The Franklin repository. (Chambersburg, Pa.) 1863-1931, May 04, 1864, Image 1

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ART OF W. 4 k 8..
" Horc's a Ifikrice month indeed,
'That spits forth death, and mountains, rocks and
Talks as familiarly of roaring lions ,
, 9a maids of thirmen do of puppy dogs." -
„ -
B r i g. G en . •picasanton, commander of
the Home Guard of the city of Philadelphia, in
pursuance of an act of the legislature - of Penn
sylvania, approved by the Governor ; chosen to
'isommand by the militia warriors of the city of
Brotherly • Lore; confirmed by the sedate and
upright councils known as the City Fathers, and
• bearing commission as Brigadier General,
"signed by GOv.Cartin i with the great seal of
- the Commonwealth attached," has made of
ficial report to the Hon. Alexander Hem 7,
Mayor of Philadelphia, of• the valrous opera
tions of the Home Guard in'general, and - of the,
trials, triumphs and truMpet-tongued 'heroism
of Brig. Gen. A. J. Pleasanton in particular.
One hundred and twelve pages of pamphlet
tell the thrilling story, and a hitherto unknown
Hero,, Sage, Patriot and Prophet, stands self
-unearthed, defiant of tht; malicious poet's surly
rule that— • -;
" The honor's eror forced,
liThea ho that did tile•Akis commentator "
The country will hail the advent of Pleasim
ton. He biirsts upon its as the great central
figure of this bloody panorama, until no* strug
gling for his country's welfare in obscurity, re
jected of men and military pretenders, and
unknown to the hopeful millions whose blood
and treasure have been wasted because Pleas
&uteri-pinned military honors and grim visaged,
te4entless war, under a multitude of difficulties—
where distance lent iicroiC enchantment. The
keen eye that greetedthe sun of Austerlitz, and
the genius that gate victory to the eagles of
France on that gory field, will pale before the
searching prophetic vision; the crowning strategy
and the hoarse thunders of condemnation,
which alternately illumine and darken the
pages of history, since Pleas anton has made re
port of Pleasanton, and Portrayed the "con
juncture of circumstances" which made Penn
sylvania armyless and Pleasanton brigadeless.-
' As an important fact in the chronology of this
conflict, we notice that the report bears date—
" Head Quarters, Defences of the city of Phil
adelphia,-December 31, 1863," and opens with
the triumphant vindication of Pleasanton proph
ecy. •,After the failures of Burnside and Hooker
in Virginia, "it was easy to forsee," narrates
the Brigadier, "that the seat of war would be
transferred, to Pennsylvania with as little delay
as possible." He knew it, and he alone ; but
the brave are ever generous; and he_ scarrie4to
- lie parsimonious with the gifts and powers which
Heaven, the legislature by act of 16th of May,
1861, the City Fathers,and the Home Guard,
'had confided to his keeping. He gave "timely
notice" to the authorities ; but having eyes
they saw not, and with ears they heard not ;
and stubbornly adhered to the same "incredu
lity" that; has "marked their e.onductifrorn the
commencement of hostilities." They "disre
garded the warning, reposed in their fancied
tranquility," and only hearkened unto the words
of wisdom when the foe "swept down the val
ley of the Shenandoah, like an eagle•from his
eyrie; and crossing the Potomac river, marched
directly upon ,'Pennsylvania in June, 1863."
The Secretary, of War and Gov. Curtin were
incredulons,"! and when the rebel guns thun
dered at Winchester, and Jenkins w 4 fording
the Potonme, the authorities concluded that the
rebels were "making a raid ; " and instead of
calling Pleasanton and Pleasanton's hosts of the
Home Guard to turn back the bloody tide of
treason, they searched the land of strangers and
flung such pigmies as Gens. Couch - and Brooks
to cope with :the giants of chivalry. True Plea
sonton was but a single warrior; but he was
Pleasouton--a broad seal, legislative, munici
pal-mid elective Brigadier; with few men•but
prolific of firoclamatious; and 'could he have
been induced to "move upon the enemy's works"
with printingpress, types and fixtures, with ink
and quill, and enforced upon the insurgents the
reading of his manifestoes as fast as multiplied
by his tireless brain, the foe would harie reeled
back in ghastly horror, and the crimsoned path
of treason is Pennsylvania would have been
without creation. More Milling than Grecian
or ROM= story would have been Pleasauton's
report of Pleasanton's triumphs; but a stupid
Secretary and a doubting Executivemade Plea
aonton mourn in retirement, and Gettysburg is
the fearful monument of their folly.
.But the page of history just now supplied has
one bright star that glimmers through the mid
. night of stupidity and infidelity that envelopes
the authorities. There was one faithful man—
Pleasanton was faithful to Pleasanton. The
age of proclamations had daWned, and Pleasan
ton protestid in behalf of Pleasanton, that six
proclamations by the President, the Governor
and Gem Couch in two weeks, was a double
- crime—it was a lolly and an infringement. It
was madness to call men when Pleasanton was
burning to meet the foe in the name of the
broad seal of the State ; of the act of Assembly;
of the municipality, and of the heroic Home
Guard, consisting, for active duty, of Pleasanton
andPleasanton's staff with eaisonsof.portfolies;
and it was an ungenerous infraction of the pro
prieties of life and of the 'regulation's of the
Home'Guard. for six 'proclamations to issue in
two brief weeks .without Pleasanton's name to
even one of them. He plead that they should—
" Let fortune empty all her-quiTers on me—
I have a seal that, like a ample shield,
Can take in all, and.yerge enough for more I"
'With sublime bufraubdued deference to the
evil " conjunctura - of circumstances," he ex
claims—" Was there, ever such a spectacle ?"
"The State actually invaded"—and Pleasanton
snot even allowed to proclamato Pleasanton into
Ilte field two hundred smiles from the foel In
faithful sorrow for his own and his country's
Misfortunes, rather than in anger, he modestly
vindicates the ti-uth of history, by stating that
Pleasanton was forgotten by ungrateful officials;
and as if madness ruled on every - hand, the au
thorities dreamed of the fabled days,of Cadmus,
and -without having sown dragon's teeth, called
armed men to spring-from the soil, like reptiles
in balmy spring time. "Thus abandoned to
ourselves," records the sorrowing Brigadier, ho
resolved to make the banks of the Schuylkill
historic ; and the Mayor called upon him to
muster_" the whole of the said Guard-for the
preservation of
_the peace and
,the defence of
the city." Pleasanton drew his sword. Little
dreamed future hiStorians of the hour blg_ with
- fate when Pleasanton threw himself into the
conflict. His first triumph was " General Order
N0.'1." In the name of the broad seal; the
Assembly, the-Mayor, and the Home Guard,
he proclaimed peace-and defence. But, although
green with his laurels, he was generous in' the'
midst of Ins greatness; and he forgave those
who had spitefully used him. He did not sub
vert the govhninent, either State or National ;
but in sublime meekness he invited " the sup
port and co-operation of his fellow-citizens, and
of all the authorities, National, State and Mu
nicipal, in the, performance of his responsible
duties." Generous; benignant Pleasanton !
Nor did he stop with formal concession to the
autherities. He sent copies of 'General Order
No. I to Stanton, Halleck, Curtin and Couch,
and-wrote autograph dpistles to each to advise
them that hewas id the- field and the Republic
was safe at last. He asked Stanton to supply
his requisitions; but Halleck answered Gen.
Couch was in command in E astern Pennsylvania,
and " was charged with all matters." He wrote
Gen. Couch, magnanimously proposing subordi
nation to the authorities, and asking that his
requisitions be ( supplied ; but Couch's hitinor
never reached the answering point. He wrote
Gov. Curtin for permission to charge the State,
but Cu'rtin plead want of authority and absence
of cash. With pointed grief does PleasantOn
exclaim—" Here was an extraordinary state of
things !" A Brigadier- General without a Bri
gado, without supplies, without cash, and with
out even recognition Heroically he rushed to
his portfolio and opened upon Mayor Henry 'at
destructive range, and called for $_500,000 More,
and recited how his General Order No.l, had
fallen upon listless. authorities, and -declared
their responses were " by no means satisfactory
or encouraging.", Failing to command
stem from the National_ and State authorities,
he resolved, in a spirit of generous unselfishness, I
to co-operate with them, and • enfiladed Gen.
Couch with a Plettnantonianepistle4levoted with
udfaltering fidelity to Pleasanton. As Gen.
Conch did not kno4r - the,ioads to Philadelphia,
he gave , report 'or a raw tinnisance in force he
had made from Philadelphia to the Susquehanna
in 1861, and proposed to map it so that in their
mutually co-operative - efforts the staff officers of
Gen. Couch 'could find the " Head 'Quarters of
the Defences of the City of Philadelphia," in
the numerous exigencies in whiCh imiortant ad
vice would be wanted at the " Head Quarters
of the hepartmeut of the Susquehanna!' He
informed Gen. Couch that he was Brigadier
" under the authority of the Legislature of Penn
sylvania, and of the Municipal Government of
this City," and he graciously condescended to
propose to be mustered into the service of the
United States : his rank so honorably . conferred
to be sacredly preserved and that he be as
signed to cominand in Philadelphia, so that he
could " organize with more celerity" the forces
wanted by bungling commanders to resist the
foe. And as Gen. 'Conch was unlettered in
greatness, Pleaaan€l.mfonned him how be had
been at West Point•-in 1822; promoted, trims
ferred and 2d Lieutenant in 1826 ; -resigned in
1830; lawyer since 1832; Igigade s Major in
1835 ; Colonel of Artillery from 1835 to '46 ;
assistant Adjutant General of Militia from 1838
to '39 ; Paymaster Genet:al of Volunteers in
service (Buckshot, war) in. 1838-9; Railroad
President in 1839-40; , commander of Artillery
during the riots of 1844 Mai now bearing hon
orable wounds therefor; directed to organize
the Home Guards under an act of the legisla
ture of May 16,1861, with rank of Brigadier
General: appointment confirmed by Select
Council ; afterwards elected "by the whole
force" to the same position for five years ; una
nimously confirmed again by the Select Council
and "duly commissioned a Brigadier General of -
Volunteers, commander of the Home Guard,"
and finally " assigned to the command of the
defences of Philadelphia, under the aforesaid
act of the legislature of the State, Juif 16,186'3."
By this terrific bombardment in the shape of
I a -sulphurous personal history, Gen. Couch's
pickets were driven in and his line of reticence
broken. An Aid returns thanks for th 3 maps
of the roads, and another Aid acknowledges the
receipt of the brilliant autobiography, but the.
General commanding was "not authorized" to
deer the muster, and the assault fails. Four
• days later, and anothet stranger and adven:
turer—" an off-shoot of Paine trans-planted to,
Minnesota"—named Maj. Gen. Dana, was as
signed to "the command of the militia and vol
unteer forces and defences of Philadelphia" by
order of Maj. Gen. Couch! It Would seem
that ingratitude had resolved upon a harvest at
the expense of Pleasanton, but, still with his
eagle eye fixed upon the flag, he lookedraturve
the groveling hatreds which beset him, and re
solved to 00-operate with Gee. Dana. Buthere
was modest Pleasantoniaiimeritidestined to re
ceive -its crowning humiliation. After inforna
itig Gen. Dana by what high authority 'he wore
his honors, he replied that be didlit recognize
either Gen. Pleasanton or Gen. Pleasanton's
organization! "Pray, why not?" dematsled
the Pleasanton Brigadier; and forthwith he
emerged from the mountain of sorrows that
surrounded him 'and became jolly. "This is
very funny!" says Pleasanton; and Pleasanton
made merry - over his own and his country's
woes. He was powerless to serve; lie had
mourned until weary of mourning, and none
wept with him ; and he crowned_ sadness with
the essence of mirth, - But in his facetious mo
ments Pleasanter' .did not Mrget Pleasanton,
nor did Pleasanton forget Pleasanton's mythical
Home Guard, ten thousand warriors strong
accOrding to the act of Assembly, approved May
16,'11361. "My commission" said he, "as
Brigadier General, is signed by Gov. Curtin,
with the great seal of the Commonwealth at
tached. You may not, if you choose, respect
anything here," hitt What instructions am I to
give men when I have recruited them into my
invincible Guard 7 -lawful alike by State and
municipal regulation 7 Gen. Dana had not
become humorous—ham was solemn as Pleasan- -
ton was merry, and he answered—" None; send
them to me:!" The report closes the'seene by
informing as that Pleasanton "saluted him"
and took his leave!
But the Home Guard Brigadier was not thus
to be driven from his valiant purpose to aid an
imperiled country in its darkest hour. He had
tried and failed; had (tried ,again and failed
again; had repeated the trial again only to have
failure repeated by unappreciative authorities.
But he was mindful that -
'"The mouse thfit always trusts to one poor hole,
Can never be a mouse of any souP!
—and ever faithful to the honor and safety of
the Nation, the Home Guard, andthe Brigadier
General Commanding, he resolved to defy diffi=
culties and stupid and incredulous Secretaries,
Governors and Major Generals, and persevere.
At last fortune seemed to smile upon - him; and
gave promise of rank, pay and honors, whether
or not the Home Guard should muster 10,000
strong, in accordance with the act of Assembly
of May 16, 1861. Ho met Adjutant General
Thomas "in front of theUnimi League build
ing,"about 1.3 S P. AL, 29th June, 1863,—"en old
acquaintance and fellow student at West Point."
Here was fortune unfolding her arms fora Cor
dial embrace of Pleasanton. He suggested that
:he should be forthwith Mustered into the Uni
ted States service with the rank conferred by
the act of Assembly; the Governor, the broad
seal, the municipal authorities and the vote of
the whole force. "Certainly, by all means!"
responded Gen. Thomas. Go and tell General
Dana "to muster you'at once into the service," -
, says the Adjutant General, and forthwith Pleas
oaten goes to have Pleasanton forthwith musi
tered ; but the "off-hoot of Maine," madly
bent upon the destruction of his country and ;
his country's cause, interposed the red-tape of
regulations, and refused to muster Pleasantom
either forthwith orZthereaftCr, unless ordered:
in writing. A pencil order Would do; but it
must be it; form ; and forthwith Pleasanton
rushed to the depot to catch Gen. Thomas, with
a written ordo: directing the forthwith'iliuster,
Gen. Thomas signed the order so pregnant with
future glory, find fortune again smiled brightly
on the path of 'Pleasanton. But alas!
" The buds that piomised fair,
Were early blasted, or but given to be
A mockery—a harVest of despair I"
At 4 P. M. of the same day the order was
presented to Sen. Dana, and already the Pleas- - ,
antenian brain was crowded with Napoleonic
bulletins to grace the morning papers, when he
should be mustered forthwith and assigned to
the command orhis Home Guard, -10,000 strong
according to' i the act of Assembly. - But the
"off -shoot" again interposed red-tape to cramp,
the genius about to burst in effulgent splendor
upon the military world. " When your brigade
is full I will muster yon," snid the malicious
Dana. "Pardon me," says the impatient war
rior,—the order directs "you to muster me
a Brigadier General of 'Volunteers forthwith —it
contains nothing about a brigade!" The "off
shoot" was defeated in his cruel machinations—
it lyds so denominated in the bond, and he.
agreed. to muster and announce the assignment
to duty of the heroic Pleasanton in the morning
papers. The shades".of evening gathered slawly
after receding day, and long, 'long weary hours
of night interposed between - Pleasanton and
fame. But bright morning came, and the sun
rose with unusual, splendor to smile upon a
Mustered Pleasanton and see him wrestle with
the Gods of War. But the morning papers were
silent on the topib that had convulsed the
couch and disturbed the dream's of Pleasanton.
He charged upon Dana to know why he was
not proclaimed with mustered honors; and the
faithless Dana answered by handing several
telegrams from Harrisburg which he said,._
"would 'explain themselves." Pleasanton
grasied them: he read them and confessed that
the explanation was free from ambiguity. The
same Adjt. Gen. Thomas Who had, at 1.38 P.
M. on the 29th of June, *ordered the muster,
had, at or about 8.40 A. M.: on June 30th issued
an order declaring—" Gem Pleasanton's ap
pointment is revoked!" There had been "vio
lent opposition to your twister at Harrisburg,"
says the imperturbable Dana, and it cannot be
done. Pleasanton writes in behalf of Pleasan
ton to his "old acquaintance and fellow school
mate at West Point" to know why. his laurels
had thus withered untimely; but in sadness the
Brigadier declares that his letters "have re
mained unanswered." But he resolved to, be
greater than fate—he_did not sink down
"Foiled, bleeding,. breathless, furious to the last!"
—he rose above the injustice of men clad with
brief authority and beheld onlyan imperiled State
and Nation. He drew forth hie portfolio again
and wrote to the off-shoot Dana, and proposed
to organize the minute men. To this Dana re
plied by his aid, that Pleasanton can organize
minute men; but they shall not "be necessarily
attached to the body known as the Home Guard,
of which you are the Commander." "It is un
deritood," continues the letter, "that that body
was composed of only a few offieers, and a fc)vi,
if any-men!" Here was tnlmiled 4'8414, stupid
ity and treason. The - Home (Lard regally
10,000 strong by act of Assembly of 16th of
May, 1861, approved-by the ficivernortdoclated
to have bat few officers and no men! and the
worn and impatient warrior must not "cheek
the enc(!rkraging activity". in enlistments, by
forcing recruits to join the Home Guard: but
the jiope is expressdd that he may "fill his skel
'elon command with willing recruits!" With
becoMing pride did Pleasanton "dismiss these
insinuations with the contempt which they mer
it," and thus ended the campaign of Pleasan
ton; but 'not so the report. It is replete with
the truth.of history. It tells of opportunities
lost for Want of Pleasanton ; 'of battles won as
they would have been won by Pleasanton . ; of
military rifles and laws known only to Pleasan
ton; of Aleut/men and States madelillipntians
because the powers hearkened not to Pleasan
ton, 'finalist but not least, it tells bow the jeal
ous hatetri of Pleasanton's greatness poured out
the vials of their wrath upon the devoted head
of Pleasanton; how they defied every sugges
.tion ofsefety by confronting the act of Assem
bly of liith of May, 18C1 ~which declared the
Home Guard 10,000 strong, and Pleasanton its
Commander, by the broad seal of, the State and
the sanction of 'the Executive and municipal
authorities. Such is the unbroken record of
wrong that :ever beset the hero Pleasanton ;
and'at last, Weary of his country's ingratitude,
be looks back "with perfect complacency and
equanfinity upon the expedients which have
been. adopted to embarrass and obstruct the
operations otthe Home Guard," and thoughtful_
"Whets boasting ends, there dignity begins"
—he wrapped the drapery of his periled honors
about him, and sank to rest in the midst of his
admired and admiring Home Guard. • Au rceoir,
Gov. CURTIN sent a message to the legisla
ture tin S4urday, asking authority to issue bonds
for a loan of V 700,000 re-imburse the Banks
for money advanced to pay the militia, called
out by the Governor in 1863, under the author
ity of the President. Congress ,has not yet
made the appropriatp, although the call was
expresslyauthori zed by the general government,
and the claim should in justice be promptly
paid at Washington. We doubt not that it will
be so paid; but the credit of the State demand
ed immediate provision for paying the banks
and the legislature did it at onCe.
• The new legislative tipportiontnent, under
which the Senators and Representatiyes are to
be chosen4uring the next seven yeari, passed
the Sepate on Tuehday of last week by 17 to 15,
and was'adopted in -the House on Wednesday
by a vote of 51 to 44: It is rather conspieuOns
for a ryllid distrihution of the Union majorities,
so as tole there available in as many dis-
tricts possible, than for the equities and affim:
ides of association; and if not overdone, will
leave but a moderate minority of Democracy in
the next legislature. Of the 33 Senators, the
,Union mea should elect 21, taking the vote for
Gov. Curtin last year as a basis, and the• Frank -,
lin and Adams district may be counted as rather
Union th ocratie in addition; and the .
House - should °lea 5 Union men to 35 Demo
crats. The next legislature will pretty cer
tainly have a contrglling Union majority in both
branches, unless improbable 'reverses to the
Union armies should prostrate the Union party:
but the unusual assortment of double Sena
torial 'districts, and double; treble and even
quadruple Representative "distriCts, with the
natural estrangements so often manifested in
local politics, will peril party success iu or
dined. political contests.
• ,
It will be seen that Franklin and Perry are
associated for Representatives, and will eieet
two members, and that the old Sehatoriatdis
trict of. Franklin and Adams is restored. We
subjoin the bill: , - -
1,2, 3 and 4. Philadelphia city 4
5. Chester, Delaware and MentgemerY.-- ........ 2
6. Bucks , .. 1
7. Lehigh and Northampton . 1
Er. Barks ' 1
0. Schuylkill • 1
10. Carbon, Monroe, Pike and Wayne 1
11. Bradford, Susquehanna and Wyoming., 1
12. Lucerne ' 1
13. Potter. Tioga,M'Kean and Clinton ' , 4.
14. Lycoming, 'Union and - Snyder '- ~..1
15. Northumberland, Montour, Columbia and
- Sulivan ' 1
16. Dauphin and Lebanon 1
. .. .... .
17. Lancaster • 2
Is. York and Cumberland- 1
19. Adams and Franklin • 1
20. Somerset, Bedford and Fulton ' 1
21. Blair, Huntingdon, Centre, Mifflin, Juniata"
. .
and Perry , 2
20 Cambria. Indiana and Jefferson 1
23. Clearfield, Cameron, Clarion. Forest and Hlk. 1
24. Westmoreland, Fayette and Greene r 1
25. Allegheny' 2
26. Beaver and Washington 1
27, Lawrence, Butler and Armstrong ' ' 1
28. Mercer, Venango and Warren 1
29. Crawford and'Erie - • 1
Philadelphia.-- ...... 4.
Carbon and Monroe •
Wayne and Pike • .' '
Susquehanna and Wyoming
Lyunn t ing, Union and Snyder....
Columbia and Montour
Tioga and Potter
Clinton. Cameron Ind M'Kean.
H un tingdon, Juniata and Mitilin
Schuylkill -
Lancaster 4
Dauphin ~ • .
Yprk , -
Perry and Franklin •" ' ' i
Ada m s ... • 1 s
Somerset Bedford and Fu-iton IO
Bradford and Sullivan ............... : ... '.....:,..,........., 2
glair %
ambria '"•• . . - 1
Clearfield', Elk and Forest' - 1
Clarion and'Jefferson .... . 1
Armstrong ,-. 1
Indiana and Westmoreland. • 3
Fayette !-
and Waah -
ington . a
Venangoeart Warren z - • ' 2
Crawford " . 2
Allegheny, 6
',Amoco, Meteor and Butler • ' '.4
os op- •
-0: s
1.1 -2: 7 -
-v.., OS . CO OW
% 41. 2 e: R
We herewith present the readers of the RE•
Posrrouy with an engraving representing the
new species of coin, that is about to be adopt
ed by congress. The great demand for small
change, of a less denomination than five cents,
has directed the attention of financiers to sup.
ply the want, and a new eoih, of which the
above cuts are a correct representation, heti
been adopted and will doubtless be issued at an
early day. The value of. our present nickel
pennies being greater than the value of an equal
amount of chrrency,' necessarily puts them to a
- premium and withdraws them from general cir
culation, and postage and' other stamps are of
ten used by shopkeepers to make change.
When the new coin shall be adopted and issued,
-it will have an immense circulation so long as
silver and gold are held at a premium.. It is
said that the - expense attending the coinage of
the nickel cents, in consequence of the increas
ed price .of the metals used, makes them a pos
itive loss to the government; and when issued
they are intrinsically worth 'more, at the cur
rency standard, than their'facical significance.
The new two nent.piece is but little larger and
thicker than the present one-cent coin, and con
tains less nickel, and abundance of copper, with
five parts of tin. In size -it may be compared
to the silver quarter dollar, and resembles as
much as anything can, a gold coin, and is really ,
beautiful. On - one . side there is a wreath of
wheat, in the centre of which is stumped "2
cents". and around which are the words "Uni: -
ted States of Atherica." On the other side
there is the Shield of Liberty, bearing the words
" God our Trust." ,
The old' copper cent, is inconveniently large.
and heayy, and in color and-smell Is offensive.
It contains ene hundred and sixty-eight grains.
The new cent, adopted in 1857; is a vast im
provement upon the old, alike in color, size
and beauty. It is readily distinguished from
other coin, even in the. dark, by its smooth
edges, wherein it differs from all the coins of'
our Mint. It is composed of eighty-eight per
cent, copper and twelve per cent. of nickel,
and weighs seventy-two , grains. When it was
adopted, the intrinsic valuit of the metals com
posing it was 'ss6 for $OO of cents; but the
value of the metals has so increased as to ar-,
rest the coinage of cents. The new two cent
coin is to - be a mixture called bronze, composed
of ninety-five per cent. copper and five per
cent, tin and - zinc, which wouldafford a dvelded
'profit to the government in its aoinage.. At
the ordinary price of copper, the cost of the
new coin would be but o little over twenty-five per
cent. of its representative value ; and it is prob-,
able that, when the government returns to a:
specie standard again, the new coin must be
withdrawn, for the profit on ifs coinage would
be a great temptation to counterfeitera
The present necessities of the people clearly
demand the new coin, and we trust that -Con
, gresS will tak6 speedy action upon the proposi
tion and authoriie its, issue. The use of postage
and other government stamps as currency is
attended with great inconvenience to the peo
ple ; and when they become defaced or blurred,
as they must eventually by such use, the gov
lernment refuses to redeem them.. It is due to
the people, therefore, that Congress should sup
' ply this want at an etAdy day;and thus obviate
i the necessity of using stamps of the denornina
lion of one, two and three cents. If authorized
and issued, the new! coin would be gratefully
accepted by the people, and would at once have
un immense circplatiOn.
—Coins were used as early as the Bth century
before Christ,- and in the 4th century B. C.
money was found in all parts of the civilized
world—each State having_ its 'proper coinage.
Copper Was firstitsed for coin by the Romans,
and tinder Caesar, copper, brass and iron were
in use, In the United States the government
now reserves the exclnsive right to coin money;
but individuals may make coin of anydenemin
alien and shape, of gold 'and silver, provided
that it be not "in resemblance-or similitude"
of the government coins. In California and
other gold countries gold is coined into half_
dollar, dollar, and =five, ten, twenty, fifty and
an hundred dollar pieces ; but they are so made
,solely as a matter of convenience. Copper
coins cannot, however, be made exeegtipg' b s y
the government. The earliest coin to
have been made in this country was of brass,
and was issued in 1612 for the, l 7irginia Com
pany. A description of ,it written at the time
says that it had " a how (hog) on one side, in
memory of the abun4upe of the hones which
were found on theirAistlandlng.7 In 1645 the
Assembly of Virginia decided that «t 1 iluoine
(coin) eurreir Would ho of great advantage;
authorizd the issue of copper pieces of two,
three, six and nine pence, but they were never
rtiadc: . The ,general court of Massachusetts es
tjablished "a mint housae " at Boston in la 2
whieli order declared that certain coins should
be made, wtiCIA A shall be for forme flatt."
During the reign of 'William and Mary,-copper
Going Were struck in England for New England
and North Carolina,-having on them respective
ly—t, God preserve New England,'t and "God
preserve Carolina and the lords proprietor%
1694," Maryland authorized 'a mi n t in 1662,
1 -butit never went into operation. Lord Balti
, more, however, had several coins struck in
England, having on the obverse a profile bust
of himself, which circulated , in that .colony.
Now Hampshire legislated for copper coinage
in 1776, but. did not issue. - From 1778,t0 1787
the power of coinage was exercised by Congresi
and also, by Several States. 'Vermont and Con
necticut establishednaints - ln 1765, and issued
I VOL 71.....WH0LE NO. 31655.
The following letter from President , Lincoln
has justappeared in the Frankfort (Ky.) Com
monwealth. It will written at the request of
Col. Hodges, the editor of that paper, itnd ad
dressed to him with •permission to publish it,
that the people of Kentucky might hear - from
the President himself what were the actual
groundi upon which he based hiS policy of
emancipation ;—so much Misrepresentation and
vituperation on the part of most of the newspa
pers publistetin Kentucky havinghithertokept
the people in ignorance, and so succeeded in
fostering a feeling • - of wrathful discontent
throughout the State respecting that policy. Col.
Hodges having - accompanied Governor Bram.
lette and Senator • Dixon on 'their late visit to
Washington, to consult with the President
touching the draft in Kentucky, heard this ad
mirable vindication of his policy addressed in
the course of conversation to Governor Bram
lette, Senator Dixon and himself,—and was
immediately struck with the thought that the
publication of such a convincing summary of
facts and arguments could not but have a most
beneficial influence in Kentucky at the present
time, He, therefore, requested the President's
permission to publish what he had said, and _
having taken • the matter into consideration, the
President consented, and himself addressed the
following letter embodying the conversation to -
Col. Hodges : • •
copper cents. New Jericy authorized 'copper
coinage in 1783, and Massachusetts established
a mint in 1786. In 1785 Congress adopted the
plan of a National coinage proposed by Jeffer
son, and, in 1787 - a mint was authorized and
carried bito operation the following year. The
United States - Mint is now locatedln Philadel
phiarand has branches in Charlotte, Dahlonega,
New Orleans and San Francisco, and private
coins are notissued at all, excepting in, the gold
regions as a matter of convenience-.
Ilxr.ctrrivs MANSION, Washington, April 4,
A. G. Iludgcs, Esq, Frankfort, Ky.:
MYDEAR SlR—You` ask me to put in writ.
ing the substance of what I verbally said, the
other day, in your presence, to Gov. Bramlette
and Senator Dixon. , It was about as follows :
I am naturally • anti-slavery. If slavery is
not wrong, nothing is wrong. I can not re
member when I did not so think and feel. And
yet i l •have never understood that the Presi
dency conferred upon me an unrestricted right
toilet officially upon this judgment and feeling.
It was in the oath I took, that I would to the
best of my ability, preserve,protect; and defend
the Constitution of the United States. I could
not take the office without taking the oath.
Nor was it my view that I might take an oath to
get power and break the oath in using the
power. I understood, too, that in ordinary
civil adatinistration this oath even forbade tne
to practleally indulge myprimary abstract judg- -
menton the Moral question of slavery: — .1 - had
publicly declared this many times and in many
ways . . And I aver that, to this day, I havedene
no official act in mere deference to my abstract
judgtdent and feeling on slavery.
I diOnderstand, however, that my oath to
preserve'.the donstitutionto the best of my abil-'
ity implOed upon me the duty of preserving, by.
every indispensable, means that Government,
that Natibn, of which that Constitution watt the
organic 'paw. Was it possible to lose the Na
tion and yet preserve the Constitution 7 •
By general law, life and limb must be pro—
tected; yet often a limb must be amputated to
sate a life ; but life is never wisely given to
a te
-b. I feel that measures, save measures, otherwise
tmcenst tutional, might became lawful, by be
coming Fndispensable to the preservation of the
Constitution, through the presevation of the Na
tion. Hight or wrong, I assumed this grmind,
and novel avow it. I could not feel that to the -
best of my ability I had even tried to preserve
the Coni c titution, if to save slavery or any minor
matter; I. should permit the wreck of Goviern
meat COuntry, and Constitution, all together.
When early In the war Gen. Fremont atteßpt
edmilittag emancipation, I forbade it because
I.did not, then think it an indispensable neces
sity. When a little later, Gen. Cameron, then
Secretary of War, suggested the arming of the
blacks, I objected, because I did not yet think
it an indispensable necessity. When still later,
Gen. Hunter attempted military emancipation
I auin forbade it, because I did not yet think
the indispensable necessity had come.
When, in March, and May, and July, 1862, I
made earnest and successive appeals to the Bor
der States, to favor compensated emancipatiorl,.
I believed the indispensable necessity for Milt ;
tary emancipation, and arming the blacks wenld
come. unless averted by that measure. They
declined the proposition, and 1, was, in - my best
judgment, driven to the alfefnatiVe, of either
surrendering '‘he Unio'n, and with it, the Con
stitution, or of laying litrthig hand upon the col:
ored element. I• chose the tatter. In choosing
it, I hoped for greater gain'than lose; brit of this
I was not entirely confident. Mote than a year
of tgiainOw shows no loss by it, in our foreign
relations ; 'l4one in ourhotne popular sentiment ;
none iirour' tvhite military force—no loss by it,
any hew or' any where. •On the contrary, it
shays again ofqnite a hundied and thirty thous
and soldiers`, seamen and laborers. These are
palpahle facts, about which, as facts, these can
be ne caviling, We have themen, and we could
not have hadthem without the measure. '
And now', let any Union man, who complains
of the measure, test himself, b 7 writing dawn
in one line, that he is for ?nbduing the rebellion ,
by force of arms, Mad in' he next; that he Is for
taking these hundred and tidily thousand men
from the Union aide, and plabing thent where
they would be, but for the measure he condemns.
If he cannot thee his cause so stated,
because ho cannot face the truth,
- I add a word, which was not in the verbal ;
conversation. In telling this, tale, I attempt no
compliment to my own sagacity. I clainrnot
to have controlled events, but confess plainly
that events controlled me. Now at the end el
three years' struggle, the nation's condition,
not what either party or any man devised ex ex-
peeted, God alone can. claim it. Whither it
is tending seems plain. If God now, willa the
removal of,a great wrong, and with nlso that
we of the North, as well as youof the South ? ,
shall pay fairly for our complicity La thatwroxkg,
impartial history will find therein new cattse to
attest and revere the justice and,_goodness of
God Yours truly, • A. LINCOLN.
GEN, SWEL was serenaded lastweek atOnr ,
berland, and the crowd called persi&'
a speech, At last Gen. Sigel -
Gentlemen : Ger
non and writ