Butler citizen. (Butler, Pa.) 1877-1922, December 07, 1905, Image 1
VOL. XXXXII. STORE- Christmas is Coming. Holiday Goods now ready for your inspection. Tempt ing prices on everything. Come before the rush. A millinery bargain offer. We are showing the most extensive line of Christinas goods ever un packed in this store. Handkerchiefs, Neckwear, newest things in Jewelrv, Fancy Combs, Silver Goods, Dolls, Bags, Fancy Hosiery, Fnrs and Novelties of all kinds Everything is marked at prices which will prove a succession of surprises, as we have determined to make this holiday season the banner one for this store.' Make your selections oc.rly, while lines are complete and before tbe big Christmas rush begin. l -. __________ A Millinery Leader To Bring You Here. Any colored trimmed hat this week at 1 off.regular price. Choice of any street hat that sold up to $2.00, at 50c. Choice of any higher priced ones at 89c. EISLER-MARDORF COfIPANY, SOUTH MAm STRICT i nqi O T^n ! S" D ' ("■ Samples sent on request. £ OPPOSITE HOTEL VRXINGTON. BUTLER. PA rapsssssrossssz* « Remodeling Sale jj 8 of Furniture and Garnets Jj H The Entire Stock Offered at a Sacrifice to turn 1 M It Into Cash by Jan. Ist, 1900. g M The largest and most complete stock we have WA ever carried —fresh from factory at almost factory prices to you. Everything goes—nothing reserved. A W, A rare chance to make your Holiday purchases. . You can furnish your house complete or you can A F buy but one piece as you desire. * ft i 1 ; Out Goes Every Yard of Carpet ► < The entire stock of Ingrain Carpets—Linoleums w ► —Mattings—not a yard reserved —at COST. All kj 4 wool super extras —granites —rag and cottage carpets w > —ln patterns suitable for any room in the house. Bring the measure of your rooom and we will tell w I you just what it will take to cover it. I BROWN &• CO. f| K No. 136 North Main St., Butler. p | THE TIME IS HERE fl When it is of the utmost ■ importance that yourself ■ Our Wool I and lowest prices in liut- When we have Boys' high top Shoes, 2 soles and tap heavy Shoes for Girls that go to school. Made of the old-fashioned heavy calf skin. Don't need robbers with these shoes. They will stand the hard knocks. I Ladles' and Men's Heavy Shoes ■ In great variety—high or low cut—from SI.OO and upwards. H H Don't you think it is better to get good Footwear .[than pay doctors H H bills? Think it over. H I HUSELTON'S I B 102 N. Main Street. 11 WHY You can save money by purchasing your piano of W. . NEWTON, "The Piano Man." The expense of running a Music Store is as follows: Rent, per annum $780.00 Clerk, per annum $312.00 Lights, Heat and incidentals . . . $194.00 Total $1286.00 I have no store and can savo you this expense when you buy of me. I sell pianos for cash or easv monthly payments. I take pianos or organs in exchange and allow you what they are worth to apply on the new instrument All pianos fully warranted as represented. MY PATRONS ARE MY REFERENCE. A few of the people I have sold pianos in Butler. Ask them. Dr. McCurdy Bricker Dr. W. P. McElroy Fred Porter Sterling Club Fraternal Order Eagles D F. Reed Epworth League Woodmen of the World E. W. Bingham H. A. McPherson Geo. D. High Miss Anna McCandless W. J. Mates E. A. Black J. S. Thompson Samuel Woods Joseph Woods Oliver Thompson S. M. McKee John Johnson A. W Root R. A. Longwell Miss Eleanor Burton J. Hillgard Mrs. Mary L. Stroup J. E. Bowers W C Curry C- F. Stepp F. J. Hanck W. J. Armstrong Miss Emma-Qnghes Miles Hilliard A. W. Mates Mrs S. J, Green W. R. Williams J. R Douthett Mrs. R. O. Rumbangh E. K. Richey Chas. E. Herr L. S. Youch PEOPLE'S PHONE 426- Subscribe for the CITIZEN THE BUTLER CITIZEN. BU-TLtK (f New buildings, new rooms, tlegant new equipment, excellent courses of studv. best of teachers, expenses moderate, terms \ ER\' LIBERAL' Over $2,000.00 worth of new typewriters in nse (allowing advanced students from 3 to 4 hours' practice per day*, other equipment in proportion Winter Term, Jan. 2, lfM)<». Spring Term, April li, 1000. Positions secured for our worthy graduates. Visitors always welcome- When in Butler, pav us a visit. Catalogue aud other literature mailed on ap j plication. MAY ENTER TIME. A. F. REGAL, Principal, Butler, Pa •JiiJiitiiJiiJiiJiiJiiJiiJiiJiiJiiJi | Fajr and Winter Millinery. | W Everything in the line of Millinery can be found, 3? ( W the right thing at the right time at the right price at pj | ROCKENSTEINS | 3* Phone 656. 148 S. Main St. j|j Don't You Need An Overcoat? We Closed out a Manufacturer's Sample Line at One Half Their Value. In this lot of 218 Overcoats there are all sizes. In the Men's overcoats they are sizes 34 to 44. In the Boys' they are sizes 6to 20. Not 2 Overcoats of a kind. For want of space we cannot describe these extraordinary bargains in these Overcoats. But will just mention a few of them. 29 Overcoats, Regular Price $22, Sale Price $11.98 33 Overcoats, Regular Price $lB, Sale Price $9.89 28 Overcoats, Regular Price sls, Sale Price $7.45 78 Overcoats, Regular Price $lO, Sale Price $4.89 23 Boys' Overcoats, Regular Price $9, Sale Price $4.62 27 Boys' Overcoats, Regular Price $6, Sale Price $3.13 Have a Look at These Overcoats. We Will Show Them to You. No Trouble Whatever. SCHAUL& LEVY 137 South Main Street. Butler, Pa. ZTa ~*>r~ m ein A . kff I if Won't buy clothing for the purpose of 1 U /r7f N j If spending money. They desire to get the ml nl n/ \ i best possible results of the money expended. j I uf \ IIS Those who buy custom clothing have a I I? )V\ right to demand a fit, to have their clothes A.l rTRiWr 1 correct in style and to demand of the / , " M \ ' seller to guarantee everything. Come to Li ! U us and there will be nothing lacking. I KfT PfV I have just received a large slock of Fall _II <ji i I < ani l Winter suitings in the latest styles, \ Vly 3 shades and colors. AfP JG. F. KECK, 111 VU MERCHANT TAIfcOR, 1113* 2r\s 142 N. Main St., Butler, Pa I Bickers Fall Footwear. | r Largest Stock and Most Handsome Styles of ► Fine Footwear we Have Ever Shown. T4 i &ADA&I& Twenty Fall Stvles—Dongola, Patent- WA awKwoij bidan j Finec > uSh(X , s^ade in the i latest up-to-date styles. Extremely large stock of Misses' and Chil- ■ 1 dren's fine shoes in many new and pretty styles for fal). * J i AF<k Showing all the latest styles in Men's 1 - and ?(!. p / Complete Stock of Boys', Youths' and Little Gents' Fine Sboes. r Bargains in School Shoes, p w High-cut cojiper-toe shoes for Boys and good water proof School t r i Shoes for Girls. A W Large stock of Women's Heavy Sboes in Kangaroo-calf and y i W Oil Grain for country wear. K" ; Rubber and Felt Goods. A Our stock of Rubber and Felt Goods is extremly large and Fi owing to the large orders which we placed we were able to get very k" ► 1 close prices and are in a position to offer you the lowest prices for A best grades of Felts and Rubber Goods. WA fA An immense business enables us to name the very lowest 4 prices for reliable footwear. When in need of anything in our line give us a call. W A 4 Repairing Promptly Dones fj i| JOHN BICKELf] j I J. G. &W. CAMPBELL, BUTLE, PA. ili >T' ilfiXl ili i|j % ,y, ; BUTLER, PA., THURSDAY, DECEMBER 7. 1005. PRESIDENJSiVIESSAGE President Roosevelt's annual message has been delivered to congress. Open ing wi'h a plea for the co-operation of all classes in continuing the country's prosperity and in correcting existing evils, for a "square deal" for every body. the message lii- t takes up the question of corporations and railroad rate legislation. The president says; Corpora Hons. I am in no sense hostile to corpora tions. This is an age of combination, and any effort to prevent all combina tion will be not only useless, but in the end vicious, because of the contempt for law which the failure to enforce law inevitably produces. The corpora tion has come to stay, just as the trades union has come to stay. Each can do and has done great good. Each should be favored so long as it does good. But each should be sharply checked where it acts against law and justice. Experience has shown conclusively that it is useless to try to get any ade quate regulation and supervision of these great eorp'Jwttioiis by state ac tion. Such regulation and supervision can only be effectively exercised by a sovereign whose jurisdiction is coex tensive with the tiell work of the cor porations—that is, by the national gov ernment. I believe that this regulation and supervision can be obtained by the enactment of law by the congress. If this proves impossible, it will certainly be necessary ultimately to confer in fullest form such power upon the na tional government by affirmative ac ment of the constitution. The laws of the congress and of the several states hitherto, as passed upon by the courts, have resulted more often In showing that the states have no power in the matter than that the na tional government power; so that there at present exists a very unfortu nate condition of tilings, under which these great corporations doing an In terstate business occupy the position of subjects without a sovereign, neither any state government nor the national government having effective control over them. Our steady aim should be by legislation, cautiously and carefully undertaken, but resolutely persevered in, to assert the sovereignty of the na tional government by affirmative ac tion. This is only in form an Innovation. In substance it is merely a restoration, for from the earliest time such regula tion of industrial activities has been recognized in the action of the law making bodies, and all that I propose is to meet the changed conditions in such manner as will prevent the com monwealth abdicating the power it has always possessed, not only in this coun try, but also in England before and since this country became a separate nation. Railroad Hate Legislation. As I said in my message of Dec. 0 last, the immediate and most pressing need so far as legislation is concerned Is the enactment into law of some 6cheme to secure to the agents of the government such supervision and regu lation of the rates charged by the rail roads of the country engaged in inter state traffic as shall summarily and ef fectively prevent tho imposition of un just or unreasonable rates. It must Include putting a complete 6top to -re bates iu every shape and form. This power to regulate rates, like all similar powers over the business world, should be exercised with moderation, caution and self restraint, but it should exist, so that it can bo effectively exercised when the need arises. In my Judgment, the most important provision which such law should con tain is that conferring upon some com petent administrative body the power to decide upon the case being brought before it whether a given rate pre scribed by a railroad is reasonable and just, and if It is found to be unreason able and unjust then, after full investi gation of the complaint, to prescribe the limit of rate beyond which it shall not be lawful to go—the maximum reasonable rate, as it is commonly call ed—this decision to go into effect with ln a reasonable time and to obtain from thence onward, subject to review by the courts. It sometimes happens at present, not that a rate is too high, but that a fa vored shipper is given too low a rate. In such case the commission would }iave the right to fix this already estab lished minimum rate as the maximum, and it would need only one or two such decisions by the commission to cure railroad companies of the practice of giving improper minimum rates. I call your attention to the fact that my pro posal is not to givo the commission power to initiate or originate rates gen erally, but to regulate a rate already fixed or originated by the roads upon complaint and after investigation. A heavy penalty should bo exacted from any corporation which fails to respect : rm order of the commission. I regard this power to establish a maximum : rate as being essential to any scheme of real reform in the matter of railway > regulation. It is worth while considering whether I It would not be wise to confer on the government the right of civil action against tlio beneficiary of a rebate for at least twice the value of the rebate. This would help stop what is really blackmail. Elevator allowances should , be stopped, for they have now grown 1 to such an extent that they are demor alizing and are used as rebates. Private Car Line*. All private car lines, Industrial roads, refrigerator charges and the like should bo expressly put under the su pervision of the interstate commerce commission or some similar body so far as rates and agreements practical ly affecting rates are concerned. A re bate in Icing charges or in mileage or In a division of the rate for refrigerating charges is just as pernicious as a re bate in any other way. There should be publicity of the ac counts of common carriers. Only in this way can violations or evasions of the law be surely detected. A system of examination of railroad accounts should bo provided similar to that now conducted into the national banks by the bank examiners. A few lir.it class railroad accountants, if they had prop er direction and proper authority to in spect books and papers, could accom plish much in preventing willful viola tions of the law;. Employers' Liability Lin. In my annual message to the Flftj • eighth congress at its sec.mil session I recommended the pas <a of an em ployers' liability law for the lustriet of t'olum|iia and in our navy yards. 1 re newed that recommendation in my message to the Fifty-eighth congress at its second session and further suggest ed the appointment of a commission to make a comprehensive study of em ployers' liability with a view to the en actment of a wise and constitutional , law covering the subject, applicable to all industries within the scope of the federal power. I hope that such a law i will be prepared and enacted as speed- I iiy B3 possible. J There has been demand for depriving cufrts of the frower to issue injunctions in Inlnir dtepMles. Such limita tion of the equity powers of our courts would be most unwise. It is true that some judges have misused this power, but this does not justify a denial of the power any more than an improper ex ercise of the power to call a strike by a labor leader would justify Uie denial of the right to strike. The remedy is to regulate the procedure by requiring the judge to give due notice to the adverse parties before granting the writ, the hearing to be ex parte if the adverse party does not appear at the time and place ordered. What is due notice must depend upon the facts of the case. It should not bo used as a pretext to per mit violation of law or the jeopardiz ing of life or property. Of course this would not authorize the issuing of a restraining order or Injunction ill any case in which it is not already author ized by existing law. I renew the recommendation I made in mv last annual message for an in vestigation by the department of com merce and labor of general labor condi tions, especial attention to be paid to the conditions of child labor and child labor legislation in the several states. Such an Investigation should take into account the various problems with which the question of ehild labor is connected. In such a republic as ours the one thing that we cannot afford to neglect is the problem of turning out decent citizens. The future of the na tion depends upon the citizenship of the generations to come. The children of today are those who tomorrow will shape the destiny of our land, and we cannot afford to neglect them. The leg islature of Colorado has recommended that the national government provide some general measure for the protec tion from abuse of children and dumb animals throughout the United States. I lay the matter before you for what I trust will be your favorable consider ation. As to Women Who Work. The department of commerce and la bor should also make a thorough inves tigation of the conditions of Women in industry. Over 5,000,000 American wo men are now engaged In gainful occu pations, yet there is an almost complete dearth of data upon which to base any trustworthy conclusions as regards a subject as important as it is vast and complicated. The introduction of wo men into industry is working change and disturbance in the domestic and social life of the natiou. The decrease in marriage, and especially in the birth rate, has been coincident with It. We must face accomplished facts, and the adjustment to factory conditions must be made, but surely it can be made with less friction and less harmful ef fects on family life than is now the case. This whole matter in reality forms one of the greatest sociologicaj phenomena of our time. It is a social question of the first importance, of far greater importance than any merely po litical or economic question can be. In any great labor disturbance not only are employer aud employee inter ested, but also a third party—the gen eral public. Every considerable labor difficulty in which interstate commerce Is Involved should be investigated by the government and tbe facts officially reported to the public. In.nraiict. The great insurance companies afford striking examples of corporations whose business lias extended so far beyond the jurisdiction of the states which created them as to preclude strict enforcement of supervision and regulation by the parent states. In my last annual message I recommended "that the congress carefully consider whether the power of the bureau of lorporations cannot constitutionally be extended to cover Interstate transac tions in insurance." Recent events have emphasized the importance of an early and ( 'cbaustive consideration of this question, to see whether it is not possible to furnish better safeguards than the several states have been ablo to furnish against corruption of the flagrant kind which been exposed. It has been only too clearly shown that certain of the men at the head of these large corporations take but small note of the ethical distinction between honesty and dishonesty. They draw the line only this side of what may be called law honesty, the kind of honesty necessary In order to avoid falling into the clutches of the law. Of course the only complete remedy for this condi tion must be found in an aroused pub lic conscience, a higher sense of ethical conduct In the community at large and especially among business men and In the great profession of the law, and in the growth of a spirit which condemns all dishonesty, whether in rich man or In poor man, whether it takes the shape of bribery or of blackmail. But much can be done by legislation which is not only drastic, but practical. There is need of a far stricter and more uni form regulation of the vast insurance interests of this country. The United States should In this respect follow the policy of other nations by providing adequate national supervision of com mercial interests which are clearly na tional in character. I repeat my previous recommenda tion that the congress should consider whether the federal government has any power or owes any duty with re spect to domestic transactions in in surance of an Interstate character. That state supervision has proved in adequate is generally conceded. The llevcimea. There Is more need of stability thau of the attempt to attain an Ideal per fection lu the methods of raising rev enue, and the shock and strain to the business world certain to attend any serious change In these methods ren der such change inadvisable unless for grave reason. It is not possible to lay down any general rule by which to de termine the moment when the reasons for will outweigh the reasons against such a change. No change can be made on lines beneficial to or desired by one section or one state only. There must be something like a general agree ment among the citizens of the several states that the change Is needed and desired lu the Interest of the people as a whole, and there should then be a sin cere, intelligent and disinterested ef fort to make it in such shape as will combine, so far as possible, the maxi mum of good to the people «t large with the minimum of necessary disre gard for the special interests of locali ties or classes, but in time-of peace the revenue must, on the average, taking a series of yaara together, equal the expenditures or else the revenues must bo Increased. Last year there was a deficit. Unltss our expenditures can be .kept within the revenues then our revenue laws must be readjusted. It Is impossible to outline what shape such a readjustment should take, for it is as yet too early to say whether there will be need fcr it. It should bo considered whether 't la not desirable that the tariff laws should provide ior applying as against or in favor of any other nation maximum and minimum tariff rates established by the congress, so as to secure a certain reciprocity of treatment between other nations and onraAhraiL Economy In Expenditure*. I earnestly recommend to the cau- CTe-is the need of economy and. to this end. of a rigid scrutiny of appropria tions. .All unnecessary office* should be abolished. In the public printing also a large saving of money can l>e made. There is a constantly growing tendency to publish masses of unim portant information at which no human being ever l.»oks. Yet. In speaking of economy, I must In nowise be understood as advocating the false economy which is in the end the worst extravagance. To cut down in the navy would be a crime against the nation. To fail to push forward all work on the Panama canal would be as great a f•Uy. Cnrreney. Every consideration of prudence de mands the addition of the element of elasticity to our currency system. The evil does not consist In an inadequate volume of money, but in the rigidity of this volume, which does not respond as it should to the varying needs of communities and of seasons. Inflation must bo avoided, but same provision should be made that will insure a larger volume of money during the fall and winter months than In the less ac tive seasons of the year, so that the currency will contract against specula tion and will expand for the needs of legitimate business. At present the treasury department is at irregularly recurring intervals obliged in the inter est of the business world—that is, in the interests of the American public— to try to avert financial crises by pro viding a remedy which should be pro vided by congressional action. Raiiuea. Methods In Department!. At various times I have instituted in vestigations Into the organization and conduct of the business of the execu tive departments. While none of these Inquiries have yet progressed far enough to warrant final conclusions, they have already confirmed and em phasized the general Impression that the organization of the departments is often faulty in principle and wasteful in results, while many of their business methods are antiquated and inefficient. I recommend tiiat the congress consider this subject. Federal Elections. In my last annual message I said: "The power of the government to protect the Integrity of the elections of its own officials Is inherent aud has been recognized and affirmed by re peated declarations of the supreme court. There is no enemy of free gov ernment more dangerous and none so insidious as the corruption of the elect orate. No one defends or excuses cor ruption, and it would seem to follow that none w.juld oppose vigorous meas ures to eradicate It. I recommend the enactment of a law directed against bribery and corruption in federal elec tions. The details of such a law may be safely left to the wise discretion of the congress, but it should go as far as under the constitution it is possible to go and should include severe penalties agajnst him who gives or receives a bribe intended to influence his act or opinion as an elector and provisions for the publication not only of the expend itures for ixminations and elections of all candidates, but also of all contribu tions received and expenditures made by political committees." I desire to repeat this recommenda tion. All contributions by corporations to any political committee or for any po litical purpose should be forbidden by law, directors should not be permitted to use stockholders' money for such purposes, and, moreover, a prohibition of this kind would be, as far as it went, an,,effective method of stopping the evils aimed at in corrupt practices acts. The Unique Conference. The first conference of uations held at The Hague In 1899, being unable to dispose of all the business before it, recommended the consideration and Settlement of a number of important questions bj* another conference to be called subsequently and at an early 3ate, These questions were the follow ing: (1) The rights and duties of neu trals; (2) the limitation of (lie armed forces on land and sea and of military budgets; (3,» the use of new types and calibers of military and naval guns; t£) the inviolability of private property at sea In Mines of war; (5) the bombard ment of ports, cities and villages by na val forces. In October, 1904, at the In stance of the interparliamentary union, I issued invitations to all the powers signatory to The Hague convention to send delegates to such a conference and suggested that it be again held at The Hague. From all the powers acceptance was received, coupled in some cases with the condition that we should wait until the end of the war then waging be tween Russia and Japan. The emperor of Russia, immediately after the treaty of peace which so happily terminated this war, In a note presented to the president on Sept. 33 took the Initiative in recommending that the conference be now called. The United States gov ernment in response expressed its cor dial acquiescence and stated that it would as a matter of course tako part in the new conference and endeavor to further its aima. We assume that all civilized governments will support the movement and that the conference is now an assured fact. This government will do everything in Its power to se cure the success of the conference to the end that substantial progress may be ill the cause of International peace, Justice aud good will. Monroe Doctrine. There are certain essential points which must never be forgotten as re gards (he Monroe doctrine. In the first place, wo must us a nation make it ev ident that we do not Intend to treat it in any shape or way as an excuse for aggrandizement on our part at the ex pense of the republics to the Houtto. But we must make it evident that we do not intend to permit the Monroe doc trine to l>e used by any nation on this continent as a shield to protect it from the consequences of its own misdeeds ngainst foreign nations. The Monroe doctrine does not force us to interfere to prevent the punishment of a port save to see that the punishment does not assume the form of territorial occu pation Ui auy shape. The case is more tliihcult when it refers to a contractual obligation. This country would cer tainly decline to go tu war to prevent a foreign guyeriiment from collecting a ,'Us(; debt. On the other baud, it is very inadvisable to permit any foreign power to take possession, even tempo rarily, of the custom houses of an American republic in order to enforce the payment of its obligations, fov »uch temporary occupation turn into a permanent occupation. The only es cape from tbrso alternatives may at any tiu'O bo ihat we must ourselves undertake to bring about some arrange ment by which 60 much as possible of a just obligation shall be paid. To do so insures the defaulting re public from having to pay debts of an improper character under duress, wivlio it also insures honest creditors of the republic from being passed by iu the interest vf dishonest or grasping cred itors. Moreover. foc.tlie Ualted to fake such a position offers tlie only possible way of Insuring us against a clash with some foreign power. The position is therefore in the interest of I eace as well as In the interest of Jus tice. Santo Domingo. Santo I >omiugo has now made an ap l>eal to us. and not only every principle of wisdom, but every generous Instinct within us, bids us respond to the ap peal. The conditions in Santo I>omlngo have for a number of years grown from bad to worse until a year ago all society was on the verge of dissolution, fortunately just at this time a ruler sprang up in Santo Domingo who. with his colleagues, saw the dangers threat ening their country and appealed to the friendship of the only neighbor who possessed the power and the will to help them. There was Imminent dan ger of foreign intervention. The pa tience of foreign creditors had become exhausted, and at least two foreign na tions were on the point of Intervention and were only prevented by the unoffi cial assurance of this government that it would itself strive to help Santo Domingo in her hour of need. Accordingly, the executive depart ment of our government negotiated a treaty tinder which we are trying to help the Dominican people to straight en out their finances. This treaty Is pending before the senate. In the meantime a temporary arrangement has been made under which the Domin ican government has appointed Amer icans to all the Important positions la the customs Bervlce, and they are see ing to the honest collection of the rev enues, turning over 45 per cent to the government for running expenses and putting the other 55 per cent Into a safe depositary for equitable division in case the treaty shall be ratified among the various creditors, whether European or American. Under the course taken stability and order and all the benefits of peace are at last coining to Santo Domingo, dan ger of foreign intervention has been suspended, and there is at last a pros pect that all creditors will get justice, no more and no less. If the arrange ment is terminated by the failure of the treaty chaos will follow, and sooner or later this government may be In volved in serious difficulties with for eign governments over the island or else may be forced itself to intervene in the Island in some unpleasant fash ion. Army and Xavjr. I do not believe that any army in the world has a better average of enlisted man or a better type of junior officer, but the army should be trained to act effectively in a mass. Provision should be made by sufficient appropriations for maneuvers of a practical kind. Provision should be made for the pro motion of exceptionally meritorious men over the heads of their comrades and for the retirement of all men who have reached a given age without get ting beyond a given rank. There should ba an increase in the coast artillery force so that our coast fortifications can be In some degree adequately manned. There Is special need for an Increase and reorganization of the medical department of the army. In both the army and navy there must be the same thorough training for duty in the stall corps as in the fighting line. The importance of this was shown con clusively in the Spanish-American and the Russo-Japanese wars. The work of the medical departments in the Jap anese army and navy is especially worthy of study. Our navy must, relatively to the na vies of other nations, always be of greater size than our army. We have most wisely continued for a number of years to build up our navy, and It has now reaohed a fairly high standard of efficiency. This standard must not only be maintained, but increased. It does not seem to me necessary, how ever, that the navy should, at least in the immediate future, be Increased be yond the present number of units. What is now clearly necessary is to substitute efficient for inefficient units as the latter become worn out or as It becomes apparent that they are use less. Probably the result would be attained by adding a single battleship to our navy each year, the superseded or outworn vessels being laid up or broken up as they are thus replaced. Naturalisation. On this subject I recommend: First.—A federal bureau of naturali zation, to be established in the depart ment of commerce and labor, to su pervise the administration of the natu ralization laws and to receive returns of naturalizations pending and accom plished. Second.—Uniformity of naturalization certificates, fees to be charged, and procedure. Third.—More exacting qualifications for citizenship. Fourth.—The preliminary declaration of Intention to be abolished and no alien to be naturalized until at least ninety days after the filing of his peti tion. Fifth.—Jurisdiction to naturalize aliens to be confined to United States district courts and to such state courts as have jurisdiction In civil actions in which the amount in controversy Is un limited; in cities of over 100,000 inhab itants the United States district courts to have exclusive jurisdiction in the naturalization of the alien residents of such cities. Criminal Laws. In my last message I asked the at tention of the congress to the urgent need of action to make our criminal law more effective, and I most ear nestly request that you pay heed to the report of the attorney general on this subject. There seems to be no statute of the United States which provides for the punishment of a United States attor ney or other officer of the government who corruptly agrees to wrongfully do or wrongfully refrain from doing any act when the consideration for such corrupt agreement is other than one possessing money value. This ought to be remedied by appropriate legislation. Legislation should also be enacted to cover explicitly, unequivocally and be yond question breach of trust in the shape of prematurely divulging official secrets by an officer or employee of the United States and to provide a suitable penalty therefor. Merchant Marine. To the spread of our trade In peace and the defense of our flag in war a great and prosperous merchant marine is indispensable. We should have ships of our own and seamen of our own to convey our goods to neutral markets and in case of need to re-enforce our battle line. It cannot but be a source of regret and uneasiness to us that the lines of communication with our sister republics of South America should be chiefly under foreign control. It Is not a good tiling that American merchants and manufacturers should have to send iheir goods and letters to South Amer ica via Europe if they wish security and dispatch. Even on the Pacific, where our ships have held their own better than on the Atlantic, our mer chant flag Is now through No. 46. the liberal aid bestowed by other gov ernments on their own steam lines. 1 ask your earnest consideration of the report with which the merchant ma rine commission has followed Its long and careful inquiry. It is a matter of unmixed satisfac tion once more to call attention to th# i excellent work of the pension bureau, for the veterans of the civil war have a greater claim upon us than any other, class of our citizens. To them first of all among our people honor is due. Immigration. As I said in my last message to the congress, we cannot hare too much immigration of the right sort, and we should have none whatever of the wrong sort. The questions arising In connection with Chinese immigration stand by themselves. The conditions in C-iina are such that the entire Chinese cooly class—that is, the class of Chinese la borers, skilled and unskilled legiti mately come under the head of unde sirable immigrants to this country. But in the effort to carry out the pol icy of excluding Chinese laborers, Chi nese coolies, grave injustice and »wrong have been done by this nation to ihe people of China and therefore ultimate ly to this nation itself. Chinese stu dents, business and professional men of all kinds, not only merchants, but bankers, doctors, manufacturers, pro-. Jessors, travelers and the like, should * be encouraged to come here and treat ed on precisely the same footing that we treat students, business men, trav elers and the like of other nations. As a people we have talked much of. the open door in China, and we expect, and quite rightly intend to insist upon, justice being shown us by the Chinese, But we cannot expect to receive equity, unless we do equity. The Civil Service. Heads of executive departments and members of the commission have call ed my attention to the fact that the rule requiring a filing of charges and three days' notice before an employee could be separated from the service for inefficiency has served no good pur pose whatever. Experience Baa shown that the rule is wholly ineffective to save any man if a superior for im-" proper reasons-wishes to remove him and is mischievous because It some times serves to keep in the service In competent men not guilty of specifier wrongdoing. Having these facts In; view, the rule has been amend*! by providing that where the Inefficiency or, incapacity comes within the personal knowledge of the head of a department' the removal may be made without no tice, the reasons therefor being filed and made a record of the department The absolute right of removal r»st» where it always has rested, with the head of a department. The change la merely one of procedure. It was ffruch" needed, and It is producing gdOd re-' suits. Our copyright laws need revision. Philippines and Other During the laßt year the Philippine Islands have been slowly from the series of disasters which slncO American occupation have greauy re-' duced the amount of agricultural prod ucts below what was produced In ish times. The agricultural conditions of th« Is lands enforce more strongly than evet( the argument in favor pf reducing the tariff on the products of the Philippine Islands entering the United States. I< earnestly recommend that the tariff' now Imposed by the Dlngley bill tu>on' the products of the Philippine Islands' t be entirely removed, except the tariff on sugar and tobacco, and that tHat tariff be reduced to 25 per cent Of the present rates under the Dlngley fcet; that after July 1, 1909, the tariff upon,' tobacco and sugar produced to the Philippine Islands be entirely removed and that free trade between th® isWdsJ and the United States In the product* of each country then be protidea foe by law. In my judgment, Immediate steps should be taken for the fortification of Hawaii. This is the most Important point in the Pacific to fortify In orler to conserve the interests of this Coun try. It would be hard to overstate the Importance of this need. H&waU ifc too heavily taxed. Laws should be enaot ed setting aside for a period of,, say, twenty years 75 per cent of the interns) revenue and customs receipts from Ha waii as a special fund to 6e expended In tho Islands. I earnestly advocate the adoption of legislation which will explicitly confer American citizenship on all citteen* of Porto Bico. I wish also to call the attention of the congress to tone question which af fects our insular possessions generally —namely, the need of an increased lib* erallty In the treatment of ths Whole franchise question in these Iwlftflfls. I earnestly ask that Alaska be given an elective delegate. Admlaaton to Statehood. I recommend that Indian and Oklahoma be admitted as one elate and that New Mexico and Arizona be admitted as one state. The Panama Canal. Active work In canal construction, mainly preparatory, has been in prog ress for less than a year and a tiulf. During that period two points about the canal have ceased to be open to debate. First, the question Of route; second, the question of feasibility. The point which remains unsettled is Wheth er the canal shall be one of several locks above sea level or at sea level with a single tide lock. On this point I hope to lay before the congress at an early day the findings of the adVlfry, board of American and European en gineers. In addition to sanitating the Isthmus, satisfactory quarters are being provid ed for employees and an adequate sys tem of supplying them with wholesome food at reasonable prices has been cre ated. Hospitals have been established and equipped that are without Superi ors of their kind anywhere. During the past year a large portion of the plant with which the work Is to be done has been ordered. It is confident ly believed that by the middle of the approaching year a sufficient .propor tion of this plant will have been In stalled to enable us to resume the work of excavation on a large scale. What Is needed now and without de lay is an appropriation by the congress to meet tho current and accruing ex penses of the commission. The first appropriation of $10,000,000 out of the $135,000,000 authorized by the fepooner, act was made three years ego. It is nearly exhausted. Unless the congress nhall appropriate before that time ail work must cease. [ln conclusion the president recom mends an increase in the diplomatic and consular service and more ad equate compensation of its members.]! Although not yet perfected, the Ma jorama telephone bids fair vastly te extend the field of usefulness of the long distaurc telephone by rendering audible vibrations too faint to actuate the disk of the ordinary receiver or even the microphone instruments.