Newspaper Page Text
BY 0. N. WOUDEN & J. R. CORNELIUS.
ESTABLISHED IX IS43....W1IOLE NO, TCI.
At 1,00 Pun Year, always is Advance.
LEWISBURG, UNION CO., PA., FRIDAY, DEC. 3, 1858.
AN IXDF.rEXDEXT FAMILY NEWS JOURNAL.
Af J01PtMET roiiLT KnwspApmt,
hsucd Frihigsat LncUhury, Union Co. Pa.
TF.R V.?. 1.rrt per year. t jir pun I ATT4!(rt ar-
t Wiv :ime rate i-t a mnji-r or nl.orter i"Tiod. Thni
i aistraclionb' of the Declaration of Indepen
dence and anticipating an eternity of ihe
iave System. To-day, v.e present Senator
Skwiua'a views of the same subject. In a
short timeloubliess.lVesiilent Dimhawj.? will
appear in his own defence, in mitigation of ihe
ris will j:iy inr four m-mt li-1. 75 ct for fix umntis, l tiri. sentence just pronounced upon Uira, for his
fir flit iii-mlis, Jul. for m.twa nmntli. Z dol.."nr two i , , r
y&re. iI.-rll.urco1.i.oiiry. r, j-lu for t-11 m:m cut "eciunai cuurr, mc iuu ui uic
y.-:tr. i.c. e-i'rzN' Sn.V, 5 ft. i'vn.nt lj nail (pi i
rifviv-. id gold, pn-tLiixu ftamr, or luk nut.- at tlu-ir
taln Uorv, Miwt kinds rrdui- rr:-i d at the UCi.-c.
tt)W brn the titno xjiri,n, tor which a ;ii(mt in uiJ,
(atu. -rt we linvt a runnio vcouut i it in T' I'i'KU.
Ai.vtKTiii;-?tr8 liand-oi-lT publi-li-d, at 60 t jwr
F-juiin one Wtt-k, 26 cts earh attiT in-rtiuO, 1 dol. for six
niuittu, 5 dt. pT year. Half a ffaiuniv ctn, .ft rtn, 'i
d"l, 3 dol. Two (Uan-s l .fKt, 4.0-). 8.U0, M.-n-hant. Ac.
ta.it over one-fnurlii of a column, 10 did. n-r y.ir. Utht-r
eiz Ac. m y lw agreed ujioii. A ii;irf in 12 li n'i or
FiiiAiu-Kt lyjw, or r f r next larr. AdTfiti-fnu-nts of a
dui'rH'wiiif tnilfR-v. and cut. nt admitted.
nt within tli i Miiirtt of partiK.in or s-i-tarian rntr-t,aud
aroirnpiiiuVd )T the writ.iT tjv:.I tirtiix and addrt'pii.
I A(t.M K i lihhXiKAfll 1 liTat. J 111 tin Ofli-e
Hid, by whi. h oflen iuw-rt iuirtautNwr;
State. In States where the slave system instead of confiJiiig that duty to Coiiret-s, I iatuDiiorifl," thau it is that cartii is corer- giou thus abaud nel tj Slavt-ry,
rrevail." the masters, directlv, or lodi- aod that they tecured to the fclave Mattn, ca wito wrovks rcsulliug troui iuniccut , -lica t b aMtnittta as a ir
rectly, eccura all political power, and con- j whila yet rctaiuing the system of Slavery,
SPEECH 07 VILLUH H. SEWARD
Hotlieslcr, N.Y., Oct. 25, 1858.
siitutea ruling atistoeracy. Iu t'e States a threu-Lftus representation of slaves in
whero the free labor system prevail, uui- ! te l ederal gvcrnmcut, until they shouiu
versa I suirrape necessarily obtainrt,a::d the und themselves able to reliurjuitib it with
Stato inevitably becomes, sooner or later,
a republic or a democracy.
and amiable motived.
the Union, the Pemocr-itic prfy contempt
The very constitution of the Democratic i oualy njecicd their petition and, drove
party commits it to execute all the designs them with menaces aud in: iiuid;ri n fr-rn
of the slaveholder., whatever tbey miy be. ' the IlalU of Oonre-Js, aii J arm: d f lio
safety. Uut the very nature of these It is not a party of the wbolo I uion, of IVcsiilcnt with military power t enfi-n-?
modilications fortifies my position that the all the Tree States and of all the Slave '. their submission to a slave codr, cub!iMi-
U,,,,;, vet m-jintaius Slavcrv, and is a ; fat herd knew the two systems could not ; Stae : nor yt is it a party of the Free cd over them by fraud and usurpation. At
despotism. Most of the other Kuropean ! endure within the Union, aud expected j States ic the North and iu the North-west; j every subsequent btage of the long coutist
cf Hi i C'H
u alranc of Hi- l'hila. t. M;iiU.
OmutM-ti-l wi:h tti- !;.. ar nnfle mattr!Ifi fur most
kinds ot JOB PRINTING, wliirirwill l-- s.i uUd with
Iietll' -6 and ('-(Ji'tll iiud en r''Hrtli;il'tf tvrtn.
it J'.i-ual AJvtrn-.ni.-tit. to he paid for when handfd
in. aud J..t Work w ht-n dflii.-r.-.l.
o '0' trTICK i.n Marit-t marts, north side, ferond atorry
aJjojuiijg ihv ikx-k Uinli'ry.
Vuiun:x tt ConxEurs.
l" The firt settlement of "Derr-siou'ii'
(Leui.-burg) was in the neighborhood of u hal
is now Bruuu's Mill and the Gas Works.
The earlieit burials '.vers 03 the rise of ground.
.rl!i, from v. huh Market St. Marts, at the
Fem-ow-Citizens : The unmistakable
outbreaks of zoal wbich occur all around
no, jou U1U CarDeSt DR'L 8C(1
such a man am I. Let us, tberefore, at
least for a time, pass bj all secondary and
collateral questions, whether of a personal
or of a fjeneral Daturc, and consider the
main subject of tbc present canvass. Tbc
Democratic part- or, to fpeak more ac-
j curate!;, the party wbich wears tbat at
tractive name is ia possession of tbc
Federal Government. The Republicans
Vtmrmar. til tl iIoif flint nfirtv nml ffifiiuB
, e- r v
JiUMitl, ov. , inr,s. " j frJ,u il3 l'Hh trust-
lbe mam sut joct then is, wbetber the
Pemncratic party deter vis to retain the
confidence of the American people. In at
tempting to prove it unworthy, I think
tbat I am not actuated by prejudices against
that thehO modifications niii-ht not alto
gether defeat their grand design of a Re
public maintaining universal crjuality.tbey
provided that two-tbirds of ibo States
might amend the Constitution.
States have abolished Slavery and adopted j that within a short period slavery
tbp svstiitii of Free Labor. It was I lie i disappear tor ever. Moreover, in
antagonistic political tendencies of tbo
two systems wbich the first Xapoleou wag
contemplating, when bo predicted that
Europe would ultimately be either " all
Cossack or all Republican." Never did
human sagacity utter a more pregnaut
truth. The two systems arc at once per
ceived to bo incongruous, liut tbey are
more than incongruous, they arc incom
patible. Tbey never have permanently
existed together in one country, aud they
never ran. It would be easy to demon
strate this impossibility, from the irrecon
cilable contrast between their great princi
ples and characteristics, liut the esperi- ,
enco of mankind has conclusively estab-
lulled it. Slavery, as I have already in
but it is a sectioual and local partv,h:ivinr, which has siocc racd in Kan.a tl
practically,its scat within the Slave States, 1 Democratic party has lent its tympat'jies,
uud counting its constituency chiefly and . its aid, and all the pnweri of the 'vern
al most exclusively there. Of all its repre- j ment which it controlled to cnf'ree si ivery
sentativea in Conereas and in the Electoral ; upon tbat unwilling and injure 1 people.
Colleges, two-thirds uniformly come from Aud now, even at this day, while it mni k the ponple, must and will be the re-ourets
these States. Its great clement of strength us with the assurance that K itis is is free, for its ever renewing b!rengtb,and coiistaut
n hich r;itj lie riiire safciy trntHd ' Kvcry
one ko'.wi that if i the U bubln id prty,
or none, that shall ditlact the L)cm er'tc
pirty. Hut I ai.swtr further, tbat iho
ehancUr ar-d fi lclify of any arfy are de
terniin'il, o'e-.in!y. nut by its p!. ile,
proraimuos, and platf rtiw, but by the
public exigencies", and the temp r of 1I10
people w'tcn thpy call it into activity.
Subserviency to slavery, is a law wri'hu,
not only on the for.-hea l i f the Icm cri
tic party, but !o in its vi ry s iul so re
sistance t SI ivery, and devotion to freo
doin, the popular elenn-t.ts n ai-iitcly
working for the U publican pirty aiu 102
It remains to cav on this point only one lies in the vole of the slaveholders, au- '. the Democratic party keeps the State ex- : iuvinratiifu.
word to guard ogainst luisapprchcntion. mented by the representation of three-. eluded from her just and proper p!-jee in : Others can not support the Republican
It these states are again to Decnme uni
versally slavcbolding, I do not pretend to
say with what violations of the Constitu
tion that end shall be accomplished. On
tbc other hand, while I do confidently be
lieve and hope tbat my country will yet
becomu a land of uuiversal freedom, I do
not expect tbat it will be made s other
wise than through the action of the sever
al States, co-operating with the Federal
fifth, nf tha atavo. l)..nrivo ttiA IntrMrnt '. thn Pnion nniti.r tliA linro tli:,t hhr miv Parte, because it has fjnt StlfTleii lit V FI.
- - .- . ..... ... ...... . - , ,
ie party of this strength, it would be a bedragooned intothcacci'ptauceof slavery. ' posed its pla'fjiiu an I d-'ennini d what it
helpless aud hopeless minority, incapable j The Democratic party finally has preu 'J "" wual not when tri-
of continued organization. The Demo-; red from a Supreme Judiciary, Used iu ils umphant. It may pmve too progressive
cratic party being thus local and sectional, ' interest, a decree that slavery exists by t'JT f"mc, and too runscrvative for others,
acquires new strength from the admission ' force of thcCoiistitutiou iu every Territory. 'f a"y T'J eT(-'r f"' clearly tha
of every new Slave State. A party b in ! of the Uuited States, paramount to a'.l course of tu'ure events as to plan a uuiver-
tiniated, existed in every State in Kurope; ; Government and all acting iu strict con
Free Labor has supplanted it everywhere 1 formity with their respective Constitutions
except in ltussia ami lurkcy. State lie- 'Iho strife aud contention conccrninu
eessities, developed in modern times, ere ; Slavery, which gently disposed persons do 1 dictate and prescribe its policy
now obliging even those two nations to ; habitually deprecate, is nothing more thau
encourage and employ Free Labor, and the ripeuing of the conflict which the
one scuse a joint stock association, in
which those who contribute most direct
the action and management of the concern.
The slaveholders, contributing iu au over
whelming proportion to the capital strength
of the Democratic party, they necessarily
Dro!-e. The regular laying out of the Town, i that party, or by prepossessions in favor of i alrcail't SP"; 'J u"- 'be i 'ers themselves not only thus regarded
the location of the Grave Vard. Market St., j :ts adversary for I have learned bv some f ,D aboJ,,8Ulug Uvcry. In the j with favor, but which they may be said to
Ac seem to h-ve b-n subseouet.t to this a6 I ' lllaTe ltan"-di bJ 80me United Slates, Slavery came into collision have instituted.
,he'u,,rk,e in. i rf,-..,,,, """e 8Cd patriotism, with Free Labor at the close of the last It is not to be denied, howevcr.that thus
legislative authority cither within the Ter
ritory or rcfiding in Congress.
Such is the Democratic party. It has
no policy, State or Federal, for finance, or
trade, or manufacture, or commerce, or
education, or internal improvements, or
for the protection, or even the security of
fur the gas pipes, in the centre of the lower
end of Market fl, threw up a human skull.
"Haw loved, hoar valued once, avails it not,
To whom rv iiitej, cr Ly u-hom begot.'
Probably no one hvitij knows whose head
it was, or when it was tliere deposited, perhaps
embalaicd by the tears of mourning friends.
The evci.t reminded us of a somewhat an
cient poem the author to us unknown
which we deem worth copying iu this connection.
KtCcctlocs ca t:utr.lrJns a
century, aud fell before it in New England,
New- Vork, New-Jersey aud J'cnnsylvania,
but triumphed over it effectually, aud ex
cluded it for a period yet uudetermined,
from V lrginia, the Carolinas and Georgia.
liehold this ruin ! Here's a
Once ef eilit'rel spjnt full,
I Lis narrcw cell was Life's retreat,
i'tus i-ycj ivas Thought's mysterious seat !
i 3: L-c-autuoe.s pictures filled tins Jpot;
'V. .a" i.-!iis o!' i lia urc ii.-:ig forgot !
r 1. v e. 1. r J .. . 1. r II. pc, n.r Fear,
!!' ' t:- - of iccoi-J here !
...ueai'i this mould'ring canopy.
Once shone the bright an J bu;.y eye:
Itut start not at the dismal void ;
If social love that eye employed.
If with no lawless lire it beamed,
lut through ihe dew of kindness gleamed,
'-i vhaM h r y--
llTr. in ihl "i.. . . tun
I'erhaps, the ready tuneful tongue!
!f falsehood's honey il ddained.
And, where it could not praise, was chained,
1: loud ia virtue's cause it spoke,
Yet gentle concord never broke,
'J'hit tuneful tongue shall plead for thee
W lien leath unveils eternity !
; - .i.tps ttie heart pulsated, here,
1 1 -.' olteu bled, to think the tear
Ul widowed grief and orphan wne
t- oft in this cold world should flow,
A:id oft alone in thoughtful mood
Hath rai-ed a ferre.it prayer loUod,
That he would soothe the troubled breast
With grief and penury oppressed !
Pay, did these fingers delve the mine,
Or wiih the envied rubies shine !
To hew the rock, or wear the gem,
'an nothing now avail to them;
Hut if the page of Truth they sought,
Or comfort to the mr.urncr brought,
Those hands shall meed a richer claim
Tuau all that waits cn wealth and fame !
Avails it whether bare or shod
These feet the path of duty trod !
If from the bowers of joy they fled,
To soothe atllictinn's humble bed ;
It grandeur's guilty bribe they spurned,
And home to virtue's lap returned ;
These feet with angels' wings shall vie,
And tread the palace of the sky !
Then Ps It Along fur roar .Ntl-'hbors to Bead.
During the late election canvass in New
Vork Slate, Ei-liov. Sewibd made a number of
public addresses a custom of his, every year,
no matter how more or less " important" may
be the issue. One of these speeches was de
voted to the subject of Slavery, and its publi
cation has called forth an assault upon him
from old lime political and personal opponents,
from rivals, and from every friend or apolo
gist of the Slave Power. The magnitude of laborer, it loads down with chains and
this concerted demonstration and the bitter- j converts into merchandise, but scarcely
ncss and severity with which it has been char- j les3 80 to the freeman, to whom, only be-acieriwd-have
induced us to look back and cause he is a laborer from necessity, it
find the Speech, which we think worthy of , . - f , , ,
... , UCUI13 lUUlllllia IOI CUIUIUVUICUW UIU WOO
it expels from the community because it
aud vise and selfishness, are found in all
parties, and that they differ less ia their
morav.1, than in the piAiciet they pursue.
Our country is a theater, which exhib
its in full operation, two radically different
political systems ; the one resting upon
the basis of servile or Slave Labor ; the
ether on the basis of voluntary labor of
The laborers who are enslaved are all
negroes, or persons moro or less purely of
African derivation. Rut this is only ac
cidental. The principle of the system is, j
that labor in every society, by whomio- ' States supposed to be favorable to the
far the course of that contest has not been
according to their humane anticipations
and wishes. In tbo field of Federal poli
tics, Slavery, deriving unloosed fur ad
vantages from commercial changes, and
Indeed, so incompatible are the two sys-! energies unforsccn from the facilities of
terns, that everv new wM-t. Ia 01 lio
nized within our ever extending domain
makes its first political act a choice of the
one and an expulsion of tbc other, even
at the cost of civil war if necessary. The
lavs Statee, without law, at the last na-
slavcbolding class and between tbat class
aud other property classes, early rallied,
aud has at leutb made a stand not merely
to retain its original defensive position,
but to extend its sway throughout tbo
cvitablo caucus system enables them to d'j ! civil or religious liberty. It is positive
so with a show of fairness and justice. J and uncompromising in the iuterest of s'a
If it were possible to conceive lor a mo- , very negative, compromising au 1 vasoli
ment tbat the Democratic party should , latine in regard to cverytbina else. It
disobey the behests of the slaveholders, we
should then see a withdrawal of the slave
holders, wbich would leave the party to
tional election, successfully forbade, within j whole Union. It is certain that the slave-
thcir own limits, eveu the casting of votes j holding class of American citizens indulge
for a candidate for I resident of the tu uited
ever performed, is necessarily uniuteilec-
tual, grovelling and base, and tlit the la
borer, equally for his own good and for the
welfare of the Stat:, ought to be enslaved.
The wbito laboring mac, whether cative
or foreigner, is not enslaved, only because
he can not, as yet, be reduced to bondage.
You need not be told cow that the
pation of our own ancestors, Caucasians
and Europeans, as thsy were, hardly dates
beyond a period of 500 -years. The great
melioration of human society wbich
modern times exhibit, is mainly due to tbo
substitution of ihe system of voluntary
labor for the old one of servile labor, wbich
has already taken place.
This African slave system is one wbich,
in its origin and in ita growth, has been
altogether foreign from the habits of the
races which colonized these States, and
established civilization bare. It was in
troduced on this new continent as an en
gine of conquest, and for the establish
ment of Monarchial Power by the Portu
guese and Spauiards, and was rapidly ex
tended by them over all South America,
Central America, Louisiana and Mexico.
Its legitimate fruits are seen in the pover
ty, imbecility and anarchy which now per
vades all Portuguese and Spanish America.
The Free Labor system is of German
extraction, and it was established in our
country by emigrants from Sweden, Hol
land, Germany, Great Britain and Ireland.
We justly ascribe to its influences the
j strength, wealth, greatness, intelligence,
j and freedom wbich tbe wbolo American
peoplo now enjoy.
One of the chief elements of the value
I of human life, ia freedom in tbe pursuit of
j bsppiness. The Slave system is not only
j intolerant, unjust, and inhuman toward
tbe laborer, wbom, only because be is a
establishment cf tbe Free Labor system
in new States.
Hitherto, the two systems bave existed
in different States, but sido by side within
tbe American Union. This has happened
because the anion is a confederation of
States. Rut in another aspect the United
States constitute only one nation. Increase
of population, wbich is filling tbe States
oivSd" ibeiruri ls"As rA &asl VJuio&h Jt
which daily becomes more intimate, is
rapidly bringing tbe States into a higher
and more social unity or consolidation.
Thus these antagonistic systems are con
tinually coming into closer contact, and
of the comet is in determining the appoint
ed though apparently eccentric course of
tbe fi -ry sphere from which it emanates.
To expect the Democratic party to resist
Slavery aud favor Freedom is as unreason
able as to look for Protestant Missionaries
from tbo Catholic Propaganda of Rome.
this btgh ambition, and tbat they derive j The history of the Democratic party
encouragement for it from the rapid and commits it to the policy of Slavery. It
perish. The portion of the party which j professes fraternity, and so often as slavery
a iuuuu 111 iuc rree oiaies 19 a mere ap
pendage, convenient to modify its section
al character without impairing its sectional
constitution, and is less effective in regit
effective political successes which they
bavo already obtained. Tbe plan of ope
ration is this : Ry continued appliances
of patronage, and threats of disunion, tbey
will keep a majority favorable to these de
signs in tbe Senate, where each State has
an equal representation. Through that
majority they will defeat, as tbey best can,
the admission of Free States and secure
the j.'Jrahp'nr oif.5l?KtU5c.. JE&f uatp
Slavery iuto all tbe Territories of the
United States now existing and hereafter
to bo organized. Ry tbe action of tbo
sal scheme for future action, adapted to all
possible euvrencies. Who would ever
have joined even the Vliir' party of tha
Revolution, if it had been obii.d t an
swer, in 1 7 7 o, whether it would declare
fjr Independence in 177'i, and f'jr this
noble Federal Constitution of our, ia
ITS", and not a year earlier or later ?
The people of the United Stales will bo
as wi.e next year, and the year alterwar I,
and even ten years hence, aj we are now.
They will obiigo the Republican party to)
act as the public w- Ifare and tha interesin
of j'istico and humanity shall require,
through all the stages of its career, whe-
rennire. nlli.s ilsflf with nriurir.ti.in. It 'er til trul or triumptl.
magnifies itself for conquests in foreign : 'cra wul not venture an eff.rt be
lauds, but it sends tbe national eaj-Ie forth causc tLc' b " lLe , u,cn woul1 not
always with chaiusand not the olive branch J.0. 'iL'"?! - I' -l'.-f-iu Sitfoslc "
This dark record shows you, f Jlow citi- j strain directly along the fibres of which
zens, what I was unwilling to announce at " ls composed ? '1 bis is a -Cons'itutiou
an earlier stage of this ar-ument that of of I reed .111. It 1. being e.nvertel into a
the whole nefarious schedule of slavehoid- Constitution of Slavery. It is a Republi
inirdei.ma hieh I Hjce snhiTiitt...! to vnn ' can Constitution. It is beinj made an
e o - .
the Democratic party has felt only one yet
boasts its love of equality, and wastes its
strength and even its life in fortifying tbe
only aristocracy known 111 the land. It
to be consummated tbe abrogation of tbc
law which forbids tbo African slave-trade.
Now, I know very well that tbe Demo
cratic party has, at every stage of these
proceedings, disavowed the motive and the
policy of fortifying and extending slavery,
and has excused them on entirely different
has been the Democratic party, and no
other agency, which has carried that poli
cy up toits present alarming culmination.
Without stopping to ascertain, critically,
the origin of the present Democratic party,
we may concede its claim to date from the
era of good feeling wbich occurred under
the Administration of President Monroe.
At tbat time in this State, and about that
time in many others of the Free States,
and it has pertinaciously continued this 1 inhering love of Freedom, in the human
disfranchisement ever since. This was an heart, which render palliation of such gross
effeotivo aid to Slavery, for while the miseonduet indispensable. It disfranchised
Aristocratic one. Others may wish to
wait until some collateral oicstious con
cerning Temperance or the t-X' acise of tbe
Elective Frauchise are pr iptrly setiled.
Let me ask all such persons, whether time
cnongh has not been waste I on theso
points already, without gaiuing any other
than this siti"Io advantage, namely, tha
Shall I tell you what this collision means? t cojuscture they will induce Congress to
They who thiuk that it is accideutel, nnne- ' repeal tho act of 1S0S, wbich prohibits
cessary, the work of interested and fanat- j tie foreign slave-trade, and so they will
ical agitators, and therefore epheueral, import from Africa, at the coat of only 20
mistake tbe case altogether. It ia an irre- , a head, slaves enough to fill np tbe iuteri
prcssible conflict between opposing and 1 or of tbo continent. Thus relatively in-
enduring forces, and it means that tbo ; creasing thz cumber of Slave States, tbey
and more nl.-msil.le ..round. Hot 1U in. . di.-envery that only one taing can be t ltec-
consistency aud frivolity of these pleas ,ua"y Jon 8t 0UJ '"" aui1 oao
prove still moro conclusively tbe guilt I tulug "huh must and w:.l b? i .ne at any
chargo upon tbat party. It must indeed . one ,,lne " just ,hit thin2 wh:,;U u most
necessarily excuse such gnilt before man- ! nrr0"' anJ 03 I'5n?or ""it of post
kind, and even to the c .useiences of its ponement or delay. I maliy, we are told
quotable, aud tbe ttemiuion of .-lavery 13
consequently inevitable. I reply to them,
that tne complete and universal dominion
of Slavery would be intolerable enough
L- j .1.- r 1 -1 : .t. w.... ... ! ,. ;t 1 .f. i.- .;..,. r ...r vrtien it should have come alter the last
1 reeuuuijiuu irecu slave, iu iuci ree emit s, , leii. iu kuj"j io ui au.ii , 111,
is prohibited from voting against Slavery. ' be might seduce tbo free white ciiizon into possible effort to escape should have been
In If'l, the Democracy resisted the ilec- amalgamation with his wron-ed and d ui- Tll"rc "oM Jn t!lat "'-.(',b
tion of John Quiucy Adams bimfelf bo-1 spiscd raee. The Democratic party cou- ' a us consoling reflection of tuelity t j
Presidcut and the Senate, using the treaty-1 slaveholder votes for bis slaves against the freo African on tbe ground of a fear
maBiug power, they will annex foreign
slavo holding States. In a favorable
universal perusal. We have no more able,
sagacious, well-informed Statesman than Sen
ator Si-i),oo the stage of action; and since
J.hn (j. Adams and Thomas II. Benton have
0f artcd, we have no man of more general
knowledge, or of more keen, unwearied ob
servation of not only rjfccts, but causes. He
h learned, persistent, independent, and bold.
A part of his early life was spent in a hot-bed
of Slavery, and he has been for many years
in daily intercoursewiih leading Slaveholders,
f-jr these reasons, his most profound, elo
quent, political, and philosophical speech
carrying ihe thoughtful mind to the past, ihe
rr-ent, and ihe future is well worthy of be-
in? read without prejudice and-weighed with
theprofoundest seriousness. Demagogiies.tbe
timid, and those of no penetration, may not
like its learlessness, or may dissent from
some of his propositions and conclusions ;
!-t all must admit that there is a mass of
KotEoosE trtth in his speech.
Mr. Seward argues that, in the ceaseless
tv.-.e between Oppression and Freedom.Free
' mU!' "-luinph.yet it will be seen that
i.'etnplates ::o aggression upon Slavery
' 4'- ! its real Constitutional refuses.
:M,y c:.arued that he wished a
can uot enslave and convert bim into mer
chandise also. It is necessarily improvi
dent and ruinous, because, as a general
truth, communities prosper and flourish or
droop and decline in just the degree that
they practice or neglect to practice the
primary duties of justice and humanity
Tbe free labor system conforms to the di
vine law of equality, wbich is written on
the hearts aud consciences of men, and
therefore is always and everywhere bene
Tbc Slave system is one of constant dan
ger and distrust, suspicion, and watchful
ness. It debases those whose toil alone
can produce wealth and resources for do
fensc, to the lowest degree of which hu
man nature is capable, to guard against
mutiny and insurrection, and thus wastes
energies which otherwise might be em
ployed in national developement and ag
When tbc Free States shall be 6uGi
cieutly demoralized to tolerate these de-
r else the rye and wheat fields of j signs,tuey reasonably conclude thatSlavery
usetts aod New York must again j will be accepted by thoseStatcs themselves.
1 shall not stop to show bow speedy or
how complete would be the ruin which the
accomplishment of these slavcholding
schemes would bring upon the country.
For one, I should not remain in the coun
try to test the sad experiment. Having
spent my manhood, though not my whole
lifo, iu a Free State, no aristocracy of any
kiud, much lees an aristocracy of Slave
holders, shall over make the laws of the
land iu which I shall be content to live.
Having seen tbe society around mc uni
versally engaged in agriculture, maufae-
tures and trade, which were innocent and
The Free labor system educates all alike,
nr'.-ijc against siaverv in th Ktmx and bv oncnintr all the fields of industrial
j ....... . -, ( j I o
fi aeitahon ; whereas, he would 1 emnlovuient. and all tha denartmcnts of
authority, to tbc unchecked and equal riv
alry of all classes of men, at onco secures
uuiversal contentment, and brings into tbe
highest possible activity all tbo physioal,
re toFre.. .k. e. l
v . ---." .mi iids oeen wrong-
ai ta... ' '"" irom ner: and natur-
-.r senator Ducoli
full scclliti" at the
United States must and will, sooner or
later, become cither entirely a Slavchold
ing nation, or entirely a Free Labor nation.
Either tbe cotton and rice fields of South
Carolina and tbe sugar plantations of Lou
isiana will ultimately bo tilled by Free
Labor, and Charleston aud New Orleans
become marts for legitimate merchandise
be surrendered by their farmers to elavc
culture and to the production of sieves,
and Roston and New Vork become once
more markets for trade in the bodies and
souls of men. It is the failuro to appre
hend this great truth that induces so many
unsuccessful attempts at final compromise
between tbe Slave and Free States, and it
is tbe existence of this great fact that ren
ders all such pretended compromises,
when made, vain and ephemeral. Startling
as this saying may appear to you, fellow
citizens, it is by do means an original or
even a modern one. Our forefathers knew
it to be true, and unanimously acted upon
it, when they framed tho Constitution of
the United States. They regarded the
existence of the servile system in so many
of the States with sorrow and shame, which
tbey openly confessed, and they looked
upon the collision between them, which
was then just revealing itself, and which
we are now accustomed to deplore, with
favor and hope. Tbey knew tbat cither
tbe one or tbo other system must exclu
Unlike too many of those who in modern
time invoke their authority, they had a
choice between the two. Tbey preferred
the system of free labor, and tbey deter
mined to organize the Government, and so
to direct its activity, that that system
should surely and certainly prevail. For
this purpose, and no other, they based tbe
wholo structure of the government broadly
on tbe principle tbat all men are created
equal, aud therefore free little dreaming
that within the short period of ono hun
dred years their descendants would bear
to be told by any orator, however popular,
tbat the utterance of that principal was
merely a rhetorical rhapsody : or by any
Judge, however venerated, that it was at
tended by mental reservations which ren
der it hypocritical and false. Ry tbe or
dinance of 1787 tbey dedicated all of tbe
national domaiu, not yet polluted by Sla
very, to free labor immediately, thence
forth and forever, while by the new Con
stitution and laws tbey invited foreign freo
labor from all lands under the sun, and
interdicted the importation of African slave
labor at all times, in all places and under
all circumstances whatsoever. It is true
that tbey necessarily and wisely modified
this policy of freedom by leaving it to tbe
several States, affected as they were by
differing circumstances, to abolish Slavery
will allow no amendment to the Constitu
tion prejudicial to their interest, and so,
having permanently established their pow-
foro that time an acceptable Democrat
and in 1SJ3 it expelled bim from the
Presidency and put a slaveholder in his
place, although the office had be n filled by
slaveholders thirty-two out cf forty years.
In lSu'O, Martin Van Rurcn the first
non-slavcholding citizen of a Freo State
to whose election the Democratio party
cr, they expect the Federal Judiciary to ' ever consented signalized bis inaugura-
uulli.y all Mate laws which snail interfere tion into tbo J residency by a gratuitous
i(.n.iuoiui ioieiu vumuii-ieu iu slaves.
ilemneil flml rlpnneeri .lohn I loineo A.l.ims . duty.
because he expended ?I2,0U0,0U0 a year, i 1:ut 1 nVb ft"-""'' I know few I
while it justifies his favored successor in i,uk know biUer ,l, in I ,he fesourees
spending S70.000.000. SSO.000.000. and al"J ,bc energies ot ttie LVin .cratic party.
even $ lUO.OOO.OllO a year. It denies i
emancipation in tho District of Columbia,
even with compensation to masters and tbe
consent of the people, on the ground of an
implied constitutional inhibition, although
the Constitution expressly confers upon
announcement that under no circumstances j Congress sovereign legislative power in
would he ever approve a bill for abolishing that District, and although the Democratic
Slavery in the District of Columbia. From : party is tenacious of the principle of strict
1833 to 1811, the subject of abolishing j construction. It violated tho express pro
Slavery in the District of Columbia and visions of tbe Constitution, in suppressing
in the national dockyards and arsenals was I petition and debate on the sul j :et of sla
brought before Congress by repeated pop- j very through fear of disturbance of the
ular appeals. The Democratic party publio harmony, although it claims that
thereupon promptly denied tbe right of, the electors have a right t iustruct their
petition, and effectually suppressed the representatives, and even dumaud their
freedom of speech in Congress, as far as resignation in cases ol contumacy. It ex-
tha institution of Slavery was concerned.
From 1840 to 1843, good and wise men
tended slavery over Texas and connived at
the attempt to spread it across the .Mexi-
wliieb, is identical with tbe Slave Power.
I do ample prestige tr its tradi.ional pop
ularity. I know further few I think
know better than I the uitliculiies and
disadvantages of organizing a new political
force like the Republican party, and the
obstacles it must encounter in laboring
without prestige aud without patronage,
li lt, notwithstanding ali ibis, I know that
the Democratic party must go down, aud
the Republican party must rise in its
place. The IVmoerntie party di rived its
strength originally from its adoption of tha
principles of equal and ex.iut justice to all
men. So long as it practiced this princi
ple faithfully, it was invulnerable. It be
came vulnerable when it renounced it,
and sine- that time it has maintained it
self, not by virtue of its own strength, or
1- . .i.. m :, 1 1 .... i rnn territorieo oven to U, sho,. nf lh " ' ' traditional merits. Out DeCiMSS
couuseieu uiai xeias suouiu remain oui- ' ,l, ., l, 1 .,... 1 ; ,1 . r.:- 1
side of the Union until she should consent I'-cific Ocean, under a plea of enlarging ; 'hero J ' j - J 1 H P '
to relinquish her self-instituted Slavery : i of freedom. It abrogated the n1 no otI,L'r V"? 'bat baJ the conscience
1 . .1 is ut f- . "J mx:.10 i. -., ... i;.,n,lri i,n, i and the courage to take up and avow and
but the Democratic party precipitated her ,'C'C'" ' nu tne .Missouri Um- t :-;.: lr: . 11
. .I. - . r , ... ! nromUA nrnl.iklrln. nf J.r,rc in IC,,,..,,. : practico the lite-inspiring prinmioo which
.vu.uw MUyU u, ""J . t 1 .. ... 1 the Democratic mrtv
out that condition, but even with a povb. no' to PCt the new Territories to slavery
beueficent, I shall never be a denizen of a nant that the State might be divided and Dut t0 lT3 therein tbe new and fascinating
re-organized so as to constitute four Slave theories ot Non intervention ana 1 opular
State whero men and women are reared as
cattle, and bought and sold as merchandize.
When that evil day shall come, and all
further effort at resistance shall be impos
sible, then, if there shall be no better hopo
States instead of one.
In 184G, when :h United States be
came involved in a war with Mexico, and
it was apparent tbat the struggle would
for redemption than I can cow foresee, I : cod in tbe dismemberment of tbat Repub-
shall say witn I'ranklm, while looking lie, which was a non-slaveholding power.
abroad over tbe whole earth for a new
home : "Where Liberty dwells there is
' . 1. . 11 .: - : . . .. .1 . .! ...! . :
iuc 4'cuioci auc jj.ii ijr irjeeicu. uvvmiAiiiru
tbat Slavery should not be established
You will tell me that these fears arc
within the Territory to be acquired. When
iu I SOU, governments were to be institu
extravagant and chimerical. Ianswer,they j ted in the Territories of California and
are so, but they arc so only because the New Mexico, tbe fruits of that war, tho
designs of the slaveholders must and can ; Democratic party refused to admit New
bo defeated. Rut it is only tbe possbility : Mexico as a free, and only consented to
of defeat tbat renders them so. They can i admit California as a free State on tho
not be defeated by inactivity. There is : coudition, as it has since explained tbe
moral aud social energies of tbe whole ' in their own way,and at their own f'.eajure
no escape from them compatible with non
resistance. How, then, and in what way,
shall the necessary resistance be made ?
There is only one way. The Democratic
party must be permanently dislodged from
tbe Government. The reason is, that the
Democratic party is inextricably commit
ted to the designs of tbe slaveholders,
which I have described. Let me be well
understood. I do not cbnrge that the
Democratic candidates for public office now
before the people, are pledged, much less
that tbe Democratic masses who support
them really adopt those atrocious and dan
gerous designs. Candidates, may and
generally do, mean to act justly, wisely,
aud patriotically, when they shall be elect
ed ; but tbey becotno the ministers and
servants, not tho dictators, of the power
which elects them. The policy wbich a
party shall pursuo at a future period, is
ouly gradually developed, depsodiug on the
occurrence of events never fully fore
kuuwn. The motives of men, whether act
ing as electors, or in any other capacity,
are generally pure. Nevertheless, it is not
more true that "Hell is paved with good 1
transaction, of leaving all of New Mexico
and Utah open .to Slavery, to which was
also added the concession of perpetual
Slavery in the District of Columbia, and
the passage of an unconstitutional, cruel
and humiliating law, fur tbe recapture of
fugitive slaves, with a further stipulation
that the subject of Slavery should never
again be agitated in either chamber of
Congress. When, in 1854, the slavehold
ers were contentedly reposing on these
great advantages, then so recently won,
tbe Democratic party unnecessarily, offi
ciously and with superserviceable liberality
awaked them from their slumber, to offer
and force on their acceptance, the abroga
tion of the law which declared that neither
Sovreignty : and finally it overthrew both
these new and elegant systems by the En
glish Lecouipton bill and tbe Drel Scott
decision, on the ground that the Free
States ought not to enter the Union with-
At last the Republican parry had appear,
ed. It avows now, as the Republican
party of 1800 did, ia one .word, its faith
and its works, "Eq'iilaud exact j isfiee to
all mou." Even when it first entered tho
fi-IJ, ouly half organized, it struck a blow
which only just failed to secure c xnpleto
and triumphant victory. In this, its)
nut nnnnlntion oisiln! tn fhn mnriMnnla.
tive basis of one member of Congress, I sccond e'PR". 't has already won al
althouirh Slave States mi2ht come in with- I Tn.,aS'-s "''u-b render that triumph now
out inspection as to their numbers.
Will any member of tbo Democratic
both easy and certain.
The secret of its assured success lies in
party now here claim tbat the authorities ; ,nal ,TcrJ cnaractenstic, which in tho
chosen hv ih indriM nf th n .rtv i,,., m outh of scoffers constitutes its gre:,t and
cended their partizan platforms, and so !as,in? """heeility and reproach.
misrepresented tbe party in tbo various
iu tbe fact that il is a party of one idea ;
transactions I have recited Then I ask ! j? thit iJ,a nnble ooe aa iJua
bim to name one Democratic statesman or n"3 ,na P"" a" generous souis; tuo
legislator, from Van Rurcn to Walker( i dea of cqti .lity the equality of all men
.k;iV,r i;,n,rlt-,,,(;.l t;l- I before bumau tribunals and human laws.
or boldly and deOntly, like Douglas, ever tb M arc "l"al Mote ,Uc l'iv,ae
refused to executo a behest of the slave- ' hu?a! auJ Dl""e Uw
holders, and was not therefore, and for no j , 1 -"no anJ, know ,,hal a '""-uUon
other cause, immediately denouueed, and ' J1" b-eUD- know, and all the world
deposed from bis trust, and repudiated by i "Mbat revolut,ns never go backward,
the Democratic party for that contumacy, j Twenty Senator and a hundred Repre, -n-
I think, fellow citizens, that I have I V K , . .'-v ,u J,--r.' "
shown you that it is high time for the j ",. ,
friends of freedom, to rush to the rescue
of tbo Constitution, and tbat their very
vbieh hardly sn mtny men even
in this free Slate dared to utter in their
own homes twenty years ai.-o. While tho
first duty is to dismiss the democratic party ., . ., 8,.,.. ... ,,.
t .i. i . . f.k : i Government of the I nitcd States, iimier
from tbo administration of the government
Why shall it not be done ? All agree
that it ought to be done. What then
shall prevent its being done ? Nothing
Slavery nor involuntary servitude should but timidity or division of the opponents
ever exist within that part of the ancient
territory of Louisiana, which lay outside
of tbe State of Missouri and north of the
parallel of SG 30' of north latitude,, law,
which with tbe exception of one other,
was tbe only statute of freedom then re
niainiu? in the Federal code.
Iu 18u0, when the people of Kansas I for freedom earnestly euougn.
had organized a now State within tbe re- i I ask in reply, is there any
the conduct of the DVinncr.it io party, has
been all that time, surrendering one plain
and cattle after another to Slavery, thj
people of the United States have been n
Ia.u ... .1 1 f mi4 rk:,,:nv.ifin.lfl rr Vi ... i n ..
Of the Democratic party. I twrcthi-r the forees with which 10 recover
borne of theso opponents start ono ob- ; .7. fi ,. , ...
jectioo, and some another. Let us notice wicI) bceu u aiiJ t..f .,,,, ,.,
hes,, objections briefly. Oue ciass , siy ! vert!)r(w. h. pm, ,1(.,;j,Vr ,he le
thal the, can not trust the Rej.ubliein i , f , CliniUwAao anJ Freed..
party, that it has not avowed its hmnlity j j 4.,,.r
10 Jiavory DolUiy cnougn, or us aoecuou ,
3lTV' tniny.ia p.oitios ird everything
tbr party I fU, 'yet th.r,- t. a tti aR.