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T. Ill EDITORS.
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TiriLUAM KITTELL, Attorney at
iff I. AW, fcVtnsu" . 6,
OllN EENLON, Attorney at Law,
Ebcnshurg, 1 a.
-v-v- Office on High street.
.... . , T . 1 t T T ,
I J Law, Ebensburg, Pa.
I y- office in Colonnade Row. au
WnLUAM II. SECIILER, Attor-
f nev at Law, Ebensburg, Pa.
Office "in Colonnade. Row. aug20
KOUGE V,r. 0 ATM AN, Attorney at
JT Law and Claim Agent, and United
tales Commissioner for Cambria county, Et
nsburg, P. ta813
nrOirNSTON & SOANLAN, Attorneys
t at Law, Ebensbarg, Pa.
Sr Office opposite the Court House.
t. TTlOHNSTOS. augl3 . E. ECANLAX.
AMUL'L SINGLETON, Attorney at
Law, Ebensbnrg, Pa.
I Office on
west of Fos-
(TAMES C. EASLY, Attorney at Lave,
0 Carrolltown, Cambria county, Pa.
1 3 Architectural Drawings and pecifi
Utioas made. FRU813
tn J. WATERS, Justice ot tnc reace
lJ and Scrivener.
Itrl:1 Office adjoining dwelling, on High St.,
WATERS, Justice of the Peace
SHOEMAKER, Attorney at
Law, Ebensburg, Ta.
PMrtiriiUr attention caid to collections.
rvrv ttmi-o on Hiffh street, west of the Di
VOSEPII S. STltAVER, Justice
if the Pence, Johnstown, Pa.
Office on Market street, corner of Lo
sir t extended, and one door south of
i!..- late office of Wm. M Wee. taugi.
PEVEIIEAUX, M. D., PhyHcian
and Surgeon, Stimnut, Pa.
l-j'- Office east of Mans'on liou.-e, on uau
ru,vr street. Night calls promptly attended
ut his -ffice. aug!3
DK. 1E WITT ZEIC.LElt
Havintr permanently located in Ebens
I nr.'. otVers his professional services to the
citizens ot town aou mcii i-.j.
Teeth ex'.r.icted, without pain, with Xitrous
Villi?, or Lnuihivj (i.
l2T l-ooms a.1joinir.ir O. Huntley's .store,
Hi-'h street. L'E1'
The under&iirned. Graduate of the BaI
t.more Colle're of Dental Surprery, respcettully
j-.U-va i,is proitjiional services to the. citizens
.,1 Kbensburg. He has spared no means to
tlHrouhly aciiuaint himself with every ira
roi vir.ent in his art. To many years of per-
imparted experience of the highest authorities
Ilia Dental Science, lie simply asks tlint an
Opportunity liiay he tfiven tar his work to
, ' ...... ..... . . r . w r .
BA.iJLi'.Ij JJl-I.rUKU, It. It.
Will beat Ebensburg on the fourth
Mon-iay of each month, to stay one wiek.
August 13, 18G8.
T 1.0 YD & CO., Bankers
j EunKsnrno, Ya.
li'iT olil. Silver, ooverntnetu i.oan3 ana
otln-r Securities bought and sold. Interest
allowed on Time Deposits. Collections made
on nil accessible poiuts in the United States,
an.! a (icueral Lanking business transacted.
August 13, 18GS.
W M. LL
,OYD & Co., Jinncer
t ? Altoona, Pa
Ihwfi3 or. the principal cities, and Silver
n.l Uold for sale. Collections made. Mon-
y received on deposit, payable on demand,
'iilhKit interest, cr upon time, with interest
t fair rales. acgl3
Fin ii.' i.Mli?'P xf'iirvr t) i vrr
I i- Or Jojinstows, Pesxa.
l'id up Capital $ G0,000 00
J'riotttye to iitcrtate to 100,000 00
l We buy and sell Inland and Foreign Drafts,
.Gold and Silver, and all classes of Govcrn
j ment Securities: make collection t .
and abroad ; "receive deposits ; loan money,
and do a general Banking business. All
buiness entrusted to us will receive prompt
attention aud care, at moderate prices. Give
i us a trial.
D. J. MoRBKLL,
Eow'ii. Y. Towssexd,
Jacoh M. Campbsll.
E t R1TZ,
DANIEL J. MORRELL, President
J. Uoukkts, Cashier. sep3ly
m. LI.OVD, Prtt't. John lloyd, Cashier.
171 1: ST NATIONAL BANK
C 0 YERNHENT A GEXCV,
DESIGNATED DEPOSITORY OF THE UNI
Corner Virginia and Annie 8ts., North
rd, Altoona, Pa. . .
AvTiioni7i:u Capital $300,000 00
Cash Capital Paid is... 150,000 00
All business pertaining to Banking done on
Iii'ermil Revenue Stamps of all denomina
tion.; always on hand.'
To purchasers of Stamp?, percentage, in
f irtiups, will be allowed.'-as follows: $:0 to
2 per cent.; $!0C to $200, 3 per cent.;
v-aud upwards, 4 per cent. auglS
A UK A II AM BLAINE, Hurler
' ' Ebexsbchg, Pa. .
shaving, ,KhampooinK', aud Hair-dressing
tone in the mot artistic style. , '.
Caf Saloon, directly opposite the "Moun
taiuJilou.se." . uugl3
AMUEL SINGLiri'ON, Notary Pub
lic, boensbnrg, Pa.
ice on High, street. weBt of Foster' Ho-
a , . auglJ
Oli WORK of all kind done at
THE ALLEGH ASIAN OFFICE
Hick Sr., Ebexscuug, Pa.
Grant a.nd Col Ta x .
Hang out the great, illustrious names
Of noble men of noble deed,
Who ne'er their coirn try's trust betrayed,
Nor faltered in her hour of need.
Let all the people from afar
Behold the nation come at length
From base intrigue and bloody war,
To bights of grand and stable strength.
Now sweeps the darkness from the sky,
And looking o'er long years of pain,
With sense of danger ever nigh,
From men of lust of greed and gain,
We aee the. rainbow arch of peace
Stretch o'er the land from shore to shore,
A promise of onr glad release,
A pledge that traitors rule no more.
AN ti-DEBlOCR&TJJW DEMOCRACY.
SPEECH OF HON. JOHN SCOTT AT HUN
TINGDON, SEPTEMBER 18th, 1868.--THE
SHAM DEMOCRACY SHOWN
UP IN TUEIR TRUE COLORS.
Mr. Scott, on rising to address the meet
ing, was for some minutes unable to pro
ceed, owing to the enthusiastic and oft re
peated demonstrations of applause with
which he was greeted by the audience.
lie commenced by contrasting the cir
cumstances under which the issues of this
campaign are discussed, with those of the
campaign of lSb'4. In 'CI Horatio Sey
mour was President of the Chicago Con
vention, and with him were Bigler of I'a.,
Vallandigham of Ohio, and others, who
declared in their platform that four years
of war had resulted in failure to restore
the Union, and that war should cease.
They further charged that the Government
had broken and violated the Constitution
in every part in other words, the Chicago
plutiorm, constructed by beymour and oth
ers, was a declaration oi war against' the
Government, and of peace with the rebels
who were trying to destroy it. While
these men were engaged in .forming that
platform, Wade Hampton was waving his
sword at the headot the" Hampton .Legion,
and perhaps charging the "lioys in JJIue,
destroying as many as possible ot those
who were there in defence of the Govern
ment. Buckner, the man Grant informed
that he would move on his works at Don
elson, was also doiti ' what he could to de
stroy the Government. Preston was seek
ing to secure the influence ot the ijourts
of Europe against us. Here we had Sey
mour, l$ilor, auo. v a'lanuigtium on tuc
one side, and JJuckncr, Preston, and Wade
Ilaniptou on the otherside, all co-operatim
tor the jmrposc of dividing the party. hav
ing control of the Government, and the
Government itself, while Gen. Grant was
fighting the battles of - the Wilderness;
liartrauft, after his grand achievement on
the bloody field of An tie t am, was engaged
in the trenches about llichmond, and
Campbell was guarding the line of the
Baltimore & Ohio Kailroad to prevent the
rebels of the South from burning your
home and mine. How in 18G8 't Sey
mour, Bigler, and Vallandigham were
again in a Democratic Convention, as ac
tors, or as moving spirits, to engineer its
nomination and platform. Pendleton, if
not tli ere, had his escort there. We saw
them going there but not coming back.
The same men who were against Grant in
1SG4 are against him now. 'The same
men who then sent the '-Boys in -Blue"
home to be buried, - Hampton :md Buckner,
and the men who joined hand with them
in the North, are joining hands now in
opposition to Gen. Grant. In 18G-l.the
Democrats of the North said every measure
taken by the Government was unconstitu
tional, and thus sought to cripple its ener
gies while the rebels in the field were de
lving the right of the Government to ex
ert its. control over them.
When he Democratic party of the.
North, and the rebel element of the South
came together, could anything else come
of it than what did ? One plank of the
platform attacking the finances of the Gov
ernment, and the other attacking the pow
er of the Government to govern the South
ern States; this was Wade IIampton'3
platform, the result of a coalition of the
two elements North and South. Sherman
knocked the bottom out of one plank of
the old platform, while the eletions in Ver
mont and Maine knocked the balance into
splinters that were used to light the bon
fires of freedom from Maine to California.
Shortly after the New Vork platform was
adopted, Wade Hampton made a speech at
Baltimore in which it was asserted, that
tho rebels, by the success of that platform,
would gain what they had lost, but by and
by came the Vermont followed by , the
Maine election, and tho entire platform is
pretty near in splinters npwy the last con
test of the Democratic party North, allied
with the rebels South: ' !
In the Uhrcago convention, there were
somc rcrels, such as Brownof Georgia,'
but the difference is that they were repent-
ant rebels ! ' . If the whole . South, W ade
Ila'nVpton and all, could get together in one
great camp-meeting, and sing the first two
verses of that familiar hyninj "Show' pity
Lord, oh Lord forgive," . we should join
them in such a love-feast as was never
witnessed ; we would kill the fatted calf in
itUrnest, aud some of us would go in for the
music and dancing. . ..
The national (cht was spoken of as a
I WOULD RATHER BE RIGHT THAN PRESIDENT. Henry Cut.
EBENSBURG, PA., THURSDAY, OCTOBER 8, 1868.
great grievance ; the deLt and taxes.
How could it be otherwise, after the war ?
But the men who made the rebellion were
responsible for the debt. In 18G0 we were
just recovering from the financial crisis of
1S57, during which there were in Penn
sylvania 5G0 failures, involving money to
the amount of 124 millions, lhe rebellion
came in 1SG1. and there occurred during!
that vear. 570 failurec, involving money
to the amount of 24 millions ; the act of
the rebel Government that year coniLca
ted 300 millions owing from the South to
theXorth, of which the proportion of
Pennsylvania was about 32 millions. Du
ring the war the Northern States took
from the' productive industry of their pop
ulation over two millions of men, who be
came not only consumers but destroyers of
produce, and is it not one of the most
marvelous things ever shown by the world's
history, that we are able to go on with the
ordinary industrial pursuits of the country,
in such a way that there is no distress or
want, but on the contrary, work plenty, at
good wages? Before the administration of
Buchanan closed, 10 millions of a loan was
offered by the Secretary of the Treasury,
and only 7 millions were taken at 11 per
eent. ; afterward 5 millions more were put
in market and only one-halt of it taken at
S5 cents on tho dollar. During the terri
ble campaign of 18G'J and 18G5, tho same
men now making clamor about the debt,
were trying to induce the people not to
touch the bonds of the Government, and
savins: that it would require a cord of
greenbacks to buy a cord of wood. Takin
all these things together, it was a. God's
mercy that the country did not sink into
bankruptcy and ruin the next day after
the war closed. - .
rri : , v .1. jai x ':
Liiu issue 01 i no ueot is iiol now oeiore
. ra r n , n y .
the country, lhe hrst oi the tiebt ma
tures in 1881 , the next 1SS2. That is tho
time the Government bound itself to pay,.
although obtained in five or ten years.
These bonds arc issued by the Govern
ment for the purpose of raising money to
carry on the war, the interest ot some ot
them payable in gold, ana tne principal
and interest of others, lhe right to bor
row money is given by the Constitution.
They raise the quarrel now, long before
the bonds are due ; whether wc shall pay
them in gold or greenbacks, when wc have
not got either. The law limits the issue
of greenbacks to four hundred millions,
and no more can be issued without anoth
cr act of Congress :
we have not the gold,
aud the legal tenders are not issned, and
it would trouble the arithmetic of these
men to pay $2,500,000,000, of bonds with
$400,000 of greenbacks. The Democratic
platform says, where the law docs not say
they are payable in gold they should be
paid in lawful money of the United States.
What is the lawful money of the United
States? According to Democratic doc
trine enunciated by Sunset Cox, at Brook
lyn, it is the money that chinks. Here,
then, the Democratic platform proposes to
pay all those bonds in gold. Judge Wood
ward, he said, was placed in a position in
that Convention from which none of his
friends would be able to extricate him,
having declared, when a candidate for
Governor, that the legal tenders, issued by
the Government, were not lawful money,
and no man was bound to take them for a
debt, 'and now that the bonds should be
paid in the same currency he had pro
nounced unlawful. Pendleton and Val
landighaui declared in Congress that they
had no power to issue greenbacks. The
Democratic party said that the greenbacks
were issued in violation ci Constitu
tion. This was their wl ole cry during
the war, and uoav, in order to issue green
backs enough to take up iusq bonds, tho
party must do the same thing it has been
decrying all the 'time. They are thus
proposing to pay off bonds which they
made payable in gold, by giving notes
which they say the Government has no
power to issue at all, thus getting rid of
all the claims ot the widows and orphans
of our deceased soldiers and of the entire
National debt by the issue of an unconsti
. Wc say pay these bonds when they be
come due, and whe
n Grant and Colfax
and Vice Presidential
take the Presidential
chairs, as thev'" will, then will follow a ca
reer of peace and prosperity that will mako
the greenbacks-by that time as good as
gold. ' . ' r
Upon this financial question we are in
as much danger of war as upon the ques
tion of reconstruction. We had during
the war one hundred million dollars' worth
of property destroyed by the Alabama,
commanded by the pirato Semmes, who
lighted up the ocean with the flames of
our burning merchantmen, and who is
now an ardent supporter'bf Seymour and
Blair, and against Grant for vhich we
have been presenting our claims 10 Eng
land, and which will be paid. We Lave
millions of bonds in the hands of tho Ger
man people, and if a Democratic adminis-
tration should ever take up the obligations
of :our Government to them by! giving
them an irredeemable' promise . to pityr
would not the -Prussian: Government be as
justifiable in protecting" IKe rights. of its
citizens as we are .ours ? 'And if a Demo
cratic administration should undertake Uo
carry out this idea, there" would bo just as
much danger of Prussia taking tlis.t ground saw, there came the Ministers aud Ambas
as there is now from the question of re-.' sidors of the oldest nation to our Capital
construction ; and more, because we .have 1 there, like, the sheaves in Joseph's vision,"
the rebels a little nearer to home, and the ' to do us reverence aud learn of us, while
same men have been once whipped by a
little man called Grant.
It has been said that the poor man pays
the rich man's taxes. Is that true? And
if sot, where, and how ? You all pay tax
es, and where does the poor man pay the
tasps of the rich man ? "What State tax
do you pay- on real estate ? None. A
Republican Legislature took off the taxes
irom real estate, and imposed them upon
railroad and telegraph companies, bank
stock, &c. The poor man surely does not
pay the rich man's taxes. Come down to
the county tax, and what do you pay on
there ? Real estate, money at interest,
&c. i Are not the poor man and the rich
ma'TP'tuxed according to their property ?
In the borough taxes, the poor man and
the rich man are taxed on the property
they 'own, and pay alike. Now, where
does the poor man, pay the rich man's
taxes ? The National taxes are imposed
on whisky, petroleum, manufactured arti
cles; incomes, &c, not the necessaries of
life, and these taxes are imposed alike.
They Bay the poor man is taxed for all he
eats and. wears. Is not the rich man too:
They say tho bonds are not taxed. The
income of the bonds, all over a thousand
dollars, is taxed. They say the bondhold
er pays no local tax. The United States
imposes this upon the interest of the
bonds, but they say they should pay State
taxes too. Now. the power does not exist
to impose a State tax on United States se
curities, and there must have been one
hundred men in that New York Conven
tion that knew it. If the men who are
clamoring for this in our county do not
know it, they ought to be ashamed to con
fess it. s .
What : do . these men propose to do ?
The fourth plank in their platform propo
ses equal taxation of every species of
property, &c. That is, they propose to
begin at tho ground and .tax every man
for every dollar he has ; and yet they tell
you the poor man pays the rich man's
taxes ! ; This Democratic platform propo
ses to tax poor : houses, churches, school
houses, and every other property, accord
ing to its' value. 'It is like' the decree is
sued by Augustus Caesar to tax the whole
world. They say the bonds locked in the
National banks ought to pay tax. They
are paving three per cent, to the State and
General Government. How do they pro-
to tax the United States bonds by
the State f hi very man of - common sens
can so?, that it is not in the power of
State government to tax the Nationa
bonds. We had a Constitutional Amend
ment providing that our debt should be
paid, and that the rebel debt should not,
and while on its passage, every Democrat
voted against its adoption, and the mo
ment the Legislature of some of the States
that had adopted it changed, they wiped
out that amendment, saying that our debt
should not be paid and the rebel debt
should. . Put in the hands of such a Leg
islature as that the power to tax the prop
erty of the General Government, and they
would soon do so to such an extent as to
blot out the whole. '
Judge Woodward must surely hang his
head in shame when he looks at the doc
trines contained in that platform and then
at the decisions of the Supreme Court, as
rendered in 1819, 1S24, and 1820, and of
our own State in 1842 and others, no less
than six decisions of the Supreme Court of
the United States, and one in the Supremo
Court of-our own State against taxing
United States securities or the salary of
LTnited States officers, and yet in the face
of all this they are clamoring because there
is no State tax on Government bonds.
How much road tax and school tax do
these United States bonds pay they say.
How do you propose to get your school
tax and road tax from them, over six de
cisions of the United Stat es Supreme Court,
and one of your own State ? .
By applying your own doctrine to rpur
own platform, it is a cheat and a lie, and
you can make nothing else out oi it.
If any man can reconcile it with good
morals let him do it. The United States,
according to a clause in the Constitution,
has made a contract. with its bondholder,
that they will not permit. State or local
I taxation, and yet you want the Govern-
ment to ; violate that contract and that
clause of the Constitution. This is like
the subterfuges resorted to in the rebellion,
and is bound to go down with the rebel
lion. , ,.
- "The rebels and the Democratic' party
say the Southern States are entitled to
immediate restoration, and that the Gov
ernment has no power to impose upon
them any , conditions.,. They say the war
made no difference in. their status.. We
say no; your rebellion . authorized us to
impose terms before 3ou come back again,
and upon that 'position .we intend to stand
and triumph. Talk about maintaining a
government without the power to preserve
its own life ! We fought you when you
had the bayonet at our breast, and now
when you would inject poison into our
veins we will take the liberty of stopping
up. the mouth of tho syringe. : ;.. .
We present the grandest and most glo
rious spectacle ever presented byr anyr na
tion' of the 'earth."-' We were' the youngest
nation of the earth, and yet after emerg
ing from such a contest as the world never
standing where our Congress was in se.s- The division of the road between 1I,1
sion. The same Providence that imnolJoil I li.l.ivslmro- and Johnstown w is f.wm.l f...l
a k-.- i 1 . i j j. a i . i ,
me. &iuenoiuer to laKe Hie oniv inp.ins
that could have been taken to accomplish
the same ends ; that carried us through
the war, and upheld us during those try
ing hours ; that educated this people up to
a belief in the emancipation of the colored
race ; that hardened the hearts ot the
Southern people against terms more mag
nanimous than were ever offered to a rebel
people before : the same Providence was
over-ruling our cause and hardening the
hearts of this people as that of Pharaoh of I
old for the benefit and blessings of this
What it is to be no human ken
but we will see it aud know it
hereafter. There is a Providence leading
us on, and the nation that has been the
asylum of the oppressed, will not go down
beneath the convulsion of a Presidential
election. The little man of destinv who
began Tain career in the army by mustering
in the troops of Illinois, and closed it up
or the time by mustering out the whole
rebellion ; that little man is tho man the
country can still trust, arid the Govern
ment will be safe under the patriotism of
General Grant and the Christian states
manship of Schuyler Colfax.
The Pennsylvania Railroad.
Eight hundred and twenty-three miles
separate Philadelphia from the great in
land port of Chicago, and nine hundred
and ninety-eight he between the Pennsyl
vania capital and the " Mississippi river
town of St. Louis, with which it is con
nected by four different railways, whilst
the great through route between the two
former places is formed of two railroads
the Pennsylvania Central, and the Pitts
burg, lort A a3'ne and Chicago, which has
a joint terminal station at the former place
with the first named line ; so that only one
change oi carriages is necessary in travel
ing the entire distance ; that change bein
effected under one station roof.
The Pennsylvania Central railroad is
one of the best constructed, equipped and
organized lines in the States. . Its iorma
tion presented formidable difficulties to the
engineer, and its course lies through a re
gion rich with the mineral wealth of iron
and coal, which crop out upon the hil
sides, and show sectional seams in the deep
cuttings through which the railway in mrt
takes its way- Speaking broadly, the line
ofioutc irom MMUlctoiMi, nlneiv-six nines
west of Philadelphia, follows the course o
the Susquehanna and its tributaries, the
Juniata and little Juniata rivers, to their
source on the east side of the Alleghany
range ot mountains, which the railway a
cends to a height of 2. 270 feet, descending
on the other side to follow for fifty miles
the channel ff the western watershed.
which, under the title of the Conemaugh,
effects a junction with the Alleghany river,
and helps to swell the flood of the Ohio,
fifty-five miles beyond, at the Pittsburg
lhe entire length of the Pennsylvania
Central 1 ail way is 855 miles ; it was com
menced thirty-seven years ago under the
title of the Philadelphia- and Columbia
railway, the terminus of which was on the
east bank of the Susquehanna, and where
the passengers and freight were received
on board canal boat?, and carried westward
by the extensive canal system, which was
at that time in active operation. This
road crossed the Schuylkill river at Phila
delphia, on a timber viaduct 084 feet long,
50 feet wide, and 3S feet above the water.
level. It then aseendedan inclined plane,
with a grade of one in fifteen, worked by a
stationary engine ot sixty horse-power ;
this plane was 035 yards long, with a rise
of 187 feet, lhe nature ot the country.
for the whole length of the line necessita
ted steep gradients and heavy works, for
the first 60 miles, which brought the rail
way to Lancaster; the inclinations varied
between 1 iir 110 and 1 in 150, which
were heavy grades in that early period of
railway construction. Some of the cuttings
on the road were forty feet in depth, and
one embankment was eighty feet high.
The road entered its terminal station at
Columbia by an'ihciined plane 1,800 feet
long, and rising ninety feet, ' also worked
by a Btationary engine.
. Another division from IIollida3rsburg at
the foot of the Alleghanies, on the eastern
side, to Johnstown , thirty-seven miles dis
tant, crossed the mountain summit at an
elevation of 2,020 feet above the sea level.
Johnstown was originally the point of ship
ment for iron brought from the neighbor-
ing mines in the Juniata district, and
floated in flat boats down the Conemaugh.
It lies at the junction of the Western" Di
vision 'of the Pennsylvania Canal and the
Portage railway, at the Point where, a trib
utary flows into the Conemaugh river.-
Both these streams penetrate a "country
rich in coal and iron, and this mineral
wealth has given to Johnstown extensive,
blast furnaces, iron works and other indus
trial manufactories. The Cambria Iron
works is one of the largest establishments
in America. They occupy an area of
about 25,000 acres, and are situated in a
narrow valley, where the richest deposits
of iron ore, bituminous coal, fire-clay and
limestone lie in strata contiguous to each
other. The principal vein of carbonate of
iron, adjoining the : furnaces aud rolling
mills,. lies over the ctal measures, about
'200 leet above the bed , o the. Conemaugh,
and GO ft. ab'jvc the top of "the furnaces.
OO IX amvaivci:.
a tout lbvM. upc
mis lengtu was one
.1 , .
fine viaduct built of stone, and
semi-circular arch of 80 feet.
level was 70 feet above the water, end it
was constructed at a cost of .11,000.
The mountain summit was reached by
five inclined planes and intermediate lev
els, a similar number having been con
structed for the descent on the western
side. The length of the first plane on the
eastern side was 1.G0S ft., with a rise of
150 ft., and succeeded b- a level part of
which lay through a tunnel 000 ft. loiv
1. 1 . . i . 1 . r . i i .
oiasieu our, oi tne limestone rock. Tho
second plane was reached by a level of 14
miles in length, on which was the stone
viaduct before alluded to; this plane was
l,bO It. long, with a rise oi about 1 in
13. The third plane had a femrth of
1.4S0 ft., with a grade of nearly 1 in 11.
The fourth plane was 2,10G ft. in length,
rising ibb leet. 'lhe hith plane was
2,020 ft., with a rise of 200 ft, in its
ength. From Johnstown westward, the
traffic was conducted by canals. This line
was called the l'ortage Ilailroad.
15ut with, the growth of western cities
the development of their trade, and the
natural resources, a tar more rapid means
of communication with the coast was nec
essary, and this the Pennsylvania Central
railroad company set themselves to supply.
On the 1st of September, 1S48, sixty
one miles of line were constructed from
Harrisburg, the capital town of the State,
westward, and a new line was constructed
from Lancaster to the former place, com
mencing by a junction at Lancaster with
the original Philadelphia and Columbia
road, which was extended beyond its
original terminus, along the east bank of
usquehanna, uutil it joined the Lan-
caster and Harrisburg Kail way, as a loop
line, at Middlctown. The delay incurred
in surmounting the Alleghany summit by
means of the inclined planes formed an
impediment to the development of the
line, which it was found necessary to over
come by crossing the mountain by a more
favorable route, and at a lower level, the
highest gradient being laid through a tun
nel of considerable length. To this end,
the, new line Mas located, in 1840, from
Altoona at the foot, to the summit of the
mountain, a distance of twelve miles and
a quarter, with a maximum gradient of
84 feet G inches co the mile. On tho
western s:ue, me ruling inclination is f0
feet to the mile. This new line is in the
immediate vicinity of the old l'ortage
Kailroad, which it crosses five times by
bridges, and once upon a level. The end
of 1851 found the Pennsylvania Kailroad
in operation as far as Hollidaysburg, where
it worked over the inclined planes' of the
then existing l'ortage road, and several of
the westward sections to Pittsburg were
were completed, forming separate links of
a connection between that place and Phil
adelphia. On the western side of the Al
leghany ascent, the construction of tho
new line was so far advanced that the us-j
of two of the stationary engine-worked
inclined planes were dispensed with, and
the whole of the grading of the mountain
division was in hand. .The summit tun
nel was commenced at each end, and at
four shalts. This part of the work was
completed in 1S53, and the through lino
opeued for traffic on the 15th of Februa
ry, 1S54. This tunnel was the most for
midable work upon the line; its length is
3.570 feet ; its width, 24 feet ; and the
height. 22 feet.
The level of rails arc two hundred and
ten leet below the summit of the moun
tain. Of the four shafts one was thirteen
feet in diameter, and the other three ten
feet wide, lhe deepest was one hundred
and ninety-six feet, and the rcmainderono
hundred and ninety-four, one hundred
and fifty-four, and one hundred and fifty
feet respectively. The rocks were found
to be the nearly horizontal strata of the
coal measures, the tunnel in great part ly
ing along a bed of firo clay, which, though
easily excavated, gave great subsequent
trouble in properly securing the .'-ides and
roof, the whole of which are lined with
brick. During the progress of the works
great difficulty was encountered from the
large quantities of water met with, which
rendered incessant pumping necessary.
At the middle shaft a fifty horse power
engine was stationed duricg the whole
progress of the work. The turn' el was
completed io two years at a cort of ,90,
000. The unreliable nature of the mate
rial exposed, ou opeui'g out the eastern
end of the tunnel, rendered it necessary
to increase the gradient upon that
.side of ;he mountain from 92 feet per
milo to 1 in 55. ou straight lines, and 1 ia
t'5 on he curves of minimum radius. This
arrangement reduced the length of the tun
nel t 3.570 feet, and the maximum gra
dient to 9 miles in length, commeucing
ibuiitlA miles west of Altoona aid extend
ing to the cast side of the tum i-l mouth,
overcoming in that distance a rise of GOG
feet, equal to an average gradient of 1 in
57, 75 or 91 G-10 per mile. The maxi
mum gradient on the western side of the
Alleghanies is continued through thelun
uel. as it was considered possible th.U .t
may prove convenient to work. that rseut
wi;h a stationary engine iusfead of auxili
ary locomotives. -
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