Star and banner. (Gettysburg, Pa.) 1847-1864, February 01, 1856, Image 1

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    QIIIIIMPOSOWNE120 1 1:1731 •
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u k 4 1111EFILER . '
.I.A bile Ivoolltnifsilia i
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.• - (4'. 0!•14 lo ego+ a ic l „I'm I" , f' 1 ,, ,
3 gritoo4l4 bit 311 11 = if Annlq,: , .l I
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' 7B !,11P 0 8 14MggplaV 8 1 , ' 41? !vriqq!
Vii.7.W.iiptiViilk itibiiilll l " '
Beflii Use2diiies t i Anit , *iciUldrittlihiel#4
~,+.,11 ~..n4rtata6sjvi'ilfb4:lBs6. ,a • • 1 II I 7
ft affords me sinew pleasure. ireiitletneta, to
adftpai . flartitsintliatuittistkb ibeihlfriAtit
' l'ATlAliiil 01Z2 37.11 V Ei. IC=
intemetwet, di thes west , pradiced • by: MIN
tileriAltiemSf at etteloffielleßii OtilitjAY l , 4 llrielii'l
tture, fin ii ell clasSes of civilisal society 'are
inotnileltss di killifertaltedJ ll •Nliert lifille
proportiorlof our, population' from, if , Paqingil
ald 1110veptir li vrghb and ill their earth
ly Zdtufdris. ' TfielPTilactle l li it' tlek trinfie iii.
nicanalbfaubeistenes I But tabb to these ale* is;
(1 ' i t .qYllifiliWPclrlif• ,!ectPlricl4lwe 1 4 9P 15 0.
and Icommercia ee ges. an gamily ceases to •
exist , '" tetlthiii Itibm4o , tif the lifisbandmib fail'
to Tan 'their , Whims. and Statesmen will, be'.
at t e r wits mid, the somptuoue,halls of, the I
dell 11 l 6f theiildiuddit, and 'society j
in Retteral reduced to the savage state::
ir .4N'itibtil,Mleq7PTl ,° (tOS., 4 !ft% L ne ed ,
say not og o its pi nsto oignity , or o f its i
claiiiiii tigliP BUJ iegiitiltf 'Mt all. , If that In
upoolwiMcivilived Man isclependen! ! *those ,
I 111.91,4P4 1 91 1 C0R forts whic h mai illy shstlrisoish j
his ttintlitib I from 't hat thialivage bo undig
ni dada iti Aunt beioh' Iteootlllt uf the 'character 1
of typo ti whiggirseilee it, and not through auy, t
fault elite Ore.
• BM iftit 10118;4h yotilobger'tije introdeetory I
reuwskil, Lwiti,lanuounce at once as the sub-1
ject,sylaichwilkengsge our attention at present, i
for If' fed! iAllitaiss: "A'griculthre in Adartut i
county—its palm and present condition, and
future tosmwets.",
,Therivikedeubtletei those present 'who Can,
%1 I lilt AIM / survey .tat retrospect the °outline:a of,
our art, in this our, nitive or adopull county 1
twiiitY-IlviS lit'thiitY 'yearir-ago. In different
seesaw( of. , thocbunty this was, I know. even
tlits, yer4, thfferent. , Diversity of ,industry
nu hkilt produces then, as it produces atilt. I
a' Pverafty.lorftistiltA. ' BM I speak of the
general condition of agriculture. The original
settlers undoubtedly found the virgin soil vary- i
ingiveriratatadt in native Tefulity. ' A smell ,
po9ton of i dol aontli t -coletterat part of the comity.;
sits of course then, as it is new, kimeatUne soil.
situ. fish In ilk the ingredients` nedeteent tbr ‘
t lealesui pug - grow ;A of .wheat and other crops.
Tigs variety, ut.,,ml is lessiable to exhaustion
unthlP'habl attanagilnietit'thiat Most'dikerit, and
hence swami whek. badly treated/ - which- was
I '.*4 4 t i fliT9l 4 1 11 1' 1 9'. 4 thu we' , it , spirerr4,less i
Win 1110:413 soils containing a stualler.quantity 1
- et nutrient ptnicipltha, ' Atmthei region'of the'l
county, Tying along the foot of the South
bluitrnain,"ileeilt4 to liare Ph:messy' in' larger I
athoilita Wen oishusry. the Material ofitegeta- 1
I,(6'grineth'.• With the exception however, of
tif.'l4juit'idverld to, and:perhaps a few other
roilftll dietribis, the Original settlets must have
f :utair Ilkir' l l6lV or,eur can ny of a character
t:ailV eihkaatual.• and then:fere requiting no 1 .
mitts dii'affeb"4r skill •,'Sfibl 'istre'in ifs manage=
n u m A villiiirtSull',' however of 'even emit- 1
it 3% alter finder 'ofditiary• ciativatiob
s ill pig 41fitlefurvittlAtlidietdiA.4eut, tu ,
1 ; a lead t
tutttpt, the copldity or:Lie cit g it.vator, an...,
hini ittiditihrAtilit , exitittasdte process' &rifler'
t hats even 111' (411 true interests vateinld 'war- 1
rent.„ Thaw the goose that lays.tlaily fora 1
antul,,a Belden egg.. and under , proper Inanage- I
put lit inight,enintinie long to do go, lel reckless
ty l. eiirlbei to arrive at once at the supposed
, .itchedeptimit within. ' Very ninth like the eon- 1
.aratet sf,.the nifeniansi moo whom this table
j ic ej e l,,, e ns to n 448 an example of iiiiptitient, int
j,iiit Went folly. tilts that of twiny of the lust 1
klitlers Otitis &linty: We wish not. however.
10 eipilik vhspaeagingly of those who, hove long •;
A.llleN gone the. way of , all flesh. lt, was en
I.l.eelleut maxilla which enjoined, when speak-
log of die (I,ll'll. thilt we Ahould say of them,
.• nil 't:iiii;" b;mtst."—tooling but good—that is.
'Are waisny nothing good of them we should: '
held our pelmet—we should, may nothing et 411.1
Du' dumi w,ill Perceive that Lane net speaking;
,of cite
,}-moral qualities of those that arc gone. '
lii ' this aspect. notwithstanditig our much
pi en ter advantages. I fear we must admit with
rili.sine thitiniany, of them were greatly our:
EY Pnriora risgre: be to ,their "slits, an d, honored;
be their gaves—ktill we assert they sometimes'
farmed hien?. they Skimmed and eked the
cream and left' fur our nourishment the thin
blow milli. , It • was doubtless 60011 diSeOV-1
11)4.1l1 t Abut , ,tnwirk of our land when first
„would grow a very fair crop ofj
wheat' eltril" one crop shy not two. and if
be Itilvily not three 7 lithe third crop of wheat 1
*Should prove thesoil to be tired-of that, par-1
, ticular, grail,. tbep a similar succession of crops
pf rye tuiglit keel. tried, and when tried to some 1
ex ient gu'eceedisl. Althcingh this may not lassie
-14t 1 if the ''universal' practice, to' raise crops of
winter greinlid mu rapid and close succetteion '
Alb./ 1 4 ‘Nikuttittliiicate,th Yet oznwirtgropping I
was in a very great number of instaticeb re
kor'M 'tii: and fended to the rapid eXhaustion
era s oil daturillY not terifertile. ' , Abler dr-
!etilleitedletel -which contributed to the same ve-
IsulAtitro.rUothe. ini;?wing-, There „was lint a
,i 3 *mkt knowledg e at the time I 'in, I
it kilig or, of iiiii'llitiliizing. oe, at best, pre -1
- itik prinierties of elosier and other artificial I
leisktise , ,Olinsegurantly 'these grasses wore 00 1
Attie cuktivated i „ When they %Tenn sown they
were, freciplentYy defunittiOe'd ' before the roots
itall'islieniaCient !hold of the soil to with
'Oland ithe eplielwang pctwerof the,wieter Nets,
41 ' if' thv Weill itkAPtublol.grf , K 9P !uxuriahl ,
# due (011 1 2ikpgsummer, they were then grazed
off isolnifel trait the' dell derived little or' no
- idtiftitigit" Mm their brief existence: I eon .
I' i which grass crops tend to
j kbp s tiliwol4e cmi1,,11,, in the first place.
te yield to it rhat,l,licy took frets th e at
,tio. plibni(tio'irluelicleiviiinj la Welt va what
thy' derived fiatultlailvini itself•Houul seciondv
ly, they protect the surface from the &gm's
lAY'k•°4 4414N',.,Provent nutrien t particles
which' have descended from the atmoaPliere,
itilliiiiirefettibelibi wings "'git/lying away.
'via aeidaiii theh, , that , to permit cattle to crop
Atm ignliatoci closely, lei° defeat the/very ob
,,diviti,or akleast what. ought to by Ut9 PrinciPla
ati e tkli c L wi lk,kii i6 . s PW,flt MktilelY,l the fofti3 -
1 n g ° r
te'trlf',lt, ; k,„ , •
Another rcuniyabite witiCh I had, in view
''ilifelldllVlii tlib i pfd irtiPoverleihment'6f , die
s i lilichols 41• 7 wails or proper care andipasitomy
iaxtroldieglistg, Or ralinsaftli the indisPengo 6l
renovators of exhausted fertility. 'Of this mi.
elect i. l, think mans
. tf our immediapit Dredeceit
. %tit . irel'e'ititiltYl Mode ' ehemrstrthas
- taug ht us , tame!' upon the subject of'Produoing
and preserving manures so as to retain their,
fertiliodritiP9lll#ll-I.(,ltißtirk4ajters how we
m mutate , tms valuable &filch) from
t:Miavitilabbi 'by 'cii9 apeestorci. Thep
alarmed' thaf 'the vegetable deposit
, u d ait' the bottom of 'dried up ponds and
.;ra ned Anil( dams ought be employed in let
Using the soil. But when they calm) to teat
matter practically they were disappointed
• , he results. They did not find that land
'9l manured produced much better than lend
.; 4,1 1) m anure d at an—at learn they saw but lit
' o immediate effect. Chemistry, however.
teaches us that in the muck of ponds and mill
dams theraentfulidiiii - eOf alit& capablo of
prditiotidg vegbtablb growth. It is not, how.
hlseit in a conditioale bo appropriated by the
pgrOwlntiegotable. Much of it is, insoluble in '
viniter. end therefore in a state too crude to find
undmission into tho very delicate structures of
ttho young plant. All that wanting,,bow.
dot r•' r -
»r !i ,dcn
, e ..,". , r •
- 0-11/4", _7
7 _ .......,_.._.,.....,--,... 4-..-4.7,17•1••,;t1'-riVi 1. : 1
' l iver..iti tbeittliutrittfotiis Ps: Wl' exparietide
't erifles her.tai,thiaiwt)-411 that laiwantinc, is
te'edd• an ,Beall, 1 40 115 .,the Pricc'.lni'd
in 'lshes , orth i e ammopht Shoe tug in stable
tfunter.e, tir'an'alitilliae iiiih'sheli *titbit,. and
TOrthWitit theititiotubkl, Ind:llir ttdit•fery tea- j
sea inert .siglitablai:iestter,r becomes soluble
to legetahle ,
'growth) Ent pur ssors , knew little of
all this , and the t'e 'Were 'Mello:Yin thikiniy,'
theirteellfctiont efeeSegere•Slinest eMllinkeiX
.to the produelsof the stable, theistye and the
henhioia: ' trueediaii thine 'reriantes' Outbid'
them did not husband "as theyetighe to have
I done, aloe trianagtwith the tact and skill which
l•ire now consider essential .40 ,the highest de
..f.. eCteifXwe. The harp, yards , were often
badly ronottructed. They were net tirftiiiitient-'
iy situated on the side of I slope,' with a chan
nel natural •Crartilicial earryingvoir the liquid
drainings of the manure , beep into, the !Leanest
• brook that l'bubbled rye," to be borne to and
buried in the depths of the ocean. Then, "ea
' is still too . mtich - the cliiiern': manure heaps
I were unprotected from . the scorching rays of
jibe summer aunivbich then, as now, • dissip ated
pa very large arootatit of the west , valu able in
' gredient of the man u re. Men, didnet perhapa
i belierb thit becatise they did net see itJ-4he
• actual precuts of dispersion going oe.end•there
are still men ,who can believelittle,or nothing
which is not cognisable by their senses. 'But
'even the largest possible apiount of the dela
-1 rierated stuff drhielltras annually spread upon
~. the• fields under• the name of , manure. was not
; collected. On the contrary, a practiro•existed,
I' nd it is not, BA entirely extinct in our country
1 (I sincerely wish it were)-~1( mean the prat
-1 tie.e of letting theatock of the farm, scarcely
i excepting, the horses themselves, run at large
1 , a portion of every, day during , the housing,
season. The cattle were , some tied in the
stables at night, ethers were shut up in the
barn lard, nd cuter' they had finished their
, morning's meal of such fodder se the .farm
' would furnish, they wen) all turned out to wr.
ter, to take a walk for the benefit of their
• health, and to go if they pleased to sec their .
jneighbors, and, which of cour s e was very im-
! 'Portant, keep up friendly (sometimes untilend-
: ly) relations with them. if the day was pleas
; ant the' walk was generally prolonged, and the
j cattle emptied theinsolves of their nightly feed
; lug upon• the highways, before their return.—
BUt as the fodder consumed at night And in
‘ the morning' (line from the fields and"meati•
ows, at the expense oftheir nutrient principles,
and was deposited upon.the roads and in the
streema,it is evident that each repetition of
; this
,operation left maid fields and meadows ;
minus the' quantity thus 'clefiesited.' Vero Wilt.'
I evidently all exhausting process constantly go-
I lag on during the winter months. If the wealth-
er proved'inclement the,cuttle returned in the
-evening with greatly increased appetites.--
I This was regarded' advantageous, as they
. could eat so much the' morei It 'was indeed
true, and so if it true thatyour fire will burn
the more fiercely, if , in ~awinter's day. you
• throw open your doors, anti if your object be to
I consume fuel Without any regard to the' tv . prin . - .
; ing °limo , atiortinentd, it would' undoubtedly
be the• beat plan.. •tio in like manner when the
spring arrived Auld Abe trees, begun to put
, tbrth Weir leaves Alie cattle were "Patted out
t to,the'weeds,", as it'was called.' This Wait yin
.1 reftlitrtlitaing theta out to commit dot as
upon neighbors, to break fences-and:ex.
I cite quairels,forpo
,person can
,suppose duo.
Cattle at ihitt ieit•of the year can thudstue any:.
thing eatable in• the woodi to compensate• for
the requisite wear and ICU, ill procuring it.-- ;
I But however little they succeeded in finding,
they at leastlust what they had devoured in'the
stables at night—making a piestion of loss
and gain of the matter; we auppose the an.
I 6Wer , WOUld, be dilaf they lost more than, they
gained. In like manuer was their loss iu the
1 , frequent insufficiency of l'ences. There Wing
no sufficient barrier to the cattle, 'those' legiti
mately within, when they had satisfied them.
solved or eaten all they could get t feeding them
selves as free from,,all ,respousfirilityaud ro
; terabit ad ever did "Young Aineriee' , in his
I must thoughtless jolity, they 'leave the nomi
; nal •field at pleasure end with' them carry from
Ithe already impoverished soil, to return no
more,,the cements of' their stomachs, be it lit
i tie or be it much. 'On 'the other band the
'', same fences which permit the lawfill inmates
Ito escape, also admit the . ingress of ma
ruuderb,who.tarry to their homes on their re.
turn, or more probably leave by the wayside
smother portion of that which hardly admitted
of divitiion.
1 By these and similar processee, favored per
.; haps in runny instances by a false idea of the
I inexhaustible nature Of the soil, oar lands, ma
; ny of them at tenet, Were reduced to a'stato of
lextreme exhaustion. The scanty, crops or
.1 wham yielded by de impoverished fields,searce
ly, in many instances, repaid the cost of Celli
'l vation; and 'soinetinfes hardly returned the ,
lailed. Frequently the young plants which,
owing to their feeble. growth an the antumit, ,
had obtained but an imperfe'et hold by their
roots, were shiest Wholly 'thrown Out by 'the'
freezittg . of the ' winter and . the early spring,
&troths. . !. . • i ,.. , •,. „ , , ... , , , „,
lAbout•the :period to , which we now refer, the
introductiou,orgypsotti or plester t of Paris be.
clime pretty goncrul antl'inucb 'Waster a while'
I ititicipated - of its, fertilizinepkoperties. 'Ex:'
1 perience however soon , prayed alifit .its. useful
application:ailimited to a. fon Budunitafuw*
crops. ; I ;peak here of its direct utility,, for it,
may bemade by good rnanagenteid, indirectly
at least useful to all. , Agricultural. afatiebitryi
has shown that gypsum ; (sulphate alien)) is
found in appreciable quantity in several culti
vated plants;the one of which most extensive
ly grawit with•us iidie towhee' ied clover.-Is
Yractieal agriculture has proven that these are
the ; very pinata most benefitte4 !v . the app4(uk,
tioli of gypsum. , Its edbeis upon 'red clover in
terteleibils, , aed iiiiaitiadne Sitioriblit ' for fa'operation,
operation, are almost EnialcultAis.. ' This was
.noticed' even by , the 'Mont • unobserten!, ' estd
gYPsunt eti.iiin"?.• regarded : as the ; universal
panacea' for a'worn ant soil. If it promoteeso
wonderfully': the' br . elditer, Ay will it
nut equally promote the growth of wheat, -of
rye, of Itidaaw corn, t la . abort of..every bereld
crop Y. ? Science .miiht,,,haye, anticipated . the
true answer.' ,'l' he oral cannot, live on flesh
'aeithar'ean the diig' tittig'italialti bialthi wiled
•fed tin . bread'alline' Haab; iudanti ties/ its api
propriate food, an approxinudion to which at
lea:sae 'filleohaiery itedeithitio 'its waking.
Theitime is trueof plantar.; But in.the e*lleS
ptecientilk ktionled o r ex fierience, that best,
bfit i b i ttellidosEMcgoht. r ailehell'ilnil:l6'illi,
interrogated. Afiff ''' Giros her reply 7
•WhyshitplY that ofthe.Orops' ire . anise, clover
almo - si the only one to which plaitcr can ho
i.tipplieditith • adviintaget. , . But even , with • this
advantage the faritiory had. ho followed .it . up t
`might have improved his'aoil for the growth of
wheat.intfavery other crop.. lie .bad only to
Produce aluxuriant growth of clover to gain a
starting point.r His clover in its growth bythe
aid of the gypsnin would receive front the , at
i moaphere and fix within its structures it large
; amount of amonia.. This crop buried in the
i soil by plowing down, would have imparted to
at the necessary amount of nitrogen forthe pro
auction. ,of wheat. The. barn-yard .manure
which ordinary economy would have enabled
him to save, would have added r the requsite
a fair crop of the fairest of the co-
Anis *Mild have been the 'resultj Bat unfor
tunately, the up of plaster , WAS' pilule , fun ,tll.O '
most part, by bad management, the means of
the !lather erliahstion; 'instead of the-redo:ea.
Hon, of our Nod, • Theo clover itrown,by,ilsPir
J.. ill
...,;;A;Wdl49 1 1
ill I A ' V V. v . k 11V RpriADv
.1 colir rf 1:;1140D ibiu t -4,11 ,sr /I s JA. , A .1,1 LI, X AP I LII 41 JR' J 1 18 6 6
!I tt! a • ' '
plicatihri additfonst
AM:lithe& doted 'df tittfritheatint • the ;soil., On.
r the mititteiy it , wee Rid off for ats.inost part to.
the biro surface and, much ,of it borne and dt,
Pesiteo 1 1.PretaisaaataceadY describ e d,., the
t hele9Peeßtif!„k ui cierne ve Y e • i i Eeehr
;suecessive citep, of Oiler catiticd the
lanjl, took wt it. not Istrat '
iquirdd'frbirithedtt there, beleilio a. lags'
lamount of nutriment taken feint these•itself.,
The,qtuuttity of3billatkercit,cotwee the
miter in proportion to - the luxpritmenesti'of
-Inairow'Yeini the fairitetwie tai•
:Itonisted'tti find that What he had taken es tho
I most valuable. fertilised had in reality Ortied,l
petit' hisihAnds,to, be,the , mola. MiskthievPlat
exhauster •ef theaßilf !AC ,itafk4f ' eeeterlr i e
of course shandonefi by maim_ With is much
haste and , with as' little reason as It had'been
flatten up. Many ' II n ,hi ey they .
I been grown-Wise dy pitet efipitieticitiold•pre.
diets eftnilar frodrthe modern nse of
lime end:gusno.',. By , equally , bad manage..
ment their predictions might perhaPs, be in
'some a mtlasele
_fulfilled, but certainly they
will not be necessarily
After, the disappointment with gypsum.
'despair seemed for la:breed over the
eV/Cultural cpeuptitety, Rye Wes itibstitti.
ted for , wheat,, and backwliest intee'iffeail
ere rot corn. Thiiitithintiffil region acquited,'
I in' knife &Voiced' dituricui, and (tr end•Wido,
the dnetivieble sobrilteet of othe , buckwheat_.
county."., Matters, had intell.remobed a, ter+
ruble ariiie , ,but bowel mend kballt efelet;
no one knew. ~I rempreber,and dou bt leas;many of you also do, the dre,ary, ! s pent
which talc county Teri generafry 'won,
fiefda Wire' indeed white 'bdt 'hot k"tintiv
hoiveat." Many' of them were clad obi--
erg). giess—the lest despairing; effort- of. ex..
hausted fertility.: , Biscouraged ,b g, repealed .
,failures to improve their land, and dreading,
approaching poverty, many, sold their farms
at very low prices and sought a: Mete fertile
soil in the distant west—pnefering all the
hardships And •discninfonslif pioneer life to
the fruitless toil of 'celtivating a soil which
they considered doomed to perpettill Ater.
• Bet it. iirsild; 'Md.': suppose mid truly,
that "when the world is at us worst it 'sill
mend.” , It at leases* biappenut with,ihe RE*
rielliuraiatfabe of our county , At any. rate
we hope they have'Prissed the &kik 'end ' are
rapidly convalescent. his from thiarritairivie
di tattle origin' of thscpasseirr. mind itioa
agriculture amongst us.
But to what .agent, it maybe asked, 'or to'
whil'elreurnitadee'oi ffeinbinatiort tif
stances lathe einirge owing .I .• Were. I:Us. ran
ply,dim4r, to , this
,guespea . ,end „Tune, any
one agent to the impraved cenditituf
or oar' agriculture is mafinly indebted] I would
say LIME is par expelleum that agent. This,
substance had beep employed sonny centu
der( tigditithe'linproveintant afthea6ll. 'The
ancient Romans undoubtedly used it tor, that;
purpose. , Cute oldest agricultural
treatise extant, describes rialrom!ly the beat
method then kiwi% areparing,' it, arid
Pliny 'attestor thausendfit'br 'the cultivators
I ,ef his'country and in' his. day; aa dress,
mg. for. the.'soil, in which fruit trees , were ;
planted., In every Nail it hes able lump say
i!oyed as an ameliorator for the
M -!tier!
: tLrne
and, ey whom' Introduced I -heirs net buns,
able to ascertain. I remember to have seen ,
it Ile in heaps in some fields in the south:
leadtehr' part of tho county' as early islthe
!year 1822 or 1823.: It was rustr,blilfove.rr
lOng after this period , that its use became ge,
neral. The firat experiment*, In its eritplep
mentarere rather unisithifitotory. The-quarts
tRy applied was genqrally . snuah,tee large for
the condition , of the soil. ' lavi ng lieltrafof
raffeetarin England , and in , dome
parts ofthisoeuntry,witheutprohably knowing
the Mnd, dose t 'the inexperienced falsely
d; O
reasoner rather Hid not' mama natal, but
ftlmriod- at' the illegitimate conclusion that if
a little , is, good more will be better. TheY
thelefore applied largely, and there Hot being
Buff - latent vegetable matter in the thinned ex
haustedsoil to furnish carbonic, acid at once to
neutralise the surplus quantit y,` it' remained
in a atingle state and produced for , a while al ,
moist oomplete. sterility. The ,seeptical, took
oormion from thesenpparent failures; to sneer
at the Whole matter and scout it as IthWerflii
ftirther *ward. But nature is ever fruitful in
resources, in getting rid of the incautio:loPu
imposed on her by the ignoinnee and'stupidi
ty of mint In 'a fed laths the etoess of mutat
tie limo was partially aamiral off by ratins„Or
rendered mild by being converted into a carbo
nate hi tiarbaniciafld derivial'froin the 'attune=
pbere ni , rosnlting , from' deoomposition going
ou beneatband nu, the surface of the, tuff.—
Land* ' therefore, which had received a dres
sing of lime, after a season of barrenness
were fdund , tobdoomeunuerrally &dile.. This
circumstanop invited further experiment,—,
The primary Weal; etthe lime in producing
still :increased 'sfkirdity, were Areirtrded as a
uniiPid44l 0 1 , , 1CL,t. 1 40 rime
way as many an eminent Doctor still thinki
the beef day to Mali& hie' patient' Well; r. ib Shat
Ito make:him sicker than: be foundhits. But
some 49, 13 91 iiireoY strong ly OutPoot tlfai
sock " prep a ratory prhoest is ' asehtill neither
to the comfort nor. stfety`betha patient. add
peypirnoe POMO ethart WAY, yet, hiStro , Ittolitur
nuegivings--im some, farmers began ,to . think
that by tiTtpliiiig tin'tild 'first instanc e a' Matti
fer lamenatorlimether Might ~cure the Ala
ease of theaoilaton c without first,aggravating
it,. and at the same time nave the' time arid ex
I perisaitifthild id pt'odueing such undesirable- 1
aggravation. :.TheaPirt% thtuefutarof
Bretlnd azoilmstMy smali,,fjose of lime, in
ettent Mit its nod d im es
mule at fug the liming is.their judg-
mop; m i g ht di e t ja ,w u, w. adopted lit• Juliet h y l
some with the happiest results . 'r . need" net
itiyithil Ori to the
Honed mode ofpractioe.
.. 1 -'1 41 4 0 i 1 w14 1 94.31N!, we bolo !leen. when
tarardically tested, Prove eminently simeedeftd,
Itathefolloning t:. The land is plowed in' the
fall, preparatory to ranting corn the
spring„ The lime i s hauled during
Itlie lateral andTtilnlefinedthu'and Planed on
a flotir of klabadnd under. stover. whore it. is
Portoictosi to A 4. 0 1114, 14 clB it 'is called. Just
beflir* the.' tittle' fbr' planting the corn It is
hauled out and !Trout over the field .in a pul
xeMent *to, as evenly , as possible, and, im
mediately harrowed in. The corn is then
ttlititbd in the usual manner 'and cultivated
with the fork or Other 'implement, according
Wtm i partieular vieas of the cidtivator.—
oh it is plowed on foiled tor' the last time,
iskiter4sulls• immediately sowed thickly upon
the,fresltly stirred, ground. In ordinary sea
song this readily vegetates, and becomes by
*inter sufficiently advanced to withstand in a
groat measure the • effects of the frost, . I'
would: remark by the. way that limo greatly
contributes to' this result. When the clover
lain blossom 'the following summer a few cat
hut tread down the stalk. Wlthout being fed '
101(310601y the clover is turned down with tho
plow and the groend prepared for wheat.—
A 'littlestable manure, if it dm be procured,
should he applied and turned underbefare orl
at the time of seeding. A repetition of this
Prociies: ice knciw' from practical experience,
will improve the most exhausted eoil.
, Thema° of lime; we arthAPPY to say, has Nl'
Come very oommon in most parte of our County,.
Through its influence, netwithstandiug the
~. ,~ ,~
' ..vVr1 11 611 , ,....4 , ... - - 4 . - t. , ; r... ,7 "" ' •L''!.r..!,, . .-.• . ~: • ... .
4 t i
IF ,f. ', !S I ' ! ) v, v ) ..
t : 11 : ' G. . ii. i.
- ' ,:
Fp' '
. .al ,I
• 4'i' • •:$1
fElat.y;Elitslitiktiteo. ll 4-The Now
York has been inure successful liter) =gee:
ernments usually, are in making adtninis.
trative , depaitments seirsuidsiiiirig.' .11 ap
pear% by. the. GU venocts message, t the
blink department, ii..who4y paid for,tout,or
the vault! of ,the banks. 'railroed
commissioners aro paid Inc ry the railroad
companies. The edhvietast Auburn earn
the expense.of their own inearceration.—.
The emigration commissioners, 'derive
funds, from the purses of the emigrants.—
The salt lurks pay for , their own superin
tendence and extension. The pay :of the
militia comes out fines of their own
delinquents. The canals not only pay ,
for their , own construction and repair. but
Contribute largely to' the revenues td the
"FIXINS "—An impresbiensble Yankee
thus describes his experience'of thti socie
ty of the fair sex : '
A little glove stirs up my heart, as tides stir
up the ocean, ,
A snow•white muslin ? whenitt; wake 3l3 ARY
a curious nott .n, ' • •
All sorts of lady fixins thrills icT feelingt as,
they'd otter,
Bet 'little ibmale gaiter boots ale deatbi'and
.„,pc44B . 4o49statc, • .•.; • ,
•earelesimess and'bungling manner with whieh
we imp it teo often applied, the soil has become
renovated beyond the most sanguine expects
,hon, entertained even by the most visionary
when'the experiment was first made. Fields,
Which, in the recollection of many of us, were
Almost as sterile as the Bands of the Sahara,
'tionuire clothed l ivith ihe richest crops of clo
ver., or'Are capable' of: bearing heavy crops of
the ,tineet wheat. , In, those sections of the
County; marry , of them, 'at least, Where' wheat
was raltinall* holiest & Coe yearn since; it la
nowaunditili *oldie poutsiderable quindity& of
.exeellept quality. Ours is no longer contempto•
oudy called the btrokirhent Ornmit % We caw
pontpete in the market.' ealellet ill , quality of
burpteductietut, with,thestioin ea who w , ere
sicustorned to confider - Selres Ali ' the
' light of the State. l' Oile irs are yearly
increasing , in wealth, and.4athariaFe aolatal
thern,the,comforts and even luxuries of lite.—
. rhea' bekuiltuire`titielditorrilYlii attend to the
odueation of r aheieihildithan liberalioarplog
,a 1 14: Apcoltpillff4 , 9 l ksilgr. d.a.*Oirclunistitnee, that
inuat in turns produce a theft &rend& reflex
Wineries. '' I need"tititn 4006 these •expres--
• sloni;' , by • thrgipainfoi r;adlnOwledguisnt that
still some portions of the County, are, with r
, gard to imprevenieht,liearlket OuiWme point
r they bwereJtwintir-tteer raw ugo.ti These fan;
I 'larlat9F are • bat 6l l,A4 4,i oryliePeareanal l2 4y,.
betxuning fewer.
I fear - 1' harii nheadirVilniusted' your-0-
, tienteottid , w" I but glanoe tit the : third poet qf
Amy. isall e tn a tit CP 'hirt r ll i Nt 1111,"mkoPir:sonTititablii .It
' indefinite ferittlity+ore eintreelyhtiosv the time
' its, although itputa it htuieubtedly, hap, Who
'late John Jacob Astor ts reported to have said
that ttlui'first thatiiiind' "dollars he realised in
his.early,istru k Tleefor whelp, cent him more
thought and
,e rt.thart thtfonillions that, fol
lowed. Se, itraproti'Miell to'its Preienf
conditionn, has pertUtpureqdhed of , the farther
there•Patier4.o ll •PbadYr PO aelf•deilial, than
will ,be reouraitatereattoftoeiteri it forward
to the highest' point' bf feitility'.'' 'We' hare A
ready,ndrabeed suffloidntlyr far to have secured
the, turns of advancing touch farther at plea
sure; Besides," ticimice lb `pally tipenirritout
new treeottreee, if we will ourselves
for understanding. her ,inotructians Jtud lend,
to them an attentive and willing ear. If we
will attend hi ebb PiriPtit ithicatrod °four Nhil- 1
dim in the sciences-beating.upon agriculture,
,knoyr not how, rich alaTi ,ha the Tar a r t . l F l '
gore Cor'cllern even in thiti once cOmparativel y
barren iegidn. • Wlttridi rte l genet pitseieirts+
rat.'rerl ValOabia , fertiliserChfre Amen iSrPrt
duced amongst us. Theprinurpaione of these,
ii - Ilie • "gOane:" ' i Thlil' mlitibre iiiiii 'iffieridy.
done something towardreaderitiworir soili VIP.
lido, and may yet do moisit,tuare.„ Ito pivot
Until the late rise in mutt, 'has been tot, high
to admit. of its:use with l rproti,t. 4141* prevent
prices of grain, bea:ever, pbould,be sustained,
we nifty purchase, witlerideahnige,' thieililitit=
hle article. • The depositai oilgtrane willirkiubt t ,
lean be in tiillie;eoal4494i; but. from , 0, 2 1 t
His, ar,ilicia fertilizers may be prepa o r
IlettrtYerinervrtfuei 'lshiy; every fanner hulls
his poesession the , Puttered for cleft frrtWaafB.i
if he will but,inirilingly apply thcm, rwould,
notice , thirdly, tn spelt:4ft Of our agrittalturftl'
prospects: our *anticspiigt,l#lo o .ljii iw,h „ 4
whon,completed, ti, it aye 4) f ,
kaput,* 5.,,,tr einia...' -41V*IW beteg tui mit '
'hem °Veer' greatlidee ito our -very dome- 1 ; It
Will .enable ue:te export h4t9rthie&l , lOW* h
will'now scarcely irear the exportation, suitas
miuti kinds of trait.' It Will make it profitah 1
We to grow many ibingai not mot North latteet
ding to. Its very presence will in, short tend
to create a trade (di' itself; And in - go doing WM
stimulate togreatur seal' iti . incroasing our pie.
Bent crope t aad Acad.. to the ,tnlnttluotion, of, the
cultivation of others now, at least compare= tivi!dy,'linittiewn.' ',' ' , , , ,•, ,- . . I', I f
Weasels , et Different • NaLleitos.
Tliglithcr‘wiunun of different notions are
differro yin their inentsj,vind 4 iftlietionate
contintution is ap parent to the, most casual
obseivei. They 'Various in tiliq
Curer as arc the olimateeind physica l' char.
aoteristios of the:several amorist of their
nativity. All human beings areindesci,tbq
creatureeof eirounistaces,
deieloping them. Tito folhiwin4 oi the En.
French; and AniroviOW6kbati
is ingenious. and we have no doubt many of
Oni'keidare considti if discriminating
and just "The English %vernal - Is Vei.
speaful wad proud ; the French , womah is
gay and,aud and ; ,; the, Italian, is, pat
sionate ; the Awerioan ., is sincere aid 486'l
eiCate. With an Eligiiiii'manitOqve
a principle ; French it' hi j
with , an .Italian it is a pinion; with an •A 4
merican: it is a sentiment., A mania mar+
rind. town English woman • is united, to a
French;eohaliits, with an Italcoi; and is
wedded tO'an'AlCiriaii., "AnEngli4i.'ivo
maiiiii'intiohe 44 - Ifie loi'd JP' French
woman/ 'a ownpanion,; slur Italian
American 4a husband. ,-.The; English.
man respects hisiady ; the Frimotupitu,;osl
teems his Companion ; tholtalian adonis
his , Inborn's* ; the American loves Cs wife.
The.Englislitowio, night, returns,, to ,his
ii° P s P`t• V ine, t he Fr?n el uim .gm. to
eatablithment:the Della retreat.
eiblifie American' to hishoolit:' When thi
Englislunsaingick 6511.10 visits him ;
French man sick hisoompaulom pities
hint.; ~when in, 4taliin . Y l hivAirtresti
aigha car' him; whqp an Amu:iamb! sick
lie wife' nuisei, him. The English 'woken'
itistruati.her'Plfgjorbig a 'Freuslth`littaiian
teatebbs het. progeny.; Pti"lndittit Tears. her
yotuig, while ~ itar , Arneriona , educates . bar
. .
• .
• . ,!. , , •, • - 1 , .. •..' • i • . o'','• 2 . t . , ".
~ -. - . :11! - „,-, •.,- 7 ii,;,r), .?.,
~ : I ~ , - . , ~ . - :• 1 ''...., /.6 r, „•••,J,7,11,1,•-•,, i,
••• ' • •.• , '2. , ; ' , k.' ,4 ''.'• . 1- i ,, r,r4.4,dvipi
. . .
' •' : • .1 - 1 ...i , ~:-. ~ ,,, . •.,, ft ~,.:....,...;..
. . . ,
. ,
, .
, .
. .
Thu cold winds swept the mountain's heigliti •
And pathless was thu dreary wild,
And 'mid the cheerless hours of night, .
A mother wandered with her child.
As through the drifted snows she pressed,
The babe was sleeping on her breast.
And older still the winds did blow,
And darker bouts of night came on,
And deeper grew the drifts of snow--
Her limbs were chilled, bar strensthwaltOne,
"Hh Hod," she cried, in accents wild,
"If I must perish, save my child I"
Shostripped her mantle from her breast,
And barod her bosom to the storm,,
And mind the child she wrapped the • vest,
And miled to think her babe was warm. ,
'Wilt ono cold kiss, one tear she shod, „ •
And sunk upon' a snowy. bed.. , • ,
,At (limn, a traveller peeled pi t • '•
She lay tisitidath °murky veil ;
TM:tit-oat of death was in'hor'qe, '
j Nei cheek was cold; 'and Imrd, and ' paler
HO' Muted th 6 ro6O,frothrOlf the child •'''
The babe looked np andeirently
.Frorivamew .work, -the Oycloptidie,Of
America:lr Literaturer".lave derire''the
•i; •.• ; • 11
'The tube of 'Yankee Doodle ia said ,to
have been by •a Dr:•Sheekburjr,
tinselled" tO,' the Dititish`ariny;:bl 11155.
when th#':NOTtlierir;t7blon.:
jeminaAlle 4 l, !OP. tif&ini, ' Preo .46l ?,fi io
1 •14 11 9 k of:lite , F l : o 9 o l l .;iP9s.4o.o
and. Fronteneg:,, •The habiliments of these'
recruits-presented . strange contrast to, the. orderly 'ippointments'of the English l
'slid Ake Which:
0. 11 40 11 0 1. 14'
',mood 46,110 knowle ge, comps:
(.4 up ion. , fur idle-new ,comerap whiak be
told'thent ;was An* of the.musa I cretilbratotl,
of•ibode lin nee by the army. Mu great
'itettitleitionilattheißritiih, the provincials
aiieliptea'tfie'gilfitill'oYankee'Dtiodle" be.
e fin ° ll!!l;l l l'Mhs'r th ';'n•
gr.itt!"o ;with Sha c k. "'burg, as it hae been..Aracal ; back ,to Anti
.thutColi Charlie ,L $ ,EnglAn.l.f the
,reigov;nl.l, , find it an ;easy. ace
dotfiptinlinitnt - d little dont an 'a •fa Won,
bf'that dale, Which hie
h' titled pe' pettiated'rr'a'iiuraer tkyine—
n.; , .
,:• ' "h4r foun d
.; - ,
: ;. 104 4 19 q!"' N°o llo 4 it, . ,
801 ‘llO binding r°P"d 14 • , r
Ali ,
later. we Itave. the fi rs t appearance
or , •that'intdoubtable.• parsonage '• Yankee
Dlindlet2' ' , lie- Nemo • even • " the' errly,
of hteii
rp.omnion. town ,
Upon a Kentish.pody; n ,
•,; Hit stuck *feather in hi. hey ,•
, I AM, called, him Idaesnotti.t
It is' net imposeibliyhovitydr, •that Tarp
kee Doodle i may be' ft'OM 'll
son in use;among
10 /..
t r° IIi Pi' , CIPHP,PY;I 4I I 3 .I
1; 0 ',1!0 011 . 1 4,1V 8 1 • 11 1 4 0 /4. rPools 3 r (Or
their work, at much; buttermilk is 7 they:
rat, drink cud daentia lot a g sectored; by
their exertiohs, ha thin burt'eff.-6-
• dwiq'huifet':` ' •
' • ' ' • "
and' Tarither.''"
This volt MIF - ififtgalintihali, ..h'PAIN re
peated kitative of that. country, who
had'oltea•listened. to it at It t'time ; its
hie y o u t h i - .1 . 1 I
I Wect Jr
AssidaWn to semi, ,
Along with capta)a ,
And there we saw the man and boys;
As thick LI tisstY ,Pstdderlitv
CssatiatrrYmOkes.Peodle. keep it op,
Mind the musia . eld tha step,
AndWitti.thOgirfs be Itioldy;
cannot, tie fear, be fazed rvilli acCitiaity
titll,as the tonewas of 11U!?)ler 11 . 111;
may Tisuinod to, Bays been Ptild.
Our copy . of their' Words are from a
hroahetda in a viilleetion,of "Songs,
'sett Atti friim r 'e print
er, and sellartO L lt,ostnn'in lq roarle'by
r6e,yerietiea and
. 411 7
s 'IPII!!n i in ith 'f° frove3i7
slenglieit in rOtor and ,Montt a !lie t'or
teal.' Collections Of New HaniPahlie,
intife from the Boston Post, the
flloiritgiliciilentas an ailditionalevidence
that Xankeetoodle bran
IVhan Kossuth was in., pha l iestow,n,
end r was going up.tlie bill where' the Battle
of Bunker. Hill , was, fought, the band struck
up ,Boodle.!! Ishii: led
remark that this tone was familiar to Hun
garians : for it 'was substantially the Oar
darelf, ilie-hungliian proptilar , dances, and
wit, ;se•ancient lune.- The Hungarians,
however;:have no words set to the tune,
givellAtnown:inerropolititui printer, once
told Wilton 00 , one , oceasiori, no old wom
an froin'th'etohotry came into Ede printing
office with 4n , old , Bible in her baud.
"1. lent," 'midi she, "that' you should
print it over again. It's •gettiug a tootle
bluredi sort- o', and. my oyes isu't what
they was.. , flow much do „you. az
••"Fifty oents." t • •
"Can you butte it done in half an hour?
wish you would; want to bo'gettin' home ?
live good ways out of town."
~When tho old lady went out' ho sent
round to tit° office of the A merit= Bible'
Society and purchased a copy for fifty .
"Los' sakes a !Daisy !" 'exclaimed 'the
old lady; when she mime to look se it, "hots ,
good'you've flied o'ens' moss
good as new ! I never seo &uphill' so'
curious as that printin' is!"
We learn from the Cincinnati Price,
Current of the 1.411) Umtata, that the.
number of bogs packed there..tkia, sea
,oa date. is 80,873." Tnis is an
inarease,of 40,000 bogs over last season.
A Bill' requiring naturlised eiifisene to
paid° two years in the &Moeller nature&
noon ktofore being eptitlod to L ok,votts„ jias
papa! the Bputh Carolina Leculatto.
Au Astirenture •of Jenny Lind.
The Swedish. Nightingale remained,
three weeks in Paris without singing, with.
out speaking tho language, even—such
was her antipathy—and was about to pass
the straits to Dover ? to Meet a London mi
.:lino; tor, being a woman, she was tired
of silence,
fihe had left Paris by railroad, but be
fore crossing the. Channel. she took her
room in the Hotel of tho Port, to•recruit
her strength for her disareoa btu voyage by
a night's rest:. '
The Musicial dilitanti of the eity—Bou.
Joe. Havre, Gallia, it did not appear
.winehe...iere anxious to boar her, and
• thought atfirst of crossing the Chartgel, iu
order 4 enjoy that exquisite voice:Which
liras denied to France and its provinces.
•'' The process was expensive and stupid.
They thought of a better one.
No intoner was the cantatrice installed in
• her apartments than three grave gentlemen
' etitered—aud with att'ilir of authority, and
Sven of , severity, demanded her pass.
P °llB *
• IVstoniehed, but faithful to her vow of
l eilenise 'on the soil of France, Jenny Lind
'banded them the paper,
,Without uttering a
!. The :gentlemen read It with an air, of
distrust,' end then replied with sacrum.
' "Oh I we knew you , have neglected pre
multion,•ind that you' are traveling' under
afictitions name n'''
.:For whom do you take me, thee r' de:
mantled Jenny Lied, to tircak . ai-
~ Du not at tempt to impose on us ma.
Amo. .You abaft see that we are well in
formed. ' intrigante of assumed rank
has just tied from Paris ; ; Acre 'bhe' baa
made gambol -less dupes "and is now at.
tempting to escape to 11egland.",
"Oct you suppose, pen:mimeo-7
“That you are the woman.
features aind person correspond with our
description. Our instruotionsare precise!"
Indignant and 'perplexed, the songstress
broke out,into , tu
earnest reonstrutuie, which
,were.replied cold irony. lied elio
Buy witnesses , None. Could she ,givo
bhil 7. She know no one.. Then it would
be necessary to Luke custody of her person.
:A'threat so ulartningdrew out a new Willey
rettinStrances, which were repeated;
until lust, the spokesman of the three
'Well, madame, there, is one method of
'proving your. identity, You preter.d to be .
Jonuy Lind. Thorn is no' ueed of bail or
nititituess. You' bear with yau the untnis
takiiblo evidouca Of your ideutity.' Ncith
inoa Osier, for you , than to givu r radf of .
yo,ur . irptidroue talent. your 'n_w If voice
will pronounce your acquittal. ; 1 um uly
tour soosuodta tuusiuis... , ..ue 6,7 IRS iu,tion
coon , r 6 'good judge." • •
'Thil'artial'hasitated and Was confused:
"EnOugh' of that, nunkuie ;'your assir
ilk* aro disitpPrOvcd' bj , your
gixnao situplo,u,proof. , We AtuA execute
Wel I," exclaimed the songstress, fsine;
I unisti dO It,. !ilium &adjudge." .‘:
Arid after a litiese,; in !which She , tialnied
herself. she burst forth with the mtvativa'
froth She wig' with itl 1, the
Deo of her ma entries voice. e roe
gentleuten listened. ip ,eesteey.
ABravot It isadmireble; it issubli Mel"
they cried, tut , it closed.
, Adrnirsble ! sublitue!" echoed tunny
sitibeit in the ante•cluituber, where semis!
hailsathered to await dm ohaticio of tile Ox
potitnePtl . •
• We want not translate the atory farther,
nor tell bow gracefully and eloquently the
guilty 'authors of the imposition begged
pardon'. setting forth that their longing to
hest that voice had en wrought'upou their
nti ede :that they had 6Si:ntie deeper'ato; and
bowgracetully the 13)vedielt niiilitittgaln for
gave them. We kali'? all ihat,tu the • int r
aginations of the readers.
'o S' • 'j'E;
, TOR, Pitt.C.l O.IC
was!onim ni"eirt" on the it tuusp. A double
barrelled throat 111111 Jungs,ms large. Da a
gel& Nisbet baskets enabled him to.eleetri-
fy, his:conatitoenta np to •a fighting point
in. lese lime, would than it would•take for
a eiteiveliaatiali raft ta 'go' ever , N iagara ,
Fella. Me' greet ;speech' 'delivered hi
006 Stubb'ttett acre let,watt, erueher..,—
For the sake of paten.) , we give an ex.
might: jiat
try In pry atp the A . thintiti . ocean
with a
,broom straw,. or, draw,,th'Ore
atonic from. tinder is
my feet., witb;a:harnes,
nd gatt-fly. ea ,to convince .bat, I ain't
gwine to be elected this heat. MY oppo
nent don't stand a chance—n ot a via,—
Why he ain't as intellectual ate common
.Fellers: I am a hull team
with two bull dogs under the wagon and
a tit bucket—l am.' II there's anY body
thii,sidc'ef 'what. the 'suit begins to blister '
the earth that kin wallop me, !et liiui,show,
hinlvelfem ready. , Boy's,l' go in fur
the Arnerican Eagle—claws, stars. stripes
and all, and may I burst my everlastin"
button' boles, ell don't knock down,'drag
out,alid gouge 'everybody "as deniee it."
..L iv rather a curious incident that.whea
the Americans sent Dr. Franklin, a printer.
as-minister France, the Cenirl of Vete;
sailles.sent : M. Girirtl,. a hook-binaer,
minister to Contrails. When Dr. Frank,
hn heard:4, it-' Well," :Raid 'he, ..I'll
print the hitlepeneenee o f A mer i c a• an d
M. Girard will bind it.l!
Foun Gooti Mutits.—There were four
habits 'a wise and goad 1:1111u earnestly re
cerontende,d in his eouusels and also by his
own example and which he cowidered es
sentially necessary for the itmongeteent of
temporal centered. These are punctual
ity., accuracy, steadiness, and despakir...—
'ithout the first of these time is wasted
vriteout the second mistakes the most hurt
ful to our own credit and interest and that
of others way be comatitted ; without the
fourth opporttinitias of great advantage are
194 which it, is impotisible to rea c h: , I
The total, mutter of doathe inyhtia o k;
phia lut year was 19,686 ; Daltintefe; too
475 ; Iltmt,ol3 ! 4,0:174,
111111IBER 41 .
'The , following is the special ,tnessalps Sif ! .
Preiddent Pierce, eommunleetedtabethilofiesit
or Congress on Thursday: - • '. ' ss''',
gb The Senate and House of lilitatakitivi Li. •
Circumstances heves (teethed to d6iiirb"tl69 / 7 '
course of govertiniental,orgenisiition - in OM/ s'
Territory of Kansas, and'prodneelliete Jetta , t
dition of things' which renders II ibetitubent bit
mu to call yuer:attehtion( to the' subject, ands s'
urgently to recommend the adoption by you. ,
of such measures eflegislatitie as oa
thefsef 's
ex- g
ige ncics of case appear to require.' .. '' "
A brief - exposition' of 'the circumststediesr ''
referred to, and of their causes, will besneetasery''
to the full undendiutding ef tha reboet reenlist:. >'
dons - which it isspropesed to submit. . +::+',:
' .
The net to'ergaerze'the TerritoriessofNebres--
ka and Kansas was 'amenifestation of the hi- s;
gislative opinion of Congress on two greet seine ss '
of constitutional construction •• one, thist the '''s
designation of the bouederieSofe; - new Torritch , 1 +
ry, and provision* fins itti political Organization -.•
as a Territory, muffled/311rd Which, tifright, , frills .
wit nn the powers of the' eneral gevernmetit;
an the other, that the inhabitants of any snelts"ss.
Territory, sconsideted us an slneohotibi 'State s ss s
are entitled, in the exercise Of self gcivernmenti ' .ss
to deter:see what Skill be their 'own dcnneititle
institutions, *abject only to this constitution•
and laws duly enacted by Congeal; under itis • s
and to the power. of 'existing State:este decides '• ss
according to the provisions and print:tiptoes:o '^
the Constitution •at what time" the• Territory' t '
shall be received as a State into tf eitnion.Lss , :1
Such fire the great petit:cal rights :which' are ' '.'
solemnly - declared and nflirined by that act. { `•':' ' • .'
llaseduptin this theory, the act -of .Congreals
defined for 'omit territory. the outline:sof repub• s
lican government, distributing Publics s anthnri , - s
ty uniting lewfully , createds tigeutssuestetititivei
judicial 'Mid legislative—to be appointed either`' s's
by tire general government Or by - the territelyis ''•
The legislative functions were 'nth:Med sta. ii. s' '
counciland ' s:'house 'of representative*. duly'' ••
•electedstied'Oriliewered to settees ,alh s thes'l6cal /,,-.'
tan's Which' hey might deem essential to s. .:
'prosperity, happiness and good goy ' ' ~'' ,
Acting in the seine spirit, essingrirse alas . - 'st i s
ed the pc:Mond - Who swereintith first instance id * . P. ,
be considered as the people of taeldtetritotysas'et.
enacting-that every five white , male inhibitialii. '
of the same ;the •es the age ottwentystutayesolks
Ibeing au netted resident thereof, and poss- st t'no.
ing the qualifications 'hereafter deseribidikt ts
,s should sbd entitled los vote at the first eleetidatl'i
' and be eligible td hey °flied within': the territe-ps -,
ry, buts•that the. , qualifications of sttottiriaistrol.l
holding office at all subsequenteleetioneshilfildtl ;s•
be sifeli'etitilight bapreseribedtsbystlie lagislielt •
tire' asSumbly ; ' peovidod, bdirever, that-tho'
right of suffrage dad of holding 'dflietridtelld;si l's'
be exereised toily` by . citizens 'olthevilnitedl - s'ss
- States, - and those who should have del:Pared on:s..,
midi their intention to become such, and fumes • .
taken an oath tosupport the eenstitutionsofthe
UniteirStatea end the provisions of the act; •
'and Prdvided; further, that .no 'officer, soldier,.
'seaman or Marine; or other person inthe army .
Or navy of the United States, or attach ea' ta- s
troops'in theft- service, - should be; allowed 40 ' '
hold ' offide in +either territory bysreasonsofs tie.. • I
big en dervicatherein, , .1:1 11 I. Z.,
Such:sof the eriblic officers s of the Terrildries.. ~
as; bvs the provisions or me act, - were •TabOap.. , •
'poifiihdliythegeneralgovernment,inelndlugthe s
t Drumm's,. were appointed and seommissionid s s
.fn due senitten s; sthe raw having been enacted on
the 30th 'of lino 1854, nod' he eommlssioteet. s.
the governor of. the Territory of sNebrualnyvhel 's•
singdatedenthe '2(l day ofAugust, 48545, niad ef- •
I the 'Territory' of Kansas on the 20tbdityide
'June, ' 1854.. s's .' s . s:'; .:s - i s 1.,,, t:4ti ~ •
Among the duties imposed. b 7 the ant seethe. '
'governors Was that sof directing •tied,sipert, • .s;
intending the'political -organization ethane. .
pective Territories.... The governor SitsKanale
Was required to causes consuls or enumeration s.
'of the' sinhabitanti and qualified voterased the . t
several, eateries arid districts of the Territory ~,
to be taken by flitch pebsons and in sash wades. s '
es hamight designate and appoint ;to appoint t .
and direct the timaaud placceof holding then.. •
first elettions; and the 'manner of coluleetisig. ,
. them; both assn the persons: to superintend •
such elections and the returns thereat). toll*
clam the number of members of, the .well
end' Kelso sof representative* for isaebetedilyint; s
district; to:declare what persons might appose
to bes duly elected;: and to appoint ':the:time •
sand place of the first meeting of the legialative
assembly. Ins substance, the same duties dee •
'volved on the governor of Nebraska. , ',. , •
s • While by this act, 'the principle of.constita.•. •
tion for'each of the' territories ants ono - and:the • •
aante, and the details of organic LegislatiosCre,,
garding both wore us nearlyes could he identi•
cal, and. while the territory ef..Nubmslez ,may ;
tranquilly and successfully, orgauised .its ; the ,
drw course of law, and its, find legbdetive as, ,
ttembly mot ou the 16th ofJolutorh, /8 5 ,5 t the , ,
urgent...mien of Kansas was long deleyed,,aud .
has beau attended with, serious ditlieulties,and ,
embarrassments, partly the , conseeltellmOrYlct! .
mat-administration : arid, partly of the unsnfit
liable interibreuce or the inhabitants of some
of the..thates foreign by resulpnce, intem4
' and rights to the territory . . l_ ,, •
s' Thu Governor per the. Territory pflistesfut, ,-
commissioned, as before -stated, UN the *9tb,..,ut '
June, 1854, did not reach the designated ttit4
of his government, until .the ,7thof theinsping . .
October; and even then foliar° ,nialds ~ tho.
first step in its legal organization- 7 -01g stf:ttrr
dering the, census ckr eitranerntion of 441 . 44...
itants--until so late a day that th%eicclPP
ih, members of the, legislative assembly .4i '
nut teke place until the,:4oth of ,Idarch; /SW.
nor its, meeting until the - 24,ef sTuly s ...104,-,7 . .
So SittlssfOr la
the act e o ffi cers, ef'Sl9 territory rl„,, 11 eCill';.
stituted by act of uongress Sue o ffi cers, .
to be appointed by the federal Executive-, had ' ''
been commissioned, it was without a cupplefie.,,,
government, without arty: legislative Author ~
,without ;oust law, and of course without
t, , .
ordinary guarantees of pbacu and puhlis . ar,
r i e
le ether respects the
. governer, ingef4 of
exereisingconstant yigilancaand putting 1014 '
all iris energies ty , prevent or ,ceenterect Op '
yidencle.s to illegality, which, nre,prOfili i to'47- ''" •
ist in 'all imperfectly -organized and 'bowline*, ,
gemmed connueuities, allowed.liin'atitiffen to
be diverted from of fi cia l obligation y` ether ' '
objects, and himself set an example - of the AO-
latiou of Jaw iu the, perforguinrn oteets *lo' ' ,
rendered it my duty, in the sequel, to 'Mind*: 'l
hint AVM the Oct; , of, chief fiXescuti;M' o n . , , ;;;,
tifite of the Territ?ry, . - ' „. •
Peforu the nisitsith preppititieti'mdfliiieli ' 1 ,.,; ,,
plished for elective of a territorial legil4' '•,
4 .
an election or deleglo:6 Cefigreas • hid bib ', - ;, , si,
held in the .Territory Tithe '29t11 deitiflriki",
readier; 1854, rind the Aeleiittielriek Witslit''' 1
bl i the HOU3C of'ltepresefibitives wit itted elnity'"
lenge." If arrang,einent.4 had beets perfected ""
by the gev6itoi so that the elettkin flirldefo.' l
beta of the legislattive,ussembtruright - be tolir'''
in the several preciect,s tit the taint titneffe'ine''''
delegate to Congress, an? question appertains:,
ing to the quell titatictun attut ponamayttdulfgasss'
people or the !ferrite'? wee*, have passed usr,, ;-
ecssarily. and lit anee useless. de Auwiiiimior:
Congress, ad thin judge cities ire of '..,-,
,return of the delegete, sad would haw hem, .I
determined bediee ietia Ktpsteiwtl been 1
teen:Lithe:nett by time, and linibletwortimitrf 7
could have betas. &bided firewystentatalisalefese -
roluoa of the pkole.ciruidiridual &meg i , --,.. , 4 , ..?.
Tithe I:stage:6oN in .10'(iseititesdoldelil Mito ,•;
14440.37 - 41fillheifs.ndinmedietesssesaisto bb b o llbe ,
was:one see she iliiikruill. ol4l ek.
Ilif i leltkal 11640111114001041111' ~.17.
CO/Ored - n U!
ana•htig• 1 4•1 11 4P4 4 ,4 11 1,E 48 1 11 , 1 1"
• r! '••• .• .)+ .•-:,-.•-•‘ •Irl •tt it +sole - Arms es- h.