The Franklin repository. (Chambersburg, Pa.) 1863-1931, November 18, 1863, Image 1

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IMI
FCLURE & STONFAL
"tr.341:14 gktFo'Aiticivg.
PHILIiDELPHIA
Startlin Decision by the Supreme
Court—Th g. e
Conscription Act Declared
Unconstitutional by Judges Lowrie,
W oodward anti Thompson—Strong
and Reed Aflira! It—The Secret His
tory or this Judicial Vengeance
Against Our Nationality—lts Early
Correction Assured by the Late Elec
tion..
•
glitoriallilorrespowlenee of The Repository.
PRILADELPUIA, NOv. 12„1863
The decision just rendered by a majority
of the Supreme Court of PennsylVania in
Pittsburg, whereby the ConZiotion-abt is
&dared unconstitutional, has justly star
tled_ the . loyal sentiment 'ot 'all parties
throughouttbe State. It• has fallen with
appalling solemnity upon men of every po
.
litical'persua[siono and has brought mingled
shame and sorrow upon allot the Demnerat-,
io faith,'save only the Reeds, -the Whar
on*, the Ingerhdls and others. who are
:saved from, open treason only by their cow
ardice. • Hundreds of honest Democrats.
who supported .Indge' Woodward at the
late.eleetion, believing that he would mairr
fain-the'right of the r Republic' to preserve
its : owtilife against armed treason, openly
congranlaie themselves and the country
-that Gov. Curtin was chosen over him; and
were - the vote to be taken tomorrow,
would be beaten by treble the majority cast
against him here in October last:
. It is painfultO dwell upon the"narrow pre
judices, the: petty• political uses, and the
controlling_ disappointments to which the
judicial tribunal of last resort in Pennsylva•
nia has been dwarfed. I would gladly turn'
from these' to vindidate its unwavering dis-_
pensation of justice ; its enlightened, liberal
and faithful devotion to the government
whose guardianslfip has been therein , en-.
trusted. But tii4 spoiler has invaded the
kiered sanctuary of the court, tempting its
high priests with the dazzling bauble of
ambition, and they have pro'ed themselves
but mortals with no common share of infir-
•
mines s
As soon as it was- officially announced
that the draft would be. enforcedin- Penn.
sykania to replenish the shattered ranks of
our. heroic armies, it vas resolved, by a con
.eltive of Democratic politicians in this city,
- that it„s constitutionality should be tested
in the Courts. It vas not to be done for
the purpose of testing the correctness of the.
law so much as to accomplish Certain polit-'
ifa.l results. I do - not know that any of the
Judges of the Supreme Court were in any
4 - rgtee, a party to the, movement Judge
Woodward was then the Democratic nomi
inee for the Gubernatorial . chair, and the
-original intention of the ,proceedings was to
proinote his election.. Politicians of widely
different views of party policy united in it
—one party insisting that Judge Wood
ward should deliver the opinion of the
Court - affirming the law, while others_hoped
to,:have him pronounce it unconstitutional
preparatory to the practical o'erthrow of
the government after he should be elected
Governor. It is not probable that he was
consulted by these men who, as Chief Jus
tice Lowrie says, sought to make the Union
the sport of partizan struggreg;' ' but, they_
confidently relied upon a Democratic court,
'whose members' composed the entire Dem
ocratic. State, ticket, to yield `no common
degree of deference to the political necessi::'
ties of the times, and to render a decision
far or : against the law as policy might die
utte.
Accordingly a case was made up. Three
conscripts were brought before Judge
Woodward by petition, as soon as the draft
had been made, and Geo. Wharton and
One or two attorneys of like rebel pioelivi
ties, appeared to defend the claims of the
petitioners for an injunction to restrain the
officers of the draft, on the ground that the
law was unconstitutional. The govermiient
did not appear by counsel, mainly, I pre
,sume, because the jurisdiction of the court
was not cooceded by the United'States au
thorities, and Woodward heard the on
the petition and ex parte argumduts against
the law ; but 'when the time arrived fbr a
deobion, he became afraid to raffle for so
huge a political elephant lest he should.lose
his stake or win his deadliest foe in the an
imal. . I do not colijecturd when I say that
the question 'of Judge Woodward deciding
for or against the law, or not deciding at
all - until after the election, was the subject
of repeated and grave consultations by the
political leaders of his party; and that ear
- nest and confflicting suggestions Were Made
to him on the subject by those /caders,
_is
not a matter of doubt. How far he deferr
ed to xhetn, if it all, I cannot say; but his
timidity_ disappointed all parties when he
resolved to postpone the issue and compel
his associates to take their share of the re
sponsibility, Thus was the decision post-:
poned until after the election ; and now it
would seem that the defeated members of
that court had aimed, withNsurious yen
-panne, at the government of the people
wb a bad discarded them.
his not the purpose of this letter to at
tempt to discuss the legal questions raised
'end.decided in this case. But a glance
aft- the 'circumstances surrounding it; the
causes which combined to produce this un
timely, deformed and still-born legal birth;
the men who must stand before the world
stantped with the blot of its paternity, and the
r'esults hoped, to be attained by it, is merit
ed alike by the gravity ethe issue, and the
fearful subordination of, judicial fidelity/to
political .prejUdice, intensified by a distaste
ful popular verdict. ,
Chief Justice Lowrie -was nominee of
his • party for re.electiih, - and his Union
competitor was chosen. -Re is a man of mo
derate abilities ;. of eminent pity of char
acter, and had he been able as measured
himself, would have been \ above t - cruel
follies which come from little *nds in the
day of politkal misfortanei: 4. seceder from
the Whig faith, he nituTallitook on the
extreme opposite view of: tipliticaiquestions,
and had he not been reSiplned by the .judi
cial mantle, he would dot;btless long since
have been side by side :with Reed, Whar
ton:and other renegade:Oti-slavery
As it was, he imagined liimself a very re
spectable conservative,- tiAd, has just crop
ped out a deadly but :iniPotent foe of the
Republic.. He perhapOioes not believe
that his decision is a very hunible and abor
tive imitation of one of old, who pulled the
pillars of the temple doWn with him to give
his enemies a common grave with himself ;
but it is nevertheless the 'truth.
It is due to him to say_that he has not
performed his intended . wprkof death with
out.some hesitation. and 4fa decent show of
ciyfei•ence to the claims of an imperiled Na-
Lion and the:well matured opinions se men
abler thanhimself. He4mits that he has
not "an entire 'conviction of the truth of
my (his) conclusions" as Would like to
have, and follows with an a'polOky to the
effect that the injunction he granted "is
only preliminary to the final hearing," but
upon the whole he concludes that the con
scription actinvades the rights ofthe
States and must therefore be void. He of
course refers to the provisions of the Con
stitntion which authorize - Congress, "to
raise and support armies . ;" "to provide
for calling- forth the militia to execute the
laws of the Union, suppress insurrection and
rebel, invasion ;" admits that it is expressly
empoWered to " pass all laws which shall be
necessary and proper" for the purpose ;
And with much more candor than strength
to his argument; hecencedes that President.
Washington and Gen. Knox, his Secretary
of War, in 1790, and President Madison,
with Monroe as Secretary of War, in 1814,
" reconiMended plans ofreerniting the army
hiete-cere very sicraita ail- one,'hut he
dismisses the opinions 1)1 .- those eminent
military and civil functionaries, who helped
to create the Constitution, by saying that
Congress did not adopt or discuis the meas
ure so as to " settle the question." TA this
the Chief Justice has allowed - hiS zeal to get
the better of his knowledge of history. The
law proposed by Madison and Monroe in
1814; which was "very similar" to the one
he declares void, was well matured in the
Cabinet; was passed by both branches of
Congress, and failed finally on a disagreement
between the two houses on unimportant
details.. On the main question, however—
that of authorizing the President to call put
and conscript the militia of the States,
with or without. the consent of the State
authorities, there was no difference between
the two Houses, - both adopted it,—the
Senate by a vote of-19 to 12, and the House'
by 84 to 72 ; and the clause authorizing-the, :
President to overslaugh such Executives as
Judge Woodward would have made had he,
not been second best at the late election,
passed the. House 87 - to 42. This measure
had the MA sanction of Madison, of Mon
roe, of Giles, and of Callninn, the father of
the ultra States Rights heresy; and it was
left for two discomfited Judge's 'of Pennsyl
vania to signalize their overthrow,-by irink
ing deeper at the, very fountain from which
has coursed gigantic treason, than did those •
who opened up its'patilential stream:
That Judge Woodward Should decide
with Lowrie . ; or rather have Lowrie decide
with him, is only natural. Eminently able;
with prejudices rising high over himself;
implacably bitter, and ever the child of po
litical misfortnne, he goes at: the work of
striking at the vitals of the Nation with a
zest before which petty treason pales.
While Lowrie hesitates; pretends some def
erence to the fathers of the Republic who
originated the measure, and approaches his
cohclusion with a modest trembling,. Judge
Woodward strikes out with a gallantry that
would have made hini beloved and great
had it been right instead of wrong—had-it
been to preserve the government and not
to destroy it—bad his keen blade,been
at .treason instead of his own NationalitY.
He defers to none—concedes to none, but!
in relentlm vengeance hurls back upon the!
people, whose highest office he sought fu
vain, It parting broadside which, however
harmless here, will make every despairing
traitor glad. •
It is fearfully manifest that- the decision
rendered in Pittsburg was meant to embar=,
ass the loyal power of the governMent.
was rendered in the face of two decisions
given in this city—where the cases decided •
at Pittsburg, were initiated—by the'United
CHAMBERSBURG, PA, WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 18, 1863.
States Court; anti also in the face of the
conviction that in thirty days the same
court would reverse itself, and declare for
the exercise Of all the powers of the Repub
lic to preserve its life. Judge Cadwallader,
a life long Tlemoemt and one of Wood
ward's supporters at the late election, has
rendered tWo decisions in the United States
_court here affirming the law ; and the last - ,
case presented covered every question con
troverted before the Supreme Court of the.
State, and :he. broadly sustained 'it. With,
him sat Jiidge Grier of' the Supreme Court
of the United States, when this ease was'
beard and d'peided, and the decision of
Cadwallader was rendered with the conear
rence of Judge Grier. Neither of, these
Judges would consent that our Union shall
becothe "the sport of partizan struggles,"
lir did they hunt, for the whining sophis
try, of Judge Lowrie nor the 'vengeance of
Woodward to justfy - 'judicial suicide. The
State court of last resort was hurled
,defl
.antly against the United States Court, ap
parently for no other purpose than to make.
a record of a brief and petty conflict of au
thority; and it was • done by two defeated
candidates and one—Judge Thompson—
more eminent for' political_ management
than judicial learning.' For the mere satis
faction ofreing an impotent blow aimed
in the direction of the government; , --a blow
that is paralzed by the coming of Judge
.Agnen , in the place of Lowrie_ in a few days
—three sore head politicianS who, in an
evil hour kati s heen`made Judges, confront
the anOrs -of the `constitution itself on
constitutional - law, and \blot their own and
their country-:.s
,history with an exhibition
showing how ,meanly vextAkambitiGn dies.
It has well been _written— \
‘,` Swans sing before they
T'were*ell'itome died before they sang."
On theirStllonday of -Decemb next;
Judge Agnew will take the place oie,
and thus give the loyal , side of theta
majority. Of course the decision will 'le
speedily reversed.
I had thoUght of reminding Gen, Clel
lan of Woodward's decision—of his mom
plifieatiOn of his " views" in favor, of a
" vigorous prosecution of the war," Sm.,
but—Ni/ at's/ bontenz.
Judge Strong has simply done his duty,
but he deserves more than ordinary credit
for it. Tie has defied the machinations of
sore-heads and politicians, and declared un
qualifiedly for his country. Judge Reed of
course was faithful to thelaigh trust reposed
in A. it..
BRIEF WAR ITEMS.
Thirty Paymasters have gone down to pay
off the Army of the Pet°Mae.
Gen:Burnside's resignation isaecepted, and
Gen. F(ister will succeed him, in command of
the army of Eait Tennessee.
The secession papers of Canada admit the
failure of the rebel plot to burn Buffalo and
other towns, and release the prisoners at
'Sandusli v.
Thomas Francis Meagher; has been rein
stated in the rank of Brig. Gen., with per
mission' to - recruit it to its compliment of his
old Irish "Brigade.
Jeff. Davis has recently sent commissions
to the most notorious bushwhackers in At
kansas for the purpose of raising men to
c %rry on-the guerrilla warfare.
A letter from Little Rock on the Gth
caws that Price and Holmes are . still at Mar
shal, Texas. There are very few confederate
troops, except cavalry at present in the State
of Arkansas. - •
Gent Peck haY made reconnoissance of the
Chowen river, North Carolina, to the mouth
of the Blackwater. This point is 250 miles'
from Newbern. The rebels are fearful of a
movement on 'Weldon.
The prisoners at Belle Isle, near Rich
mond; are in a state of starvation, their sup
plies Of food having been entirely cut off.
This! is stated on the authority of a chaplin
Who was exchanged last 'Wednesday. -
A Union prisoner in Richmond has man
aged to send to liVtOington that the rebel
uthdrities, having fully determined to starve
,
pll their prisoners to death, have stopped the
meat'rations to those in the Libby prison.
Gov. Bramtette has issued his•procl:una
,tion- seconding the President's call for troops.
It is business-like and iiatrkiiie; His appeal
to Itenfueltians to come forward and fill the
rams of their thin regiments in the field is
elo4uent
A few days since a party of rebel guerillas,
uncle. the command of Capt. Beale, landed on
he eastern shore of Virginia, near, Drum
mondtown. Before they hiid time to makes
thieving expedition - into the interior they
were all captured.
Gen. Averill's victory at Droop Mountain
was most decisive. The rebels acknowledge
that out of a force of 4000 they lost over 800
in killed and wounded. Avcrill took over 100
prisoners, one flag, three guns' and a large
quantity, of small arms, wagons,, &c.
It is officially stated that 4,000 refugees
from northern Alabama and Georgia have
arrived in Nashville since last August, and
been variously provided for by the Govern
ment. Most of them have been 'sent North.
They werein a deplorably destitute condi
tion, having her robbed of everything by
the rebeii. .
The town of Arkadelphia was, taken by a
Union force ottthe,l2Bth ult. Subsequently
the salt works .at that place were destroyed.
Tirig. Gen: Garfield recently tendered his
resignation to the P:Tesi dent, for the, purpoie
of taking his sent in Congress, to which he
has been electe4 - The only reply he received
was a conimissiOtTior him as
- Major General
of volunteers, fo7 gallant services at thd, bat-
Ile of Chickamauga.
Gen. Meade .bias sent to Washington his
official account Hof the late l engagernents on
the Rappahannock. The only new point in
this report is, that Gen. Sedgwick captured
4 gtins,. 8 hattlitnags and over 1500 prisoners;
French took orke 400 prisoners ; Sedgwick's
loss -about= - 806 - :killed and wounded, and
French's aboatlo. •
At lestoyeAm':ve the details of,the'reported
disaster ti) "piift-l s ' Burnside. It ap•Faiara that
it ocenred at'ltOgersville, HaWkins-eountY,
Tenn., about Afteen miles from Knoxville,
and at the-tir*ation of a branch railroad.
The rebels I 4gtired six hundred
fbur earuUM.:Vo mention is Made ottlie
number of killfand wounded. :The main
body is iii an i4pregnable position, :where it
WAS when Roans wits attacked.
THE BAT'i; OF OETTYSBURG.
,~
Official Report of Gen. Meade.
- , ,
A Summary 01 the Results of the Battle.
1. . _
Headquaiteq- Arniy of the Potomac, Oct.
L—To Gen. Thilleck.-:=General: I have the
honor to submit herewith a report of the
operations of this army during the month of
July, includintdetails of the battle of Get
tysburg; whichihave been delayed by failure
to receive the -reports of the several Corps
and Division Gommanders, who were severe
ly wounded in tattle. On the 28th of June'
1 received Orders from the President placing
me in command of the Army >f the Potomac.
The situationUf affairs was briefly as follows:
The Confederate - army, which was coin
mended by Gen. R. E. Lee, was estimated at
over one hundiedthousand strong. - All that
Lamy had crossed ,the Potomac river and ad
need up the Cumberland Valley. Reliable,
in lligence' placed his advance thils :—Ew-.:
ell's corps on the Susquehanna, Harrisburg
and lumbia.. Longstreet's corps at Chain-.
bersbu ar,. and Hill's corps between that place
and Oasltown.".
The 28i ofjune misspent in ascertaining
the position and strength of the different
corps of the a MY, kit' principally in 44ring
lug up the env ry which had been covering
- the rear of the - : rray in its passage,over the
Potoriaac, and to - ich a large increase had:
just been mado fro , the force previously at
tached to thedcfense.4\of Washington.
Orders wire A ctiven on this day,to -Major
Gen:FrenA,- .Urdranclitio. at Hinper's Yin-,
yy, to move with seven thousand men to 9c-
cupy Frederick and theline of the Baltimore
and Ohio Railroad, with 'the balance of his
force, estimated iit four thousand, to remove '
and escort public property to Washingtop.
On the 29th the army was put in motion,
and on the eVenin. ,, of that day it was in po
sition, the left atiEMmettsburg, and the right
at. New Windsor. Buford's division of Ca
valry was on the left flank, with his advance
at Gettysburg. "1
Kilputrick'S divisi m was in ths front at
Hanover, where The - eric untered this day Gen.
Stuart's Confidelate:enc. al ry, w h ich had cross
ed the Potom c=at Seal ea creek, and passing
)
our right flan ,Iwas tilting its way towards
)
Carlisle, hay ng eseaped , Gregg's diviAon,
which wai-Alayed in taking position on the
right flank, by the occupation of
- the roads
by a column of infantry. - . _
On the 30th the right flank of the' army,
was moved up to Manchester, the left still
being at Emmettsburg, or in that vicinity,
ut which ulace three- corps, First, Eleventh
and Third, were collected under the orders
of Major Gen. Reynolds. Gen. Buford hav
ing reported from Gettysburg the appearance
of the enemy on the Cashtown road in some
force, („Te' rt. Reynolds was directed to occupy
Gettysburg.
On reaching that place on the Ist of July,
Gen. Reynolds found Buford's Cavalry warm
ly engaged with the enemy, who had de
bouehed his intently through the mountains
on CashtoWn, but \vat; -being held ,in cheek
in the most gallant manner y, Buford's Ca,
valrY. Major Gen. Revnolds immediately
moved around the town "lii Gettysburg, and,
advanced on-the Cashtown road. and without
a moment's hesitation deployed his advance
division, and attacked the enemy, a the same
time sending orders for the . ..:,leventh Corps, -
Gen. Howard, to adVan - etr-as promp,ly as,
possible. .
Noon - after making his dispoSition for ate
tack, Major Gen., Reynolds fell mortally .
wounded; the coniMand of the First Corps
devolving on Major Gen. Doubleday, and the
command of the field, on „Major Gen. How
ard, who arrived about this time (11:30 A.
M.) with the Eleventh ,Corpls`th en.command
ed by Major. Gen. Schurz. Major , General
Howard pushed forward two divisions•of the
Eleventh Corps, to support the First Corps,
now warmly engaged with the enemy, on a
_ridge to the north of the town, and posted
his Third Division; with three batteries Of
artillery, on the cemetery ridge, on the south
side of the town. , . ~
Up tothis time the battle had been with.,
the forces of the enemy debouching frtmi the
mountain on the Cashtown road, kn 3wn to bci -
Hill's corps- In the, early part of the action
the success was on the enemy's side. Wads
worth's division of. the First corps having
driven the enemy back some distance, cap
tured numerous prisoners, among them Gen.
Archer, of the Confederate army.
The arrival of reinforcementt to the enemy
on the Cashtown road, and the junction of
Ewell's Corps coming in on the York. and
Harris' u7g roads, which' occurre d between
one and two o'clock P. M., enabled the ep
erny to bring vastly superior forces against
bath the First and Eleventh Corps, outflank
ing our line of battle and presstng it so se
verely that about 4 o'clock F. M. Maj. Gen.
Howard deemed it prudent to withdraw" these
two corps to the Cemetery ridge, on the
south side of thelown, which operation.was
successfully accomplished ; not, however,
- without considerablelossin prisc,tsers, aris
ing from the confusion incident to portions
of both corps passing tbrougli the town, and
the men getting;
confused in the streets.—
About , the time of the withdrawal, Major
Gen. Hancock .arrived, whom had des
patched to 'represent me on the field, on hear
'mg of the-death-of Gen.. Reynolds..
In conjunction with Major Gen. Howard,
Gen. Hancock
.proceeded :to post the -troops
on Cemetery Ridge and to repel an attack
that the enemy made on our right flank.—
This attack was not, however, very vigor
ous, the enemy seeing the strength of; the
position occupied, seemed to be satisfied with
the success he had accomplished, desisting
from any further attack this day.
About 7 o'clock P. M., Major Gens. Slo
cum and Slater, with-the Twelfth Corps
and part of the Third, reached the ground,
an&took post on the right and left of the
troops previously posted. Being satisfied,
from reports reel:Ilya:I from - the'field, that it
was the intention of the enemy to support,
with his whole army. the attack already
made, and reports from Major Gens, Han
copleand Howard on the character of the per
eition being favorable, I determined to:give
battle at this point, and early in the evening
rst issued oljeks to :till corps to concentrate
at dettysbursllllllrecting all,trains to be sent
to the rear at Westminster, at I.IP. M. first.
Lbroke "up - my head-quarters, which till
then had been at Taneytown,
and proceeded
to the field, arriving . there atl,A. M. of-the
second. So soon as it was light I proceeded,
to inspect the position occupied and to Make
arrangements' for 'posting several corps ins
thex. should reach the ground.
By 7 A.M. -the Second and: Fifth Corps,
with the-rest of the Third, had reached the
ground, and Were posted as follows;—The
Eleventh Corps retained its position onVem
etery Ridge, just opposite to the town; the'
First Corps was posted on the right; the
Eleventh oh an elevated knoll connecting
with the ridge and extending to the south
and ; east, 'on which the Twelfth Corpi. was,
placed,,the right of the Twelfth Corps rest
ing on a small streani at a point where it
crossed the, Baltimore pike, and' which form-
ed'on the right flank of the Twelfth some
thing of an obstacle.
Cemetery Ridge extended in a westerly
and southerly - direetiOn, gradually diminish
ing in elevation thl it carne to a very prom
inent ridge ."Round Top," running
east and West. Tlie.Second and Third Corps
were directed to
. occupy the continuation of
Cemetery Ridge. on "the left.of the- Eleventh
Corps, and Fifth Corps, pending the arri
val the Sixth Corps, was held in reserve.—
While these dispositions were being made
the enemy was,massing his troops on an ex
terior ridge, distant from , the, line occupied
by us from a mile to a mile'and a half..
At 2 P.M. the,Sixth Corps arrived, after
a march of thirty-two miles, which wits ac
complished fron 9 P. .3(f. of the. day previous.
On its arrival being reportil immediately
directed the Fifth Corps to moveover to our
extreme left and the Sixth to occupy its place
as a reserve for the fight.
About 3 P. M. I rodeouttotbeextregieleft
to await the arrival of the Fifth Corps and
post it, when I fOund that Mak-Gen. Sickles,
commanding
. the Third-Corp, not fully ap
prehending,my instthetions in regard to the
,position to be ocCitpied, had
,advaneed,,,_or
rather was ; in the act of advancing. his corps
some half mile or three quarters of a mile in
the front of the line of the Second Corps on a
prolongation which it was designed his corps
shoulerest. ,
Having found - Maj. Gen. Bicklei, I was
explaining to him that he was too far in the
advance, and discussing with himthe propri
ety of withdrawing, when the enemy. opened
upon him with several batteries in his front
and his flank, and immediately brought for
ward columns of infantry, and.made a vigor
ous assault. The Third Corps sustained the
shock most heroically. Troops from the
Second Corps were immediately sent by Maj.
Gen. Hancock to cover the right flank of the
_Third Corps, and soon after the assault com
menced.
-The Fifth Corps most fortunately arrived,
and took a position on the left of the Third,
-Maj . . Gen. Sykes,'commanding,, immediately
sending a force to occupy "Round Top" ridge
where a most furious contest was maintained,
the enemy making dPsperate but unsuccess- ,
ful efforts to secure it. Notwithstanding the
stubborn resistance of the Third Corps, under
Maj. Gen. Riiney (11111 j. Gen. Sickles having
been wounded.early 'in -the action,) superior
ity in numbers of corps of the enemy enab
ling him to outflank its advanced position,
Gen. Birne was counseled' to fall back and
reform, behind the line originally desired to
be held,
In the meantime, perceiving the great
exertions of the enemy, the Sixth Corpr,
Maj. Gen. Sedgwick, and 'part of the First
Corps, to which I had assigned Maj. Gen.
Newton s •particularly. Lodmood's Maryland
Brigade, together ,'
detachments from the
Second Corps, .were all brought up at differ
ent periods, and succeeded, together with a
gallant resistance of the ;Fifth Corps, in
checking, und, finally, repulsing the assault
of the enemy, .who retired in confusion and
disorder about sunset,. and ceased any further
efforts on our: extreme left.
An assault was, , however, made ship - tit BP.
M., on the Eleventh Corps, from the left of
the town, which 'was repelled with th'e
ussis
tanee of troops from the Second and-First
Corps. During the heavy assault upon our
extreme left, portions off` the Twelfth Corps
were sent: as reinforcements.' • •
During their absence the line on the extreme
right was held by a very much reduced force.
This was taken advantage of by' the enemy,
who, du'ring the absence of Geary's Division
of the' Twelfth Corps,i' advanced and occupied
part of the line. •
• On the morning ile.the third, Gen. Geary,
having returned durink the night,, attacked
at early dawn the (Manly and succeeded in
driving him back and reoccupying his former
position. A spirited Ontest was maintained
all the morning . along thisspart of'the line.
bell. Geary, reinforced by WheittOn's Brig
ade of the Sixth Corps,4-rnaintained his posi
tion and inflicted ver . y , severe losses on the
enemy.
With this exeaption our lines remained
undisturbed till 1 P. M. on the 3d, when. the
enemy opened from over 125 guns, 'playing
a i l= our centre and left.
_This `Cannonade
continued for over two hours,-when, our guns
failing to make any reply, the enemy ceased
firing, and soon his masses ofinfantry became
visible, forming for an assault on our left and
left centre. '
_ An assault was made With g,reatAirmned,
directed in.incipaily againet the pOint-occu
pied by the Second Corps, and was repelled
VOL. 70 . , ! .4110LE ,NO, 3,6:11;:.:
'with equal-firmness by the, troops, of thair
corps, supported by Doubleday's Division mut
Stannard's Brigade of the. First Corps., Di
ing this assault both Maj. Gen. Hancock,
commanding the left centre, and Brig. Gen:"
Gibson, commanding the Second C c orpa, werii
•
severely wounded.
This terminated the battle, the enemy.ro-,„
tiring to his lines, leaving the field strewed' : ,
with his dead and wounded. and nuttier**
prisoners in our hands. Buford's division .
cavalry after its arduous service at Get
burg, on the first, was, on the second, sent t 6.
Westminster to refit and gliircl'our train*.
Division,fthit on the 29th, 80th.,
and_ lst had been successfully 'engaging
enemy's cavalry, was, on the a'sent nn orir
extreme left, on the Emmettsburg- road s ,
where gOod service was rendered in 'assaUlt
ing the enemy's, line and occupying his
-fix tention.
At the same time Gen. Gregg was engktess,
with - tlie, enemy on our extreine
. p used ec eels the Baltimore pike and Bonaugh
town reads, and boldly attacked the enemy*
left and rear. On the morning,- of the .40. r
the reconnoisances developed that the enenvt, , ,
had drawn' back his left flank, but maintaitt. ; ,
ed his position in front of our left, apparently,
assuming a new line parallel to the mountains
On the morning of the sth it was ascertain-=_
ed that the enemy was in full retreat by the
Fairfield and Cashtown roads., The tiiith
Corps was immediately sent in pursuit .on the
Fairfield road, and the cavalry on the:Cash--;
town 'road, and by Ernmettsburg and Mona::
terey passes. The sth and 6tb of Auly were f
employed in succoring the 'wounded
• •
burying the dead. '
Major Gen. Sedgwiek,- commanding llor
Sixth Corps, having pushed on in pursuitet
the euerriv as far as. the Fairfieldpass the;' .
mountains, and reportitig that Pass as 'veer,
strong, and one in - which a small force of the ;
enemy could hold- in check and delay eon: •
siderable time any pursuing force, I.4leter-,
-mined to folloW the enemy by a fiank move
ment, and aceordingly, leaving Mjntosles
Brigade of Cavalry and Neill's Brigade of .
Infantry tp continue harrassin,g the enemy ;
put the army in motion for Middletown, 1114 !
()Niers were immediittelY sent to Major
Gen. French, at Frederick, to reoccupy Harn•
per's Ferry, and 'to send a force to • occupy ,
Turner's pass, in South Mountain. I subae
quently ascertained that Major Gen. French-:;
had not only anticipated these orders in part;
but had pushed his cavalry forcefo,Wifliame
port and Falling Waters, where they destroy, :
ed the enemy's pontoon bridge and captured -
its guard. Buford was at'the same time amid(
to Williamsport and Hagerstown.
The duty above assigned to the cavalry was -
most successfully l accomplished, the enetety.
.being greatly harrassed, his trains destroyed'
and many captures, in guns and prisoner
made. _After halting a day. at. Middletown - -
to prociire necessary supplies and-to bridg
trains, the army moved through South. Moms:- -
Min, and 'by the 12th - of July was in front 0f .. ;
the enemy, who occupied a strong positioni
on the heightlis of Marsh Bun, inadvanc of ,
Williamsport. "
On taking this position several skirmish
and aflairs had been had with the enerrix.
principally by cavalry, from the Eleventh,
and Sixth Corps; The 13th was occupied Irv,
making reconnoissances of the enemy's poet
tion and preparations for _attack, but on adt,,,;,
Nancirig,on the "morning-.of-'the 19th "it wor •
ascertained he had retired the night previonil
by a bridge at Falling Waters and a ford at,
NVilliamsport.
. The cavalry in pursuit overtook the rear
guard at Falling Waters capturing two gun& -
and numerous prisoners. Previous to the
retreat of the enemy Gregg's Division of out •
valfy had crossed at 4arper's Ferry, and
coming up with the rear • of the enemy **
Charlestown and '• Shepherdstown, had at .
spirited contest, in which the enemy Were
driven to Martinsburg and Winchester, and: . ,
preasedmid harassed m his retreat:
Puriuit was resumed by a flank movement .
of-the army, crossing the Potomac at Berlin, ,
and moving down Loudon Valley. . Cavalry
were immediately pushed into several , .
of the Blue Ridge, and having learned frotn
scouts
:I
of the withdrawal of the Confederate.
:army from the lower valley of the-Shenim
doah, the Third Corps,' Major Gen. l Frefich r ]
inadvanee, was moved into :Manama Oa",
in the hope of being able to intercept a por
tion of the enemy. .
,
The possession of the Gap was disputod
successfully as to enable the rear-guard ti
withdraw by way of Strasburg, the Cenfed
erate army retiring to the Rapidan. Pad.;
tion was taken with this army on,theline pf
the Rappabenriock, and the campaign Writ&
nated aboutpie close of July, -
The fesult pf the campaign may be briefly;
stated, in the of the enemy at Gett*
burg, -
their com&lsory evacuation of Penn.
sylvania and: Maryland, and withdraw's.' -
fromthe upper valley of the Shenandoah, and•-".
-the capture of 3 gips, 41 standard and 13,621,
prisoners, 24,978 'small arms were collecte4;,
on the battle-field.
Our own losses were very wrier% amount:"
ing, as will be seen by the accompanying •
turn, to 2834 killed, 13,709 wounded and f 44-
missing, in all 28,180.
qt
• It is impossible, 'in a report of this Justin*,
to enumerate all' the instances of gallantry ; •
and good conduct - which distinguished our ,e
:success on the hard-fought geld of Gettyp. - ,
-burg. The reports of corps commanders and
their subordinates, herewith submitted, witl•
furnish all infbrination upon this subject.
I mill only add my tribute to the heroin.,
bravery of the 'whole army, officers and m4a, ,
which, under the blessing of Diyins
deuce, enabled the crowning victory to'lts
obtained, which I feel .confident the count 7,
will never eeasc-to bear in grateful remeih-.
brance.
• It is my duty, as well as my pleasure, Pw,
call attention to the earnest (dor% and c -
operation on, the part of lied. Gen. D. 3*.,
Couch, commanding the Department or the
Susquehanna, and particularly to histulyaurs.
of four thousand men under ,Brig. Gen. . '
F. Smith, who joined me at:Boo*Ore,,:
just prior to the withdrawal of the - Conti:dor...
ate army.
In conclusion I desire to' return ail
thanks to my staf, general and personal, to
each and all of whom I was indebted Air - 1
i i nrs quitting activity andraost efficient asst.:
7 • `l.
Very respectfully, your obedientaorvarg,'
GY.O. G. Mainz,
31,ai. Gen. Commanding:
Brig. Gen. L. 4'nomAs,,Adjt. Gen. U. 8.,A,
Washington„ D. C.
Gen. Yoster.has left Washingtrin •to tat"
Gen.;llturside's command . . -
EN
ME
111