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—The Daily Collegian Friday, July 27, 1!
Calls effects 'dec
By DIANE NOTTLE
Collegian Ass’t. City Editor
Educators must re-evaluate their
conception of the relationship between
teaching and learning, according to
Henry C. Johnson, associate professor of
Speaking on “No learning, No
Teaching? The Natural History of a
Pedagogical Myth,” Johnson said
Wenesday teachers are blamed for all
the problems within a culture.
A nation or a culture in trouble
blames everything on teachers’ failing
to teach,” he said. “If a student hasn’t
learned, then someone hasn’t taught
This myth, Johnson said, is not a
falsehood but "a guiding truth that has
not been substantiated.” He called its
effects on teacher education “decidedly
“The pressure has brought us to the
condition of defining learning and
teaching without knowing what learning
is,” he said. “And if we don’t know what
teaching is, we can’t evaluate.”
Johnson, who specializes in the history
and philosphy of education, said present
attitudes toward education developed
over several historical periods.
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For centuries, he said, teachers were
thought to function only because of the
existence of another object usually a
body of knowledge. Because the teacher
had this knowledge, others were
presumed to want to learn.
“Those who wanted to know came to
the teacher,” Johnson said. “He did not
go to the unwilling. The eager and ready
came to him.”-
j During the 18th and 19th centuries, he
said, this concept of the teacher was
changed througHja new idea of the state.
Since government incorporated a larger
segment of the population into state
decisidn-making, the information
required by citizens increased:
“Given this new relationship, the
school became a matter of national and
class policy,” he said. “Teachers had to
promise they would produce par
ticipants to continue the enterprise.
They had to promise their students
would participate and succeed.”
! Johnson said a turning point in
/education occurred in ,1859, when
Charles Darwin published “The_Origin
I of Species.” Darwin’s theories of ran-
I dom selection and the cause-effect
relationship between the environment
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Finally, educators adopted the idea
that teaching and learning are related
causally. But Johnson said this concept
of education has proven ineffective
during the past few years.
“The promise that children will learn
has never been realized,” he said. “The
student is thought of as an object. He is
taught fhat no matter what happens, the
environment causes it. So he comes into
the classroom and says, ‘Okay, teach
me,’ ■” _
Johnson recommended that
educators abandon the cause-and-effect
model because it was applied to in
dividual behavior although meant for
entire populations. [
The lecture series will close today with
Stanley 0.. Ikenberry, professor of
education, speaking on “The Confidence
Crisis” 12:30 p.m. today in Kern
Yesterday’s planned lecture on
“Private People and Public Pushers:
Students and Teachers” by David
Gottlieb, professor of human develop
ment, was cancelled because of illness,in
Students participating in
the High School Music Clinic
will present a concert 8 p.m.
Friday in Schwab.
470, “Introduction to -Air
Pollution Control”, will be
offered first period Monday,
Wednesday and Friday Fall
Term instead of fourth period
as scheduled. The course to
be limited to 35 students, will
be held in 145 Fenske. It! is
intended primarily for
Penn State Amateur Radio
Club Station K3CR is open
and operating all summer.
For more information call
865-7231 or 865-9031.
Faculty members are
reminded that reserve
reading lists should be-sub
mitted before July 30. Forms
are available at the Un
dergraduate 'Library, WlO6
r®“/ MARCIE, IM \
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V I NEEP W OUT J
Scientists report on Sky/ab 1
CAPE KENNEDY, FLA. As the Skylab 2 astronauts
prepared for 59 days in space, scientists said yesterday the
Skylab 1 crew’s 28-day mission showed the human body ap
parently adapts to weightlessness by shedding unneeded
muscle tissue, calcium and red blood cells. !
At a news conference, medical scientists said the decrease
in muscle tissue calcium shown by the three Skylab l
astronauts was similar to losses exhibited by people confined
to bed for long periods^.
The Skylab 2 crewmen Alan L. Bean, Dr. Owen K.
Garriott and Jack R. Lousma flew to Cape Kennedy from
Houston, Tex., yesterday to begin final preparations! for
tomorrow’s 7:11 a.m. EDT blastoff to the, orbiting scientific
laboratory that will be their home for two months. j
The medical researchers said data from the Skylab 1
mission, which ended last month, showed that a 59-day htay
should cause no serious medical problems. But the data raised
some questions about the debilitating effects of the moiiths
long flights necessary to reach Mars and the other planets!
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House delays abortion bill
HARRISBURG The House voted 101-89 yesterday to send
back to committee legislation that would have prohibited use
of state money for abortions.
The vote followed floor objectipris from Rep. Martin Mullen,
D-Philadelphia,i the chief abortion foe in the legislature.
The resolution to recommit" the bill was introduced by Rep.
Charles Mebus, R-Montgomery.
In view of the legislature’s upcoming summer recess, the
vote at the very least delays any action on the bill until fall.
The Welfare; Department finances abortions under the
medical assistance program.
The anti-abortion bill would allow one exception when the
life of the mother is in danger.
Shapp signs mortgage law
HARRISBURG With “great reluctance,” Gov Shapp
signed into law yesterday legislation reinstating an eight per
cent ceiling on home mortgages through 1975.
“It is bad legislation,” Shapp said at a news conference.
But, he said, the interest situation reached “crisis propor
tions” when the rate dropped from eight per cent to six
Tuesday because of legislative inaction.
Shapp said he favored lifting the ceiling entirely or, at the
very least, increasing it to eight and one half per cent, because
of the tight money market of recent months.
Shapp said he will appoint a seven-member commission
next week to develop a “long-range” solution to mortgage
interest rates to report back in three months. He said he hopes
the committee will look into a system where the ceiling would
vary according to certain nationwide interest indicators.
Committee okays deposit bit!
HARRISBURG The House Consumer Protection Com
mittee yesterday approved legislation requiring landlords to
pay interest on all security deposits, regardless of the length
of the lease. /
The provision was an amendment to a bill requiring interest
to be paid on some security deposits but exempting those
made on leases Of less than two years.
Rep. Eugene' Gelfand, D-Philadelphia, proposed the
The committee also made these changes in reporting out the
security deposit bill:
If the lease is for a year or less, the deposit cannot exceed
the equivalent of two months rent. Only the equivalent of a
month’s rent could be held if the lease is for more than a year.
The landlord would pay six per cent interest in. the security
The landlord would have the option of posting bond in lieu of
placing the security deposit in interest-bearing account.
House approves foreign aid
WASHINGTON (AP) Rejecting an effort to cut off all U.S.
military assistarice for Cambodia, the House approved a $2.8-
billion foreign aid bill last night focusing $650 million on the
needs of poor countries.
The House approved the bill by only five votes, 188 to 183 its
narrowest approval of foreign aid ever.
Overhaul of the U.S. aid program to focus $7lB million on
such needs as food production, nutrition and birth control was
approved early in the day but the House chopped it down to
$650 million just before final passage.
A second major reform creation of a $1 billion-a-year
credit fund to boost U.S. exports to poor countries was
An amendment by Rep. Bella A. Abzug, D-N.Y., to cut off an
estimated $l5O-million military aid in the bill for Cambodia
was rejected 105 to 26.
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