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Address |VTILBR CITIZKV,
BCTI.ER, KARNB CITT AND PA.RKSR RAILROAD
Trains leave Butler for St. Joe, Millerstown,
Kama Oily, Petrolia, Parker, etc., at 7.27 a. in.,
and 2 85 and 7.25 p. in.
Trains arrive at Butler from the above named
points at 7.17 a. m., and 2.15, and 7.15 p. m.
The 2.15 train connects with train on the West
Pcnn roid through to Pittsburgh.
AND ALLEGHENY RAILROAD.
Trains leave HilllardV Mill, Butler county,
for FlHrrisvllle, Greenville, etc., at 7.50 a. m.
and 2.25 p. IU. .«■««. „
Trains nrrive at Hilliard A Mills at 1.45 A, M.,
and 5:55 P. M.
Hacks to and from Petrolia, Mr.rtinabur*.
Fairview, Modoc and Trontman, connect at iill-
Jard with all trains on the 8 & A road.
Trains leave Butler (BuUer or PitUbnrgh Time.)
Market at 506 a. m., goes through to Alle
gheny arrivlnc at 9.01 a. in. This train con
nects at Freeport with Frceport Accommoda
tion, which arrives at Allegheny at 8.20 a. m.,
railroad time. , _ ~
Er-rrets at 7.21 a. m., connecting at Butler
Junction, without change of cars, at 8.26 with
Express west, arriving In Allegheny at ».5S
a. m., and Express east arriving at Blairevllle
at 11 00 a. m. railroad time.
Mail at 2.36 p. m., connecting at Butler Junc
tion without change ol care, with Express west,
arriving in at 5-26 p. in., and Ex
prcßi* cast arriving at Blairsviile Intersection
at 6.10 p. m. railroad time, which connects w'th
Philadelphia Express east, when on time.
The 7.21 a. m. train connects at Blalrsville
at 11 05 a. m. with the Mail east, and the 2.36
p.m. train at 6.5'J with the Philadelphia Ex
press east. _ _
Trains arrive at Butler on Weft Penn K. R. at
0 51 a. fh., 5.06 and 7.20 p. m., B itler time. The
951 and 5.06 trains connect with trains on
the Butler dc Parker B. R. Sun ay train arrives
at Butler at 11.11 a. m., connecting with train
Through trains leave Pittsburgh lor the Euft
at 2.56 and 8.26 a. m. and 13 51, 4.21 ar.d 8.06 p.
m arriving at Philadelphia at 8.40 and 7.20
p. in. and 3.00, 7 0 and 7.40 a. m.; at Baltimore
ahont the same time, at New York three hours
later, and at Washington about one and a hall
JOHN E. BYERS,
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON,
niv2l-Iy] BUTLER, PA.
0 1/ WALDRON. (}n duate ot the l'hll-
H adclphla Dental Collegers prepared
• II •to do anything in the line of bis
profession in a satisfactory manner.
Office on Main street, Batle.r, Union Block,
up stairs, apll
LAND FOR SALE.
A liandsomfc six-room frame house, located
on Klull street, northwestern part of Butler.
L"t 50x176. All necessary outlmfldinirs.
1 EKMS—Ore-:hird cash and l>nlanee in four
equal annual payments. Inquire at this office.
The well-improved farm of Rev. W. B. Hutch
ison, in the northeatt corner of Middlesex town
ship, Butler connty, Pa., is now offered for sale,
low. Inquire of W. K FRISBEE, on the prem
|5 will buy a one-half interest In a good bus
iness in PitUbnrgh. One who knows some
thing about farming preferred. An hone6t man
with the above amount will do well to address
l.v letter. SMITH JOHNS, care 8. M James,
It:; Liberty street, PitUburijh, Pa. |au27-ly
/ETNA INSURANCE COMPANY
OF HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT.
Losses paid In 01 years, $51,00.. ,000.
J.T. McJI'NKIN A BON, Agents,
jan3Bly Jcflerton etrect, Butler, Pa.
Mutual Fire Insurance Co.
Office Cor. Main and Cunningham Sts.
G. C. ROESSING, PRESIDENT.
WM. CAMPBELL, TREASURER
H. C. HEINEMAN, SECRETARY.
J. L. Purvis, E. A. Helmboldt,
William Campbell, J. W. Burkhart,
A. Trontman, Jacob Schoenc,
Q. C. Roesslng, John Caldwell,
Dr. W. lrvln, W. W. Dodds,
J.W.Christy H. C. Helncman.
JAS. T. M'JUNKIN, Gen, A*'t-
HEIBT G. HAM',
FINE HltUlf TIIIOR,
COR. PENN ASD SIXTH STREETS.
[Successor to A. C. Roessing <fc Bro.]
GRAIN, FLOUR, FEED, OIL,
THE HIGHEST MARKET PRICE PAID IN
FOR GRAIN OF ALL KINDS.
the L. S. service. LAW EXPIRES JULY Ist,
ls«0, for ARREARS. PENSIONS INCREAS
ED. Thousands of Pensioners are rated too low.
IJOI'NTY AND NEW DISCHARGES PRO
CURED. Information freely given. Send
stamp for blanks. Address.
STODDART & CO.,
Room f, St. Cloud Ruilding, Washington, D. C.
Persons desiring to have their Old Furniture
repaired, or New Work made to order, such as
Music Stands. Rook Cases, Wardrobes, Office
Desks, Office Tables, Ac., would do well to call on
A. B. WILSON,
Practical Cabinet Maker.
J hold that a piece of furniture made by hand
i worth two tatde by machinery, and will oost
imt little more, if any. Then why not have hand
made ? All work made in the latest styles and
of the best material. I guarantee entire sat
isfaction in style, workmanship and price. Give
me a call. Shop on Mifflin street, four doors
west of Main street, and opposite A. Troutman's
store, Butler, Pa. sepl7-ly
BAUER & BAXTER,
Livery, Sale and Feed Stables,
REAR OF VOOELEY HOUSE,
jun9-3m BUTLER, PA.
t A L' ER day at home Samples worth
Ml *5 free. Address BTUMOH A Co.,
Portland, Maine. deo3-ly
BOOTS and SHOES
Mailt Street, - - - - Butler, Pa.
I have just received my entire Spring and Summer stock of BOOTS and
SHOES direct from the manufacturer, and am able to sell them at
and a great many lines at PRICES THAN E\ ER.
Ladies', Misses' and Children's Button, Polish and Side Lace Boots in
endless variety, and at bottom prices.
Reynolds Brothers' celebrated fine Shoes always in stock, and is the most
complete I have ever offered. The prices are lower than ever, and styles
Parties wanting BOOTS & SHOES made to Order can do no better than
by me, as I keep none but the best of workmen in my employ.
LEATHER and FINDINGS will be found iu my store in superior
quality and at lowest market rates.
goods warranted as represented. ATJ. ItITFF,
CARPETS! OIL CLOTHSTMATST" RUGS' STAI 11 RODS
% IffEW STOCK! MEW STOCK! >
1 HECK & PATTERSON'S |
f NEW CABPIT ROOM !
w INTOW OPEN! '
g ©tt© §o>uth th&fa Qlathing House* c
Do fly'ft Bloolc, se P t2o-tf Butler, Pa. 2
I saOH HIYXS )Sf>nH iSXVW i SHIOIO IIP iSJ^cI>IYO
Time of Holding Courts.
The several Courts of tho county of Butler
commence on the fltst Monday of March, Juno,
September and December, and coutinne two
weeks, or go long a« n. cessary to dispose of the
biirines*. No causes are put down for trial or
traverse jurors summoned for the firi-t week ol
the several terms.
ATTOIiNEVH AT LAW.
BUTLER, PA. ~
~J F. BRITT AI N\"
Office with L Z- Mitchell, •.amond.
A. M. CUNNINGHAM
Office in Brady's Law Building. Butler, Pa.
Office ou N. E. corner Diamond, Kiddle build
~"JOHN M. GREER!
Office on N. E. corner Diamond. novl2
WM. F1 LUSK,
Office with W H. H Hi.Ulle. Esq.
N E VVTON - BLXC K,
Office on Diamond, near Court House, south
~E. I. BKUH'II,
Office in Kiddle's Law Building.
Office in Riddle's Law Building- [marß'76
J. B. McJUNKm
Special attention given to collections Oflk
opposite Wlllard House.
JOSEPH B. BREDIN,
Office north-cast corner of Diamond, Bullet
H. n. GOUCHER,
Office in Schneideman'B building, up staiis.
J.T.DON L Y
Office near Court House. t 74
~ w: i). BRANDON,
ebl7-75 Office In Berg's building
Office in Brediu building* marl7—t
FERD RE IBER,
Office In Bern's new building, Main Btreet.aps)ly
Office in Bredin building.
Office Main street, I door south of Court House
Office Main street, 1 door south of Court House.
Wn A. FORQUEIi,
♦3" Office on Main Btreet, opposite Vogeley
Offioo N. E. corner of Diamond
FRANCIS H PUItVIANCE^
Office with Gen. J. N. Purviance, Main Btreet,
south of Court House.
j. 1). McJUNKIN,
Office In Schncideinau's building, west side ol
Main street, 2nd sqnure from Court House.
Office on Diamond, two doors west of Citizen
fT~c. campbelu '
Office in Berg's new building, 2d floor, eait
Bide Main at., a few doors south of Lowrj
O A. & M. SULLIVAN, 1
may 7 Office S. W. cor. of Diamond.
BLACK & BRO.,
Office 011 Main street, one door south o
Krady Block, Bullcr, Pa. (aep. 2, 1874/:
JOHN ll MILLER, & BRO.'I
Office in Brady's Law Buil-ling, Main street,
sonth of Court House. Euoenk O. Mii-lee,
Notary Public. jun4 lv
THOMA S ROBITTSON\ "
_ JOHN H. NEGLEY,
(aTGives particular attention to transactioni
-1B real estate throughout the county.
OMCK OS Diamond, neab Cocut House, i>
E. R. Ecelet, Kennedy Marshall
(Late of Ohio.)
ECKLEY & MARSHALL.
Office in Brady's Law Building. Seiit.ll,74
C G. CHRISTIE,
Attorney at Law. Legal business carefully
transacted. Collections made and promptly
remitted. Business correspondence promptly
attended to and answered.
Office opposite Lowry House, Butler, Pa.
McSWEENY A McSWEENY,
Smethport and Bradford, Pa.
M. N. MILES,
Petrolia, Butler county, Pa. |jn3
WILLIAM 11. CONN\
Office in Brawler House,
GREECE CITY. |Juae7-ly
jan6 tf Petrolia, Butler co., Pa
GRAND BOULEVARD HOTEL.
Corner 59 1h St. d- Broadwqy,
On Both American and European Plans.
Fronting on Central l';irk, the Crniid Boulevard,
Broadway and Fifty-Ninth St., this Hotel occu
pies the entire square, and was liuilt and fur
nished at an expense of o\er BIUU.UOO. ft is one of
the most elegant as well as being the finest lo
cated in the city; lias a passenger Elevator and
all modem improvements, and is within one
square of the depots of the Sixth and Eighth
Avenue Elevated If. It. cars and still nearer to the
I! road way ears—convenient and accessible from
all parts of the city. Rooms with board. 4 " per
day. Special rates for famines and permanent
guests. E. HASKELL, Proprietor.
On Diamond, near Court House,
IL EITENMILLER, - - - PKOl'luetoe.
This house has been newly furnished and pa
pered. and the accommodations are good.
Stabling in connection.
ST. CHARLES HOTEL,
On the European Plan
54 to 66 North Third Street,
Philadelphia, - - - Pa.
Single Rooms 50c., ?sc. and !?1 per
O. It*. Schneck, Proprietor.
Excellent Dining room furnished
with the best, and at reasonable rates.
for all Railroad Depots
within a convenient distance.
COIiTLANDT STREET, Neail Bit dway,
IIOTCUKISS & POND, - - Prop'rs.
ON THE EUROPEAN PLAN.
The restaurant, ca?e and lunch room attached
are unsurpassed for cheapness and excellence of
service Rooms 50 its. to ?2 per day, $3 to JlO
per week. Convenient to all ferries and city
railroads. Nkw Fukmtubx, New Manage
-pHE SBHEEIBEK HOUSE.
L- NICKLAS, Prop'.,
MAIN STREET, BUTLER, PA.
Having taken posefsion of the above well
known Hotel, ami it bein" furnished in the
best of style for the accomodation of guests, the
public are respectfully invited to give me a call.
I have also posfe-sion of the barn lu rear of
hotel, which furnishes excellent staining, ac
comodations for my pr.trons.
JAMES J. C'AMPHELL,
Co«ants r Covuncv.
Office in Fairvicw borough, in Telegrapii
janlS] Baldwin P. 0.. Butler Co., Pa.
Justice of tlie "Peace,
Main etrcct, opposite Postolllcc,
jlylO _ 2EHENOPLE, PA.
Union Woolen Mills.
I would desire to call tho attention of the
public to the Union Woolen Mill, Butler, Pa.,
where I have new and improved machinery for
the manufacture ol
Barred and Gray Flannels,
Knitting and Weaving Yarns,
and I can recommend them as being very dura
ble, as they are manufactured of pure Butler
county wool. They are beautiful iu color, su
perior in texture, and will bo sold at very low
prices. For samples and prices, address,
ju124,'78-ly) Bntler, Pa
nT3 pf Q TT O 13 stops, 3 set Reedß, 2 Knee
U llW.il.il W Swells, Stool, Book, only
$87.60. 8 Stop Organ. Stool, Book, only £53.75.
Pianos, Stool, Cover, Book. 4100 to $255. Illus
trated cataloguo free. Address
apl4-3m W. C. BUNNELL, Lewistown, Pa.
The undersigned, surviving executor of Jacob
Slianor, late of Centre township, Butler county,
Pa-, dee'd, will fell at j üblic sale on the premi
ses, iu Centre township, on
SATURDAY, SEPT. 18th, 1880,
at 2 o'clock p. m. of said day, the following
Stventy-fivc acres of land, in Centre township,
being that part of the farm of Jacob Hhanor,
dee'd, lying east of the graded or Franklin road,
about forty acres cleared and the rest in good
timber, no buildings thereon.
juiy2B-4t Butler Pa.
BUTLER, PA., WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 1880
THE OA ME OF -00."
The game of "Go'' was invented by
the Chinese Emperor Shun or his pre
decessor about 1620 I>. C., and flour
ished, in China especially, from about
300 B. C. to 400 A. D. A proof that
these dates are not merely traditional
is that the Chinese works of the second
century before the Christian era refer
to the game, comparing certain scenes
in human life to Go It is recorded
that, on one occasion, a Chinese Empe
ror, who was at war with his nephew,
proposed to settle the dispute by a
game of Go, and that the offer was ac
cepted. One pHVcr of those old days
is specially mentioned. His memory
was so great that, when a game was
finished, he could throw down the
board and replace all the pieces in their
original position. This can be done by
many .Japanese players at present,
who think nothing of the feat. It is
frequently mentioned by them, how
ever, as a proof that man has increased
in memory and brain-power, although
it is probably due to more constant
practice. Chess is generally believed
to be the most ancient scientific game
in the world ; but it is much more mod
ern than Go. There is no evidence
that modern chess was played before
A. I). 500. It is now known that the
chess in more ancient times was played
with dice, and was consequently a
game of chance rather than skill.
A Kioto monk nomed Sansha was
the most skillful player in Japan 600
years ago. He was also the first to es
tablish a school where the game was
taught. When Iveyasu became Sho
gun, he established a Go academy,
with this monk as chief teacher ; and
all tbe celebrated players of the coun
trv became officers of the school, with
salaries paid by the Government. San
sha changed his name to Honimbo.
There were four other principal teach
ers, the two most celebrated of whom
were named Inouye and Yasui. These
five before their "deaths each selected
their best pupils, who succeeded to
their positions and salaries, on condi
tion that they also adopted the names
of their respective teachers.
Tbe player who is now recognized
as the best is a gentleman named Mu
rasse, residing in Tokio. lie belonged
to the house of Inouye, one of the her
editary players above mentioned, but
having beaten the head of the house at
plav, he set up a school for himself.
His supremacy seems likely to be dis
puted by a young man named Naka
gws, whose system of play is said t«
be very striking and ingenious. It is
interesting to know that when a lead
ing player has met his superior, or
when he feels his faculties and skill
growing weaker from old age and oth
er causes, he retires from Go circles,
and plays no more. The remainder of
his existence is said to be very melan
choly. His days and nights previous
ly were devoted to the game, which he
is thus forced to abandon, and literally,
the light of his life has been extinguish
ed. After the Restoration, for some
years, the interest taken in western
matters caused Go to be almost wholly
neglected, but recently a wave of reviv
al of the old game seems to be passing
over the land, and it is again becoming
popular chiefly among the official class
es. All the Ministers play, Mr. Oku
ma being credited with the most skill
among them In the army and navy,
also, it is the constant amusement of
both officers and men. Mr. Korschelt
thinks that almost every operation of
modern warfare can find a counterpart
in a game of Go: —attacks, retreats,
sieges, strategic movements are all rep
resented. Good Go players are also
scarcer than good chess players, and
the game requires more study and
memory than chess. Japanese require
three years' hard work to become fair
players, and all great players are grey
A Go-board contains 361 squares—
nineteen squares in each row. The
pieces are placed on the points where
the lines cross each other, white and
bluck pieces being laid down alternate
ly. The obiect is to combine the stones
of one color in such a manner as to in
close within a chain as many vacant
points as possible ; the player having
most points so enclosed being the win
ner. The opponent's pieces within such
a chain are taken out and placed in his
field ; while his chaiu, if he has com
pleted one, may be surrounded, not on
ly outside, but inside, and be removed
completely in the same niauner as iso
lated pieces. These are virtually the
only rules of she game. As usual in
many Chinese and Japanese books, an
alogies are sought to be established be
tween the game and things "in Heaven
above, in the earth beneath, and in the
waters under the earth." Thus there
are 361 squares on the board. Taking
one as a starting point, for the unit is
the beginning of all things, we have
300 remaining, and are there not 360
degrees in tbe circle of the heavens ?
The board has for quarters and the
year four seasons; there are ninety
days in a season, and ninety points on
a quarter of tbe board. There are sev
enty-two points around the edge of the
board, and their are seventy-two divis
ions in the year ; the pieces are black
and white, so are day and night.
A large literature exists on Go. The
books generally contain examples of
good games, studies on games between
celebrated players, and problems just
as in chess. In these latter the task
is generally to destroy an opponent's
chain from the inside. A mouthly pe
riodical is also published by Mr. Mu
rasse. He assembles leading players
of his school once every month. Play
commences early in the morning and
sometimes a game last until the follow
ing night, that is to say, thirty-six
hours. These games are then publish
ed in the magazine with criticisms of
the moves, usually brief aud of the ex
cathedra style, by the editor himself.
It was the custom in former times
for pupils iu the academy, when their
course was finished, to travel about the
country, challenging celebrated players
and supporting themselves by teaching
tbe game. This mode of livelihood
was common also among poets, fencers
and other specialists. Books contain
ing the names of all Go celebrites were
published; and the traveling player,
coming to a town, knew at once with
whom he could contend. There are at
present about 300 players of the lowest
rank, the number growing rapidly less
as the rank becomes higher, until we
reach the seventh, which contains but
one player, Mr. Murasse, before men
tioned The eighth and ninth ranks
have been the highest, aud there have
only been nine persons who have at
tained these grades since they were
first established. These ranks are pure
ly a Japanese institution ; they are
wholly unknown in China, but they
have been copied in Loochoo.— Japan
If we are to accept the words of those
who, dying on the scaffold are suppos
ed to be in full possession of their sen
ses till the last, and who at su£h a se
rious moment are expected to be more
truthful than at any other time of their
lives, the angels keep very bad compa
ny indeed beyond the confines of this
wicked world and are not at all partic
ular in whose society they are found.
Murderers who have denied the laws
of God and man aud outraged every
better human instinct universally an
nounce to the awe struck crowd gath
ered about the gallows that though
they art supposed to be going down to
an unhallowed grave they are in reali
tv about to soar upward on outstretch
ed wings to constitute the latest addi
tion to the angels and to speedily join
the heavenly choir. Average men of
honest and upright lives expect to find
it exceedingly difficult, as a rule, to find
their ways to this state of restful bliss,
but to the mind of the criminal the ex
change of a halter for a crown is evi
dently to be counted on as a certainty,
aud of such as they, according to their
ideas, is the kingdom of heaven. What
method of religious instruction is fol
lowed that leads the mind of the crim
inal to such lengths it is well to inquire.
Any teachings in the cell of the con
demned that will soften the hardened
heart to repentance and moisten the
dull eyes with tears of sorrow are to
be commended, that the death of the
man may be edifying ; but the practice
of working him up to such a state of
religious excitement as to cause him to
announce the brilliant programme ar
ranged for his reception beyond the
grave is not alone a mistaken one, but
is a mockery of religion. Robertson's
death on the gallows lately in Texas is
a case in point. It was the execution
of a fellow who has committed at least
nine murders, who fo'ught on both sides
during the war, evidently for the pleas
ure of bloodshed—he endeavored to
stand on his war record, by the way,
in his speech—who has helped more
than has any other liviDsr American,
probably, to lighten the labors of the
census enumerators, and who for years
has so conducted his life as to eminent
ly fit himself for a place even hotter
than his late jail quarters during the
August days. But this one, like his
fellows, announces where he may be
found in future by inquiring friends.
"Angels are waiting for him." If his
word it to be taken, if his religious ad
visers have not taught him wrongly,
heaven is his. lie is so good as to
designate whom he expects to meet
there, and expressly stated that gentle
men from Franklin township, against
which he has a grudge, would not be of
the pleasant company. The citizens of
Franklin may feel somewhat depressed
at this, but we think they had better
take the chances after all, despite this
advance news, But the dying speeches
of Robertson will have done some good
if they will be accepted as a warning
to those reverend gentlemen in charge
of the condemned that such teachings
as result in these scenes outrage justice
and are a scandal to religion.
A NEW.COLONIZING SCHEME.
In 1877.a company was formed in
Boston with the name of "The Board
of Aid to Land-Ownership." It pur
chased a large tract of land in the Cum
berland Valley, Tennessee, containing
some 400,000 acres Its intention was
to begin a grand scheme of colonization
but the company soon came to grief
financially, and its land passed into the
hands of Englishmen. These latter
were quick to see the good points of
the scheme, aud a strong stock compa
ny was formed, with a capital of $750,-
000 to carry it out Last week Mr.
Thomas Hughes, with a number of
those interested in the scheme, arrived
in New York.
This change of proprietorship has
been accompanied by a change of plan.
The Boston plan was intended to ben
efit poor people, to relieve the tenement
house class of our large cities, by put
ting them in the way of buying a small
farm and gaining a livelihood by agri
culture. The English plan is for the
benefit of the middle and upper classes.
It is intended that the new colonists
shall consist of the sons of well-to-do
tradesmen, of men in the professions,
and even younger sons of the nobility
aml gentry, who find a career at home
difficult on account of the great compe
tition that prevails there. Some capi
tal will be expected to be furnished by
each colonist, There will be churches,
school and other social advantages from
the start. Railroads are to be built to
the best markets, and there are abund
ant mineral resources as well as rich
arable land in the company's posses
While this enterprise is not, strictly
speaking, a benevolent one, it will be
watched with great interest. The ad
dition to our population of a large body
of cultivated, orderly and thrifty peo
ple, constituting the best possible ma
terial for citizenship, will be a great
gain. Such a colony would be a nu
cleus of a much larger Southern immi
gration than has ever yet been known.
What the South needs first of all is an
addition of fresh blood and ample capi
tal. These are not likely to come from
the North, in the present state of feel
ing between the two sections. And it
is probable that English immigrants
will be received with less prejudice,
and accorded full political rights more
freely, than if they came from the
Northern States. It is not impossible
that the true solution of the Southern
question may be found in this direetiou.
There are <59,875 registered votes in
HOW TO KEEP SHEEP PRO
There is a rapidly growing-demand
for mutton and wool. We are too ready
to consider our future markets as in
comparison with the present only, for
getting that we have just begun to
supply a large foreign demaud for mut
ton, that our home cousumption for
meat is certain to increase largely, and
that our woolen industry, only now in
the first stage of development, needs
every grade of wool, from the finest to
the coarsest, to supply the require
ments of a rapidly increasing and ex
acting population. Unfortunately, it
has been the habit with writers upon
agricultural subjects (though not with
agricultural writers) to mislead the
public ignorantly upou the matters
nertaining to sheep-keeping. They
have "made believe" that, to succeed
with sheep, one needs to have only a
poor, barren field that produces noth
ing but briers and weeds, and turn a
flock into it, to secure the doubling of
the investment every year and to
change the barren field into a garden.
This is a mistake, and has been a very
costly one to many new beginners,
who, of course, are the only persons
who could be thus misled.
For success and profit with sheep,
one must choose wisely both his flock
and his location. The one must match
the other. He must know how to man
age his animals, tender and ready to
go astray as they are, and he must
use his knowledge with tact and skill.
There is nothing in all this that is
diffcult to learn or to teach. Any boy or
man with common sense and that can
think and follow instructions may
keep sheep as well as the man who
has spent fifty years in herding them.
Better, in fact; because your ancient
shepherd is very apt to be prejudiced,
and to think "that all knowledge
dwells with him," so stupidly, some
times, that he can neither learn nor
forget anything nor accommodate him
self to new ways and methods. In
sheep-keeping, nearly everything is
new in this country. They are new
breeds and old breeds with new habits
and newly formed requirements ; new
necessities growing out of our chang
ing methods of agriculture and new de
mands of the markets. All these, as
they come up, need to be studied aud
learned, and the fresh knowledge ap
plied to practice.
In nearly every case that occurs, it
is he who begins in a small way who
grows up to a larger aud more suc
cessful 1 business. They are new re
cruits enlisting in this industry every
day, who need to be started right and
to be kept right; else how would the
business grow, and how can these
learn without a teacher ? Perhaps this
Tact is not considered by those exces
cessively practical men who think
nothing can be learned from books or
agricultural journals; and yet they
themselves will talk by the hour to
any one who is interested enough to
listen. What these do verbally surely
others may do by their pens. And the
first thing to be impressed upon the
mind of a man or a boy who would be
come a shepherd would be to "make
haste slowly;"to begin in a small way
and extend as he learns to succeed A
small flock can be kept anywhere upon
the right sort of a farm. The only
thing to avoid iu selecting the land for
a flock is low, damp ground, with a
pond of stagnant water in it. This is a
fatal error. Disease lurks in such a
spot. The feet become diseased, and
disorders of the liver aud digestive or
gans are sure to occur. Dry, high pas
ture, with clear running water or wa
tered from a well, is absolutely needed
for liealthfulness in the flock; and dry,
clean, airy yards and pens are equally
necessary. Sheep will thrive better on
a high, exposed knoll during a whole
winter, without any shelter aud with
but moderate food, than in a warm
shed and a wet, filthy yard, with all
the best food that can be procured for
them and the most tender care and cod
dling. To begin with, a few young
healthy ewes are selected for the pur
pose required, be it either mutton
or lambs or wool. For mutton or lambs
chiefly, and wool only secondarily, the
common native sorts are the best; pre
ferring those with brown or smutty
faces aud fore-legs, these marks be
token relation to the hardiest breeds —
viz., brown-faced Cotswolds or the
dark-faced "Down" breeds. They
should have broad foreheads, small
heads, broad backs, square level
rumps, deep sides, and short, stout
legs. These points show hardiness and
a disposition to fatten or to bear large,
healthy lambs. Fifty of these would
make a sufficient flock for a hundred
acre farm, where good care can be
given to them; and 10 to 20 a handy
little flock where the wastes from feed
ing other stock, both in barn, yards, or
pastures, will be the chief dependence.
Mutton and market lambs should be
the principal dependence for profit any
where east of the Great West, where
perennial pasture can be procured for
next to nothing or where land is worth
more than $lO per acre. East of the
Mississippi river there are a few local
ities where it will pay to keep a flock
for wool alone ; perhaps the only ex
ceptions being in some parts of the
Tennessee and North Carolina tabie
lands or mountain regions and in the
piuey woods of Georgia, where the
furnishes a cheap pasture
age. Perhaps the most profitable man
ner of sheep-keeping is to procure a
well-selected lot of store sheep in the
fall and feed them through the winter
until fat, selling them for mutton as
they are fit lor market. This invest
ment brings two dividends. One is the
enhanced value, which includes not
only the actual increased weight, but
the high market value per pound con
sequent upon the better quality of the
meat. This gives, or should give, a
satisfactory profit for the feed and tbe
labor. And, besides this, there is'the
additional profit of a handsome pile ot
very best manure, which may often be
the larger of the two profits.
A suggested remedy for tbe cabbage
worm is a decoction of tanzy poured
on the plants after they begin to head.
Two applications are generally suffi
FACTS ABOUT CHEESE.
Tbe Mobawk Valley has lost its
rank as the centre of the cheese indus
try of the United States. The new
head centre is at Wellington. Ohio.
The surrouuding country abounds in
cheese and butter factories. The prin
cipal cheese man in the State, Mr. 0.
W Horr, has his establishment there,
and it is one of the largest in the coun
try. In a recent interview with a cor
respondent of the Cleveland Leader,
Mr. Ilorr reported a very active de
mand for cheese at satisfactory prices.
The home consumption has been great
er this year than last, and the demand
for export has been much increased.
The April milk this year netted
about 100 per cent, more than last
year, the May milk about 80 per cent,
more, the .lune fully 40 per cent more,
and for July the estimate was 50 per
cent, more than for last year. The
prospet for the remaining four months
was very good. The yield per cow has
also been more than last year, though
not quite so many cows have been
The chief American cheese districts
comprise a small portion of New York,
part ol the Western Reserve in Ohio,
a few counties in Illinois, Kansas,
Michigan, lowa, Vermont and Penn
sylvania, and a good many counties in
Wisconsin, New York, Ohio and Wis
consin, lead in the order named. Wel
lington, Ohio, is the largest country
market, as shown by last year's statis
tics. Little Falls and Utica, N. Y.,
stand next. Wellington shipped 1,500,-
000 pounds more butter and cheese
than Little Falls last year, the total
shipment amounting to about 9,000,-
During the past five years about
110,000,000 pounds have been export
ed annually; the rest is consumed
in the L : nited States. Most of that ex
ported goes to Great liritian, which jn
1878 took over 120,000,000 pounds,
and last year a much larger quantity.
The foreign demand for American
cheese is increasing, but not so raj.id
ly as it did ten years ago. From 1860
to 1865, owing to the introduction of
the cheese factory system in this
country, the increase was tremendous.
Since then it has not been so rapid,
but it has been steady. The export this
year has been larger than the last, but
not so large as 1878. Commencing
with the last week in May, there were
exported during the following eight
weeks of 1873, about 807,000 pack
ages of cheese ; during the correspond
ing weeks of 1879, about 528,000 pack
ages, and of 1880, about 635,000 pack
The foreign trade in American
cheese is almost exclusively for what
is called factory cheese, and covers
every grade and quality, from the
poorest vkim milk cheeses to the richest
full creams. The bulk of the poorest
graded of cheese made in America goes
to England, where the poorer classes
use it in place of meat. Were it not for
the market thus furnished for the
cheaper grades of cheese the enormous
May, Juue and July makes of Ameri
can cheese would have to be thrown
to the fishes or sold at nominal
The export of butter is also increas
ing rapidly. During the past two or
three years there is an increasing de
mand for the very best creamery but
ter. "We have within the past six
weeks sold nearly $7,000 worth of the
finest creamery butter to one Liver
pool House," said Mr. Horr, "and
such a sale a? this, until within the
last three years, was unheard of in
Ohio. This butter is shipped on a
through bill of lading from Cleveland
N EW I NDUSTRV Foil I'KTROLBA. — The
Pelr»Ua r Tuj>ic says: It will be re
membered that some time ago the en
terprising refining firm of J. L. Engle
hart & Co. commenced the sinking of a
well to the proposed depth of 2,000
feet, for the avowed purpose of testing
the idea entertained that a hitherto un
developed vein of petroleum lay far be
neath the one at present worked at a
depth of five hundred feet. The work
on this 'deep well' hns been unremit
tingly continued, and on Monday
morning last, had reached a depth of
I,lßft feet without developing anything
specially novel. At this point, how
ever, the drill plunged into a bed of
pure salt, and up to the date of writing
had bored through one hundred feet of
THE BEST VEHICLE— An anecdote
is told of a physician who was called
to a foreign family to prescribe for a
j case of incipient consumption. lie gave
them a prescription for pills, and he
wrote the direction: "One pill to be
token three times a day, in any con
venient vehicle." The family looked in
the dictionary to get at the meaning of
the prescription. They got on well un
til they got to the word vehicle. They
found "cart, wagon, carriage, buggy,
wheelbarrow." After grave consider
ation they caitie to the conclusion that
the doctor meant the patient should
ride out, and while in the vehicle he
should take the pill, lie followed the
advice to the letter, and in a few weeks
the fresh air and exercise secured ad
vantage which otherwise might not
A flower has been found in Northern
Mexico that has a perfume like that of
whisky ; and when a lot of prospectors
from California got into a field where
it grew, they were just wild with ex
citement, until they found where the
oder came from.
An old Highland clergyman who
had received several calls to parishes,
asked his servant where he should go.
The servant said : "Go where there is i
most sin, sir." The preacher conclud
ed that was good advice, and went
where there was most money.
Moxime Chaput, who has been the
terror of householders at Montreal for
weeks, has been captured. He perpe
trated some of the most dating and suc
cessful burglarief ever known in the
Dominion, and when found had in his
possession at his retreat, a cave some
distance frofn town, a large quantity
of plunder. He is little more than a
boy, and a perusal of "Jack Sheppard" ;
is supposed to have led him astray.
One square. one insertion, f 1 . each subs<>-
quent tuscrtioii. 60 cents. Yearly advertisement*
t-iccodinic oue-fourih of a column, 15 peruu.li.
' Figure work double these ratee: additional
charge* where weekly or monthly changes. .-ie
made Local adveitiseuMnts cents jtr lino
for iii rt insertion, and 5 cente per line for eat li
additional in ertiou. and deaths pub
lished free of cfi*r;;o. Obituary notices cliarped
aw adverti*i. ments. and )>ayahle when handed in
Andit'Mn' Nmuvn. $4; Kxecutois' and Adminis
trators' Notice*. *3 each; Estray, Caution alio
Insulation Notices, not exceeding ten lines,
From the fact that the CITIZRN is the oldes'
«.-ttLitsliid aiivl mi'ct extensively circulated He
publican newspaper in Butler county, (a Repub
lican county) it must be apparent to h'lshiesb
UiOn that it is the medium they should use in
advertising their business.
MANUFACTURE OF IIES4N
The turpentine aud resin industry
carried on at the South is much larger
than probably most persons are aware.
From the Manufacturer and Builder
we glean the following account of the
collecting of the gum and its conversion
into a merchantable commodity :
From Wilmington, N. C., southward
and nearly all the way to Florida, the
pitch pine trees, with their blazed sides,
attract the atteution of the traveler.
The lauds for long stretches are almost
worthless, and the only industry, be
yond small patches for coru or cotton,
is the "boxing" of the pitch pine trees
for the gum, as it is called, and tho
manufacture of turpentine and resin.
There are several kinds of pine trees,
including the white, spruce, yellow,
Iloumany, and pitch pine. The latter
is the only valuable one for boxing,
and differs a little from the yellow pine,
with which it is sometimes confounded
at the North. The owners of these
pine lands generally lease the "privi
lege'' for the business, aud receive
about $125 for a crop, which consists
of 10,000 "boxes." The boxes are cav
ities cut into the tree near the ground,
in such a way as to hold about a quart,
and from one to four boxes tire cut in
each tree, the number depending upon
its size. One man can attend to nnd
gather the crop of 10,000 boxes during
the season, which last from March to
September. About three quarts of
pitch gum is the average production of
each box ; but to secure this amount,
the bark of the tree above the box must
be hacked away a little every fortnight.
Doing this so often, and for successive
seasons, removes the bark as high as
can easily be reached, while the quality
of the gum constantly decreases, in
that it yields less spirit, as the turpen
tine is called, and then the trees are
abandoned. The gum is scraped out
of the boxes with a sort of wooden
spoon, and at the close of the season,
after the pitch on the exposed surface
becomes hard, it is removed by scrap
ing, and is only good for resin, produc
ing no spirit. The gum sells for $1.50
a barrel to the distillers. From 16
barrels of the crude gum, which is
about tbe average capacity of the stills,
80 gallons of turpentine and 10 barrels
of resin are made. The resin sells for
from $1.40 to $5 per barrel, according
to quality, and just about pays for cost
of gum and distilling, leaving the spir
it, which sells for 40 cents a gallon, as
the profit of the business. Immense
quantities of resin await shipment at
the stations along the line, and the
pleasant odor enters the car windows
as yon are whirled along.
After the trees are unfit for further
boxing, and arc not suitable for lumber
they are sometimes used to manufac
ture tar; but the business is not very
profitable, and is only done by large
companies, who can thus use their sur
plus labor. The trees are cut up into
wood, which is piled in a hole in the
ground and covered with earth, and
then burned the same as charcoal is
burned elsewhere. The heat sweats
out the gum, which, uniting with tho
smoke, runs off through a spout provid
ed for the purpose. A cord of wood
will make two barrels of tar, which
sells for $1.50 per barrel, and cots 37£
cents to make. The charcoal is then
sold for cooking purposes.
Carpet shaking will soon be in order.
Tho Austrian Governmept has gone
largely into the sponge-growing busi
ness. Small pieces of sponge are
fastened to a pile aud sunk into the
sea, and are not long in developing
into perfect sponges.
"llow do you pronounce s-t-i-n-g-y?"
the teacher asked the young gentleman
nearest the foot of the class. And the
smart boy stood up and said it de
pended a great deat whether it applied
to a man or a bee. Go to tbe head,
A Kansas City lodge of negro Ma
sons turned out in full regalia, and
armed with razors and revolvers, to
attend the funeral of a murdered broth
er. On the way to the house of mourn
ing they encountered the murderer and
undertook to kill him. A policeman
succeeded in rescuing him, and the pro
cession moved on.
An Towa schoolmaster knocked
down a hornost 1 nest, to use in illus
trating a lecture; but, if the remarks
he made immediately after, while kit
ing across the country, were merely
those lie intended to use in the lecture
relative to the hornets' nest—and they
certainly referred to the nest—the dis
course was one totally unfit for people
England invaded Afghanistan be
cause Russia was obtaining too great
influence over the Ameer. After a
stubborn fight the Afghans were com
pelled to yield, being abandoned by
the Czar. England's occupation of
the country has cost her $70,000,000
and thousands of lives. And now, af
ter having held it eighteen months and
set up a new Ameer, she finds her ex
penditure of blood and tre isure in vain
a portion of her troops overwhelmed
in defeat, the remainder in great peril,
and the man whom she has put on the
throne at Cabul powerless to maintain
his own position, much less to help
his English friends. What a com
mentary on British management, aud
what a tribute to the courage, pug
nacity and unconquerable independ
ence of the Afghan people.
"Got any matches?" asks Smith
kins, stepping 1 into the grocer's.
"Well, I hain't got anythin' else," re
plies the niiin of pints ami pounds.
"You may put me up half a dozen
hunches," said Smithkins. "I'll ho
after them presently.-" l*y and by he
returns Handing the matches, the gro
cer says, sweetly: "In that all to-day,
sir?" "Why, no," Smithkins returns.
"I did want ten pounds of sugar, and a
barrel of flour, and a tub of butter, aud
a few other things; but when 1 asked
you if you had any matches, you said
you hadn't anything else, so I bought
the other things over to Herringbone's,
across the way." You can fancy tho
feelings of the grocer; but they cannot
be described. He is very particular
how he answers customers ever since