The daily collegian. (University Park, Pa.) 1940-current, October 29, 1986, Image 1
■a* April 1887-April 1987 PACs pile on the money Supporters, foes debate issue of influence-peddling By JAMES A. STEWART Collegian Staff Writer Among the audiences trying to catch an influential ear in the U.S. Capitol, lobbyists from the National Association of Letter Car riers believe they have an inside track. But most citizens and many congressmen know little about their concerns. ‘PAC money is necessary in terms of getting people involved in the political process.’ —Jim Clark, campaign manager ( for U.S. Rep. William F. Clinger' Letter-carrier issues include preservation of the postal monopoly and civil service pensions, as well as general attitudes about the federal budget, said association spokes man Fred Nesbitt. The group is the nation’s fourth largest political action committee. At election time, Nesbitt said, his group tries to interview all the candidates before making a political endorsement. “Sometimes, quite truthfully, a candidate Almost No. 1 The Nittany Lions assemble on the gridiron to celebrate their 23-3 victory over the Lions up in the polls to rank No. 2 among the country’s college football the Crimson Tide of Alabama last weekend. The tromp in Tuscaloosa moved teams. Please see story, Page 10. inside • A sensitivity training session for State College apartment owners will help them to “be perceived more like they want to be perceived" when dealing with minorities and people from other cultures ‘.....Page 3 • The champion New York Mets, confident and cocky through 108 regular season vic tories, the National League play offs and the World Series, already are talking about doing it again next season Page 10 index weather This afternoon, breezy and warm with lots of sunshine, with a high of 68. Tonight, cloudy. Low 42. Tomorrow, it will be cooler with any morning clouds giving way to increasing sunshine. High 57 Heidi Sonen the daily doesn’t know too much about our issues,” Nesbitt said. “It’s an opportunity to discuss issues and tell candidates about issues as we see and view them.” Proponents of political action committees known as PACs say the $70.7 million in 1986 campaign contributions donated by spe cial interest groups each year gives individu als the opportunity to maximize their voices in Washington Opponents, however, say the money is used to exert influence over government officials, creating both the appearance and the possi bility of conflict of interest. PACs ought to be controlled or eliminated, they say. “PAC. money is necessary in terms of getting people involved in the political proc ess,” said Jim Clark, campaign manager for Republican U.S. Rep. William F. Clinger. “People donate through their own industries. They want to get involved and let people know they’re there.” In contrast, Citizens Against PACs spokes man Mark Zuckerman said: “PACs have a detrimental effect on the political process. They’re anti-democratic. They buy access to people in power and limit access of citizens to representatives.” PACs and Pa. Politics Whether for or against PAC contributions, both sides admit to the large role they have Education more than learning a skill Editor’s Note: This is the first of three articles on education by writers who attended an education symposi um held last week at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania. By WINSLOW M. MASON Jr. Collegian Staff Writer Instructors on both a college and elementary school level must instill social and moral justice in students and act as gatekeepers ensuring that only socially conscious people partici pate in the American society, accord ing to several education specialists. The specialists exchanged ideas at a symposium titled “American Dreams: The Future of Education in America,” held last week on the campus of the Indiana University of Pennsylvania. “Teachers are cultural transmit ters and should use their power to engage the young in what our nation al community has learned about all cultures,” said Kevin Ryan, profes sor of education at Boston University and author of 50 published articles and reports about education. Educational institutions are the places where cultural traditions should be passed on, he said. Collegian played in the Clinger-Wachob and Edgar- Specter races this fall U.S. Sen. Arlen Specter, R-Pa., running for re-election to the state’s Senate seat, leads the Pennsylvania PAC race with $691,952 in PAC contributions, according to the Federal Election Commission. Henry Giroux, professor in the school of education at Miami Univer sity of Ohio, characterized elemen tary schools as “dead zones.” He said “public education teachers do not promote citizens who will improve public life.” Ryan said teachers should not serve as technicians who just deliver knowledge, but should be responsible for reshaping material and teaching methods to obtain the common good, which he characterized as a func tional society and economy. Penn State College of Education Dean Henry J. Hermanowicz, in a critique of the elementary school system, said teachers should have a great deal of responsibility in deter mining students’ curriculum. At the college level, Ryan said; many undergraduates are too young to make a career choice because “during these years they are wonder ing about the existence of God and their sexuality.” But Hermanowicz said that al though students change their majors several times, “it’s fine because stu dents should have the opportunity to engage in the decision making proc ess.” He called the teaching of standard and the controversy curriculum and human values inse parable and supported teachers who do not try to take over family respon sibilities but work with the family. A good education would include the combination of a good liberal arts background and a marketable skill such as engineering or computer sci ence, Hermanowicz said. Ryan said the term “professional teachers” should be upgraded be cause prostitutes, dishwashers and football linebackers are also called professionals. ' “The question for me,” Giroux said about teaching methods, “is not what works, but does it matter? ... Is it just?” “Teachers and professors should be ‘transformative intellectuals’ who are concerned with empowering stu dents so that they can read the world critically in order to change it,” Gi roux said, “not to become yuppies.” He said elementary and secondary schools should be democratic public spheres where students learn public responsibility mnd become rational human beings. In reference to teacher training, Ryan said college professors must not have a concept of teaching as simply talking. “We should not give Specter’s opponent, U.S. Rep. Bob Edgar, D-Del., received $331,445 from political action committees, FEC records said. In the 23rd district U.S. Rep. William Clinger, R-Pa., has received $200,218 from PACs and Democratic challenger Bill Wa chob has received about $220,000. v teaching a vocational aspect,” he said. Saying that teachers and profes sors are underpaid, not well trained and not regarded as important people in our society, Ryan said “we need more, better and longer teacher training. The best way to improve the output of teachers is to improve the input.” “We’re a culture that’s been edu cating for a long time and there must be something we’ve learned about the process of instruction that should be implemented.” Currently, teachers and professors are “gatekeepers of Reaganism,” Giroux said, advocating more student experience in learning and less dicta tion of classroom discussion. Both speakers, in addition to many others throughout the conference, cited the poor conditions of urban public education and urged the need for reform to improve the education of lower-income blacks, Hispanics and others. Concerning the role of families in relation to the role of teachers, Ryan and Giroux agreed that both play a role in educating America’s young people. Wednesday, Oct. 29,1986 Vol. 87, No. 76 16 pages University Park, Pa. 16802 Published by students of The Pennsylvania State University ©1986 Collegian Inc. PACs generally endorse and support candi dates on the basis of voting records, recom mendations from local groups, and the importance of the political race to their special interest. Donations to campaigns are limited to $5,000 per candidate per election. The National Association of Realtors runs the nation's largest political action commit tee. The group favors the Gramm-Rudman budget deficit reduction program and deduc tions of automobile expenses from income, said spokeswoman Elizabeth Razzi. “PAC contributions magnify the voice of individual members," Razzi said. “It allows them to have an effect on races that mean something to them. It prompts broader politi cal participation “The point is that the contributions are from individual NAR members,” said Razzi. Jeff Cox of the Pennsylvania Association of Realtors said the Realtors’ Political Action Committee favors Specter and Clinger, both Republicans, in local races. The nation’s second-largest PAC is the National Education Association. The NEA, a national union that represents educators, believes the federal government should take an active role in financing and regulating education. NEA spokesman Howard Carroll said en dorsements and donations by NEA-PAC, the union’s political action committee, are based on whether a candidate is “considered an overall friend of education.” The major factor in the NEA-PAC’s selec tion of candidates, besides incumbent voting records, is a candidate’s view of the role of the federal government in education, Carroll said Please see PACS, Page 16. McKee to stay open in summer By VALERIE BAILEY Collegian Staff Writer McKee Hall will be open next sum mer only for graduate students occu pying the residence hall during Spring Semester 1987, said Donald Arndt, director of Housing Services. Arndt said that when these students file a summer contract, they will have to sign an agreement that they will tolerate the noise and odor asso ciated with maintenance work. Areas in the hall will be painted and refur nished. During the summer, McKee Hall will be locked 24 hours a day, and students will be issued a special key to enter, Arndt said. Graduate students living in McKee will have “the continuing understand ing workmen will be in the building starting at eight in the morning,” and at times there will be no screens in the windows, in addition to the noise and odors, he said. Housing for students beginning graduate work in the summer will be provided in Nittany Apartments, lo cated on campus, Arndt said. Irvin Hall, which houses under graduates during fall and spring se mesters, will not be open for graduate students during the upcoming sum mer, he said. Maintenance work in McKee will begin during the Intersession in mid- May and continue until the end of Summer Session, Arndt said. Only 120-130 of the hall’s 160 rooms will probably be completed by the end of the summer, Arndt said. The change in housing plans was made because the needs of the grad uate students could be accommo dated while the projects were being completed, Arndt said. GSA housing committee member Haleh Rastegary (graduate-psychol ogy) said at last night’s Graduate Student Association general assem ; bly meeting that several things both ered McKee residents. Students were not consulted prior to making “a decision that would closely affect their lives,” she said. Also, students were upset that they were only given seven months notice, Rastegary said. Seven months warn ing is not enough time for students looking for jobs because they have already given out their McKee Hall phone numbers, she said. For some students this would have been their second or third across campus move in two years, she said. Former Atherton Hall residents had to move last summer when Atherton was converted from an graduate to an undergraduate residence hall. “People (were) saying if we knew we had to move another sum mer, we would have made other living arrangements,” Rastegary said.