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Sacred College Locked In
Vatican During tHe
THE successor to Pope Pius X.
will be chosen by the college of
cardinals. The elections begin
at least ten days after the pon
tiff's death. The administration of the
church during the interregnum be
longs to the cardinals, who are to the
church what the senate in this coun
try is to the United States. They can
undertake no important change in the
affairs of the church. The dean of the
sacred college is their president. The
duty that devolves upon them is mere
ly to elect the next successor to St.
In the first session of the conclave
each of the cardinals takes a solemn
oath on the gospels to observe the can
ons that refer to the election In the
conclave. The bulls of the nine popes
who legislated on the mode of pro
cdtlure in the election of the pope by
ballot in the conclave are read aloud
to them. The Fisherman's ring, being
part of the insignia of the holy father.
Is now unsealed by the master of cere
monies, and the first session of the
conclave comes to a close.
On the second day the various of
ficers of the pontifical states come to
pay their respects to the cardinals and
receive confirmation in their various of
fices. and the next three days are spent
in elections to the different offices that
are to be filled in the conclave. On
the sixth day the cells that each car
dinal is to occupy are allotted to him.
where both the cardinal and his sec
retary are to dwell during the whole,
time of the conclave.
Cardinals Live In "Pells."
The Vatican palace, where the elec
tion takes place, contains 1.100 rooms,
and there is a very spacious hall set
apart and fitted up for this special pur
pose. Each cardinal is allowed two
rooms, called cells, one for himself
ami one for his secretary. During
these days and up to this time the
usual everyday official business of the
cardinals' lives goes on.
Finally a sermon is delivered in
Latin on the solemn duties of the con
clave, and the prelates go in proces
sion to the place where the conclave is
to meet. When the cardinals assemble
In the chapel the bulls are once again
read, and again the cardinals take the
oath to conscientiously observe the
canons regulating the election. An ad
dress is delivered by the cardinal dean
as an exhortation to do their duty.
Up to this time the cardinals are in
communication with the outside world,
but at the stroke of the midnight bell
the master of ceremonies rings a silver
bell, and all who are not in the conclave
retire. The doors are finally and sol-
Dining With the Seminoles.
When guests arrive at a Seminole
camp in the Everglades of Florida, if
they are permitted to land, they are
taken to the dining hall. Women tim
idly bring pots of steaming corn meal,
turtle meat or venison and set them
on the platform on which hosts and
guests alike squat on their heels. If
there are several guests the most im
portant among them eats first, then the
oldest Seminole, the second guest, then
the second in rank or age among the
Seminoles. and so on. like a game of
battledore. Each one dips into the
common kettle with the common spoon,
usually a large wooden ladle.—lnde
Bathing the Eyes.
The daily "eye bath" is an excellent
means of preserving the sight and
beauty of the eyes and is particularly
valuable for persons who motor a
good deal, for nothing is more inju
rious to eyes than frequent contact
with dust Dissolve one teaspoonful
of boracic acid powder in one pint of
rosewnter. Every night pour some of
the lotion into a glass eye bath, add
enough hot water to render it tepid
and bathe each eye in turn by opening
and shutting it in the lotion.
COLLEGE OF CARDINALS IN SESSION.
TO ELECT A POPE
No Communication With Out
side World Until the
emnly closed, and no one is allowed to
pass in or out.
Attendants In the Conclave.
Each cardinal is allowed to have two
members of his household in personal
attendance upon him. These are call
ed conclavists. A number of other at
tendants are also allowed inside the
conclave—namely, a carpenter, a ma
son, a sacristan, a friar or monk to
hear confessions, a number of barbers,
eight or ten porters and several other
domestics to do common service to the
whole body of cardinals.
The word "conclave" comes from the
fact of closing the door with a key.
"Clavis" in Latin means a key. The
word conclave refers to the inclosure
as well as to the body of cardinals in
The cells in which the cardinals
dwell during elections are twenty feet
square and twenty feet high. When
all are assembled within the windows
and all entrances to the conclave are
closed. There is only one door to the
conclave, and this is locked with a
double key, one on the outside and
one on the inside. The governor, who
is a cardinal appointed by the sacred
college, holds one key on the inside,
and the marshal, who is a lay official,
is the custodian of the key on the out
No Communication Possible.
There are four apertures in tlu> walls,
called gates, through which all meals
for the cardinals are passed and any
thing else that is absolutely required
All this is to- avoid any communica
tion with the outer world and to pre
vent fraud or political influence
used on the cardinals in the casting of
their votes. The outside halls are also
locked. Papal troops are drawn up to
guard the conclave from violence.
Any man in the Catholic church is
eligible to the office of pope, be lie car
dinal or bishop, priest or layman, mar
ried or single. The cardinals are free
in this matter, but from the time of
Urban VI. the custom has prevailed of
electing a cardinal, and an Italian car
dinal at that. Only a pagan, a heretic
or an excommunicated person is ex
cluded from election. Should a mar
ried man be elected he would have to
separate, like Peter of old. from his
The voting in the conclave takes
place in the chapel twice a day. morn
ing and evening. Each cardinal has a
desk, decorated with his coat of arms,
assigned to him. Immediately before
the election begins an Augustiuian
monk celebrates mass. When the mass
is concluded all the attendants with
draw, leaving the cardinals severely
alone. They then prepare to cast their
first ballot Two-thirds of the votes
must be given by ballot to validly
Smoke Gives the News.
When the ballots are counted and
no one has received a two-thirds vote
the voting papers are taken to a fire
place and burned. The smoke ascend
ing through a certain chimney is a
sign to the immense concourse of peo
ple assembled outside for news of the
election that the cardinals have not
yet decided on any one for pope. Then
the cardinals retire to their apart
ments to await the next ballot. This
is repeated each day till a pope is
The largest conclave in the history
of the Roman Catholic church assem
bled in the Vatican on July 31. 1903.
to elect a successor to Tope Leo XIII.
The mass of the Holy Ghost was cele
brated at 10 o'clock in the Pauline
chapel by Cardinal Vannutelli. all the
other cardinals being present. The
tenth congregation followed at 11:45.
Cardinal Oreglia distributed silver
medals, issued as insignia of the tem
poral power during the interregnum.
The cardinals then went to their
homes for the last time before the
meeting of the conclave and reassem
bled in the Pauline chapel at 4:30
p. m. preliminary to their entrance
into the sealed quarters. mi*\
Three of Them Were Elevated
to High Rank by Pope
WiIEN the college of cardinals
assembles in Rome to elect a
successor to Tope Pius X.
there will he four members
credited to the United States, though
one of them. Cardinal Falcouio, is a
resident of the Eternal City. However,
he lived for many years in Washing
ton and is a naturalized citizen of the
Cardinal Gibbons, who was for many
years the only cardinal in the United
States, helped elect Pope Pius X. The
other wearers of the red hat. Cardinal
Farley of New York and Cardinal
O'Counell of Boston, were elevated at
the same time as Cardinal Falconio in
Cardinal Gibbons' Career.
Cardinal Gibbons was born in Balti
more July 23. 1834. At an early age be
was taken by bis parents to tbeir for
mer home in Ireland, where his educa-
tion began. When he was seventeen
years old he returned to his native city
and after a brief experience as a clerk
Photo copyright by American Press Association.
CARDINAL GIBBONS AND CARDINAL FARLEY.
euiereti r>t. diaries couege, Aiaryiana.
In September. 1-557. he was transferred
to St. Mary's seminary. Baltimore, and
on June 30. lSdl. he was ordained
priest in St. Mary's chapel. His first
mission was that of assistant priest at
St. Patrick's church, Baltimore, but in
the course of a few months he was
made pastor of St. Bridget's church at
Canton, an eastern suburb of the city.
While he was performing the duties of
parish priest in that obscure [date
Archbishop Spalding transferred him
to the cathedral, made him his private
secretary and appointed him to the im
portant office of chancellor of the arch
When the second plenary council of
(lie American Iton m Catholic church
assembled at Baltimore in October,
IS(5<. he was assigned to the office of
assistant chancellor of that body,
which represented the entire hierarchy
of the Tinted States. In IS3S he was
made vicar apostolic of North Caro
lina. with the rank and title of bishop,
being consecrated in the cathedral of
Baltimore by his friend Archbishop
Spalding on Aug. 10. North Carolina
then contained a population of 1.000.-
000. of whom only 1.000 were Roman
Catholics. But Bishop Gibbons was
equal to the duties of the office, and in
a few years schools were opened, asy
lums built, churches erected and the
number of priests increased from five
When in 1877 the health of Arch
bishop Bailey of Baltimore began to
decline he asked Pope Pius IX. to give
him a coadjutor, at the same time sug
gesting Bishop Gibbons for the office,
flis request was granted, and on May
20. 1877. Pr. Gibbons was apiKiinted co
adjutor. with the right of succession to
the see of Baltimore.
On Oct. 3 of the same year, on
the death of Archbishop Bailey, he
succeeded to the vacant see. and thus
at the early age of forty-three attained
to the highest ecclesiastical dignity of
his church in the United States, for
Baltimore being the oldest is therefore
the primary American see.
Made a Cardinal In 1886.
In ISS3 Archbishop Gibbons was
summoned to Rome, with other Amer
ican archbishops, to confer upon the
affairs of the church in the United
States. During this visit he was the
recipient of several marked favors
from Pope Leo XIII. He was appoint
ed to preside over the thi:d plenary
ELECT NEXT POPE
Each of Them Has Long Been
Identified With the
council of Baltimore, which assembled
in that city iu November. ISS-L The
success of the council was due in a
great measure to the zeal, energy and
executive ability of Archbishop Gib
When the acts and decrees of the
council were transmitted to Rome they
were after mature deliberation ap
proved by the ecclesiastical authori
ties. Leo XIII. at the same time ex
pressed his appreciation of Archbishop
Gibbons' services and shortly after
ward nominated him for cardinal.
Archbishop Gibbons selected June
30. 1880, the day of his "silver jubilee"
as a priest, as the occasion on which he
would be invested with the insignia of
his rank as a prince of the church.
Farley Born In Ireland.
Cardinal Farley was born in County
Armagh. Ireland. April 20. 1842. His
father was Philip Parley and his moth
er Catherine Murphy Parley.
' As a child Parley attended mass in
the church at Newtown. Hamilton.
County Armagh, Ireland, where be
spent his boyhood.
The county of his birth is distin
guished historically, and the waters of
Lough Neagh in the north and of
Slievegulliou invest it with pic-turesque
ness. From the out of the way corner
of Ireland came many of the early
teachers of Christianity in England.
Europe knew the fame of the colleges
of Armagh, where foreign students
along with native were gratuitously
furnished with lodging, diet, clothing
Through both parents he is descend
ed from two of Erin's oldest families.
The Parleys, firm adherents to tile
faith, were merchants noted for indus
try and thrift. The Murphys on the
maternal side are distinguished in
Irish history for patriotism and brav
ery. "God and honor" being the watch
word of the clan through centuries of
Came to America When Seventeen.
When he was seventeen years old he
came to New York and entered St.
John's college. Fordham. but left after
a few months and went to St. Joseph's
seminary. Troy. N. Y. While he was a
student at Troy his brilliancy attract
ed the aUention of Cardinal MeClos
key. whirlcnt him to the American col
lege at Home, where he justified the
high expectations of his sponsor. He
was ordained a priest in Rome on June
11. 1870. and said his first mass there.
Returning to New York, he was assign
ed to St. Peter's parish at New Brigh
ton. Staten Island. While Father Far
ley was in the pastorate he was made
secretary to the -ardinal. succeeding
Mgr. M- Neirny. who was consecrated
bishop of Albany.
His reputation as an able executive
who liked plenty of work grew and in
ISS4, on the recommendation of the
cardinal. Pope Leo XIII. named Fa
ther Farley as one of his private cham
berlains. with the title of monsignor.
In the same year he was unanimous
ly elected rector of the American col
lege in Rome, where, not many years
before, be bad been a student.
But his services were so important
to Cardinal McCloskey in the adminis
tration of the archdiocese of New York
that Father Farley declined the post.
Instead, be became pastor of St Gabri
el parish, where he remained for seven
years. The school beside that church
Is a monument to him He was ar>-
pointed vicar general of the archdio
cese of New York.
Associate of Corrigan.
In this position he was thrown much
with Archbishop Corrigan. who was so
impressed by his zeal and personality
that in 1805 he wrote to Rome asking
that Mgr. Farley be elevated to the
episcopate as auxiliary to himself.
Upon the death of Archbishop Oe.r.-
gan Bishop Farley was the choice ot
the bishops of New York province and
the irremovable rectors for the succes
sion. He lecauie in 1902 the fourth
archbishop of New York by appoint
ment of the pone.
Cardinal Farley is a good preacher
and a diligent scholar, a man of broad
learning, courtly and distinguished of
manner, exceedingly |opular with the
laity and as a financier successful.
Cardinal O'Connell's Career.
Cardinal O'Counell was born in Low
ell. Mass.. Dec. 8. 1559. the youugest
of eleven children in a family com
paratively poor. He studied iu the
public schools of Lowell. graduated
from its high school ami went to St.
Ctiar'es" college. Ellirott City. Md.. re
turning later to Boston, where he en
tered Boston college and received an
A. B. degree in 1881.
Archbishop Williams sent him to the
American college at Rome in ISNI for
a few years of hard idudy. He was
ordained in 18S5 and took another
year before returning to America.
From 188H to 1895 he was a < urate iu
the Boston archdiocese, the lirst t-'*b
years in Medford and the rest at 9t
Joseph's church. West End.
His ri._ when he
was selected in 180.% to become rector
of the American college at Koine.
Honored by the Vatican.
Cardinal Satolli was a frequent caller
at the college and became a close and
Influential friend of Pather O'Couneli.
lie also became acquainted with Merry
del Val. A mark of favor came from
the Vatican in the elevation of Pather
O'Connell to the mousignori.
The see of Portland. Me . fell empty,
and the rector of the American college
was selected for it. lie was conse
crated in Koine May IS). 1901. by Cardi
nal Satolli and on the following July 4
was installed in tlie cathedral at Port
Following the close of the Russo-
Japanese war the Vatican determined
to send a personal representative to
the court of the mikado on a diplo
matic mission. The pope selected Bish
op O'Connell for that task.
Honored by Mikado.
His mission was successful. He w:
entertained cordially by the mikado,
aml among the honors conferred on
him by the Japanese court was that
of the grand cordon of the Order of
the Sacred Treasure. He returned to
Home by Asia and the Mediterranean
and readied Rome in January. 1900.
The appointment to the coadjutor
ship of the Boston archdiocese came a
few days later. The death of Arch
bishop Williams Aug. 30. 1907. made
the coadjutor the official head as he
had been the actual head of the arch
diocese. The soiemn ceremony of con
ferring the pallium was held in the
cathedral Jan. 29. HHIS.
One of his first steps was to ar
range for Ihe growth of the Catholie
federation. lie labored earnestly to
make it a power and added to its
growth the impetus of having a na
tional convention of the federation.
Parishes have increased in number.
The archbishop declared for uumer-
ous small churches in preference to
stately, magnificent and expensive edi
fices. He has expressed the intention
to have a church within a short dis
tance of every Catholic family.
Falconio Born |n Italy.
Cardinal Falconio was born in Italy,
but came to the United States in 181*5,
He did not speak the English language
at the time, but be set about learning
it while studying in the Franciscan
college of St. Bona venture, near Olenn.
N. Y.. where he was ordained a priest.
He afterward became president of the
college and in 1872 was naturalized
as an American citizen in Little Valley.
N. Y. He was then sent to Winsted.
Conn., and later was transferred to
Newfoundland, where he remained for
He was next assigned to New York,
where he worked a few months and
then received permission to visit his
father in Italy. He expected to be
absent but a few weeks, but was kept
in Italy until 1902. when he was sent
to Washington as successor to Mgr.
Satolli as papal delegate to the United
States. Immediately after he was
made a cardinal he was transferred to
FOUR SAVED BY DOG
Kaylor, Pa., Family Aroused and E*
cape From Burning Home.
A family of four were saved by the'
timely barking of a coach dog in a
destrictuve tire started in the livery
barn of Baruhart & Vensell at Kay
lor, near East Brady, Pa. Six valuable
horses were burued to death. The fire
spread to the residence of Howanß
Vensell and later to the home of John
Rolls, destroying them and entailing
a loss of over $6,000.
Vensell, his wife and two children,
sleeping in their residence near the
barn, were awakened by a coach dog
which scratched on their bedroom door
and barked loudly until Vensell awak
ened and discovered flames and smoke
leaping past the windows of the house.
He hurriedly awakened his wife and
children and assisted them in leaving
the burning building. The Rolls fam
ily was awakened before the flames
communicated to their home.
ADVISES CANNING FRUIT
Prices Will Be Much Higher by Fall,
"The price of peaches and other
fruits, so abundant in the fruit-raising
counties of southern Pennsylvania this
year, may be low now, but there will
be a jump in price before long, due to
the failure of the crop in the northern,
part of the state and in New York and
to the further fact that Europe will be
demanding our canned fruits before the
year is out."
This was the way State Zoologist
H. A. Surface summed up the situatiou
in regard to truit prices.
The southern part of Pennsylvania
has such great crops of fruits, espe
cially peaches, that some growers are
not picking because of their inability
to get prices they consider worth,
while, says Dr. Surface.
Boy Saved by Farmer.
A farmer cutting a live wire with a
scythe is all that saved Walter Gro
shime, aged eight, of New Kensington,
Pa., from being killed. The boy was
walking the Freeport road there and he
picked up the wire. He was thrown
to the ground and the wire wrapped
about him. The farmer observed the
plight of the lad and in his effort to
free him was badly shocked. Anothe!
man went to the rescue of the boy and.
he was shocked. The farmer finally
succeeded in cutting the wire with a
scythe. The boy is in a serious con
Aged Woman Gives Heirloom.
Relics and heirlooms are being re
ceived by Mrs. S. D. King, chairman oi
the Blair county (Pa.) branch of the
Woman Suffrage association as contri
butions to "self-sacrifice day." A wom
an seventy-six years old gave a gold
pin, an heirloom in her family many
years. An old coin, dated 1802, lias
also been received. All told she has
been the recipient of fifty articles,
including gold rings, gold spectacle
rims, gold watch chains and silver
Talk of Striking.
The general grievance boards of al!
Philadelphia & Reading Coal and Iron
company collieries in the Northum
berland (Pa.) district, employing
about 5,000 men and boys, have noti
fied officials of the United Mine Work
ers of America that the latter should
order all district men to go on strike
this week unless the grievances of the
miners at the Alaska collieries are
Tanneries Affected by Conflict.
Sheffield. Pa., is among the first tc
feel the effects of the war. The three
large tanneries there owned by the
Elk Tanning company started operat
ing on half time owing to the scarcity
of hides caused by the placing of ac
embargo upon foreign shipments
Word also was received of an advance
of 2 cents a pound on sole leather.
Vandals Work Destruction.
Vandals wrought havoc at Woodlea
the summer home of John W. Herron
of Pittsburgh, near Radebaugh, Pa
They entered the garage and hacked
all the tires on Mr. Herron's automo
bile. The cattle were then turned
into the garden and the gate locked
so they could not get out. The gar
den was practically ruined.
Bumper Crop in Pennsylvania.
A tremendous wheat crop has beec
harvested in Pennsylvania, according
to the national department of agri
culture today. The crop amounted tc
almost 24,000,000 bushels valued al
eighty-five cents a bushel, making the
crop worth more than $20,000,000.
Altoona Newspapers Merge.
The Altoona (Pa.) Gazette, a Repul>
lican evening paper, has suspended
publication. It will be merged with
the Altoona Tribune, a morning Re
publican paper, but as soon as busi
ness warrants an evening edition will
be issued from the Tribune office.
Three Men Kilted by Train.
Thre foreigners were killed and a
fourth narrowly escaped a similar
fate at Sugar run, near Laceyville.
Pa. The men were getting out of the
way of a freight train and were run
down by a passenger train.
Rat Gnaws Child's Nose.
Mr. and . -s. Joseph Sarpeli of neaj;
New Castle, Pa., were attracted to the
crib of their two-year-old son Ernest
and found that the child had been,
badly gnawed on the nose by a rat.
Business Man Missing.
F. L. Arnold, a prominent church
worker and business man of Mones
sen, baa been missing for thiit?