until a
successor, be duly .quallfled hit no person shall be
twice chosen e or appointed sheriff, in any term of six
ppm. Vacancies in either of the said offices be
filled' by cluipPointment,:tohe 'made by the Governor,
to continue until the next general clectiOn, and' anti) a
successor shall - be climb and qualified as aforesaid.
Section 11. The,freemen of thiacommonwealth .3611
. . .
be,prMed, organized and - *disciplined for its , defence,
when and, in such manner as may be directed by law.
Those whoconscientiouelyiscruple to bier arms, shah
to*tio, but shall pay an'equivalent
for personal servicia:._':l • •
Section 111. Prothotiplaries "of the Sufiremeigikitrt shall
be,.appoinkd by the said . court for the terM 'of three years
if ;they long'fiebaot - rtheniselves well. Prothonotaries
and clerics of theiCileral
. other courts, Re'corder'sofdeeds,
and Registo s
. of ; shall - tit the times' and' places of
. representatives, be elected' qualified eke:
tors 4: each, county, or the dish:lets osier , which The:jui•isdic-,
ticni of said courts alands, and shall be commissioned by
the Geoernar, ,They shall hold thefrofficesfor three years'
if 1,14.4 i)
long;a/lc behape themselves well, and until their
saccessors Shall lie duly qualided. 'The legislature . shall
provide bylaw, the nuinber *hops in each county who
sheillhold said,qoces, and, how:nian,y • and 'which said
offices shallbe held by one person." Vacancies in any of
thesaid,iffficei shall lie filled by' appointments to he. hibcfc
by the 9onerle . ,tacoptintquiiti/ the next general election,
and wttfflsuccessors shall, be ele&d and'qualioled as elfore;]
Section IV: Protlionotaries L elorks.Of,fhe penee,atiti
orphans' courts reorders of deeds, registers of 'pats
and sheriffs , shall keep their offices iri the •doutrty. tovrri
of. the , county 'in 'which 'they, respectively, Shall bo
officers, imiess Vlrliqnthe 'Governer sball L for.
reasons, 'dispense. therevir arty•term not eveeding .
five•years after tile, county - . erected.
Section 'V. 'All commissions shall be iii , .the name
and bYlle4dthoritY of the (.3ommonwealih of Pennsyl-'
yanifvud sealed, • with the State seal, and signed
byFre Governor.: .
§ectioUNE. A•State Treasurer ''shall be elected an
nually, by joint .trote!`:',l . 66th branches of. the legish;lure.
Section Yir,,t.lusticea. of . ..the peace ; or .aldermen
alien: be' elected• in t'ho, several wards, boroughs, and
townships, at the time of the r election o conetables by
the qualified, voters thereaf, 'in such *lather as;. shall
be• directed, by law - L and Shall, be commissioned hy tilts
Rr_o - Vernor fora term_ of, five `years; but no township,
wfiror borough - shall eledt juslites'ot
the peace or aldermen without pre consent Ofar majorityof the qualifi'cd electors within such township,,ward,or
borough.l • .. • • .
„ . • •
Section ATM. [All,oflicers whose . electioa or.appoint
_mentis..not_provide.diorin this conititution, shall be •
ected or alipointed as shall be directed by law. NO
person shall be appointed to any.o!ftee Within any
eountjwito . shalrfiot have. been a citizen_and an in
biebitankherein One year next . .before his appointment,
Arthe:county..shall..haVe_.b.oen_sti„long_e_rectedj but if it
shall not have been so long eructed, then. within the
limits Of the county, or counties out of which.'it shall
have been taken. No member of :congress from this
state; or any'person holding or exercising any office or
ap.poiottnent of trust orprofit under the United States,
shall 'at the - same time. hold - or* exercise any office in
.this.state, to which _asalary:is, or fees or pergaisi*
-are by law, anne*erl ;land the' legislature may by_ law
deelare what State offiCeS are incompatible. Noinem
..ber of The Senate -or of tile' house of re.presentatiVes
Shall be appOnted by the - Governer to any officeiluring
the term for which he shall have been elected.] „_
• SectionlX.7[Ali tafficers - r - for — ,n -- tei - m - of — years - etialh ,
lioldtheii offices for the terms , respectively specified,
I only on the condition that they so long , behave
; and shall romovedr.on,c_onxiction of
misbehaviour in office or any infamons.primel , _
[Any: pertrorr - vvltu • shitliaftti l —i he=ad op--
tiati of - ilte - arnendments - proposed by Cenveiftion.
to the oatistittitiort, fight a iliiel • Or send a thallenge - fo . r'
that ptirpose, or be alder or abettor in fighting -a-duel,
'abaft be deprived 'of the.rigirrof holding any office of
honor.or profit in,tliie State; and shall be' punished
otherwise in such manner as ,is, or_may; be-prescribed-.
y aw; :uvula exe6olVifirdayicaiiiii ritie-oatcl—atreilow
=Section . I . ; The legiSlatue .80011,:ak . con=
vor4ently may be, provide by .law, for the establlbit 7
ment Sehdols throughout the State; in stielt.rr.t . anner
ibat•the poor may
_be taught gratis. _ • , .
Section 11. Thearts_end sciences shall- be proinoted.
in one or more seminaries of lea - rning. '.•
- Section 111. The-righti, privlloges, kninunities and
estateo of teligious_soicieties. anti corporate bodies,
shall.roinain as it the constitution of this State had - hot
been aliered or amen led, •
- , •
Section Iv. glib legislature shall. not •invest, , any.
, corporate body
. or. individuals With the privilege of
taking private prOperty for public use, without requir-'
ing such, corporation ,or individual to •make com,pensa :
Lion to the owners of said, property, or give adequate
security therefor, before such"property shall be taken.)
- --- ARTICLE VIII.
• Members of the General Assembly, and all officers,
executive and judicial, shall be bound by oath or ef
&illation, to support the constitution of .this 9,gro nmon
offices with fidelity°. •. :
...ffitat the general, great — , - and essential principles of
liberty and free government may be recognised and
unaltefahly established, -WE DECLARE, THAT
Section 1. All men are born equally free and-inde-.
pendent; 'and have certain inherent and indefeasible
rights, among which are those
-of enjoying and de
fendinglite and liberty, of acquiring, possessing and
protecting property and reputation, and of pursuing
- their - bwrrhappiness‘ ' _ .
"Sootion power is inherent in the peoplei and'
al free governMents ate founded on their authority,
and instituted for their peace; safety and happiness;
For the - advancement of these ends, they have, at all
times, an unalienable and indefeasible right ; to alter, re
form or abolish their mermaid, in such manneras
they may think proper' . - ' . • _
Section 111. All men have a natural and - ndefeasible
right to worshipeAlmighty God, according to the'dic
tates of their own ebnicienceto no man.can, of right, be
compelled to Stiend,"erect, 'or support any place of
worship, or to maintain any ministry against hie con-,
sent; no - human authority-can, in any case- whatever,
control 'or,in"erfere with the rights of conscience; and
no preference shall ever be given, by law, to any re
ligious establishments er modes of worship.
SectiOn IV. No person who. acknowledges the being.
of a God and - a future state •of rewards and punish
lentsoihall-lia-accountot_kla_ieligs sentiments be
isqualified to hold , any office or place of trust or
under this Commonvitealtit. -
Section V. Elections shall be free and
Section VI. Trial by jury shall be as-heretofore, and
the - right:thereof Tomah) inviolate.
Section VII:. The printing presses shalt-be free. to
every person who undertakes to exeinine the proceed
_ . _
ings of the legislature, ol• any, branch of government . :
And no law shall ever be made to restrain . the right there
of. The free combltinieatlort of thoughte_atid opinions
is one of the invaittable'rig,lits•of Mart ; and every •cit
zen-May freely speak; write and print on any, eubject,
being "responsible for' the abuse of that liberty. lh
prosecutiontifor, the publication of 'Alters investigating
the official conduct of officere;'or men In public capat- .
ity,- or where the' matter published ireproper for public
inforination, the truth thereof may be given in evidoncet
And in all indictments for libels the jury shall - have 'a
,right to . deterrnine the laW and the facts, under the di
rection of the court, as in other cases:
Section VIII. „The 'people shall be :secure in their
peisons, honses, papers and possession% from unrea
sonable •"searches and saizineti.. And no Warrant to
search any plabe,.or.to 'seize any person or things, shall
issue,.withour describing "them VI! El nearly 'as may be,
nor withoui probable reuse supported•by oath or affirma
toin:' ' • •
Section IX. lfn' all criminal proseoutions, the accus
ed tatlta tight to be it'eald by himself and hie counsel,
to deinand the'natnie oind. cause of the accusation
gainst.hite, tip' meet the witnessOn face , to face, to•have
compulsory process: for obtaining wititesses.ln'ltis
your, and, iiiinosiieutions by indictment ot,informntion,
a 'speedy public trial, by an impartial - jur.fof
. the yi
cinagef he cannot be cempelled to giveovidonie against
himself, nor.can ho bo'deprived of his lifo,libeity,`
prOporty,i unless by the judgMent of his
law of the , land
SekiciiPX.F'NO-yerson shall, f r et any`andtclable"of•.
lenne;"bOilihneodeol agajnetctimirially;l4 itifoirnation,.
mseept in cases 'arising-id thicland: , 'or'nav - al: - forcetieor
in the tillort — irrantuut style° in time of war
of public danger, or by leave of the: court,
sion and, misdemeanour in office, No person shall, for
the same , offence, - *he tiwce put in jeopardy --Of life or
not:eh:di any - Man'S'property be taken ortiPplled
to public use, without the consent of ,his representa-
Ayes, and without just compensation, beurg made.
Seddon Xl. Alt winos shall-be, open, and . ..every
min for-an injury tlone hitn- ja his tends, goods, per
eoit 'or reputation shall have remedy by, the ducLcourse
of law, and right' and justice ,administeredi witheut
sale, denia' or - delny..., Sukts' May, be brought againitt,
.the commonwealth . in. such :Manner,. in suck courts,
and - in stich , cases,as the legislature may by law direct.
_ No power of suspending laws shall
heoterelsedl•Unless by the legislature, or its authority.
C,cticoli Exeessive 'bail shall not be required;
nor excessive fines imposed, nor creel punielniienli in-
• Section XIV. All prisoners shall be bailable by sal :
ficient sureties, unless for capital offences, When:, the
proof is evident or presurnOion great; and.the privilege
of the writ of habeas corphs shall 'not: be• suspended,
_unless when, sin cases ofrebellion or invasion, the pub
lic safety may require it.
Section XV. No commissir'n of over and terminer
or gaol delivery shall be lesue'd.. •
Section XVI. The - parser - 1
of a debtor, - whereilferel - s
- not edrong, presumption of fraud, shall not be_celmin.u.n.
ed in pri - son, afterdeliveriag up his estatefor the beii• - .
efitUf 11 i3 creditors';in-Such 'manner as,shall be pre
Suction XVII. No ex
post ras , s ., nor any law
impairing contracts shall be-made.. •
Section XVIII. No person slain he titillated of
I treason orfelony b - y ttie legislature. .
- Section XIX. No attainder shall work.corruption of
bloody nor eiCeift during •the life of the offender, tdr
feituro °testate to - the commonwealth; the - estate. of
such persons as shall destroy ther own livesr shall.tle
scend or vest akin case sif natural death; and if any
-person-shall be-killed-by -casualty,ltere Allan: he no
forfeiture by reason thereof. .
.XX;. The citizens have It right, in a_ pea
coable.manner,-to assemble .0 - Tether, for their tom,
, mon good, and co apply those invested with - the
1--pco,vare:, , of-g-o-vernment_for_reareSs of.grievatices, or
other propel. purpOses,, by petition; address or lemon;
Section XXI. The right:of citizens to bear arms,
in - defence of theniselves and the State, .shall not be
•SectioaiXXlL standing.ermy shill; in time of
pliatti; - b - elrept - p ir - withent — tbe'ciinsent - nf—the L legiSlit; ,-
ture; and the military shall, In all crises, and at all
XXIIL— No soldiar shall,-fn -limo of-peace,-
- quarteredin anyAmi.Se •withoutife consent- o - f - the
owner, nottin time of , war s hut.in a:manner. to be pre--
scribed by law. ,
----Section XXIV. • Ths legislature shall not grant any
title of nobility dr. hereditary ,distinction,- nor 'create
any office the appointment to which . shall be-for a lon
ger term tlilriFilniing good behaviour.
Seciion7XXV. •L_ migration from th0,..-_State
not be prohibited. • • --
Section XX.VI. To. gtittrif against transgressions of
the •high-powars which we liave•delegated,*WE DE
"CLARE, that-every thing iri this article is excepted
ont of the general powers of: government, and shall
for,eier remain inviolate.
- ARTICLE X. - •
[Any amendment or amendments to this constitution
tatives, and if the same shall be agreed to by ,a majori
ty of the 'members elected to each House, such propo
-journalsomith.the,yeaßilfiti mays taken thereon, and the
Secretary, of tke Commonwealth shall cause the same
to be Puillisbeßthree months before the next election,
in at least one newspaper in every "county in which. a
newspaper shall be pu4slied; and if in the legislature
'next afterwarda•chosen such proposed amendment or
amendments shall be agreed_ to by a majority Of the.
members elected to each house,. the Secretary of the
-Commonwealth shall cause the same again to be pub
lished lb manner aforesaidt'and ,such 'propowLamend
men or antendments-shall-bm-submitted to the people
in such manner and at such time, least three months,
after being so agreed to by tile two houses as the legis-
Wore shall presoilbe; ' and if the people shall approve_)
and ratify such amendment or amendments by a makri-
ty of the qualified voterd of
- this State voting thereon,
such amendment or, amendments shall become a part
of tho'constitutlen; but - no amendment or amendments
shall.be submitted to the people oftener than once in
five' years; provided, that if more than one amend
ment be submitted, they shall be submitted in such man
ner and form, that the people may vote for or-against,
each amendment separately arldiatingtly.j •
That no InConvenience may arise fom, the alterations
and amendments •in the Constitution of this Common
wealth, and in order "to - carry'tlie same into complete
operation, iirisihertiby declarodnnir ordained,-That,..
Section I. 'Au laws of. this commonwealth in force at
the time, when the said alterations and-_amendments in
the Said constitntionshiliTtikersefiliii,-ifid; not piconsis.
tint therewith,- and all. rights,' action's, prosecution's;
claims, and contracts as well.of individuals as . beilice eor
perste, shalicontinue as if the said alteralions and a
mendm,ents had not been made.
Section 11. The alterations and amendments in the
said constitution shall teke,effect front the first day of
January, eighteen_hundied end thirty-nine. - -
Seetien lIL .clatises,'- see.dons nl4
the saitlconstitutiorr, which 'rennin unaltered, shall con
tinue to be construed - and have effect as if the said con
stitution had not been amended. , • , •
SeCtian Is. , The General•Asiembly which shall, con-
Vane' in Decerribet, eighteen hundred,inni thirty-eight,
shall continue he session, as heretoforei notwithstanding
the provision in the eleventh seetion of,'the first, article;
and shall at all times be regarded as the first General
Assembly under the amended constitinidn.' '
' Section V. The Governor who 'shall be , elected . in
Octoher eighteen hundred and thirty eight, shill' be
augurated third Tuesday in Jantiary, eighteen
hundred and 'thirty-ninei-to which time the present ele
cutive term is hereby extended. •
Section V . I. The cohimissiond of the-judges; of the .
Siiprome Court; who may be in ofilco on the firateday- . of
January next ,shall' expire in the.follewing,.manner
The cominission-which,hearathiLearliest datesitsll
on thn - fitet 'day of• JanuarYs-APn9!Deellipi,; ono thonsarhi'
eight, hundred and forty-two;, the commission next dated
shalt expire onthe first 4i k y,. 5 .t. Arie' •:Doinini,
onelliousand 'eight Inifilred and''fortylfivoithe'eonniais.
.eion,nexCdated shall expire on the first•d'ay of January
Anne,DominicQua thousand eight hundred .and forty-eiglit;
the cominiiSion• next deter shall expire son the first 'day
lanufiry Anna Dotnini, one . thousand eight hiiiidredi
and fifty-onto; and the ooninti'ssion lafit'dated
on, the Ara day of ItinuarY; Anno Domini ope thousand
eight hundred and and iiity-feur a , •
:.The coesmisSions of the President'es of the stlyetaijudical districts atid of the itssoeinte‘ leer
judges of the first dietrici shall expire as;
The commissions-of ono _half . of ,thesp,he , shall" , :titivo
hold - their offices ten years 'or mere 'at tiirailloptien : , ol:
The amendments to the constitiltion;'igall expire on the .
twolity,.sevciithrebiva4 enoliteueitid_eight hun
died and 'thirty,-nine`; the commissions of th e ba le } h a il
of those taii4e fbell'hirce held thok r , Officeti ten years dr
More at am adoption Of -theAa uteteitts to the •constitu
tion,rshall expire on the twenty-keventh day of February.-
one thousand • eight-hundrethendley.y.two ;,.the.first half
to embrace those whose commissions •shall bear the old.
etit, date. The . coottniettione of all.-tho' remaining judges.`
.who shall; not huVie held their offices Air ten years at the
adoptiOn of the rimendm'ente to the - coniiiiution - elitillei;
i piro on the twenty4eventh day'of February next after
the *plea- tenjyears front the date of! their commissions:" I
" --•SectionNlll. .The Recorders of, the several Mayor's
Cowie; and, other erinlinahceurtsin tins' CoMmonwealth,
shalt be eppoputedi for thoseettletue . e,, at ki n.t .t .i , sanit ,
fanner, as the president jtidges'of the Severaljddical
.dirtricts 4 'of those new, in ofTirce, . the 'Commission oldest'
_in date. shall eXpire on Ali twe,nty-tieventit day' of Feb
ruaryono thenfitind eight' hundred and forty.one, and'the
others every' twd years, thereafte.i:` cording to ,their rel . .,
spective dates. l'horre - Oldeet in date expirtytg.first.-.11,-J—
.. Se ctio n-1 X :. '.l' he legislature at its first session under
thit amentled constitution, shall divide. the other associate
-judges of the State into four olasses.!Thkcotinnissiona
of theilo 'of the- first 'class shall_ exiiire en'tbri twenty.'
st.'ventit day_'of.FOruary, - eighteen-hUndred and forty t of
those of the second ch.ss on the twenty-sehrith -dey of
February eighteen_ hundred and ,forty-ono; of those o(
the third class on the • twenty.seventh day of February
- e i One en - h un d red - a ml fo r ty- t w eon d-of- those o f-th &emit ft -
class on the twenty-seventh .day of February eighteen
lititidrellititeforiy-three. • The said classesfrom the &it
to the fourth shall be arranged according to the senior'. • .
ty of the Commissions of ihe\ieveral judges.. „ • ,
Section X. Protheknotaries,....clerks- of the - several
courts (except of the S'upretrns cofirt) i recorders of deede ' .
and registera. of wills, shall be fiat -elected under the a-
mended Constitution, at the election of iepreseittativei
the year eighteen hundred and thirtizrantv.in - such - iman-
tier as:may. Ike prescribed bylaw. . . . •
The appointing power, shall remain - es
heretofore, arn! all officeraln-the:appointment--of
ecutive departMent shall continue in the exorcise of this . - •
duties of their' respective oflices_yntil the : legislatures -
pass such lawsuit niti'y be required by the eighth . sec
non 'orthe sixth article Of the amended constitution, end
untifappointments shall be made under 'aitch laws; un- , -
less, their comthissions shall be.superrieded' by new...ep.
pointmorha, or shall sooner expire .by their own limita-
Oen,. or tho.said offices shrill become vacant, by death or. -
legislature under the•amended constitution,'
Section- first election for aldermen and jai.'
tires of the peace sitali•:helield in - the - yea - eighteen hero'.
dred and forty, at the OMo-fixed for the election of con
stables.. The' legislature at _its first sitailion under the
amended ronstitutbn shall provide forth° said election •
justices of the peace now in commission, or who may in, • -
-theninterini-be'appoin tedi-eh al bnontinner.to-discharge-thor , - - - -
duties Of - the;r respectivo•olfices. imfiLlifteen ilays,after •'
the day tivhich shall i+e
iloW - COMlTifesions, at the. expiration of which litho,' their
:Mitriinis.rione shall txpiro. - .. , • . •
In testirnonylthatthe foregoing is the amended eonsti.. •
tution of Pennsylvania, as agreed to - it s conventiort,•
the offiecis -and members. - of the- Convention ,
have hereunto signed . -our names .at.. Philndelphin,.•
the. twenty-seceird - day of rehruary - i'.,Qiino•Dornini. ,
one thousatteight_hundred'_anil thirty-eight, and
of the .Indopendence of lho n lLttlteil States •. -
JO - FIN SERGI:IAN - T . ; President, -
"George Chambers, _ _ .
aoi3. 11, Chandler,
Ch. Chauncey, -
_, - Nathaniel Clapp, ,
„lames Clarke • •
tfolin Clarke, .
M. W. Baldwin,
.i . ohn_Y i „Barclay,
Andrew Bedford, ' William Clarke, t , .
2.lkott,S,Rell• ,:_ A.. i.:Cline, • • • • •
James Cornell Biddle' ) f - d - l -- .----7--------
-in Lindley Coat es, .
'tadb'Ve'iTnl7,:lliketutiv - ift7 - 87 -- Oocirrarr :-------- ; --- • -;-
Satpl:C. Bonham, -- - 'Thos. P. Cope,
dims. Brown, . , •Joshua F. Cox,
Jeremiah Brava, • . Walter:Ciaig, • ,;
William Brown, • • Richd. M. grain,. ,
Pierce Butler,:' . Geo; 'F. CrawfOrd,
-Samuel Carey, . Cornelius CruM, • ,
John Cummins . - •Benjn. Martin, ~
'homas S. ,Cunningham, John 3. M 4 Cahtn, • .
William Cull!, ~ .
AA try - ilifiiiitioir, --- ' Jsmes M*Sherry, ., .
Mark Darrah, -, ,W: M. Meredith,
Harmer Denny, ' . James Merrill,
John Dickey, . • Levi Merkel,.
Joshua Dickerson; -.. "- Wm. L. Millet, • ~ ,
Jacob' Dill i t.gor, James Montgomery, -',-
Jas. Donegan, .- Christian Meyers,
-J. R. Pannell; i. ~ D. Nevin, :. ,
36% - epli M. Doran, . • Wm. Overfield, ('-
James Dunlop;-- •
Thomas,Earle,• .-- MMatthiasPennypacker;
' D. M. Farrelly, 'James Potter, ..
Robt. Fleming, - ' James filt,dison Portiii,,"
Walter Forward, . Bartil. A. Purvinoe, •
. John Foulkrod,
.- '•E. C. Reigart,
JoiipliFrY., - jr.l'' . --).. ; . A. ff. Rcitiil", -. .
Jolrrtiller...;,: . ,-. : • 'Geo. WARM.,
John' A. Gamble, •• '''
Ino: Ritter,. , •
William Gearliart,7' 11. Gould Rogers, •
Di:cidGil - Moro, . '. ' , ,':Samuel Royor;
Virgil Grenell, , :' •s' '.. ' James M. Milani),
. William L. Hattie, ' .Daniel Saeger,
l'honfas Hastihge, John Morin Scott,
Ezra S. Hayhurst;; Tobias Selle,is;.
Wm. l lay s; , - G. Seltzer, • •
Abm.' Heltrenstein, Geo. ( Eerrill, •s•: •
Hendilison, George Shilleto, •
Wm. Mister, • • •'• Thomas H. Sill,
'William Hi g h, • ;
.Jos, Hoplgiceon't ;;Wm. Smyth, • -
John lloopti , ' • Joseph Snively, . -
Jabek Hyde, ;.,• 'Jno. B. Stanger;
Charlet; Jared'inghrsoll, „Jacob Stickel, -,: •
Vb s . i o nkgi c .:•. —• • Ebenezer. W. Stordevant;
George ; Thomas Taggart,:
James Kinnedi t . Morgan J. Thomas,
Anron:Kerrc James Todd,
Jos. lionigmecher, Thomas Ayeaver, . • •
Jacob. Krebs, _ ,
David.l4 • Orii, :.-Geo. Woodward,.
Alex. i4geee. r •
Joel.l‘ ••• '
' -• ..
G. L FAutis
'1 -Assistant Secret :Inez.' •
Js VV th
'• • -••• SECRETARY'S OE FICEi r
• •., FEBRUARY 28i, iB3B.
• I 'c er ti fy theOlip foregoing is an' exact and literal)
copy .:or • -" i iid... oidistliu!km, .44 ihe _Co mmonwealth e of
pane eylvanin' as iniiind L ed",.by, the , Convention .of ons.
thousand eight Iontliekend:.tinitpeeiren—ihirts,4ighi,''!'
deposited-in • this Office ,en - the ~ 2 6th..d ay .of Fel; realty,
Ittli4the 7 endmen4 beieg • in italic;. anltlita9ket, and
;thil•etaintidz•ii tion.44,6ll,e4reserd_Vo.netititi_konln_rer:.' .__
jaani•letlir: .1,1, ',.. .. ~ -. t ~.., ; , ; . '. ' •
Sec'i of the -Couttuou'iscealth>