Newspaper Page Text
JACOSY & IKELEIV Publisher!.
Truth and Right- God and car Country.
Two Dollars per Annum in Advances
BLOOMSBURG. COLUMBIA CO., PA., WEDNESDAY, APRIL 4, 1SG6
kewser,eS.V0L. 1. .NO. 6.
VOL. XXX LO semes
H K H
1 N JJVl JL JJL
BUSKS eOLLECt I
N.ErfCor.- Tenth and -Chestnut Streets. !
' " " PHILADELPHIA. "
, Tlie most compare and thorou?hly sppointed Busi- I
arcs or Commercial College in l be country . I
1 Th. onlv one in tuu city pos.essinir a Legislative I
"Charter, and tbe only one in the United states author- j
j . . ft 1 . n Hn.Hn,! '
: hvu lo'conier legree wi punt, tv.uin v "
;toraduiite in the Commercial Course under its cor
pofote sesl by authority of law.
Conducted by gcutlcmcn of liberal education and
eileiMive experience in business, and affordin? une
tjaalleJ aiviiiila.res for the. tboroBg.i theoretical and
piaclrel.i":ation- of young men tor the variou. du
ties and employiimnt of business life.
.THEORY AND PttACTICE COMBINED
kr fc of system '
'j.-. ACTUAL BUSINESS TRAINING
original and rnre aminentty practical. iriinir the stu
dent in tbe shortest lime a comp Icte iniahl into the
sconce of accounts, arranged aii't published by the
proprietor of this Institution exclu-ivety for hi own
use. saving one-half me ordinary Isbor of the student
andeivinf bun a complete knowledge of to practice
t the bel accountants.
THE COMMERCIAL COURSE
.' , . ' EMBRACES
BookeepingjCoromercial Ariihmetic, Pen
manship, Business Correrpondence,
Commercial Law, Lectures oa
Business Affairs, Commer .
, 1 ciai Customs, Forms, :
and Actual Busi
Atgtbr mid thi Higher Motkematiu, Pkonograpkg, Or
ntmtnfl Penman kip. the Jit e . Detecting
Counterfeit .Vauty, F.ngintehrj Sar
' Myta, Aoigatitn and
The arrangements for Tncsraphing are far more ad
vance of anything of the kind ever oflered to the pub
lie. A regular Tele rapti Line is connected with the
Institution wrh twenty branch cificea in various
parts of the ci'y. where public busies is transacted,
and in which tha students of this Institution are per
mitted to practice. No regular office practice can be
bad in aav other school of instruction in the country,
without which no one can obtain a position as a prac
tical operator. Youna men nre cautioned agaimu the
deceptive representation of thoe who. without atiy
such facilities, pretend l V ach Telegraphing.
This Institution !s now f njoyins the largest pntron
tronage ever betowed upci any Commercial hcIiooI in
tfe 6tate. Over Cvo bundres students were in atten
dance tbe first yar. and over seven hundred during
the past yar.- The bet clasa of students may inva
riably be found here, and all its associations are first
LOCATION A NO ACCOMMODATIONS.
This Institution located in the most central part
of the city, and its accommodations, for extent, ele
gance and convenience, nre unnrpa."sed. All the
room have been fitted up in the very Dst style with
BUSINESS OFFICES UR-CoUNTINU HOUSBS.
TELEGRAPH OFFICE. . STATIONARY STORE,
AND A RKOCIAR
BANK OF DEPOSIT AXD ISSUE,
applied with finely engraved lithographic notea used
as a circulating medium in the department of Actual
TO YOCIVG iTaJKx
who desire the very b at facilities for a
Practical Education for Business,'
we gnaran tee a course of instruction no where else
equalled, whi'e tbe reputation and standing of the
Institution nmong business men make its endorse
ment the best pansport to success and advancement.
All contemplating entering any Commercial College,
ara invited lo scurf for an I I.LUS Tit ATEli
CIRCULAR AND CATALOGUE
containing' complete inferior views of the Colteee,
and full particulars of the course of instruction,
L. FAIR BASKS, A. M,
t. B. MERCHANT, Sapf. of Office Business,
Nov. 4, 15 Urn. .
1866. ' Philadelphia & Erie ISGC
This great line traverses the Northern and North
west counties of Pennsylvania to the city of Erie, on
It has been leassd bv the Pennsylvania Railroad
Company, and is operated by them.
timx or rAssanoica tbaihs at hortugmbsklajid.
F.ne Mail Train. ". ',, II 25 P.M.
Ena Expre' Train, , 3 45 A M
Cluiirai ail Train. 10 25 A j(
. LEAVE IVLSTWAKD.
Erie Mail Train. 5 00 AM
Erie Eipresa Train. 7 14 P M
Elmira Mail Train. 4 35 PM
Passengers Cars ran through on tf.e Erie Mail and
F.ipress Trains witiiout chano both ways between
Philadelphia an. I Erie.
NLW YOBK CONNECTION
, Leava New York atO.OO P.M. arrive nt ErieD. 15 A.M.
Leave Erie at 1.55 P.M. arrive nt New York 3.4o PM.
Elegant Sleeping Cars on all Nirht Trains.
"For information respecting Passenper business, ap
ply atthe Cor. 30th and Market Sts. Philadelphia
And for Freight business of th Company's Av'-nt3
8. B. Kingston, Jr., Cor.l3tb and Market Sis., Fhjl'a.
J. W. Reynolds, Erie. '
.William Brown. AaentN. C. R: R., Baltimore,
'if. H. Houston. Gcn'l. Fr-ipht Agt . Philadelphia,
11. W. Gwinner. Gen'l.Tickot Agt. Philadelphia,
' A. L- TYLER. Ucn'l. Sup't. VViliiauispurU
March il, U66.
, , GIRTOISTS
CHEAP GROCEUX STOKE3.
- - .'1LSO . . t
JfJATSj CAPS -A2.D SHOES.
THE undersigned has removd hisllat and Cap Store
up to Evans' old stand. w htre in addition to a
superior assortment of
SPRING AND SUMMER
j0 Hats and Caps
Molasses, . Sugar,
Coffee, - ' - Teas,
Tobacco , Snaa,
. . Cigars, ' Spices,
Dried Fruit, Better
"".','' Coal .Oil, , . i Drugs,
. w parlor and, HancL Lamps,
Books; 1? ritmg ?aper & Inlc.
Hardware and Ccd irware,
Pocket Knives , Combs,
-v . Sft.j : 4-c, fa,
Together with a rrtrtT of articles generally kept in
uolA ffne lot of KID3.M0ft6.TEO3 and Listses to
which he invites the St ention of Shoemakers' and tne
Cloomsbtirj, May 13, 115
Hti : f a BLOOMSBURG, C0
' LUMB1-A. co- PA-. .
'"y 'x.i T n subscriber, proprietor
' '2 tensive establishment, is no
, ju prepared to receive orders
for , .
m 1 .-
... . l - r M'nttnr
; ail KiaUS I
for Cotleries.' Ula.C Furnace. Eutionary Engine.,
ititM THPESDING MACHINES, tC. tC.
He is ppad w m.ke Stoves, all six,, and
lie IS ai w i-y h n iimilli mate in
faaerns-, p'ow-irons. ana '
H7,i""nsfvenfactMtie. and pract.ctt. workmen: war
tint hhu In receiving the largest contract, oo th.
"rOTSf Mod. wi tokeB '" '
"PwTUU wublishmeat is r the Lackawa
,4 Cioomsburg Railroad PCTEa BILLmYER.
. Blim.br. Sept. 13. 1S63.
-T-. DAVID tOWE25BEaC.
C LO T JUNG S T ORE, -6iMainstrettwodooriaboTlbeAmer.
DEMOCKAT AND STAR,
13 PUr.LISHED EVRRY WF.nNEPDAY, IN
BLOOMr'HURG. COLUMBIA COUNTY. PA., BY
J ACOBY 8o 1KELER.
TERM.". $2 00 in advancp. Ifnotr9,d till the
rnrt oftheyenr". 5 rent additional will be charced.
NoapT discontinued until all arrearage
are paid except at the opinion of the editors. -
. RATES OF aDVERTISlG.
icn uES coMSTtTtrrcs a ebuR.
One square -ne or three inkertions .......
Lvery subsequent insertion less tianI3..
SPACE. Ix- 2. 33t. 6M,
I 3 00 I
I 5.O0 I
I T OO
I 12 00
I in 0U
Etecu tor's and' Administrator's Notice 3.0
Auditor's Notice - 2-J
Other adyertiiements inserted according to special
Business notices, without advertnement, twenty,
certs per line. '
Transient advertisements pnynble in adtnnee, all I
others due after the firt iiisurtiou.
Address. J ACOBY &. IKELER.
Bloomsburg, Coiumhii County, Ta.
From the London Once a Week
In this fearful strmgle between the North and the
Sou th there are hundreds of cares in which lathers
were arrayed azainst sous, and brothers against
brothers. American paper.
Rifleman, shoot me a fancy shot
Straight at the head of jon prowinj vedette ;
Ring me a ball in the glittering spot
That shines on dm breast like an amulet !"
"All, Captain ! bee goes for a fine drawn head
There's music around when my barrel's in tune 1"
Crack ! went the rifle, the messenger sped.
And dead from bis horse fell the ranging dragoon.
"Now, Rifleman, steal through the brushes and
' From your victim soma :trinket to handsel first
A button, a loop, or that lumiitouJ patch
That gleams in the moon like a diamond stud."
"Oh, Captain! I stasgere-l and sunk on my Irrck
When I gazed on the face of the fallen vedette.
For lie looked so like you. as he laid on bis back.
That my heart rose upon me aud masters me yet.
But I snatched ofT the trinket this locket of gold.
An inch from the centre my I pad broe its way,
Scarce grazing the picture so fair to behold.
Of a beautiful lady in bridal array."
"Ha 1 KiUman, fling me tbe locket, tls she.
My brother's young bride and the fa 'len dragoon
Was her- husband ! Ilush, soldier, 'twas Heaven's
Wc must bury him here by the light of the moon,"
Put hark ! the far bugles their warning unite ;
War is a virtue weakness n sin:
There's a lurking and loping around us to nicht ;
Load again. Rifleman ; keep your band it 1'
Veto of the
To ihe Senate of the United States :
I regret that the bill, which has passed ;
both Houses of Congress, entitled An act
to protect all parsons in ths United Stales;
in their civil rights, and furnish the means
of their vindication," contains provisions
which cannot approve, consistently with
my sense of doty to the whole people, and ,
my obligations to the Constitution of the
Uuited States. I am.thereiore constrained to
return it to the Senafe (the House in which
it originated) with tny objections to iis be- '
coming a la7. j
By tbe first section of the bill, all persons
born in the United State-' and not subject
lo any foreign power, excluding Indians not
taxed, are declared to be citizens of the
United States. This provision comprehends
the Chinese of the Pacific States. Indians1
subject to taxa-tion, tha people called gip
sies, as well as the enire race designated
as blacks, people of . color, negroe?, mulat-
toes, and persons of African blood. Every ;
individual of these races, born in the United ;
Slates, is by iLe bill made a citizen of the j
Uuited Stales. It do3 not purport to de- j
clare or confarar.y other right of citizenship j
than federal citizenship ; it does dot pro- j
pose to give these classes of person any j
status a? citizens of States except that which .'
may result from their status as citiz of the
United States. The power to confer State 1
citizenship is just as exclusively vvith the J
several States as the power to confer the '
right of federal citizenship is with Congress, j
Tha riffhl of federal citizensbin thus m he
conferred in tha several excepted ratios be
fore mentioned is now, for the first time,
proposed to be given by law. Il,v as is
claimed by many, all persons who aro na
tive born already are, by virtue of the Con
stitution, citizens of the Uaited Stales, the
passage of the pending bill cannot be nec
essary io make them such. If, on the other
hand, such persons are not citizeus, as may
be assumed lrom the proposed legislation
to make them ench, lbs grave question pre
sents itself whether, where eleven of the
Ihiriy-six Stales are unrepresented in Con
gress, it is sound policy to make our entire
colored population and all other excepted
classes' citizens of the United States. Four
millions of them hate just emerged from
slavery into freedom. Can il reasonably be
supposed that they possess ihe requisite
qnalifications to entitle ihem to all ihe priv
ileges and immujiities of citizenship of the
United States? Have Ihe people of the
several States expressed such a conviction ?
It may also be asxed whether it is necessa
ry that they shoold be declared citizens, in
order that they may be secured in the en
joyment oi the civil rights proposed to be
conferred by the bill ? Those rights are by
federal as well as by State laws secured to
all domiciled aliens and foreigners, even
before the competition of the process of
naturalization ; and it may safely be assum
ed that the. aame enactments are sufficient
to give like protection and b'enefits to those
for whom this bill provides special legisla
tion. Besides, the policy of the -government,
from its orjgia to the present time
-seems to have been that persons who are
One square. 20
Two squares, 3.0o
Three " 5,00
Four squares, ti i 0
Hal!' column. 10. Ho
One column. lo 00
rangers to, and unfamiliar twiih oor 'nsti-
(utionsand our. laws, should pass ihrongh a
certain prohibition, at the end of which,
before attaining the covetsd prize, they most
give evidence of their fitness to receive and
to exercise the rights of citizens as contem
plated by the Constitution of the United
States- The bill in effect propose a dis
crimination against large number of intel
ligent, wmhy, and patriotic foreigners,and
inUvorofihe negro, to whom after long
years ol bondage, the avenues of fredcm
arxl intelligence have just now been opened.
He mnM of necessity, from his previous
enfortunate condition of servitude, be less
informed as lo the nature and character ol
institution? than he who coming from
abroad, has to some extent, at least, famil
iarized himself with the principles of a gov
ernment, to which he voluntarily intrusts
life, liberty and tha pursuit of happiness.
Yet :t is now proposed by a single legisla
tive enac:ment lo confer the rights of citi
zens upon all persons of African descent
born witbin the extended limits of tbe Ur i-
ted States, whde persons
of foreign binh
who make oor land their home must under
go a probation of five years, and only then
become citizens upon proof that they are of
good moral character, attached to the Con
ntituiion of the United Stares, and well dis
posed to the good order and happiness of
the same. The fi rsi section of the bill aUo
contains an enumeration of the rights to be
enjoyed by those classes so made citizens
in ervey Stale and Territory in tbe United
Slates. Those rights arelto make and en
force contracts, lo sue, be parties, and give
evidence, to inherit, purchase, lease, sell,
hold and convey real and personal proper
ty, and lo have fu'.l and equal benefit of all
laws and proceedings lor the security of
persons and property as is enjoved by
white citezens ; so, too, they are made sub-
iect lo the same punishment, oains and
penalties, common wi:h white citizens, and
to none oihers. Thus a perfect ea naili'v
cr the white unci colored races is attempted
j . m . . - '
to be fixed by federal law, in every State of
the Uriion, over the va?t field of State juris
diction covered by these enumerated riahts.
In no one of them can any State exercise
any power of discrimination between d f-J
ferent races. In theexercise of State policy j r,e2fo 10 es'fy ; f you hold thai over such ; recited clause cf the Constitution. This
over matters-exclueively affecting the peo- a subject matter the said law is paramount, section of ths bill undoubtedly compre
p!e of each State, it has freqnenriy been ftnd ur'der color of a State raw refuse the hends cases and authorizes the exercise of
thought expedient to discriminate between I exercise of ths right to the ne.gro, your er- : Pers that are not, by the Constitution,
the two races. Sy the siatoes of some of ! ror" of judgment, however vonscienttous, : within the jurisdiction of the Courts of the
the States, North' as well as Sooth, it is en- ! -ha" subject ynu to fine add imprisonment. : United States. To transfer them to iho-e
acted, for instancs, Ihat no white person ' 5 do vol apprehend that it e conil cling leg- courts woold be an exercise of authority
shall intermarry i;h a oearo or mullattu j islation whict the bill seems to contemplate i wel1 calculated to excite disirosl a,nJ elarm
Chor.cellor Kent says.speaking of "the blacks , lik-J' to occur a 10 ender ii neces- ' on ll'e Part of atl lhe Slates, foo the bill ap
that marriage between them and the whites ! sar' a' ,hi! '" to adont a measure of such ; Plies al,ke ,0 " of m & well io those
are forbidden in some cf lhe States w here j doubtful constitutionality. In the nexi . havei as 10 .hose that have net, been
slavery does not exist, and they ars prohih- place, this provision of ine bill seems to be j engaged in ibe rebellion.
ited in all the slave-holdinc Stales bv law
and when not absolutsdy contrary to law,
ihey are revolting, apd regarded as an of
fence against public decorm. I do not say
that this bill repeals State laws on tbe sub-
ject of marriage between the two races, for
a the whites are forbidden to interma-ry
with the blacks, the blacks can 'only make
such contracts as the whites themselves are
allowed to make, and, therefore cannot un
der this bill, enter into the marriage con
tract with the whites. I cite this discrirni
naiion, however, as an instance of lhe Slate
policy, asflo discrimination, and lo inqcire
her, if Congress can abrogate all state
ol discrimination between the two ra-
ces, in matter of real estate, of suits, and of
contracts generally, Congress may not also
repeal the State laws as to the contract of
.marriage between the two races. Hitherto
every subject embraced in the enumeration
of rights, contained to the bill has been con
sidered a exclusively belonging to the
Staiss; ihey allrelats to the internal policy
and economy of the respective States ; they
ara matters which in each Mate concern the
domestic condition cf its people, varying in
each according to its own peculiar circum
stances and the safaty and well-being of its I
own citizens. I do not mean tn sav that '
opon all these subjects there are not federal where they may be, any of the right se
resirirtts ; as, for instdfoce, in the tate cured to -ihera by lhe first section. Tha
power cf legislaiion over enn'racts there is ; construction which I have given to the sec
a federal limitation that no state shall pass a j ond section is strengthened by this third
law impairing the obligations of contracts ; J section, for it makes clear what kind of de
and, as to crime?, ihat no state shall pass nial, or deprivation of rights secured by the
an (X postfaclo law ; and, as lo money, that I first section, was in contemplation. It is a
no State shall make any thing but gold and i
silver a legal tender. But where can we
find a federal prohibition against the power
of any state to discriminate, as do most of
them between aliens and citizens? between
artificial- persons called corporations and
naturalized persons in the right 10 hold real
estate. If it be granted that Congress can
repeal all state laws discriminating between
whites and blacks in the subjects covered
by this bill, why, it may be asked, may not
Congress repeal in the same way all State
laws discriminating between the two races
on the rul ject of suffrage and office ? If
Congress can declare by law who shall ho!d
lands, who shall testify, who 6ball have ca
pacity to make a contract in a state, than
Congress can also by law declare who, with
out regard to race or color, shall have the
right to sit as a juror or as a judge, ip hold
any office and finally to vote, in every slate
and territory of the United.. Slates. As re
spects the Territories, they come wi hia
lhe power of Congress ; for aa to them lhe
law-making power is the federal power;
but as 10 the Slates, no similar provision ex
its, vesting in Congress the power to make
roles and regulations for them.
The object of the second section of ibe
bill if to afford discriminating protection to
colored persons in the full enjoyment of all
the rights secured to ihem by the preceding
section. It declares that "any penon n ho;
tinder color of any law, Ptatote, ordinance,
regulation orcostom, shall eubjecl or caute
to be sorjecled any inna&iianioi any aiaie
or Territory to ihe deprivation of any right
secored or proiecled by ibis act, or lo dif
ferent punishment, pain, or penalties, oh
account of sueh person laving al any lime
been held in a condition of elasery or in
voluntary pervitude, except as a punish
ment of crime, whereof ihe party shall
have been duly convicted, or by rea?on of
hi color or race, than is prescribed for ihe
rnuinhment of white pemons, rha'd be
deemed guil:y of a misdemeanor, and on
conviction shall be punished by fine not
exceeding one thousand dollars, imprison
ment, not exceeding one year, or both, ir.
the discretion of ibe court." This section
seems to be designed to apply to some ex
isting or future law of a State or Territory
which may conflict wiih the provisions of
the bill nnder consideration. It provide
fur counteracting such forbidden le". lation
b Imposing fine and Uhprisonrhet upon
the legislators who may pass such conflict
j ing laws, or upon the officers or agents who j
shall attempt to put ihem ir.io execution.
It means an official offne, not a common
crime committed against the law upon the
person or properly of the black race. Such
an act maj deprive the black man of his
properly, but not of his rin ht to hold prop
erty. It means a deprivation of ihe riaht
i;self either by the State judiciary or the
Sta'e Legijdature. It is therefore assumed
that, under thissection. members of a State
Legislature who should vote for laws con
flicting with the provisions of ihe rill, ihat
j.itlges of the State courts who shoulJ ren
der j'idaments in antagonism with its terms,
and that marshals and sheriffs who should.
as ministerial officer. executH processes.
sanctioned by State laws, and it-sued by
i Slate judges in execution ot their judgment,
' could be brought before other tribunals, a nd 1
i Ihere snbjeced to fine and imprisoorr.ent
i lor the performance of the duties w hich
i i !. . a . '
i sucn ate laws mignt impose, tne '.egis-
j ,alion 1008 proposed invades lha judicial
powef of the State. It says to every Slate
court or judge : "If yon decide t inat this
act is unconstitutional; if you refuse under
,ne prohibition of a Stale law, to allow a
unnecessary, as adequate judicial remedies
could be adof led to sfcure the desired end ,
without invading the immunities of legisia-
tors, always important to be preerved in 1
tlie interest of public liberty, without as-
I aailin the independence of ihe judiciary, j
always essential to tlie preservation of in-
j dividual rights, and without impairing ihe
: efficiency of ministerial officers, always '
Lecessary lor the maintenance of public not, However, be justly c.Eimsd lat, with
peace and order. The remedy proposed by ! a v'ew lo 'he enforcement cf ibis article of
this section seems to be in this respect, no ,tl8 Constituticn there is at presen: any tie
only anomalous, but unconstitutional, for j cessiiy lor the e::ercie of all the powers
the Constitution guarantees nothing with j which this bill confers. Slavery has been
f certainty if it does not insure to the several
i Stales the rizht of making index-ruling laws
in regard to all matters arising within their
juri-diction, subject only io the restrictions
in cases of conflict with lhe Constitution
and constitutional laws of the United States
lhe latter to be held as the supreme law ,
of the land. The third section gives the;
district courts of the United Slates exclu- j
6ive cognizance of all crimes and offensea '
committed against the provisions of this act !
and concurrent jurisdiction with the Circuit ;
Courts of the United States of atl civil and ;
criminal cases affecting parsons who are i
denied, or cannot enforce to ihe courts or j
judicial tribunals of ibe State or locality
denial or deprivation of such rights in tbe
courts or judicial tribunals of the State". It
stands therefore clear of doubt that thw of
fense and the penalties provided in the
second ssclion are intended lor the Stato
judge, who, in lhe clear exercise of his
functions as a judge, not acting ministerial I
ly bet judicially, shall deside contrary to 1
this federal law. In other words, when a
State judge, acting upon a question involv
ing a conflict between a State law and fed
eral law. and bound, according (o his own
judgment and responsibility, to give an
impartial decision between the two, comes
to the conclusion that the State law is valid
and the federal law is invalid, he must net
give the dictates of his own judgment at the
peril of fine and imprisonment. The leg
islative department of the government ot
the United .States thus takes from the judi
cial department of the Slates the sacred
and exclusive duly of judicial decision, and
converts the Stale judge into a mere min
isterial officer, bound . to decide according
to the will of Congress. Ji is clear, that in
States which deny to persons whose rights
are secured by the first section of tbe bill,
any one of those rights, all civil and crim
inal cases affecting them will, by the pro
visions of lhe third section, come under ihe
executive cognizance of the federal tribu
nals... It follows ibat if any Stale which
denies to a colored person any one of ell
those rights that person should commit a
crime against the law s of a State murder,
arson, rape, or any crimeall protection
and punishment tbro ugh the couria of the
State are taken awa y, and be can only be
tried and punished in the federal courts.
How is the crioiin al to be tried if Ihe of
fense is provided f.nr and punished by ihe
federal law? Th tat law, and not the Glale
law, is to govern. It is only when the of
fense does not h appen lo be wiihin lha pur
view of federal law that the federal cour:s
are to try and p.nnish him under any other
law. Then re aori is to be had to the com
mon law, as modified and chansed by State
legislation, so. far as the 6ame is not incon
sistent witti the Constitution and laws of
the United 'States. So thai over this vasl
domain of criminal jurisprudence, provid
ed by eac h Slate for tbe protection of its
own cit'u.e as, and for the punishement of
all persons- who violated its criminal laws,
federal la w, wherever it can be made to
apply, di spiaces Sta'e law. Tne qoesiinn
here na" nrally arises, from what source
Congres s derives the power to transfer to
feJeral tribunals certain classes of cases
embraced in this secion. The Constitution
of tie United Stales expressly declare that
the judicial power of the United Slates
s'iat.1 extend to all cases in law and equity
ansi ng under this Constitution ; the laws of
the United States, and treaties made, or
n b ich shall be made under their authority
io all cases affecting embassadors or other
p'iblic ministers or consuls ; io all cases oi
ajmirality and maratime . jurisdiction i; to
:ontroversies to which the United States
shall be a party, to controversies between
two or more States, between a State, and
citizens of another State, bet ween citizens
of different Stales, between citizens of the
same Slate, claiming land nnder grants of
different States.; and between a Slate or the
citizens theraof and fore.ign Stater, citizens
j or nbjeeta." Here the jndicul power of
I lne United States is expressly set forth and
defined, and the act. of September 4;h,
1783, establishing the judicial courts of the
United States, in conferring n:on the Fed
eral Courts jurisdiction over, cases ot'ginat
ing in State tribunals, is careful to confine
then lo the cases enumerated in Ihe above
11 may 08 assumed that this ac.norily is
incident to the power granted to Congress
by the Constitution as - recently amended,
to enforce by appropriate legislation the ar
licle declaring that neither 'slavery nor in
voluntary serviiude, except as a punishment
for crime shall have been duly convicted,
shall exist within the United Staiss, or any
place subject to their jurisdiction Il can-
t abolished, and at present nowhere exists
j within the jurisdiction of the United Siaies,
nor haa there been, nor is :t likely there
WH be, any attempts to revive it by the
' people of lhe States. If, however, any
such attempt ehail be made, it willtben be-
come the duty of the general government
to exercise any and all incidental powers
necessary and proper to maintain inviolate
this great law of freedom.
The fourth section cf the bill provides
thai officers and agents of the Freedmen's
Bureau shall be empowered to make ar
rests ; and also, that other officers may be
specially commissioned for that purpose by
the President of the United States. It also
authorizes Circut Courts of lhe United
States and the Superior Courts of the terri
tories to appoint, without limitation, Corn
missioners, who are to be Charged with Ihe i
nr fnr m a n ra nf nil3&! imlioial ill lift Tha !
fifth section empowers the commissioners ;
so to be selected by the courl lo appoint in
writing one or more suitable persons from
time to time, execute warrants and other
processes desirable by tho bill. These nu
merous official agents are made lo consti
lute a sort of police rn addition to the mili
tary, and are authorized to summon a posse j
comiltitus, and even to call to their, aid such
Portion oi ice lanu atiu navai iures otitis .
United States, or oi ine m.utia,, as may D3
necessary lo the performance of lhe dniy
with which thpy are charged." This ex
traordinary power is to be conferred upon
agents irresponsible to the government and
to the people, 10 whose number the discre
tion of the commissioners is the only limit,
and in whose hands such authority might
be made a terrible engine of wroag, op
pression and fraud. The .general etauies
regulating the laud and nave! forces of the
United Siatea, the militia, and the execo-
tion of the laws.are believed lo be adequate i
lor any emergency which can occur in time
of peace. If it shoold prove oiherwise,
Congress can at any lime amend those
laws in such manner, as while subserving
the public welfare, noi to jeopard the rights,
interests, and liberties of the people.
The seventh section provides that a fee
of ten dollars shall be paid to each corn-
missioner in every case brought before him
and a fee of five dollars to his deputy, or
deputies, for each .person he or they rosy
arreit and takV below dj inch coramii i
sioner, ..with such other fees as may be
deemed reasonable by such commissioner
in general for performing such other duties
as may be required 'in fhe premises. All
these fees are to be paid oat of tha Treas
ury of the United States, whether ihere is
a conviction or not ; but in case of convic
tion '.hey ara to be recoverable from the de
fendant. Il seems io me that under the in
fluence of such temptations bad men might
convert any law, however beneficent, 'into
sn instrument of persecution and Irand.
By the 8th section of the bill the Uuited
States Courts, which sit only in one place
,for whi'e citizens, must migrate wiih the
marshal and district attorney, and necessar
ily with the clerk (although he is not men
tioned,) io any part of the diririci, cpon
lha order of the President, and there hold a
court tor the more speedy arrest and trial of
persons charged with a violation of this act;
and Ihsie the judge and officers' of the
court must remain, upon the order of il.e
President, for ihe time therein designated.
The 9ih section authorizes trie President,
or such other person as he may empower
tor that purpose, io employ such part of the
land and naval forces of the United States,
or of the militia, as shall be necessary to
prevent ihe violation and enforce the due
execution of this act. Thia languaae seems
! to imply a permanet miliary force that is
j to be o?ed lor the enforcement of this meas-
ure over the vast region where it is intend
ed to opera e.
I do not propose to consider the policy of
this bill To .me details of the bill are
fraught wiih evil. The white race and
black race of the South have hitherto lived
together under the relation of master and
'slave capital owning labor. Now that re
lation is chanaed, and as to the ownership,
capital and labor are divorced. They stand
now, each master of itself. In this relation !
one being accessary to the other ihere
will be a new adjustment, which both are
deeply interested in making harmonious.
Kach has e;nal power in selling the terms ;
and if left to the 'zws that regulate capital
and labor.it is confidently believed that Ihey
will satisfactorily work out the problem.
Capital, it is irue, has more intelligence ;
boi labor is never o ignorant as not to un
derstand Its own interest?, not lo know "its
own value, end not io see that capital must
pay that value. This Bill frustrates this ad
justment. It intervenes between capitt.1
and labor, and attempts lo settle questions
of political economy, through the agency
of numerous officials, whose interest it will
be to fermenl discord between the two
races ; for as tlie breach widens, their em
ployment will continue, and wehn it is
clossd i heir occupation will terminate. In
all our hi.tory , in all our experience as a
people livir.; under federal and State law,
no 6uch system as that contemplated by the
details of this, bill, has ever before been
proposed or adopted. They establish for
lhe security of the cdlored race safeguards
h ch gr infinitely bey nd any that the genj
eral government has ever provided for the
white race. In fact, the distinction of raca
and color is by the bill made to operate in
favor of the colored and against the white
race. Tney interfere wiih the mnnicipa!
legislation of lhe States ; wiih relations ex
isting exclusively between aSla'e and its
citizens, or between inhabitants of ihe same
Sute ; and absorption and assumption cf
power by the general government, which,
if acquiesced in, musj sap and destroy ocr
federative system of limited powsrs, azd
break down the barriers which preserve tne
rights of the States. It is another s ep, or
rather stride, towards centralization.and the J
concentratic n of all leaislative powers in'
the national government. Ihe tendency
01 me ini mum v'o iu irsj-'juaie ine spirit j
of rebellion, and to arrest the progress of ,
those influences which are more closely
drawing around the Slates the bonds of
union and of peace.
My lamented predecesor, in hi procla
mation of the first of January, 1563. order
ed and declared thai all persons held as
slaves within certain States and parts nfi
, - , , . (
therein H o i r- n a l o . trra u r. .1 ihonoo. .
'orward should be free ; and ond further, j
that thfl aXfCCl'lVft (JOVPmmPnt of !h lni.' I
- - - -- --
ted Stales, in luaing the military and naval
authcrities Ihereof, would recognize and
maintain the freedom of such person.
This guarantee has been rendered especial-
i Aki;A.i.,. -,,..1 . - I K.ka I .
ly u.'llamJ oim rai.cu uj ine a -l 3 II J 111 c 1 1
of the Constitution abolishing slavery
throughout the United Sta'es. 1 therefore
fully recojniz.b lhe obligation to protect and
rdelend that class of our people whenever
ami wnerever usnsn oecome necessary,
and lo lhe lull extent compatible wih the
Condtitntion of the United States. Enter
taining these sentiments, il only remains
lor ms to say that I will cheerfully co-operate
with Congress in any measure tha'. may
be necessary for the preservation of tie
civil rights of the freedmen.as well as those
of all all other classes of persons through
out lhe United States, by judicial process,
under equal and impartial laws, or confor
mably with ihe provisions of the federal
1 now return lhe bill to the Senate', and
regret that in considering the bills and joint
resolutions, loriy-iwo in nnmuer, wnicn
have been thus tar submitted ior my ap
proval. I am compelled to withhold my
assent lrom a second measure that has re
ceived the sanction of both houes of Con
gress. Andrew Jounsos.
Washington. D. C, March 27.
Zsg Josh Billings says he always ad
vises short sermons, especially oo a hot
Sunday. If a minister can't strike oil
in boring forty minutes, he has either
got a poor gimblet, or slse be U boring
in the wron pUcl
A Word to the Girls.
! . . , ' , BY E. L. B.
It seems to me that modesty is woman's,
crowning virtue. She may be beautiful
as an houri, intelligent, .witty, agreeable,
in conversation, bot if she be pert or for
ward, ehe ia 'a richly tinted flower, with-- '
out sweetness. : Jlowever it may flatter
his vanity, no young lady will be more
esteemed by a yor.ng gentleman, for
placisg herself voluntarily in a position
to attract ins attention, or throwing her
Belf unnecessary iaio bis society, He
wouid appreciate much more the delica
cy of feeling which would prompt her to
let her society be 60ught,
I have a yourjg friend who s .rather
pretty' and very engaging ia her man
ners ; for she has an over-fondness for
tbe company of the other eex, which
plainly shows itself whenever any of her
male acq'ia'-ntances happen to Le pres
ent. On ono occasion, she, and a num
ber of other ladies, 'were spending an
evening with me. Quite late, Mr, S.
called, having but a short tirns to remain
as he had a subsequent ennagmenl.
Madge, my friesd, had met him once or
twice, and immediately engaged in a
lively conversation. As the ladies had
do escort, and a considerable distance to
walk it was high time they should retire
and prepared to do so. Still . Madg
lingered, assigning varices pretexts, ml
her company became impatient, and she
was forced to bid good night. After
their exit, I seated myself to have a co
sy chat with Mr. S. who Was an inti
mate and confidential friend, when to my
utter fiurpriue. all the ladies rushed into
tie parlor, Made leading the way, ex
claiming she was "nearly frightened to
death." Seeing astonishment depicted
upon our countenances, she endeavered
to attribute her return to' the other ladies
saying the"was not at t afraid, but
hearing the cry of 'fire' raised down the
strser, they precipitated a retreat;" while
they retorted that "she waj the first to
propose returning." Her reasons were
too plainly seen to be misconstrued '
aDd Mr. S.'s face s'ightly flushed, as he
reruarked"Miss Madge, 1 ahould cheer
fully offer you my services, were it not
that I have to leave town at eleven
o'clock, and should cot have time to go
with you, and reach" the depot by that
hour." He knew Madge was a fearless
girl, and had repeatedly gone alone the
whole distance, at as late an hoar, so he
felt she bad returned apparently in fright
in the hopo cf obtaining his escort. .No
remark was ra&de by either of us after
their departure, but I saw by hi coun
tenance.Madgc had fallen in his esteem.
Girls, if a gentleman does not offer
you his escortdo not, by action, word,
or look, scsk it ; of cocrse, I meaa under .
ordinary circumstances. No, girls, don't
do it. You may lay your plans with
cjnsummate art, and exhibit a great deal
of skill in your manoeuvres, but rest as
sured, men are tot blind ; their eyes
can penetrate the cobweb tissue, and dis
cern the motive lurking' beneath; and
indelicacy, however slight, d.srUH. .
I recently formed the acquaintance of
a beautiful girl, and, being very faeina
ting, I was growing quite interested in
her, as we were engaged in conversa
tion at an evening party, when she sud
denly cpoitoJ the good impression' she,
had made, by asking, me if I . wa3 ac
quoted with Miss M, an intimate friend
of hers. On my replying jQ the Ceativo
she said--' Come, I'll g.ve you aa intro
duction.' Quick as a flash I compre
hended hsr motive, which was to become
acquainted with the gentleman on whoso
arm Miss M. was leaniDg. As sha had
already risen, and I could think of
excusa quiCKJj euoaga to detain her
" m u aucniaurc out lor me to
8'JDmtt. A naughty bow from Miss M
plainly chowed she also undarstonrl Kpp
object, and she did cot introduce bcr
gallant. ' To relieve the ecbarrsssment
of ail parties, I offered mv aim to my'
younr friecd, and proposed a nromn.
t ade. When v. e were out of hpo,;.,- i.
nvnuced nfr inlnnlinn . - .
j..,.,!,,.,- . . t , . "Ulf"1 a"
introduction to Mr. P. of whom she hkd
. . . ... CUG uau
y i ootain an
henrd her frienri cn9lr!nl,:.L . t.
rea!ly shocked me to think a I d
...... 1r? f C . I 1 ' J
wu.j iar .orgei uer Q.gnity, as to Der-'
1 petrate so sxoss an sot of ;mm,i ......
I and yet how many do just such thins-
. j . i. .: j . . v i
every day, and scarcely regard them as
improprieties ! I would not have a lady'
hmind t! n ttt n Vi it ot.a . - t
j j i n.1 J vuu YCQ HQQ 3 1 lOTm
but, where true delicacy of feeling exists!
it will manifest itself in a corresponding
.uvo.jr kj, Ul -poriueni, wntcn elevates,
instead of demeaning. If you cannot obi
tain attention, girls, without being for
ward, rather remain unnoticed ; for pert
ness will lower you in the estimation of
those very ones by whom you wish to be
Paper as an Article or Dress. Except
by ihoss whose tastes are fixedly old fash
ioned, the wearing of paper collars and
curls by both sexes is almost universal. We
see that paper socks havebeen lately in
vented, intended-to be worn over cotton or
woolan socks as a protection from cold.
Tbe Chinese make ns of paper for many
articles of dress, and it is said that tbeir
paper hats and overcoats are durable, warm
and waterproof." If paper clothing should'
come into fashion a new suit would cease
to bo so much of an event aa il is now.
7 The Loaisville Journal gets off.
tbe following among other reaJable
squibs : ' " . : -
A letter writer said that old.Thad.
Stevens "his not a-long; jeass) of Jrfe
His end and a rope's should" coma to(