Bradford Republican. (Towanda, Pa.) 1875-1892, December 07, 1882, Image 2

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    THE ~-11EPUBat.
JUDSON' HOLCOTAS. t p lo p urrou .
CMAit. E. ALLEN, Associate Editor.
"Reasonable Ickzes,honest erpenditures, come
patent dicers, and no stealing " Harpers
sr taterml Is the Post Mike at Towanda as
To &a exclusion of our usual variety of
reading matter, we lay before our readers
this week, the full text of 4 the Second An
nual Maw° of President Arthur, read
before both Houses of Congress on Monday.
The document, although somewhat lengthy,`
is worthy of and will no doubt receive a care
fill perusal by our readers.
The great electric storm, it. seems, ,was
Sot due to the aurora, but to the sun. The
orb of day has been on a regular spree, so
to speak. His face has more than a dozen
spots on it, one of which was particularly
prominent. We should be all trtuuril if
only something could be found to knock the
spots off the sun. . ; •
With ! the approval of the Postmaster
General, Superintendent Thompson, of the
Railway Mail Service, on Wednes
day decided to.tulmit to the mails as fourth
class matter dried prunes, compressed ton
gue, boned turkey, and other canned meats
put up in soldered tin cans, not to weigh
over four pounds. .
It appears from reliable information that
the tea produced in British India furnishes
frilly thirty per cent. of all the consumption
of that article in Great Britain and Ireland.
This is a large increase within a few years
past. The cause of this change is that the
India tea is of better duality than the
Chinese or Japanese teas, and less liable to
adulteration. •
Hon. George B. Loring, Commissianer o
Agriculture, has submitted his annual re
port to the President. The several divisious
of his department are shown to be in excel
lent condition. The statistical division esti
mates the following as the yield of 1882 in
bushels; Corn, 1,635,000t000; wheat, 410,-
000,000; oats, 470,000,000; barley, 45,000,-
000; rye,. X 1,000,060, and buckwheat, 12,-
The organization of the State Senate,can
not possibly be : conceded to the Democrats
without sideparture from all sound princi
ples of statesmanship on the part of the Re
publican members of that body. If the In;
dependent Republicans in the Senate wish
to secure a proper voice in the administra
tion of Governor Pattison, they cannot pos
sibly hope to do so by giving the control of
the Senate into Democratic hands.
We canna understand says the North
American upon what principle it is assum
ed as a 'matter of course that Mr. Pattison's
successor in the office of City Controller
_ought to be a Democrat, Mr. Pattison was
not elected' to that office is a Democrat or
by l iDemocratic votes. It was distinctly as
a 7former, and by the independent votes
at-citizens who adhere to the party lines
upon all
,other points. In our judgment
• the question can be very easily settled by
Councils. -
The' supreme Court of Perinsylvania,
after January 1, 1883, will be composed is
follows:—Chief Justice Ulysses Mercer
(Rep.), Bradford; Isaac G. Gordon (Rep.),
Jefferson; Edward M. Faxon (Rep.), Phila
delphia; John Tiunkey (Dem.), Venango;
James P. Sterret (Rep.), Allegheny; Henry
Green (Rep.), Northampton; and Silas M.
Clark (Dem.), Indiana. Mercur's term will
expire in 1887, Gordon's in 1888-and Pax
oes'in IVS, sO that unless this line of suc- .
cession iitfOken by death, inability or re
signation, it will be thirteen years before a
Democrat again occupies the place of Chief
Justice, from which Sharswood retires.
The progress of the electriclight is
generally believed to be much greater
and‘pore rapid in general use for pub
lic and private purposes. in American
cities than in Europe. This is a sad
mistake. Reliable • accounts show
clearly that in London, Paris and Ber
lin the adoption of the electric light is
quite common for the illumination of
the main streets and of public buildings
and Places and of large .private business
A report comes :from the Indian
Teirifory, says the North American,
via Sioux City, lowa, rather a round
about route, it mush be admitted,
that the Creek Indians who fought for
the Union are asking for pensions.
Viewed in the light of recent revela
tions in regard to pension peculations,
it would seem' as if some smart attorney
has picked up a batch of dusky claims
and proposes to prosecute them. , . 'lt
would be interesting to ki.ow just
how little orthe government's generosi
ty would reach the redskins.' It might
be difficult to figure it out' in dollars
and cents.
Pension Commiisioner Dudley in
preparing the tables for his annual re
port has
,thade the discovery that there
are 1,000,000 exzsoldiers- yet living in
the United States who have never ap
plied for pension. These men are
getting along in years, and disorders
contracted in the service are -manifest
ing themselves in pensionable disabili
ties. The prevalent idea that the pen
sion rolls should be decreasing at this
time is, he thinks, erroneous. They
are, on the,c.irtrary, likely to increase
for some years. The annual amount
for current payments ifenow about $55,-
000,000 exchisive of arrears.
A vein of cheerfulness is seen in, two
classes of Bepublicans,notwithstending
the cold wave that struck the party on
the 7th—those who bet that Mr. Jad
win would receive a larger vote ,in
Bradford county than Col. Overton,
and those who bet that Jadwin Would
receive a larger vote in Overton's town
than Overton would receive in Jadwin's
county. The first bet was won by
3,595 to 3,273, and the second by 177
to 104. It makes "prestige" look' un
commonly seedy, when a bolting 06;
didate walks away with 73 more votes,
in the: borough where "prestige" has
gone to seel,.than "prestige" can com
mand in the bolter's entire county.—
Honesdale Citizen.
• Vissimarron, Dee. 4.-
7b the Senate and House of Representatives of
the Mild Stales : • •
It is provided by the oonstitutio* n that the
president shall,• from time to time, give
congress information of the state of the
union, and recemmend to their considera
tion such meaSives as he shall judge neces
sary and expedient. In reviewing the
events of the year which 'has elapsed since
the commencement of your Bess:lone, I Molt
call your attention to the gratifying condi
tion of our • -.
*awes MCLiTtOSII.
Onr intereourse with the other powers
has continued to be of a *most friendly
character. Such slight differences as have
arisen during the year have • been already
settled, .or are likely to reach an early ad
justment. The arrest of citizens of the
United States in Ireland under 'the recent
laws which owe their origin to the disturb
ed condition of that country, has led to a
somewhat extended correspondence\ with
the Government of Great, Britain, and a
disposition to respect our rights has been
practically manifested by the releaseeof the
arrested parties.
The claim of this nation in regard to the
supervision and control of any inter-ocean
ic canal across the American 'isthmus has
continued to be the subject of conference.
It iklikely, time be more powerful thairdis- ,
cussift in removing the divergence be
tween the two nations,
whose friendship is
so closely cemented by the intimacy of
their relations, and the community of their
Our long-established friendliness with
Russia has remained unbroken and it has
prompted me to proffer the earnest Coun
sel of this government that measures, may
be adopted for suppressing 'the persecu
tion which the Hebrew race in that coml.
has lately suffered. It has not trans
pired that any American citizen has been
subjected to arrest or injury; bat our cour
teous remonstrance, nevertheless; has been
courteously received: There is reason to
believe that the time is not far distant when
Russia:will be able to secure toleration to
all faiths within her borders. At the in:
ternation conventional,held in Paris inlBBo
and attended by representatives of the Uni
ted States an agreement was reached in re
spect to the protection of trade-marks, pat
ented articles and the rights of manufac
turing firms and corporations; • formula
ting into treaties of recommendations thus
adopted it is receiving the attention which
it merits. The protection of the sularma
rine cables is a subject now under consid
eration-by the international conference at
Paris. 'Believing it is clearly the true Poli
cy of this government to favor neutraliza
tion in this means of intercourse, I request
ed. our minister to France to attend thecon
verition as a delegate. I also designated
two pf our eminent scientists to attend as
Max representatives at the mefeting of the
international committee at Paris for leen
sidering the' adoption of a common unit
measure electric force. In view of 'the ire- 1 i
quent, occurrence of conferences for the
consideration of important matters of coin
mon interest to:civilized nations, I respect
fully suggest that the executive be invested
by congress with discretionary power to
send delegates , to such conventions, and
that provision be made to defray the ex
penses incident thereto. ;
• The difference between the United Statee
and Spain, as to the effect of a judgment!
and certificate of naturalization, has not
yet been adjusted, but it is hoped .and be
lieved the negotiations now in progress will
result in the establishment to this goveln
ment of so reasonable and just a measure.
I have already called the - attention of con
gress to the fact that in parts - of Spain and
its colonies onerouf fines have lately been
imposed upErn vessels of the United 'States
for trivial, technical offenses against local
egulations. Efforts for the abatement of
these exactions have thus far proved un
successful. I regret to informs you, also,
that the fees demanded by the Spanish con
suls in American ports are in some cases so
large, when•;
_tempered with the value of the
cargo,. as tonmount in effect to a consider
able export di*, and that remonstrances
in this regard have nit as yet received the
attention they seem to deserve.
The German government has invited the
United States to participate in an interns
tional exhibition of domestic cattle to be
held in Hamburg, in July, 1883. If this'
country is to be represented it is impor
tant that in the early days' of this session
congress should make a suitable appropria
tion for that purpose.
The , death of Mr. Marsh, our late minis
ter to Italy, has oval:cad from that- govern
ment expressions of profound respect for
his exalted character and for his honorable
career in the diplomatic service of his coun
try. The Italian government has raised a
-question as to the propriety of receignizing, -
in his dual capacity, the representative of
this country, recently accredited both as
secretary of legation and consul-general at'
Rome. He has been received as secretary,
but his exequatnr as consul-general has
thus far been withheld:
The extradition contention with Belgi
um, which has been in operation since 1874,
has been lately supplanted by another, and
the senate has signified its apprOval and
ratifications have been duly exchanged be
tween the contracting countries. To a list
of extraditable crimes has been added that
of assassination or an attempt'at assassins-.
tion of the chief of state. Negotiations
have been opened with Switzerland, look
ing to a settlement by treaty of the ques
tion whether its citizens can renounce their
allegiance and become citizens of the
tedaitates without obtaining the consent
of the Swiss government, lam glad to
form you that the immigration of pauperia
and criminals from certain cantons of Swit
zerland has sqbstontially ceased and is no
longer sanctioned by the authorities. The
consideration of this subject prompts the
siggestion that the act of. August 3d, 1882,
Which has for its object the return of - for
eign convicts to their 'own country, should
be so modified as not to be open to the in
terpretation that it effects the - extradition
of criminals on preferred charges of crime.
The Ottoman porte has not yet assented
to the interpretation this government .has
put upon the treaty of 1830, relative to, its
jurisdictional rights in Turkey. It may be
well, however, as this difference will be
adjusted by a general revision of the sys
tem of the jurisdiction of the United States
in the countries of the east, a subject to
which your attention has already been call
ed by the secretary of state.
In the interest of justice 'toward China
and /span I trust the question as to the re
turn of the indemnity fund to the govern
ments of those countries will reach, at the
present session; the satisfactory solution
which I have: already recommended and
which has recentlf been foreshadowed by
congressional discussion. ' The trinity late
ly concluded with Corea awaits the action
of the senate. During the late' disturb
ance in Egypt the timely presence of Amer
ican vessels served as a protection to the
persons and property of many! of our own
citizen's, and to citizens of other countries
whose governments have expressed thanloe
for this assistance.
The recent legislation restricting ' the im
migration of laborers from China, has giv
en rise to the _question. whether the- Chi
nese, proceeding to or from ; another -coun
try, may lawfully pass through our own.
Construing lair of May 6th, 1882; with the
treaty of November 7th, 1880, the_ restric
tion would seem to be limited- to Chinese
immigrants coming to the United States as
laborers, and would not forbid mere tran
sit across our territory. I ask the atten
tion of congress to the subject for such ac
tion, if any, as mak be deemed advisable:
This government has recently had occa
sion to manifest its interest in the republic
of Liberia, by'seeking to aid in amicable
settlement of the boundary dispute between
that republic and the British possession of
Sierra Leone.
The reciprocity treaty with Hawaii will
become terminable after September 9,1883,
on twelve months' notice by either party.
ile certain provisions of that compact
*ay have proved onerous, its existence has
fostered commercial relations which it is
important to preserve. I suggest, there
fore, that early consideration be given to
such modifications of the treaty as seem to
be demanded by the interests of our' peo
ple. t - . 4 "
In View of our increasing trade With both
Hayti and Santo Domain I advise that
Provision be made tor diplomatic intercourse
with the latter by ealarrag the serape of
the mission at Port-au-Prince. I regret that
certain claims of American citizens against
the government of Hayti have thus far been
pressed unavailingly. •
A recent agreement with Mexico provides
for crossing the frontier by Armed forces of
either country in pursuit of hostile Indiana.
'ln nay message last year -I called attention
to the prevalent lawlessness upon the bor
'iliar'and to the necessity of legislation for its
su ression. again invite the attention
of Congress to the subject. Partial relief
from these'mischiets has been sought in a'
convention which now awaits' the approval
,of the Senate, as does, also, another touch
ing the establishment of the international
boundary between thii United States and
Mexico. If the latter be ratified, the action
of Congress Will be required for establish.
lag mutable commissions of survey, The
boundary dispute betieeit Mexico and Ona
temals, which led this — government toprof•
far its friezully counsels to both parties;
haoheen amicably settled:- - • „
No change hap occurred in our: - relation
with Venezuela". I again, invoke your ac
tion in the iiiatter of the pending' awards
against that republic to; which reference
was made by a special message front the ex
ecutive at your last session. Invitation has
been received from the goveinmeat of Ven
ezuela tq send representatives in July, 1883
to Caracas for participation in the centen
nial celebratiOn birth of Bolivar. the form-
der of South American independence. In
connection with this event it'ts designed :to
to commence the erection; at Caracas, of a
Antis of Washington and torcominct an in
dustrial exhibition - which shall be open to
American products. trecoMmerid that the
*United States:be represented and that suit.
able provision,be made therefor. '
The elevation of the grade of our mission
in Central America . to plenipotentiary rank,
which was autho rised by Congress Flat its
late session, has since been , effected. The
war between Peru and Boliiia on one side
and Chili on the other, began_ more than
three years ago, on the occupation by Chili
in 1880 of all the latieral territory of' Boliv
ia. Negotiations for t pence were conducted
under the-direction of the United Statea,—
The allies refused to l concede any territory,
but Chili has since become master of the
whole' coast of both countries and the capi
tal of Peru. Ayeaieince--as you have al
ready been advised by the correspondence
transmitted you in January last—this gov
ernment sent a special mission to the bel
ligerent powers to express the hope that
Chili would be disposed to accept the mon
ey indemnity for the expenses of the war,
and to relinquish her demand for a portion
of the territory of her antagonist. This rec
ommendation which Chili declined -to fol-
low, this goirernment did inot assume to ert „,
force. Nor can it be , enforced without re
sort to measures which would be in keep
ing, neither with the temper of: our people
nor with the spirit of our institutions. The
power- Arent no longer extends over-its,
whole territory, and as in the event of our
interfence to dictate peace would need to
be supplemented by the armies and navieg
of the United Staths, such interference
would aliaost inevitably lead to the estab
lishMent of .a protectorate, a result 'utterly
at odds with our pastpoll injurious to
our present interests and full of embarass
' went for •the fitture: For effecting a termi
nation of hostilities hPon terms at. once just
to the victorious nation and 'generotte to its
adversaries, this government has spared no
efforts to avoid such as might involve the
complications which I have indicated. It
is greatly to bo deplored that Chili` seems
resolved to enact such rigorous conditions
of peace and indisposed to submit to arbi
tration the terms of an amicable settlement.'
No peace is likely to be lasting that is not
sufficiently equitable and just to command
the approval of other nations. About a
year since invitations were extended to the
nations of this continent to send represen
tatives to a peace congress to assemble at
Washington in November ' 1882. The time
of this meeting was fi xed at aperiod then
remotein the hope that as the invitation it
self declared, in-the meantime the -disturb
ances between the South American repub
lics would be adjusted.- As that expectation
seemed unlikelY to be realized, I askediin
April last, for an expression of opinion from
the:two houses of Congress as to the advis
ability of holding the proposed convention
at the time appointed. This action was
prompted, in part, by the ffimbta which
mature reflection had suggested whether
the diplomatic usage and tradition of the,
goverinnent did not make it fitting that the
executive should Consult the representa „ ;
[ fives-sof the people before pursuing a lino
',_of policy somewhat novel mOS character
mud far-reaching in its possible consequen
ces. In view of the fact that no action was
taken'by Congress in the premises and no
provision had been made for the necessary
expenses, I subsequently decided to post
pone the convocation and so notified the
several governments which had been invit
ed to attend. I am unwilling to dismiss
' this subject without assuring you of my
support of any measures the wisdom of
Congress may devise for...the promotion of
peace on this confluent and throughout the
world, and I trust thel.time is nigh when
with thesniversal assent of all civilized
peoples all international-.differences shall
be determined without resort to arms by
' the benignant' proeeeses of arbitration,
Changes have occurred in the diplomatic
representation of several foreign powers du,
ring the past , year. New ministers from
the Argentine Republic,
the republic of
Anstro-Hungary, Brazil, Chili, China, &tit ,
an, France;- Iflexice ' the Netherlands and
Russia have prsssnt ed thair arailantiala
The missions of Denmark and Venezuela
at this capital have been raised in grade.—
Switzerland has created a plenipotentiary
mission to this government, and the em
bassy !from !ascar and the minister
from Shun • shortly arrive. Our diplo.
matic int rco e : e has been enlarged by the
establish ~ . of relations with the now
kingdoni of Servia, by the creation of a
mission toSiam andby the restoration of s
mission to Greece. The shah of Persia has
expressed gratification that a charge d' ef
faires will shortly be sent to that country,
where the rights of our citizens have been
hitherto courteously guitrded resen
tatives of Great Britain. .
• urshinnor. RECOMMENDATION •
I renew my recommendation for eh
, leg
islationas will -place the. United States in
harmony•with other maritime po ers with
respect to international rifles. for the pro
vention• of collisions , at sea. In conformity
with your joint resolution of the 12i1 of Au
gust last, I have directed the secretary of
state to addresS foreign governments in re
spect to the proposed conference for con
sidering the subject of the universal adop
tion of a common prime meridian to be used
in reboning longitude and in the regulation
of time throughout the civilized world.—
Their replies will in due time be laid before
you. • H ,
An agreement was reached in Paris, in
1875, between•the.principal powers for the
interchange of official publications through
the medium of their respective foreign de
partments,: Thvadmirable system which
has been bnilt up by the enterprise .of the
Smithsonian institution, affords a practical
basis for co-operation in this scheme, and
nn advanceMent has been effected^by which
that institution will perform necessary, la
bors under the direction of the department
pf. state. A reasonable compensation there
fore should be proyidedby law. ,
The clause in the act making appropria
tions for diplomatic and consuliii services,
contemplates the re-organization of both
branches of such services-on a salaried ba
sis, leaving the fees to inure to the benefit
of the treasury: I cordially favor such
project, as likely to correct the abuses in
- the present system. The secretary of state
will present to you • at , an early date a plan
for such it re-organization. A full and in
teresting exhibit of the operations of the
treasury department is afforded by the re
port of the secretary.
r.. t .
It appears that the ordi revenues
from all sources for the fiscal ear ended
with June 30, 18E12, werdas foll : From
customs, $220,410,730.2k; train ternal rev
enue, $146,497,595.45; from . es of public
lands, $475,314,037; from tax n the circu
lation and deposits of national banks, $B,-
956,794.45; from repayment of interest by
Pacific railway c0mparne5,5840,554.37; from
the sinking fund for Pacific railway compa
nies, $796,271.42;-from customs, fees, fines,
penalties, etc., $1,343,348; from fees, con
sular letters, patents , and lands; $2,638,-
990.97; from the 'Proceeds oUm ales ; of gov
ernment property, $314,959:55; from the
profit on the coinage of -bullion, deposits
and assays, 84,116,613.73; frolalndian trust
fund, $5,705,243.22; from depositsby in
dividuals for the survartig of public
lands, $2,052,306.36; froniAe revenue of
the District 'of c01umbid,'161,715,176.41;
from miscellaneous sources, $3,383,445.43;
making the total of onlinary receipts, $403,-
525,250.28. -
teNli I.C;} • 4A,j!)ty
The ordinary expenditures for , the same
period, were, for civil '- expenses, $18,042,-
386.42 i. for foreign intercourse, 91,309,583,-
192; for military establishments, including
river and harbor ini - - ements and arse
nals, $4,357,049,418; or 'naval establish
ments, including vase machinery and im
provements, at the navy , yards, $15;032,-
04646; for misiellaneous expenditures, in
cluding_ public - buildings„ lighthouses land
the collecting' sof revenue, 134,539,2 37 .50;
for expenditures on accou nt of the District
of C01umbia,13,330,542,87; for interest on
the public debt, - $71,077,306.79, making the
total of ordinary expenditure $257,981,-
439.57, and leaving a surplus revenue of
9145,543,910.71, which, Keith this amount
drawn from the cash balance in the treasu
ry of 920,737,694.94, pikes a grand total of
$166,281,505.55. . . ..
;' infunarnox op soma
TheM was applied to the redemption of ism&
for the sinking Auld, $10,079,150: of Auctions' cur.
tency for the sinking fand, MMUS; of the loan
of July and toast, 1861, $12,512,060; of the loan
of Mama, 1863, $4,411,606;; of the funded loan of
1181 837.1941.450; of the loaned 18M, ALM; of the
imn Of February, 1861, 1313000; of the 6,106 of
NS; $9,100; of the 1.900 13861, woo; of 1406
lart e ttoo; of lalas of 1801, 154,650; of- comb;
of POMO; of consols - ortillak $408,250; of
ootusola of 18M, 111,414; , of the Oregon - War=
10754S10; of the old demand, vomponnd
and other notes, 411,860. mating a_ total of dale
armee AND Unarm. * •
• T he twelfth eittnnletie of.the United States dui - -
big the last fiscal year, including Impart* and ex-
ports of merchandise and - specle was as follows
Exports in merchandise $760,612,257; sped. $4O.- -
.411,479; total $700.069,736; imports in merchandise,
V 24.030.074; specie $42,472,9110; fatal $767.717, 26 4-
The excess in exports over the Imports of mer
chandise reached $23,902,682. The excelis is lest
than it has been before for any of the_priedons six
years, as appears by the follog table: For the
year ended,wlth Jane t he m excess in
' over the imports in merchandise in 1876 Inm es tli c t
661481; 1877 151,162,000' 1878, $257,814.214; 1870,
$264,1161.666* , 1880, $16f,684 . 012; 1881, $269„712,718;
1882, $24,904683. • • 1
• ,
Daring the yearthere . have been orgithited 171
national haute, and of these institutlonslheve are
now In operation 2,260,1 larger number than ever.
before. The value of their notes In active elrenla-
tion, July let 1882, was C 32,660,458. 1 common
to your attention the secretary's views with re
smct to the likelihood of the serious contraction of
ffila circulation and to the modes by which that re•
suit may, in his Jadfiment, be averted.
In respect to the coinage of sliver dollus, and
the fetirement of silver certificates, I have seen
nothing to alter,lmt much to confirm the senti
ments, to which I gave expression last year.'
A comparison between the respective amounts
of silver dollars in circulation Nov. 1, Uhl, and
Nov. 1, M2=7 an increase of one million and
a half of do but during the-Interval there had
been In the who e number coined an increase of
a 28,000,000 of $328A00,000 thus tar minted. , Little
more than $35,000,000 are In circulation., The mass
of accumulated coin' has grown so great that the
vault room at present available, for storage, Is
scarcely sufficient to contain it. It is not apparent
why It Is desirable to continue this coinage, now so
enormously In excess of the public mend, as to
sliver certificates. %Addition to theground which
seemed last year to instil) , their re tirement; may
be mentioned the effect which is likely' to ensue
from tho su ply of gold certificates, for whose is
mance, Co as recently made a provision, and
which are n I n actual circulation. - You cannot
tall to note th interest the discussion by the sec
retary, as tO e necessity of providing by le.gbila
tion some m eof freeing the treasury of the ex
cess in assets, the event that congress falls to
reach an early agreement for the reduction of tax
ation. 1 heartily approve the secretary's recent
mendatipn of the Immediate and extensive Fedor;
lions %Us...annual revenue of the goVernment. -
-It will ne remembered that I urged upon the at
tention of congress at its last session, the Import
ance of relieving the industry and enterprise of the
country front the pressure of unnecessary taxa
dons. It is one of the maxims in :political
economy, that all taxes are burdensome, however
wisely and prudently Imposed. Though there has
always been among our people wide differences of
sentiment as to the best methods of raising the na
tional revenues, and indeed as to the principles
upon which taxation should be based, there has
been substantial accord. In the doctrine that only
such taxes ought lois levied as are necessary for
a wise and economical administration of the gov
ernment. Of the late public revenues have far ex
ceeded the limit, and unless checked by appropri ,
ate legislation such excess will continue to in
crease from year to year:, .
For the fiscal year ended with June 30, 1581, the
surplus revenue amounted to $100,000,000. For the
fiscal year ended with the 30th of
_June the last sur
plus was snore than sl4spoompo. The report of the
secretary shows what disposition has been made of
these moneys. They have not only answered the
requirements of .the sinking fund, but have at
forded a large balance, applicable to other redue
tions of the publit debt.
But I renew the expression of my conviction that
such rapid extinguishment of the national indebt,
edness, as is nowAtaking place, is by no meant' a
cause for congratulation. It is a Cause rather for
serious ,apprehension. If it continues it must
speedily' be followed by one of - the gull results so
clearly set forth in the report of the secretary.
Either the surplus must b idle hi the treasury.or
the government will be forced to buy, at market
rates, its bonds not then 'redeemable, and which,
under such circumstancee, can hot fall to commend
an enormous premium, Or Ma: swollen revenues
will be devoted to extravagantr:xpenditure, which
as experience has taught, is ever the bane of en
overflowing treasury.
It was made apparent In the course of an ani-
Matett direttssioq which this iquestion aroused at
the last session of congress, that the policy of di
minishing the revenue by reducing taxation coin
manded the general approval of the members of
both houses. I regret thht, because of conflicting
views as to the best - which that policy
should be made operative, none of its benefits as
yet have' been reaped. In fulfillment of what I
deem my constitutional duty, but with little hope
'that I can make a valuable contribution to this
vexed question, I shall proceed to intimate briefly
my own views in relation t 4 its
. •
Upon showing our tifiancial condition at the close
of the last fiscal year, I feel , atified in recom
mending to congress the abolit io n of internal rev
enue' taxes, except those upon tobacco in its vari
ous forms, and upon distilled spirits and fermented
liquors, and except. also, the special tax on manu
facturers and dealers in Such articles.. I venture
now to suggest that, unless it shall be ascertained
thatthe probable expenditures oil the government
for the coming year have been underestimated. all
internal taxes save those which relate to (thinned
spirits, can be prudently abrogated.
Such a course, if accompanied by a simplicatlon
of the machinery of collection, which would then
be easy of accomplishment', might be reasonably
expected tO Wenn IA diminishing the cost of such
a collection, by at least $2.500,000 and in the retire
went from °nice, of from 1,600 to 2,000 persons.
The system of excise duties, has nevertommended
itself to the fhvor of the American people, and has
IN-C.l moos rod Co cAuvp. An mayo., lug 1/C1:11.4C1111XIS 111
the treasury. when by reason of special exigencies,
the duties on Imports have been proved inadequate
for the needs of the government.
ril e
Thesentiment of , ' the country, doubtless, de
mands hat the present exercise tax shall be abol
ished soon as such a course' can safely be pur
sued. • •
It Me to me, hOwever,for various reasons,
that so sweeping a measure surthe total abolition of
trite 1 taxes would for the present be an unwise
step. - Two of 'these reasons are., deserving of
special mention. First, it is by no' means clear,
even if the existing system of duties on imports
be continued without modification, that duties
alone will ,yield a sufficient revenue for ;all the
needs of the government. • It is estimated that
I/100,000, 00 0 will be required for pensions during
the coming year, and it may well be doubted.
whether the maximum annual demand for that
?object lutst "heen reached. The importance of
this , quest ti,- would almost Justify in my Judg
ment,. the retention, for the -present, of that lior
tion-of tltelkystem of the internal revenue, which
is least ohiectionable to the people. A second total
abolition Of excise taxes, would almost inevitably
prove a serious, if not an insurmountable obstacle
to a thorough, revision of the tariff, and to any con
siderable reduction in import duties.
, :
The present tariff system is In many respect un
just. It makes unequal distributions v hoth of Its
burdens and its benefits. This fact was prattlailly
recognized by the majority of each house of con
gress in the passage of the act creating the tariff
commission.. The report of that commission, will
be placed before you at the beginning 'of this; SC*
Mon, and will, I trust, afford you such-Information
as to the conditions and prospects of the various
commercial, agricultural, manufacturing. mining
and other interests of the country, and contain.
such suggestions for statutory - revision 8A wit
practically aid your action In this important sub
The revenues froth customs for the fiscal. year
endinglune 30th, 1871, amounted to $137,000,000.
It has in - the three succeeding years reached first
$186.000.000, then one hundred and ninety-eight
million - • dollars, and finally, as has been 4 aiready
itated,liro hundred and twenty million dollars.
Theincome from this-source for the fiscal year'
which will end with Jime 30th, 1883, will doubtless
be considerably in excess of the sum last mention
ed. if the tax on domestic spirits is to be retained
it is plain therefore, that large reductions from
customs revenue are entirely feasible. While rec
ommending this reduction Cam far from advising,
in abandonment of the policy, of discriminating
in the. adjustment of details, as to afford aid and
protection to domestic labor. !' But the present spa.
tem should be so revised as to equalize the public
burden among all classes, and occupations, and
bring it Into closer harmony with the present.
needs of industry. Without entering into minute
details, which, under the present circumstances, is
quite unnecessary, I recommend the enlargement
of the free list, so as to Include within-it, numerous
articles which yield inconsiderable revenue for the.
simplification of the complexion, and a consistent
schedule of duties, upon certain manufactures,
particularly those of cotton, iron and steel and a
substantial reduction of the duties upon those ar
ticles and upon sugar, molasses, siA, wool and
woolen goods, •
If a general revision of the tariff shall be found
to be impractical at this session, I express the hope
that at least some Af the more conspicuous In
equalities in the present la* may be- corrected, be
fore your lust adjournment. One of them Is
specially referred to by the secretary. In view of
the recent decision, of the supreme court, the ne
cessity of amending the law by which duties as to
standard of color, be adopted as a test for the
saccharine strength of sugars, is_tdo obvious to re
quire comment.
From the report of the secretary of war, it ap.
pears that the, only outbreak of Indians during the
past year occurred in Arizona and in the south.
western part of New Mexico. They were promptly
quelled and the qUiet which has prevailed in all
parts of the country has permitted such an addl.
lion to be made to the military force in the region
endangered by Apaches, that there is little reason
to apprehend trouble in the future.
Those parts of the secretary's report
which relate to our seacoast defenses and
armaments, suggest that the existing forti
fications are inadequate to the defense of the
great harbors and cities, for whose protec.
Lion they were built. , The goestion of pro
viding on armament; suited to our present
necessities, has been the subject of consider
ation by the board, whose report was trans
mitted to congress . Ft the last session. Pend
ing theconsiderataadof that report, the 'i
department hai token nostepe for the manu
facture or conversi o n of any heavy cannon,
but the secretary expresses the hope that au
thority and means to begin that zmportant
work will soon be.provided, I invite the at
tention of *grass to the
. propriety of mak
ing more adequate prelims for the arming
and equipping-of militia than is afforded by.
the act of 1800, Which is still upon the statute
books. The matters has *ready been the
subject of discussion in the opiate and a bill,
which seeks to supply the deficiencies in the
existing laws, is now olitioitii*endar. The
secretary of war calls`iitfip . . tido to the ember
rassment;gros!ing out the recent act of
making a retitleinent of the officers CTEZiIy compile:n.4l the. ,ago of sixty.
four years. The act oft7B is still in force,
which limits to .400, the umber of thoee.who
can be retired for disability, [or upon . their
own application.
These two sea, when construed together,
seems to forbid the relieving, even for abso
lute incapacity of officers who do not fall
within the purview of the latter statute, save
at such times, as there chance tobe leastban
400 names on the retired list. There are now
420'' it isEilately thaCiN intended
thiireadvindloonetivish the teue,t l . l 7
that thela*Cught to -
: 186- M.09 3 Anti Itesamtlirtu
*grunt *that WOW Me to withhold,
- from the billinntitled an act
fur' iwpmpriatkeisfortheconstriutitm
repakand preiaratkin of certain_ 'wake oi
ravers s and larbori, beisme a law, near
the cline 44 youths?, sessioni r protnpt me ,to
express &bebop that no similar Immure will
be deemed 'mammy- during the present ma
sks of ' "congiesa, lndeed such a meows
would nowl,lie th a t
to • serious objection, in
l addition to that 'which waslately urged upon
your attentiory am informed hype acre
etvror that?. the greater portion a** ,
ilkunt •Pnr9Priated for.various items, specified,
in that - act, remains unexpended. Cif, the
new !Kirke, , which it authorised, expenses
have haulm:awed upon two quay, for which
the total appron was 9210,009. The
present available balance is kibiclosed by the
farming tabled The amount appropriated by
the act of August 2d, 1882, wa5118,738,875.
The amount of the appropriation by the net
of 'June 19th, 1882,. was $lO,OOO. ins
amount of the appro priation for the payments
to J. B. Eads was 9804,000. The unexpend
ed balanCenf the former appropXiatians was
$ 4 ,78 8 1 2 6 8 making a total jot . 28 •7 91 3 88 ,
end lees the amount drawn from the treasury
betereen *lily Ist, andSovembek 20t1i, 1882,
$6,056.194, 1 Total, $17,754,944. It Mapper
ent by this 'exhibit,. soler as it Concerns most
of the items to which • the dot. of August 2d,
1872, relateN there can be no need of fiuther
appropriations masher the clpie of the pres
ent seasibu. If, however any action should
seem to, be necessary in r espect to Partieidar
objects, it will be entirely feasible to provide
for these objects, by appropriate legislation.
It its pomade, for example that delay until
the assembling of the nexecongress, to make
additional prcenisica for the Mississippi river
improvements,might be attended with serious
consequence., if such should appear tobe the
case. A just. bill, -relating to that subject,
would t mmtivul my aispro This leads me
t& offer a siggeition, 4ahic I n trust willoom
mind itself to the wisdom of congress. Is it
not advisable that grants for considerable
sums of money, for divers independent
wherries of internal improvement, should be
made the subjects of separate and distinct, leg
islative enactments I It will scarcely be gain,
said, even by those who faVor the most liberal
expenditure for such purposes, as are, sought
to be accomplished by what is commonly 'pill
! ed the river and harbor bill. I I "vt,
• That the practice of grouping in such a ' , 1l
appropriations for a great diversity of °Neils,,
widely mparated either in their nature or, in
the locality with which they are concerned, or
in both, is one which is much to be deprecated
unless it is irremediable. It inevitably tends
to secure the success of the bill as a whole,
though many of the items separately consid
ered could scarcely fail of rejection. By the
adoption of the course I have recommended
every member of congreiss . whenever an oppor
tunity should arise for giving his influence and
vote for meritorious appropriations, would be
enabled so tudo; without being called upon to
others undeserving his approval, and
also would the executive be afforded thereby,
full opportunity for the exercise of his consti
tutional prerogative,of opposing whatever ap
pointments, seemed to him objectionable, with
out imperiling the success of others, which
commended themselves_ to his judgment. It
May be urged, in opposition to these sugges
ticins, that the number of works of internal
improvement,which are justly entitled to gov
ernmental aid, is so great as to render im
practicable separate appropriation bills there
for, or even for such 'iqcomparatively limited
:number, as make the disposition of large sums
of money. This objection may be well found
ed, and whether it be or not, the advantages
which would be likely to ensue from the adop
tion of the course I have recommended, may
perhaps be more effectively attained by anoth
er; which I respectfully submit to congress as
an alternative _ proposition.
It is provided by the constitutions of four
teen of our stet** that the executive may dis
approve any item or items of a bill appropriat
ing money, whereupon a part of the bill ap
proved shall be a law, and the part disap
proved, shall fail to be come a law, unless re
according to the provisions prescribed
or the passage of the bills over the veto of an
The states wherein the same such prevision
as the - foregoing, a part of the fundamental
law, are Alabama, California, Colorado, Flor
ida, Georgia, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska,New Jersey, New York,Pennsylik
nia Texas, and West Virginia.
icommerid to yew careful consideration the
Question whetheranankendintot to thelederal
constitutionin thimparticidar indicated,would
not afford best remedy for what is Often a
grave emlximussment both to the members of
congress and the executive,and is sometimes a
serious public mischief. ,
The report of , the secretary of the navy,
states that the movements of the various squad
rons during the year in home lard foreign
waters, where our officers and seamen, and
such ships / as we possess, have continued to
illustrate t i e bight character and excellent dis
cipline of naval organization. -,
On the 21st of December,lBBl, information
ru il t i
was received dust, _.,e exploring ship Jean
nette, had, been C "ad and abandoned in the
Arctic ocean. Th officers and crew; after a
journey over ice; einharked in three boats for
the coast of Siberii. One of thelprirties, under
the command of Chief Engineer George W.
Melville, reached lend, and, falling in with na
was saved; another, under Lieutenant
Commander DeLong landed in a barren region
near the mouth of Lena river, and after six, `
weeks had elapsed. all but two of the number
had died from fatigue and starvation. No
adinge has been received from the party in the
third WO, under the Command of Lieutenant
Chin; lint a long and friiitless investigations
leaves little doubt that all its members per ,
ished at seq. As a slight tribute to their he
roism, LI, give in this conueueitaison fate 1
names of the gallant men who sacrificed
their lives on this expedition: Lieutenant
Commander. George AV .. . - LlisLong ; Surgeon,
James M. Ambler ; Jerome .j. Collins ; Hans
Helmer Ereehsen ; - Heprieli H. ' Kruicke ;
George W. Boyo,Waiter Lee, Adolph Dress
ler Carl A. arts, Nelse liversen, Cook
Sami and Indian Alexy.
The officers and men in the missing boat
were Lieutenant , Charles W. Chipp, coat-
mending, William Dunbar, Alfred. Sweet
man, Walter Sharvell, Albert C. Kuehue,
„Edward Star, Henry D. Warren, and Peter
E. Johnson. Lieutenant Giles B. Herber,
and Master William H. Scheutze, , are now
-bringing home the remains of DeLong and'
his comrades. In pursuance of the direc
tions of congress, the Rodgers was fitted out
far the relief of the Jeannette, in occordance
with an act of congress, March 30, 1881,
and ailed from San Francisco June 16th,
under the command of Lieutenant Robert
M. Berry. On November 80th she was ac
cidentally destroyed by fire, while in winter
1 quarters in St. Lawrence bay, but her offi
cere and crew succeeded in .escaping to the
shore. Berry and .one "of his officers; after
making a search for the Jeannette along the
"coast of Siberia, fell in with Melville's party
ad returned lby way of Europe. The other
Officers and - 'crew 'of the Rodgers were
brought. from St. Lawrence bay by the
whaling steamer North Star, Master Charles
'. n whe i had been placed in charge of
the d -.. of supplies at Cape Serdze; Re
turning `, this port from St. Lawrence bay,
across . - ice in a blinding snow, storm, he
was carzied out to sea and lost, 'notwith
standing all the efforts to rescue him. •
It appears by the secretary's report that
thif available naval force of the United
States consists of thirty-reven Cruigers,.four
teen single-turreted monitors, built . during
the rebellion, with a large number of smooth
bore guns and Parrott rifles and eighty
seven rifled cannon. The cruising vessels
should be gradually replaced by iron or
steel ships'; the monitori-by modern armor
ed vessels, and 't*-ir armament by high
power-rifled guns, rm •
_swot nEcossinverros. .
The reconstruction of our navy, which
was recommended in my last message, was
begun by congress 'authorizing, in a recent '
act, the construction of two lame unarmored
vessels of the character recommended by the
naval advisory board and subject to its final
approval. A new advisory-board is to be
organized, u provided by that act.. ' I call
your attention to the recommendation 'of the
secretary and the bowl,- that authority=-.:be
given to construct two more cruisers, of
smaller &Soudan' s, and, one Beet dis patch
vessel, and that amersiations be made for
high-power rifled cannon, for the torpedo
service, and for other ha rbor defences. Pend
ing the codsideration by congreis of the policy
to be hereafter adopted in ecteductieg the
eight large navy yards and their _ expensive
adablishments, the secretary has advocated
a reduction in expenditures therefor to the
lowest pomade amounts.
Fortheimrpose of a ff ording the officers
sualheameh of the navy , opportunities for
eiercies, - and discipline in their profession,-
underappropriate control and direction, the
secretary shim that the lighthouse service
and coast survey, be transferred, , as now
organized' from the telemetry to the nevi
deportment, anid he ads° suggests, . for rea.
which he asigns,..that Kindler trans
fir inay wisely 'be nix& of ' the cruising
revenue vessels.-The stinetary„ forcibly
depicts the intimate conneetacn s and-; inter ,
dependence of *gravy andionnurrcial
rive and invilerattention tq, . the manned
decadence of thilatter and Ow correspond
lig taunter of our gm* commerce
foreign bottoms. • '
This subjelt is one of the utmost
trim) to the national welfare, and the meth
ods of reviving:American ship building, and
restoring the United States Sag in the ocean
carrying trade, should.receive the immediate
attention of congress. We have Inechankial
skill and abundant =aerial for the menu-
facture of modern iron steamships, in fair,
competition - with our, commercial rivals.
Our disadvantage in building ships; is the
Fr cost of labor and 'in -sailing them,
.taimmul greater interesti, on -capi-,
, hile the - ncean highways are already
monopolised` -by our , formidable . competators.
These obstacles shoo ht in some way be over-.
come, and- for our rapid communication
with foreign lands we should not continue
to depend wholly upon vessels bruit in the
yards of other countries and sailing under
foreign flags: I',
With no United States steamer On the
principle ocean lines; or in any foreign part;
our facilities for extending our commerce
are greatly restricted while . nations which
build and sail ships kind carry mails and
passengers obtain thereby conspicuous ad
vantages-in increasing their trad e.
The report of the post-master . general
gives evidence of the satisfactory condition
of the.t. department,, and contains many valu
able ' data and accompanying suggestions
which cannot fan to be of interest. The
information which affords that the receipts
for the fiscal year have exceeded the
expenditures, must be very grati
fying to congress and to the people of -As to matters which may
fairly chain particular attention,l refer you
tolls observations in reference to tho ad
visability of changing the present basis for
fixing salaries and 'allowances, for extend
ing,the money order system and enlarging
thelunctions of the, postal' establishment so
as to put under its control the t9egraph
system of tho country; though from this
last and
- most important recommrlotion, I
must withhold'my concurrence.
At the last setsioa of congress several
bills were introduced intothe Honiciof rep
resentatives for the reduction of letter i pos
tage to a rate of two cents per half anounce.
I have given much 'iitudy and . reflection to
this subject and ECM thoroughly. pe9nnuied
that such reduction would be for the best
interests of the public. It has been the
policy of the government, from its founda
tion, to defray, as far as possible, the ex
penses of carrying the mails by , direct tax
ation•in the form of postage. It has never
been claimed, however, that this service
ought to be produCtive of a net revenue.
As has been stated already, the reporti of
the postmaster-general shows . tha t' there is
,now a very considerable surplus'; in his de
pertinent, and that henceforth the receipts
are likely to increase at• a much ' greater
• ratio than the im4iessary expenditures. Un
less some change is made in the existing
laws, the profits Ot the postal service-will in
a very few years' swell the revenues ef the
government by many mil li ons of -4.lollars.
The time seems auspicious therefore for some
reduction in the rate of postage. In what
shall reduction consist t Review the
legislati n which has been had upon this
sub* •
During the last thirty years it has been
diselmed that domestic letters constitute the
only class of mail matter - which has never
been - favored by a subtantial reduction in
rates lam convincedjthat the burden of
'maintaining the service falls most unequally
upon - that class, and that, more than any
other, it is entitled to present relief. That
such a relief may be eitended without det
riment to other public - interests, will be dis
covered upon reviewing the results and for-
mer reductions. humediately prior to the
act of 1845, the pos tage upon a letter com
poied of a single sheet, was as follows: If
conveyed thirty miles or less, mix' cents; be
tween thirty and eighty miles. ten cents; be
tween eighty and one hundred and fifty
mike, twelve and one-half cents; between
one hundred and fifty and four hundred
miles, eighteen and three-fourths cents; over
four hundred miles, twenty-five cents.
By an act of 184.5, the postage nppn
single letter conveyed for any distancender
three hundred miles, was fixed at five cents,
and for any greater - distance ten cents.
By the act of 1851, it was provided that a
single letter, if prepaid should b 0 carried
an distance, not exceeding three thousand
miles for three cents, and any greater dis
tance for six cents. It will be. noticed that
both of those reductions were of radical
character, and relatively quite as important
as that which is now proposed In each
case there ensued a temporary loss in reve
nue, but a sudden large influx of business,
which subtantially repaitd that loss within
three years. Unless the experience of NA
legislation 'in this country, and elsewhere
goes.for naught, it may be safely predicted
a stimulus.
Thirty-three and one-third per centum in
the tax for carriage, would at once increase
the number of letters consigned to the Ulnae,
the advantages of secrecy would lead to a
very geneneral substitution of the sealed
packets for postal cards, and open circulars,
and in divers other 'ways the volume of
first-class matter would be enermondy aug
mented. Such an increase =minted iu
Englind in the first year after the' adoption
of penny postage to more than 125 per cent.
As the result of careful estimates, the de
tails of which cannot be here set out, I have
become convinced that the deficiency for the
first year after the proposed reduction,
would not exceed seven per cent of the ex;
penditure, or $3,000,000, while the deficiency
after the redaction of 184.5,
was more thaii
fourteen per cent. and after that of . 1851,
was twentvleven now t.
Another. interesting comparrison is afford
ed by the statistics furnished by the pest
office department. The act of October,
1845, was passed in the face of the fact "that
there existed a deficiency of more than" $3O
- That of 1851 was encouraged by' the
surPlus of $132,000. The excess of revenue
in the next fiscal year, is likely to 'be $3,-
If congress should approve these sugges
tions, it may be deemed desirable to supply
to some extent the deficiency which must,
for a time result by increasing the charge
for carrying merchandise which is now only
sixteen cents per pound. But even without
such an increase„l am confident that the
receipts, under the diminished rates, would
equal the expenditures, after a lapse of three
or four years. .1 •
The report of the department of justice
brings anew to your notice, the necessity of
enlarging the present system of federal ju
ris-prudence„sa,as to effectually answer the
requirements of the ever increasing litigation,
with which it is called , upon to deal. • The
!attorney-general renews Ahe suggestions of
his predecessor, that in the interests of jus
tice a better provision than the existing laws
afford should be ' made in 'certain judicial
districts for fixing the fees of witnesses 'arid
In my message in Decembeilast I referred
to the pending criminal proceedings grow
ing out of alleged frau& in what is known
'as thl star_ route service of the post-office
department, and advised you that I had - en-
joined upon the attorney-general and the
associate counsel to whom the interests of
the governkent'were intrusted the duty of
prosecuting with the utmost vigor of thelaw
all persons who might be found chargeable
with those offences. The. trial of one of
these cases haa'"since occurred.' , . It occupied
fez. many weeks the attention". of the su
preme court of this district, and was con
ducted with great zeal and • It re
sulted in a disagreement of the • jury, but
the case has been again placed upon the
colander and will shortly be retried. If
any guilty persons.shall finally escape pun
ishment for their offences,it will not be for
lack of diligent and earn est'efforts on the
part of the prosecution . I trait some agiree
anent may be reached which will speedily
enable congress, with the concurrence Of
'the executive, •to afford the commercial
community the benefit of the national bank
rupt las!.
,The re' oft of the secretary Of the interior,
with its accompanying documents, presents a
full statement of •the varied operations of
that department... In respect to Indian af•
fairs; nothing has occurred which has chang
ed or seriously modified the views to which I
devoted much space in my former comniuni
cation to congress. I renew the reconunen-
Asti.' xis therein contained as to extending to
the Indian the protection of the law ; allo ting
land in severalty to such. es desire it, and
makings suitable provision for the educe
tiot6f the youth. Such a provision as the
secretary forcibly maintains williprove
vailing, unless it is broad en include
all those who are able and ' to ~; m ake
use o(it and should not solely ret :to the
intellectual training, but also to instruction
in such Insuinal labor and sim industrial
arts as can be madepractically.. available.
Among other important subjects which are
included within the secre*-fs report and
which will doubtless furnish occasion for
miffnotic"la aetielniika - be-mentioned the
neglect of railroad companies, to.which large
grants of:land weremade by the aiitupt 1863
au4.1884, to take a title thereto and their ,
coneeqUent and inequitable exemption from
rfrimucivel. moms.
No survey our material condition, : can
fail to suggest inquiries as to the moral and
intellectual p ogress of the pe . ople. The cen
sus returns disckee en alarming state of illit
eracy in certain portions'; of the country
where provision for school& is grossly inade
gnat,. It id a momenteous qu estion
. for the
of congress, whether immediate _ and
substantial aid should not be extended by the
general government -for supplemtinting the'
'efforts of private benificence and istato and
territorial legislation, in behalf Of education.
The regulation: of interstate commerce,
has lamely been the subject of your delibet-
v :tSCIA I AVAV 4 / 3 1:r #:4'
" One of the incidents of the marvelous ex-
tension of the railway system of the country,
has been the adoption of such measures by
the corporations which own or control, roads
as has tended to impair the advantages of
healthful coinpetion and make hurtful dis
criminations in the adjustment of freightage.
These inequalities have been ' corrected in
several states by appro priate legislation the
effect of which is necessarily restricted to
the limits of their own territory. .For as
much as , it affects the commerce between
the dates, or between any one of the states
and a foreign country, they are subjects of
'ational concern and congress alone can af
ord relief. - ' • .
The' results which have 'thus far attended
the enforcement of the recent statute fcir the
suppression of
In the territories,
are reported by the secretary of the interior'.
It is not:pr,obable-that any:additional legisla
tion in this regard will be (hieined possible,
until the present existing laws be more
closely observed and studied. I congratulate
You' that :the' cuniss: ioners under whose.
supervison-those laws have been put in ope
ration, are encouraged to believe that the
evil at which they are aimed, may be sup
pressed without a resort to:
S uch radical
measures as in some quarters have been
thought indispeniible for:success.
The close relation of 'the general
meat to the territories pertaining to the great
states, may - well engage pour special atten
tion. It is there that , Indian disturbances
Mainly occur, and polygamy has found room
for its growth. I cannot doubt but that a
careful survey of territorial legislation, would
be'of the highest utility. Life and property
would become • secure, the liability' of out
breaks between Indians and whites would
be lessened, the public . domain would be
more securely guarded and better progress
would be made in the instruction of the
,youtqr. _
Alaska is stM without , 'any form of civil
government. If . - Means were provided for .
the education of its people and for the pro
tection of their lives and property,' the im
mense resources of that region would invite
permanent settlement and open a new 'field
for industry. and enterprise.
. The report or the commissioner of agricul
ture presents accounts of the ,labors of =that,
department during the past 'year. and in
cludes infonOation of much„interest :to the
general public. The condition of the forests
of the country and the wasteful manner in
which their destruction is taking place gives
rause for serious apprehension. Their action
in protecting the earth's surfrice, in modify
ing the 'extremes of climate and regulating
and sustaining the flow of springs and
streams, / *now well understood, and their
;iMptortance in relation •to the growth and
tiroiperity of the country, cannot be safely
disregarded. They are fast disappearing be
fore destructive fires and the legitimate re
quirements of our increasing population, and
their total extinction cannot be long delayed,
unless better methods than now prevails shall
be adopted for their:protection 'and cultiva
tion. The attention-of •
congress is invited
to the necessity of additional , legislation,
for secure the preservation of the valuable for
ests still remaining .on the public, domain,
especially in the extreme western' states and
territories, where the necessity for the pre
servation is greater than in the less, menu
tainous regions,. and where the, prevailing
dryness of the cimate renders their restora
tion, if they are once destroyed well nigh im
The.communication which I made to con
gress, at its first session in December last,
contained a somewhat full statement of my
sentiments in relation, to the principles and
rules, which ought to: govern , the appoint
ments to the public service. Referring to
the varicnis plant; which had heretofore been
the subject of discussion in the national legis
lative plans, which 'in the main , were model
ed upon a System which obtains in Great
Britain, but whic h lacked certain of the pio
raiment features whereby that t system is dis
tinguished, I felt bound to intimate my doubts
whether they or any of them would afford an
adequate remedy for the eats which they
aimed to-correct. I declared, nevertheless,
that if the propeSed measures should prove
acceptable to congress, they would receive
the unhesitating support of ,the executive.
Since these sugwestions were submitted
for your • consideration, there has
been no legislation upon the subject to which
they relate, but there meanwhile has been an
increase WI the public interest,, in that sub- ;
ject, and the people of the country, appar
ently without distinction of party, have , in
various ways 'and upon frequent occasions
given expression to their earnest wish for
"prompt and definite action. In my judg
ment, such an action should no longer be
ned. I may iuld that my own sense of
itlrressing importance has been quickened
by the observation of the practical phase of
the matter to which attention has more than
once been e-fiILA
The civil list now coinforises about 100,000
Persons, by far the larger pert of whom must,
kinder the terms of tho constitution, be select
ed by the president, either directly or through
his own appointees.
In the early years of the administration of
the government, personal direction of ap
pointments to the civil service may not have
been an irksome task for the ezecOtive,but
now that the burden has increased fuly a
hundred fold, it has become greater than he
ought to and it necessarily diverts his
time and attention 'from the proper dis
charge of otherAuties, no less delicate and
revonillile, and which in the very nature of
things cannot be delegated to other hands.
In the judgment of hot a few who have given
study and reflection to this matter, the nation
has outgrown the provisions which the don
stitutidn,has established for filling the minor
offices in'the public service, but what ever
may be thought of the wisdom or expediency
of changing the fundamental law in { this re
gard it is certain that much relief may be af
forded, not only to the president and the
heads of the departments, but to senators
and representatives in congress, by decrees
of legislation. They would be pretected in
a great 'flea:pile by the bill now pending be
fore the senate, or by any other which should
embody its important features from the pres
sure of personal importunity, and from the
labor of examining con fl icting claims and
pretensions of candidates. t -
I trust before the close - of the present ses
sion, some decisive action mays be taken for
the correction of the evils, which inhere in
the present methods of appointment, and I
assure you of my hearty co-operation in any
measures which are likely to conduct that
and. a
. ,
As to most appropriate term and tenure of
the official life of subordinanOmployes of
the government, it seems toiibb. generally
agreed, that whatever their iitent or char
acter, one should be definite• *id the other
stable, and neither should be regulated by
zeal in the service of party, or:fidelity to the
fortunes of the individuaL 1---
It matters little to the people at large what
competent person.% at the' head of this de
pertinent, or of that bureau, if they feel as
sured that the removal of one.aud the acces
sion of another will not involve the retire
ment of honest, faithful subordinates, Whose
duties - are purely administrative, and have
no legitimate cOnnection with the triumph of
and political principles or the success - of
any political partror faction. It is tol this
latter class of officers that the sate MI, to
which I have alread,v referred, exclusively
applies, while neither that bill nor other`pro
minent schemes tor improving the civil ser
vice, concerns the higher grade of officials,
who' are appointed by the president and
confirmed by the senate. • - ,
I feel bound to correct the prevalent mis
apprehension as to the frequency. with which
the presint executive has displaced an in
cumbent in office and appointed' another in
his stead.;, It has' been repeatecy alleged
that he has in this -particular - signally de-
paged frein the comae which has been pur
sued nuder the recent administrations of the
government. The ;facts are as follows: •
The whole number of executive
manta during the four years immediately
premseedingOatifeld's4ecemion to the presi
dency was 2,606. Of this number 244, or
able per cent. involved the ' removal of in
cumbents. - The ratia' ? of removals to the
whole number of appointments was much
the snipe &tin' g - each' of Ithoselcour yew
In the first year, sat 190 apicdntaisnts,
there were ' seventy -four ' removals, or 9.8
per cent second,- with 917 appoint.'
ments, - . there were eightrilve removak, or
8.5 per cent; in-the thuli . with 480 oint-'
meats, there were . fortreght reisb, or
ten per cent; in the fourth with 429 ap
pointments, there were thirty-seven reznov
ale, or 8.6 per cent. In the four-months of
Garfield's administration there were 890
appointments and eighty-nine removals, or
22.7 per cent. Precisely the samol,number
of removals, eighty-nine, his taken Place in
the fourteen months whi ch have since 'clap
ed, but they ,*Only constitute - seven-eighths
per cent: of the whole :,number of appoint
ments within-Oat period, and less than 2.6
of the entire filed official—s, 8,459, exclusive
' of the army and navy, -,4hich is -filled by
presidential appointment.
I declare my approiral of . such.legislation
as may be found necessary for supplement
ing the' existing provisions,of the law in re
lation to political assessments. In July last
I authorized the political announcement that
einployes of the government should regard
themselves as at liberty to exercise their
pleasure in making or refusing to make
political contributions; and that their action
in that regard would 'in no manner effect
their official statue. In • this announcement,
I acted upon a view which I had always
maintained, and still maintain that a public .
officer should be as absolutely , free as any
other citizen to give or withhold a contribu
tion for the aid of the political party of his
choice. It has, however, been urged, and
doubtless not without foundation -in fact,
that by teti solicitation of superiors, and by
other modes, such contributions at times
have been obtained from persons whose only
motive for giving has been• a fear 'of what
might befall them, if they refused. It goes
without saying th at' such contributions aro
nut voluntary and in my - judgment their
collection' should be prohibited by law. A
bill which will effectually suppress them will
receivemy cordial approvat
I that however numerous and urgent
may be the demands upon your attention,
theinterests of . this distrint will not be for
gotten. The denial to its residents_ of 'the
great right of suffrage in all !its relation ,to
national, state and . municipal action, im
poses on congress the duty of affording them
the best administration which its wisdom can
devise. . The report of the district commis
sioner indicates certain measures whose ad
option would seem to very desirable: I in
stance in particular those; hich relate tour=
rears in taxes, to steam railroads, and tows-
sessment on personal property.
Among the qnestiotsivhich have been the
topic of recent debate in ;the halls of con
gram, none are of greater gravity than those
relating to the ascertainment of the vote for
presidential electors and the intendment of
the constitution in its provisions• for devolv
ing executive functions upon the vice presi
dent, when the president suffers from ina
bility in the discharge of the powers and du
ties of his office. I trust that no embarrass
ments may result from the failure to deter
mini these questionS before another national
The closing year has been - replete with
blessings, to which we, owe to the Giver of
all good our reverent acknowledgment for un
interrupted harmony in our • foreign rela
tions, for the 'decay- of sectional animosities,
for the exuberance of our harvests and tri
umphs of our mining and manufacturing in
dustries; for prevalence of health, the spread
of intelligence and the conservation of the
public credit for thit growth of the country
in all elements of. national greatness; for
these and countless other blessings we should
rejoice and be glad. I trust that under the
inspiration of this great prosperity, our coun
sels may be harmonious and the dictates of
prudence 'patriotism,
_justice and economy,
may lead to the adoption of measures, in
which congress and the executive fluty-hear
tily unite.
Sick and bilious headache, and all de
rangements of stomachs awl bowels, cured
by Dr. Iserce's "Pellets"-- 7 or
granules; 25 cents a vial. No cheap boxes
to allow waste of virtue& By druggists„
There-is food for thought'in the follow
ing from The Dayton Democrat, for those
Republicans who think the party cant safely
trust-to Democratic blunders to restore it to
power in the lower House of Congress in
1884: "A political party-that has been in
power continuously for more than twenty
years exhibits signs of decay:* and weakness
when it openly. admits that its future suc
cess is dependent alone ,upon the passible
blunders to be made by the opposite party.
This is the position in which , the .Republi- .
can party now placeilitself." • , ,"
*We are. persuaded that the ancient- Her
mes with all the subthi art and natural re
sourcess of the Alchemists, wthia.very poor
doctor compared with Mrs. I.dia E. 'Pink
ham, of Lynn, Mass. Hermes may, have
been after all only a clever practitioner of
the' Briar Art; but we' lmow there is no
humbug in the pharmaceutical chemi/try of
Mrs. Pinkharn's Vegetable Compound.
MosnoE, Hien. Sept. 25, 1875.
Slim-4 have been t aking' Hop Bitters
for inflammation of kidneys and bbidder.
It has done for me what four doctors failed
to do. The effect of Hop Bitters seemed
like magic to me. W. L. C r
Young men, and middle aged ones; suffer
ing from nervous debility and, kindred
weaknesses, send three stamps - for Part VII
of Dime Series Books. Address WORLD'S
DISPENSAIIi MEDICAL Assocumpit,Buffaki,
N. Y. /
tics is to the effect that the Democ is party
assessed the liquor men of the _Stite for
funds to carry ,on the late campaign, and
that the liqiior men came down handsomely,
in resPolisCi
"Demme Bound and Well."
Hawn:Ens STATtos,.Ga. March 27, 1876.
R. V. PmeE, , M. D.: Dear Sirr—My.wife,
who had been ill for over two years, and
had tried tuau)4, other' medicines, became
sound and wellAyusing your; "Favorite
Prescription.": - Myiniece was also cured by ,
its use, after several' physicians had failed
to do her any , good.ll Yours truly.
ThinLkS . J. MErarm.
The Indiana Prohibitionisti do not propose
to allow the Democrats to shirk the respon
sibility of killing the preposition to submit a
prohibitory amendment' to the people. They
will press the measure at the coming session
of the Legislature and carnpetitl ei_,_;,_.Demo
cratic party to put itself on, record "iiin the
question, . There is said to be some signs of
restlessness among the Democrats at the
evident intention of the liquor interest to
doniiriate the party. I
SILVER CREEK N. Y.; Feb. 6,'1880.
GENTs—I have been very low, and have
tried everything, to no advantage. I heard
your Hop Bitters recommended by so many,
I concluded to give them a trial. I - did,
and''now am around, and constantly im
proving,, and am nearly as strong as ,ever.
t /i 4
Abiolutely Pure. -
This powder never varies. taw's' of purity,
strength and wholes eases. More economical
than the ordinary 1M de, and cannot be sold In
competition with the multitude of low test, short
be im
weight, shun or p bate powders. Sold only
in cans. ROYAL BALTIIII POMPIMII Co., 106 Wall
street., N. Y. . ' 20.1111182
AUTlON.—Whereis my -wife Alice
0. Davis bas left wry bed sad, board. without
Just cause or prtrrocation.allvemons are hareby
forbid harboring or trustinielder on my account.
as 11 trill pay no debts of bet contracting 'after
tlus date. mikes compelled by law. •
New Albany, Dec. 11,11882'.
Powell& Co.
Have just opened the
greatest bargains in
shown by them. Their
stock is likg and
better assorted than
ever before.
-:AT THE:-
Old - Reliable Clothf
ing store,
Is to examine his immense
Ready-Made Clpthing.
He is prepared to offer bargains that
induce customers to buy. Ocnpying the
large and commodious store, No. 123 Milt
street, formerly If S Solomon & Son, he
resents full , complete stock in 23
es of Clothing.
Of every grade and quality
Of every quality. •
RUBBER GOODS a specialty.
All are invited to call and secure bargsita:
Tdwaitda, Pa., Oct. 3, 18.32.
Would call especial
attention. to. their im-
mense stock of
Just, received, and
which are now ready
for inspection.
Dec. 6, 1882.
AND 0111211
Fancy Lap Robes
Carria g esna gielab Robes, Map, flats. Btn i '
Boras Blankets; SurrAnglea, etc.
. , •.
Of excellent quality. at 16101 to unit. U /I
wint a COMPLETE ourgiT of carriae,'
Sleigh—an but the team—for the- MY Om'
CASH BARGAINS. tall upon me.
) • R. M. WELL.
JAMMU. Nov. BHA.. .
M! FOR SALE:-I now O
fe r
Fmy Win for sale, enlisted on the road
log front booth Sill to Weide Hollow:ena_1 • "`
Was 100 saw of good land. *bout 701101,w—
-and 30 veil timbered. with house and PO
grocery, acid fruit tries thorium: HIM b ill :
about? miles from railroad at Wisactial.
is well watered. Mrs fern Will be scad csr.j
a propOrtion of -the purchase mousy dows._,
the remainder auk remain on the hrs. P . . n .
particulars inquire of Myron Randall ""
harm, or thsownsr. LYKAN ARNOLD.
Sept 7.18 2*
Ann of Lincoln Welles Co.. 4 by
neat at WFahlathil. Pa., II this dal diso ltli
mutual consent. AU debts due said gm V..
rd. 4 to their lawfully oonstitatol attaisol.L.;
Acwo.7. and 6U Malmo against sail!! Ana -
presented to him for adjus
A. FOX. ,
Nov. 290, 1819/4t