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| JAMES COLANGELO i
£ Italian Interpreter r
J and Labor Information Bureau J
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Great Events Believed to Be
Transpiring In Europe
BIG ARMIES GOME TOGETHER
French Making Stubborn Stand in
Aisace Defending Gap In Their
Line of Defense at Verdun and
Fighting With Belgians and Eng
lish Against German Invasion V.a
Valley of the Mease.
New York, Aug. 12. —A wireies mes
sage picked up by cne of the station?
in this vicinity this morning purp. . t
ed to be from Aix-La-C appelle, a •
slated that Kaio( r WTfcelm, the e:..
peror of Germany, had t< en shot .i
the thigh, but that the wound w„s ri
serious. He would be cendued to i .
for a week or ten days, the alleg.
Paris, Aug. 12. —The French wa:
office this morning issued the follow
"Our troops are in contact with tin
enemy along almost the whole front
The Germans attacked the French ad
vanced posts at Mangiennes in the
district of Spincourt, northeast of Ver
dun. The French commenced to re
tire, but our reserves came up and we
again took the offensive. The enemy
was driven back with considerable
"Our artillery destroyed a German
battery. We captured three cannon,
three mitrailleuses and two caissons
London, Aug. 12. —Two great lane
battles seem to be imminent, one be
tween the Belgian and French forces
and the German army of the Meuse
on the plains east of Liege, and the
other between the French and the
German army of the Moselle, on the
first line of the French defenses, ex
tending roughly to Longwy, near the
junction of the French, Belgian and
Luxemburg frontiers, and south '.o
Spincourt. A third great battle is
possible in Alsace, where the French
army of invasion has been halted and
forced to fall back from Muehlhausen
and is believed to be facing the Ger
man army of defense in its fortified
position at Neu Briesach.
No figures are available for either
the German army of invasion or for
the French army which is opposing it
but all reports indicate that both are
in great numbers. That the two
armies are nearing each other is indi
cated by the receipt of reports of
skirmishes between advanced guards
and cavalry detachments all along
the line—at Longwy, at Longuyon, a
few miles to the southwest, at Mar
ville and Montvedy, still further west
and at Verdun, half way between
Longwy and Montvedy and a little to
the north of them, in the Belgian pro j
vince of Luxemburg.
There is ground for the belief thai
the Germans have strengthened this
army of the Moselle since it became
evident that the Belgians were no r
going to permit the German army o'
the Meuse to cut unopposed through
Belgium. The reports of a German
advance from the frontier towns ol
France north of Verdun would seem
to indicate that the German strate
gists feel that this argiy of the Mo
selle has been delayed long enough
by the misfortunes in Belgium aud
that if the reported German plan ol
a quick and hard blow at France is
to be carried out, it must be by
army of the Moselle at once, withoul
waiting longer for support from the
The very scarcity of news from the
front argues that there are big events
in the making. Nothing comes from
Berlin, little from Paris, and less from
the war office here of the movements
of the armies. If the French army
Invading Alsace is making a serious
attempt to force through to Strass
burg at once, a battle may be ex
pected near Xeu Briesach; but ther
is a suggestion m the minds of mili
tary authorities that the present
movement in that province has for
its chief object the preventing of a
concentration of the German forces
now there with those which are invad
ing France byway of the gap north 01
Verdun. If this supposition is true
there may be nothing decisive from
Alsace until the success or failure of
the German invasion of France has
The British war office says nothing
About the whereabouts or the number
of the British troops which are now
in Belgium co-operating with the Bel
gians and French. It is understood
that these are now at or near Namur,
preparing to make a decided stand
at the fortified city whenever the
German army of the Meuse shall have
conquered the Liege forts, which have
held it back for days.
Whether it is of any significance or
not, a dispatch from Rotterdam says
that the Holland-American steamship
> line has placed its premises in the
hook of Holland at the disposal of the
Dutch Red Cross society with a special
view to the hospital needs in case of a
naval engagement in the North sea.
OF THE SERVIANS
Quaint Capital Is Rich In lis
ITS SEW FART UP TO DATE
Great Wealth Lacking, but Neither Is
There Any Genuine Poverty—On the
Other Hand, the Inhabitants Live
Comfortably, and the Whole Atmos
phere Is One of Contentment.
The Servians are intensely proud of
Belgrade, their capital, of its historic
traditions and its tine modern develop
ment, but so far as its vulnerability t<.
Austrian attack is concerned tliey have
Belgrade is, roughly speaking, divid
ed into two parts, the older part, bui.r
during the Turkish domination, lying
low 011 the banks of the river, and the
new. modern part, of which not only
all Servians but all Serbs as well are
intensely proud, lying ou the hill back
of the fortress. Iu the low part of the
towu is centered much of the comities
cial life of the city. The railroad ana
steamer traffic is centered there, and
the custom houses and many ware
houses and factories are also located
The new part is laid out in broad,
woii paved streets lined with fine build
ings six and seven stories high which,
since the new spirit of development
has seized on the country, have re
placed the small, low buildings that
were first erected. The city has a Com
prehensive tramway system which ex
tends far beyond its limits in several
directions and connects with it many
charming and flourishing suburbs.
The public buildings of Belgrade are
not Imposing. The university and the
theater are near one another on the
principal square. The post and tele
graph building is near by and, like
most of the other government build
ings, is entirely inadequate to he
the business that is transacted f
For years there have been plan
build a new one, but the strict economy
of the state has always prevented.
New Palace For Crown Prince.
The royal palace is on the Avenue
Prince Milan, one of the chief streets,
and is not especially imposing. It is
a part of the residence of the Servian
kings for many years, but the building
in which King Alexander and Queen
Draga were killed was torn down and
has never been replaced. At the other
end of the plot where this palace stood
a fine new palace is being erected for
the use of the crown prince.
The parliament building is so small
and inconspicuous—it has but two sto
ries—that only the flag flying over it
gives an Indication of its uses. The
buildings of the various ministries are
all very modest. That of the foreign
department is fust beyond the palace
and has the appearance of an office
building. The entrance is directly from
the sidewalk up a narrow flight of
stone stairs, and there is little formali
ty about procedure there. An old m:o
receives the visitor's card and shows
him into a plain little reception room,
from which a green baize door leads
to the office of the prime minister.
The people of Belgrade are not rich,
and there Is a conspicuous lack of dis
play, especially in official circles. Auto
mobiles are comparatively few, and so
are fine turnouts of any kind. There
are very few footmen and few men
servants of any sort, for the position
of woman is' clearly defined, and men
do not assume lier privileges.
Few Rich, but Fewer Poor.
But as there are few rich people, so
are there -hill fewer very poor ones.
The people all over the city are well
and comfortably dressed, the shops are
bright and tilled with new and
tlve goods. The people are gay and
light hearted and are great frequenters
of the street corner cafes, each oue of
A YEAR'S GROWTH
OF THE CHAUTAUQUA MOVE-
MENT IS MARVELOUS.
Seven Hundred More Tent Cbau
tauquas Than Last Year,
Twenty-two Hundred In All.
The past year's growth of the Chau
tauqua movement In the United States
has been little less than marvelous.
The number of tent Chautauquas in
this country has increased from 1,500
last year to more than 2.200 this sum
mer. One thousand of these Chautau
quas are under Redpath management
There are about 300 more Redpath
Chautauquas this year than last
Never before in a year has such wide
publicity beeu given the name Chau
tauqua in the press of the country.
This in part, of course, was due to the
wide discussion of Mr. Bryan's appear
ances on the Chautauqua platform last
The army of people now employed in
all the different features of Chautau
qua work over the wide expanse of the
American continent also serves to em
phasize the movement's importance.
The principal reason for this remark
able development may be attributed to
the fact that Chautauquas axe tha efeff
1 WILL GOME BACK
It Wouldn't Surprise Moheno,
Former Cabinet Secretary.
"GARRANZA COULDN'T LAST"
"Year and a Half Would Be Limit of
His Endurance as President"—Scoffs
at Villa as a Political Figure In Mexi
co—Holds One Man Power Responsi
ble For Country's Unrest.
Querido Moheno, late secretary of
foreign affairs in the Iluerta cabinet,
discussed numerous angles of the Mex
ican situation iu an interview with a
New York Sun reporter the other day.
With the retirement of Iluerta, Mo
heno left Mexico. He will probably re
main in New York until the Mexican
government i> put on a stable footing.
Then he i< anxious to return and give
an account of his late secretaryship to
ilie proper authorities.
The possibility that Iluerta might
again become a political figure iu Mex
ico was held strongly by Seuor Mo
"I should not be surprised." he said,
"if lltieria would be a very popular
man in Mexico within six months
through one of those changes of feel
ings frequently seen in Latin eouu
tries., A man may be howled down by
the masses while he is in power, but
the moment he loses his power he be
comes an object of strong sympathy.
This is just an accentuation of the
American feeling for the 'under dog.'"
Will Smell Psychological Moment.
"How will Iluerta know when the
tithe is ripe for his return?" Seuor Mo
heno was asked.
He spun one of his hands around in
the air and then touched his nose.
"He'll smell it," declared the one time
"It is almost impossible to tell just
j what will happen in Mexico," con
tinued Seuor Moheno. "Of course, if
General Carranzu accepts the terms of
provisional President Carbujal and be
comes president himself the status of
the government will be fixed for the
"How long do you think Carmnza
will be able to hold tils office under ttie
most favorable conditions?"
"A year and a half," he said de
cisively. "At the top of the heap
General Carranzu will immediately be
gin to be held responsible for every
public and private ill. Then, besides
many other possible developments
which no man can foresee, tlk ie is
Villa to be reckoned with."
"Do you think tnere is any chance
that Villa will finally oust Carranzu
and become the head of the govern
The question afforded Moheno much
amusement. For a moment his eyes
were quite lost In a face rippled by
Says Villa Has No Chance.
"Will Jack Johnson become president
of the United States?" he asked at last.
| "Well, he has just much chance of
doing so as Villa has in Mexico. Villa
is so ignorant that he couldn't hold
any government position. As a tighter
he can get a good deal of support, but
as a political figure—none.
"Of course, if Carranza bows down
to him he may actually control the
running of the government for a while,
but be will always have to do so be
hind a screen."
: Senor Moheno was asked if he saw
" any prospect of peace in Mexico with
in a few years.
"Peace in Mexico can come about
only through changes in the constitu
tion," he declared. "Just uow the
president has so much power that any
body who seizes the office is pretty
sure of playing a lone hand in running
the government. Most of this power
must be taken away and vested in
parliamentary bodies somewhat after
the fashion of those in Spain or Chile.
"The predominant power must al
ways be automatically retired by an
adverse majority of the popular vote.
With these safeguards alone can Mex
ico become the peaceful country we
are longing to make it."
"Have recent revolutions developed
and men strong enough to give ma
terial help to thus stablize the govern
Senor Moheno shook his head.
"Fighters have been developed," he
said, "but no statesmen."
NEED OF MORE MARINES.
Difficulty In Getting Men Enough For
Demands Made on Corps.
With five full regiments of marines
now on expeditionary work, in addi
tion to the many men of the same serv
ice scattered throughout the Philip
pines and Guam and elsewhere, the
marine corns is having difficulty in
meeting the demands made upon it for
an army to carry out the policies of the
administration In regard to Haiti and
In addition to the shortage of enlist
ed men the marine corps is at present
reported to be sreatly underofflcered—
in fact, with '*ss than half the num
ber of officers to a regiment that the
regnlar armv demands. Consequently
the officers are doing double duty and
have been for the most part without
adequate leave for five years paat.
FATE OF SHIPS
SEIZED IN WAR
Nation Taking Merchant Ves
sel Sole ilalga of Its Prize.
NO WORLD GODE AT PRESENT
Plan For Internat.onal Court Adopted
at London Conference In 1909 Held
Up by Great Britain —United States
as Neutral Country Could Ciaim Re
imbursement From an Offender.
Merchant ships seized as prizes dur
ing the European war will be dealt
with by the prize courts of the nations
making the capture unless an inter
national prize court should be set up.
In recent years attempts have been
made by the great nations to establish
an International tribunal to decide
whether a merchant ship was seized on
justifiable grounds and to award dam
ages where the capture or sinking of
such a ship was unwarranted.
As things are now, if ships of the
United States are seized as prizes in
tiie present war. this country has the
right to make a protest, which would
ordinarily end in a settlement before
an award court established for the oc
casion. The advocates of an interna
tional prize court say that it would
work more swiftly and that its very
existence would make warring nations
proceed more carefully in the taking of
According to the present internation
al practice, the belligerent nation cap
turing a neutral merchant ship is the
judge to decide whether the vessel is a
valid prize. The carrying of contra
band. the attempt to run a blockade or
the rendering of other kinds of "un
neutral service" makes neutral mer
chant ships liable to confiscation.
Treaty Obligations Only Exception.
There is at present no international
code which specifies the offenses
against neutrality which make a mer
chant ship a lawful prize, and each na
tion Involved in war settles the ques
tion according to its owu lights, ex
cept where it is bound by treaty ob
ligations with ticutral nations.
A plan was adopted at the interna
tional naval conference at London in
1909 to establish an international prize
court, and that such a court has not
been established is due to the failure
of Great Britain to pass the necessary
legislation. The delegntes of Great
Britain were among the strongest ad
vocates of the international prize court
at the second Ilngue peace conference
in 1907, but the plan was defeated by
strong popular opposition in England,
especially by the conservatives.
Prize Cort Waits Action by England.
According to James Brown Scott, ed
itor of the American Journal of Inter
nuthmul Law. the establishment of the
international prize court depends upon
the aotiou of Great Britain. He says:
"The signatories of the original cou-
vocition and of tile declaration have
wadttKl, !*hl are still waiting, for favor
able action by Great Britain upon these
two international documents, apparent
ly uiiwitling to create the international
prtee court without the co-operation of
Great Britain and to bind themselves
by the provisions of a declaration call
ed by Great Britain to meet British
objection unless it is ratified by Great
Britain. The establishment of the
prize court therefore is thns made to
depend upon the action of Great Brit
Article 7 of the prize court conven
tion is as follows:
If a question of law to be decided is
covered by a treaty in force between the
belligerent captor and a power which is
Itself ur whose subject or citizen is a par
ty to the proceedings the court is govern
ed by the provisions of the said treaty.
In the absence of such provisions the
court should apply the rules of interna
tional law. If no generally recognized
rule exists the court shall give judgment
In accordance with general principles of
Justice and equity.
It is unlikely, according to Dr. Ellery
C. Stowell of Columbia university.
New York, and an expert on interna
tional law, that any of the nations at
war will take steps to bring about tbe
establishment of such a court just now.
"The court would be of great ad
vantage to ueutra! powers," said Ir.
Stowell, "but there is no reason why
a belligerent should be anxious to es
tablish such a court now. The two
principal neutrals in this war, as it ap-
pears, will l>e the United States and
Italy. These two nations might insist
upon the rights of neutrality defined
by the London declaration, but it Is
hard to see how the nations at war
could be brought to establish the inter
national prize court. If such a court
were established its usefulness would
not begin until the war was over un
less the war proves to be a very long
Yes, the Swiss Have a Navy.
It is not quite correct to say that
Switzerland has no navy. There is a
small armed vessel, something like a
gunboat, stationed on the Lake of Ge
neva and usually to l>e found opposite
Lausanne. It is not a formidable look
ing craft, hat apparently it has a big
mission, for it keeps watch on French
Savoy and Incidentally on smugglers
from Evians-les-Bains. the French wa(
terlng place opposite. G. E. Simpson. M. D.
H. B. Neal, M. D.
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