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the students, to become competent to represent
their own college in such contest, which would go
far toward raising the standard
,of their rhetorical
efforts. The plan is an excellent one no doubt,
and its success in the West warrants its trial in the
East. Why should not the colleges of Pennsyl
vania form an oratorical association at,once ? All
it requires is for some one, or few colleges to take
the lead. Why should not State College do her
part toward starting the movement.
P. S. C. MINERALS AND FOSSILS! !
Within a radius of six or eig.ht miles of P. S. C.
—a convenient distance for a Saturday's ram
ble—are a sufficient number of minerals and
fossils to form a good collection. It may serve a
good purpose to notice the localities of some of
them that are known and likely to be developed.
A. In the bed of the run, a few rods above the
mill, at Pine Grove, Trenton limestone, with
numerous trilobities, brachiopod mollusks and
corals imbedded with beautiful distinctness :
six miles distant.
B. In the Gap, above Pine Grove, Fucoids of the
very best, and clay slate nodules, with various
fossils : six and one-half 'miles distant.
C: Around the end of the mountain, at Lemont,
Fossils of the Trenton limestone, and half way
from the station to woods of the mountain
side, numerous quartz crystals. Should there
ever be any excavation at this point it will be
well to look below the frost line for crystals
containing water bubbles : Distance, three
At Pleasant Gap, numerous fossils of the
Utica shale and smoky quartz. Distant eight
miles, five by rail from Lemont.
At Oak Hall, in the creek bed, interesting cal
careous concretions, and in a cavern extend
ing. under the mountain, good stalactites,
Distance four miles.
In the old,quarry, one and one half miles
West of the College; trieobites; good.
THE FREE LANCE.
G. At the "Pond Bank," four miles N. W. of
P. S. C. limonite geodes. Should this mine
be operated in the spring, specimens rivalling
those from the Connecticut locality will be
This locality it notable and merits a description.
In the midst of the wide valley formed by the
Appalachian Mts. as they stretch through Centie
Co., is an area of secondary highland, itself
divided into hills and valleys; known as the Chest
nut Ridge. It extends about parallel to the north
easterly and southwesterly trend of the mountains,
quite across Centre Co., occupies an area some
thirty miles long and two to three miles wide, is
poorly watered, of a light or sandy soil, and most
ly covered by forests of pine, oak, and chestnut.
Though not wholly unfertile, and slowly being ob
literated by farms, this region is, in some of the
older maps,. marked as the "Barrens," and is still
often locally so-called. The underlying rock is
a sandstone and scattered over the surface is much
loose sandstone and flint. Here and there are
beds of limonite and hematite, abandoned or still
being worked In fact it ranks as a rich iron 're
gion. On the summit, five miles west of the Penn
sylvania State College, and its famous prospect of
mountains, are the Scotia Iron Mines, controlled
by Andrew Carnegie, the largest in Pennsylvania.
So much of detail in the description of this area,
for the fact that amongst the rocky debris of its
soil and surface are found irregularly shaped bould
ers and fragments,much weathered 'and iron stain
ed, at first sight very rough looking, but really 'the
the most singular and beautiful of all the oolites.
The name arises from the fact shown by the fol-
lowing analysis :
SINGLE SPHERULE FROM PENNAA SILICEOUS OOLITE.
The Siliceous Oolite locality two miles north
west of P. a C.