The star of the north. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1849-1866, May 20, 1857, Image 1

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R. W. Weaver, Proprietor.]
OFFICE —Upstairs, in the new brick build
ing, on the south side oj Main Street, third
tquare below Market.
V EH BI S :—Two Dollars per annum, if
paid within six months from the lime of sub
scribing ; two dollars and fifty cents if not
paid within the year. No subscription re
ceived for a less period than six months; no
discontinuance permitted until all arrearages
are paid, unless at the option of the editor.
ADVERTISEMENTS not exceeding one square
will be inserted three times for One Dollar,
and twenty-five cents for each additional in
seition. A liberal discount will be made to
those who advertise by the year.
(Cl)oicc yoc tr j.
A fig for your upper-fen girls,
With their velvets and satins and laces,
Their diamonds and rubies aud psarls,
And their milliner figures and [gees;
They may shine at a patty or ball,
Emblazoned with half they possess,
But give me in place of them all,
Jdy girl with the calico dress.
She is plump as a partridge, and fair
As the rose in its earliest bloom,
Her teeth will with ivory compare.
And her breath with the clover perfume.
Her step is as free and as light
As the fawn's whom the hunters hard press,
And ber eye is as soft and as bright,
My girl with the calico dress.
Your dandies and foplings may sneer,
At Iter simple and modest attire,
But the charms she permits to appear,
Would set a whole iceburg on fire.
She can dance, but she never allows
Tiie hugging, the squeeze and caress,
She is saving all these for her spouse,
My girl with the calico dress.
She is cheerful, warm-hearted and true,
And kind to ber father and mother,
She studies how much she can do
For her sweet little sisters and brother.
If you want a companion tor life,'
To comfoil, enliven and bless,
She is just the right sort for a Wife,
My girl with the calico dr4l.
It was an ardent boyish love,
That faded out as life grew older,
My heart flew to her like a dove,
And lighted on her beauteous shoulder.
Or sipped the honey of her lips,
Or in tier eye found heavenly graces,
1 loved her to her finger tips—
-1 loved tier very foot-prim trace*
Her features wore a rapinrotts cltßrm,
Her smile made pII within me flutter,
A rounded beanty was her arm,
Her little hand was fat as butter.
No wonder thai I loved her so,
But she was false as she was prelty,
And soon she sacked her little beau,
And took a big one from the city.
I caught him out one gloomy night—
'Twas one of love's exliemest phases—
I aggravated liirn to fight,
But oh, he larruped me like blazes!
GOOD DOCTRINE.— Have you enemies! Go
straight in and mind them not. If they block
up your path, walk around them, regardless
of their spite. A man who has no euemies
is seldom good for anything—be is made of
that kind of material whioh is so easily
worked that every one has a hand in it'. A
sterling character—one who thinks for him
self and 6peaks what he thinks, is always
sure to have enemies; Tney are as neces
sary to bim as fresh air; they keep him alive
and active. A celebrated character, who
was surrounded by enemies used to remark,
"They ate Sparks, which, if you do not blow,
they will go out of themselves." Let this
be your feeling while endeavoring to live
down the scandal of those who are bitter
against you. If you stop to dispute, you do
buf as they desire, and open tbe way for
more abuse. Let the poor fellows talk; there
will be a reaction, if you perform but your
duty, and hundreds who were once alienated
from you will flock to you and acknowledge
their error.
duces cold in several way*. The act o( blow
ing implies the descent upon and motion
over the earth, of colder sir, to occupy tbe
room of that whtoh U displaces. It also in
crease* the evaporation of moisture from tbe
•artb, and thus conveys away considerable
beat. This increased evaporation, and the
mixture of warm and cold ail, uaually pro
duce a condensation of vapors in tbe atmos
phere-, heno* the formation of oloods, and
tbe consequent detention of tbe heat brought
by the rays of the sun. And whenever the
air io motion is colder than the earth, or any
bodies with which it cornea in contact, a
portion of their heat is imparted to the air.
Wet CIATHES— Neglect of changing their
clothes, when wet, is a great source of dis
order among men. To remain In wet clothes
tyvhen thd body is at reel, subjects tbe petaon
who is so imprudent to the united bad effeets
of cold and moisture. Much worse conse
quences, however, may be expected, when
they are heated by labor and lie down to
sleep, as people often do in Ihein wet clothee.
The diminished force of tbe circulation and
otljer powers of life, which always take
plied during sleep, causes tbe bed effects of
hold fo operate with much greater danger to
health and life.
• r p ew persons cars to wake at night
and to feci a large spider crawling over their
laces. Yet malty will carry a favorite viae
in their hearts without feeling the least
alarm. .
In the Quarter Sessions of Chester County
Jacob Fox was recently tried for assault and
battery under such circumstances as made
the case of general interest. The esse grew
out of the great snow storm of last January,
aod defines the rights and responsibilities of
land owners, supervisors and the travelling
public in cases of a temporary obstruction
of the public highway. The following is the
charge of Judge Haines :
This cae presents peculiar circumstances
for (he consideration of the Court and Jury.
On the 17th and !Bih days of January last, |
a snow storm began and continued, which,
in many places, rendered the public high
ways utterly impassable. The public pass
ages were filled, the fences in numerous in
stances were thrown down, and the travel,
leaving tbe public thoroughfares, took to the
fields and enclosures of private individuals.
Among other instances of the kind here men
tioned, was one in Upper Oxford in this
county, along and through tbe land of the
Defendant. Here, for the distance of some
half a mile, the public highway was filled to
the depth of six feel, rendered utterly im
passable,—and the fences of tho defendant
were thrown down, his enclosures laid open,
and bis fields were traveled over by the pub- j
lio. How long this state of thiogs continued I
is not definitely settled, but a day or two be- |
fore the time of the conflict between these j
parties, Mr. Fox having collected a large ;
number ol men, commenced to open the ;
road along the line of his property, and sue-1
ceeded in making n passage of six feet wide j
through the snow embankment here noticed.
He also put up his fence to prevent the travel
across his fields, and to turn it again into its
proper channel. Matters stood in this way
until the 30lh day of January last, when the
prosecutor, Joseph Walton, drove up to the
mouth of the opening in the snow, with his
wife and child in a sleigh. At the time of
his arrival, "the canal," as it has been called,
was filled with a drove of cattle, with sleighs
impeded in their passage, and with a broken
sled, and remained lor the space of half an
hour in that condition. 1 mention this fact,
not because the rights of paities were affect
ed thereby, for these impediments would not
give to "Mr. Walton airy rights over the prop- ;
erty of Mr. Fox, —but to in fur m you that, in ]
the opinion of the Court, they do not alter
the question to be determined. Whether
they had an effect upon the mind of Mr.
Walton, determining him to persist in going
t?K>ugt the#rei<r, may Do a nntfei y.ijnr.ore
doubt. Having determined to cross the en
closures of the defendant, Mr. Walton, with
the assistance of Mr. (loss, proceeded to pull
down the fence. At that moment, Mr. Fox,
who had previously shouted at tliem, arrived
with a shovel in his baud, and stationed
himself in the breach they had made, and
bade thern not to attempt to enter. Mr.
Walton had his horse by the head, and was
! in the act of leading him into the opening,
when Mr. Fox struck the horse on the head,
and Mr. Walton thereupon desisted Irom his
attempt to enter the close of the defendant.
1 I do not mean to speak of the evidence on
| this point.—it is somewhat Contradictory—
and it is your duly, not mine, to examine
and to weigh it.
The parties having met as I have stated,
the one determined to enter the grounds of
the defendant, and the other resolved to pre
vent the entry—it becomes necessary to ex
amine the rights of the prosecutor and de
fendant, and the principles of lew which
should rule the issue according to the evi
dence. I will not examine in regard to the
assault and battery. You have beard it com
mented upon at the bar, and it is enough for
rce to say that if the evidence of the prose
cutor is believed, an assault aud battery ia
sufficiently proved, unless the rights of the
defendaul justify it. What, then, were (be
rights of those individuals! By the Act of i
the General Assembly of this Common
wealth, passed 13th day of June, 1836, the
supervisors of (be different townships have
large and iraportaot duties imposed upon
them, and is therein provided that "Publio
roads and highways laid out, approved and
entered of record, shall, as soon as may be
practicable, be effectually opened, and con
stantly kept in repair, and all publio roads or
highways, made or to be made, shall, at all
seasons, be kept clear of all impediments to
easy and convenient passing and travelling,
at lite expense of (he respective township
as the law directs." It will be seen by this
provision, that the supervisors of the town
ship of Upper Oxford were, on this occasion
alluded to, neglectful of their duties, and if
complained of, would have been punished in
the Court of Quarter Sessions of the county,
for gross neglect of their official duties.—
They should have removed, at the earliest
possible moment, all the impediment! in the
public highways, and have made the differ
ent passages easy and convenient. They
neglected to perform the duties assigned
them, and tliia prosecution is the result of
(hat neglect- The rights of the parties, how
ever, are not affected by the mistessance of
the supervisors, and it still remains for us to
examine these rights. 1 meet this case, with
tbe more pleasure, inasmuch as publio opin
ion is unsettled ou the subject, aud erroneous
views ere entertaieed as to lbs right involved
io the issue.
The right of Mr. Fox to the peaceable and
uninterrupted enjoyment of his possessions,
is the same as that of every individual in tbe
State. No man can molesthim, in bis booses
or lands, withoutbeeomiog at once a trespas
ser, aod liable to the punishment due to
such offences. The law even gives him the
right to oppose the trespasser, aod to eject
him from his premises, and authorizes tbe
exerciso of sufficient force for lhal purpose. |
If Mr. Fox, standing on bis own ground, bad ,
seen Mr. Walton wantonly tear down bis |
fence, open a passtge, and make an attempt
to enter bis enclosure, be would have bad
the right to resist that attempt, with a lorce
sufficient to prevent it. This is tbe law in
relation to the rights of property, and no
prosecution for an assault, or an assault and
battery, could be maintained against the
owner or possessor of land under such cir
cumstance. There are, however, occasions
when private rights are required to give way
to large public interests. No man is secure
in his possessions against the right, coupled
with the necessity of the public to make
roads or highways, through and over the
premises. Ha holds his fee-simple title to
his real estate, subject to tbe OYsr-rijling right
of the publio in cases ot absolute necessity
for the public welfare. In cases of impera
tive necessity—as in the march of an army
to repel a foe—in the progress of the civil
force of a country to suppress a dangerous
mob—in the risk of the citizens to assist in
extinguishing a spreading fire—no one, I
presume, will doubt that the exigency of the
public interest would override private rights,
and would authorize, where the highway was
rendered impassable, the pulling down of
fences, and entering of enclosures, even
against the command of the owner of the
premises. It is indeed a question of nicer
balance to say, whether the ordinary public
business of the community, will justify a
simple invasion of private rights under sim
ilar circumstances of impassable highways.
A careful examination of the principles of
law applicable to such cases, together with a
reference to decisions bearing on the subject,
has induced me to answer in the affirmative.
I am of the opinion, and lay it down an tbe
law, that where a public highway is wholly
impassable, as in the case of the storm in
January last, the citizens hare the right to
enter an adjoining close and tnake therein a
temporary way, for the transaction of the or
dinary business of the community. This
opinion is sustained by docisions of the En
glish Courts so long back as the second
Charles, and corning up to a recent period.—
In one case I have before me, it is stated
that "if a way be so foul as is not passable,
I may then justify the going over another
man's close next adjoining." In a tredtise
on the obstruction of highways found in tbe
Law Library, it is said, "With respect to a
' highway, it seems to be quite clear that if
"there be any obstruction, the passengers
arn-Hsgo IV r taint
"remove any illegal, improper, or inconveni
"ent interruption, but if the ordicary (rack
"be so dangerous as to compel them to leave
"the road, they may go extra viam, passing
"as nearly to the original way as possible."
Lord Maosfield, in the case of Taylor vs.
Whitehead, after speaking of private ways,
lays down tbe same principle in these words:
"Highways are governed by a different prin
ciple. They are for the publio service, and
"if the usual track is impassable, it is for the
"general good that people should bs entitled
"to pass in another line." These decisions
have never been overruled. It is unfortun
ate, perhaps, that the Supreme Court of ibis
State, when the question was fairly before
them, in the csss of Holden vs. Cole, did
not definitely determine the rights of parlies
in relation to '.his issue; but in that case it is
quite clear they decided nothing adverse to
the principle above laid down. It was there
determined, as it has been by repealed de
cisions in this Stale, that where supervisors
have opened a road or highway, even upon
ground where it was not located, they have
I no authority to re-locate it, in order to place
it on what might be supposed its recorded
site. "The authority," says tbe court, "on
"der an order to open, is exhausted by the
"action of those to whom i| is directed, and
"cannot be resumed. The road once laid
"cannot be altered except by a new and an
| "original proceeding according to the road
I "law." The court further say that ths super
| visors have no authority even cn the ground
of suddeo necessity, to open a route for tbe
public, through private property, till a road
can be regularly laid out; but they refuse to
| aver that the rights of individuals are restrain
ed in the same manner. On the contrary,
where the Judge below expressed the opinion
in bis charge to tbe Jury, that where a publio
road ahould become impassable, the owner
of the land adjoining would have to submit
to temporary ioconvenienoe, for tbe benefit
of the public, the Supreme Court simply
withhold their opinion on the point, without
any disaffirmance of the decision below.
You will see, from these observations,
that bad the road in quettiou been blocked
up when this controversy occurred, in tbe
way it was left by the storm of the 18lh of
January, Mr. Wilson would have had the
right to pull down the fence of Mr. Fox and
to have entered the close to pass round the
obstruction in the highway. Enjoying Ibis
right as a case of necessity, Mr. Fox could
r.oi legally bsve intercepted him, and would
have been guilty of an assault and battery if
he had used force 'o pievem him. Tba abso
lute necessity of the case would have chang
ed the rights of the parties. Here, however,
the ease assumes a new aspect. Mr. Fox
had been laboring to open the road for sev
eral daye, and had succeeded in cutting a
passage through the snow bupK, through
which several sleighs bad passed wbeu Mr.
Wsllou arrived. The temporary blocking up
of the way wag thus opened, by a broken sled,
and by a drove of cattle, at the arrival of tbe
prosecutor, did not authorize bim to tea:
down tba fence and force a way through die
defendant, if the road was then otherwise
passable. He might have waited and did
wait, till those who then occupied tbe pes-
Trnth and BUM
sage bad gotten.through; end hp would not
have been justified in tearing down the fence
of the defendant on that account. The ques
tion will then present itself to you for detet
minatioi. Was that plaoe passable or was
it not 1 You will remember that it is not ev
ery impediment in a road—every gutter which
an unskilful driver dknnol avoid—that will
give hint the right to enter on the adjoining
land. There must be an actual necessity for
the safely of travellers, before the right to
enter an enolosure attaches. If this necessity
existed at that place, from the character of
the public thoroughfare, then Mr. Walton
had the right to tear down the fence and
make a passage for himself, on the land of
Mr. Fox. If no neoessity existed, he had
no right on the ground of the defendant.
, Admitting, however, tip. Mr. Wahon had
no right to enter the closed the defendant,
a question has been raised, whether Mr.
Fox did not use more force than was neces
sary.te repel him ? This, abo, is a question
for you. The law on this point is—a man
may justify an assault and battery in defence
of bis lands or goods. Unites the trespass
is accompanied with violence, the owner of
the land will not be justified in assaulting the
trespasser in the first but should re
quest him to depart, and, if he refuses,
should gently Jay hands on him, and, if be
resist, force may be used to expel him. It
will be for the Jury to say—other circum
stances not interfering—whether the tearing
down ofthe fence was or was not such an
act of violence as would justify the force
used by the defendant.
These observations havg been thrown to
gether in the course of the trial and are not
in such form as a give them;
but thsy contain the principles of law appli
cable to'.the case, leaving to your judgment
the application of the facts and the determi
nation of the guilt or innocence of the de
The Jury in this case rendered a verdict in
favor ol the defendant and directed the pros
ecutor to pay the costs.
A Spendthrift Election.
A Lopdon correspondent of the National
Intelligencer, alluding to the recent elections
throughout Great Britain, says that.a great
improvement has taken place witbiu the \ao
half century. He says that in 1768, a contest
look place which was known as the spend
thrift election. The polling lasted for fourteen
days, and the candidates were f.ord Halifax,
Northampton and Spencer, ,Iu proof of the
number of real electors did not exceed 930,
rio fewer than 1149 persons voted. The al
most princely mansions of Horton, Caslle-
Asbby, and Allhrope, were thrown open to
all voters, and when the cellars at Horton
were drained of all the old port, and Lord
Halifax had to place bis claret befote the ca
rourers,they declared they would never vole
for a man who gave them sour port, and went
over in a body to Lord Northampton at Castle-
Ashby I The election was referred to a scru
tiny of the House of Commons; the inquiry
lasted for six weeks, during which sixty cov
ers were dtily laid at Spencer House for
members, whose names were taken down
each day. It tesulted in the number of votes
being declared equal, and was finally decided
by s toss —Lord Spencer winning and nomi
nating the member. The election cost Lord
Spencer £lOO,OOO, and each of the other lords
£lso,ooo—almost incredible sums, when
they are doubled, to express their present val
ue; about $4,000,000, representing the total
expenditures in money of this day Lord
Halifax never recovered the blow. Lord
Northampton cut down bis trees, sold hit fur
niture, and went abroad for the rest of his
life, dying in Switzerland. There is a sealed
box at Castle-Asbby marked "Eletiion Pa
pers," which no one of '.be present genera
tion has had the courage to open. This, we
are aware, is an extreme case; but we have
known others which have approached it even
since 1800.
The Last Rat Tale.
A gentleman on the Bay informed ns yes
terday that in order to destroy tbe number of
rats on his premises, be was in the habit of
placing a templing bait,t9. the yard, and on
seeing ■ good crowd of "varmints" 'around
it, woolj shoot them down from*convenient
egpt. As the rats began to get shy of the
common bait, be procured a flask of sweet
almond oil, and bnried it in a hole in the yard,
with only the mouth nncorked above the lev
el. The rata conld not resist the temptiog
flavor of the oil, so they came with a great
rush, and not a few fared badly.
Yesterday morning the gentleman saw two
patriarchal looking rata oogitating over the
oil flask, how to get a taste of the loseous ar
ticle within.
After examining all around, one of them
brightened up with an idea. He inserted bis
long tail into the oil flask, and when it was
well moistened with tbe sweet oil, draw it out
and permitted hie friend to lick it.
On (be principle tkat one good torn deserves
another, rat numbar two inserted bis dorsal
elongation into thooll flask, and allowed rat
number one to enjoy tbe feast. This in-tailing
process was kept amieably for some lime, i
liH tat number two, who wae evidently a
gourmand, instead of confining himself to
linking bis friend's oaudal appendage, actu
ally bit I " Whereupon," to use oat inform
ant's language, "thsy had a fight, sir, such
as .has not been equalled eioca that of Took
Hyer and Yankee buliivaa."— Savanmk
ST Pride breakfasted with Plenty, dined
with Poverty, and supped with Infamy. !
Lieut. Maury, in an article oommunicated
to the Rural New Yorker, maintains that the
growing of sun flowers around a dwelling
located near a fever and ague region, neu
tralizes the mitsma in which that disease
originates. He was led to make an experi
ment by the following circumetences:
The dwelling of tbe Superintendent of tbe
Observatory at Washington, is situated on a
hill, on the left bank of the Potomac, in lat.
38° 39' 53". It is 94 feet ebove low water
mark, and about 400 yards from the river.—
The grounds pertaining to it, about 17 acres,
are enclosed by a wall on the East, Sooth and
West, and with a picket fence on the North.
The South aod West walls run parallel with
the river, tbe Chesapeake and Ohio Canal,
and a row of *Jcamores, of some 20 years
growth, aeparating the wall from the river. I
la fact, tbe river, with its marshes, encircles
about half of the grounds. The house is,
therefore, in the bend of the river, and the
place is so unhealthy that tbe family of the
Superintendent are compelled to vacate it
five month* out of the twelve, the marshes
being covered with a rank growth of grass
and weeds, which begin to decay early in
August. A knowledge of these facta led
Lieut. Maury's mind to the followiag process
of reasoning:
"If it be the decay of the vegetable matter
on the marshes that produces the sickness
on the hill, then Ihe sickness must be owing j
to Ihe deleterious effect of some gas, miasma
oreffluviotn, that is set free during the de
composition, and if so, the poisonous matter,
or the basis of it, whatever it be, must hare
been elaborated daring the growth of the
weeds, and set free in their decay. Now, if
this reasoning be good, why might we not,
by planting other vegetable matter between
us and the marshes, and by bringing it into
vigorous growth just about the time that that
of the marshes begins to decay, bring freak j
forces to (be vegetable kingdom again to play
upon this poisonous matter, and elaborate it {
again into vegetable tissue, and so purify the
air! |
"This reasoning appeared plausible enough j
to justify the trouble and expense of experi
ment, and I was encouraged to expeet more
or less success from it, in the circumstance
that everybody said, 'plant trees between
you and the marshes—they will keep off the
chills.' But as to the trees, it so happens
that at the very time when the decomposition
on the ow-rshes issuing on most rapidly, the
J;.ul # .feppaa Uuir
growth to prepare for the winter; and though
trees might do some good, yet a rank growth
of something got up for the occasion, might
do more. Hops climb high; they are good
absorbents, and of a rank growth, but there
were objections to hops on account of stakes,
poles, &o. I recollected that J had often
seen sun flowers growicg about tbe cabins in
the West, und had heard, in explanation, (bat
it WHS 'healthy' to have them. This was ao
much more in favor of making the experi
ment with sun flowers."
Lieut. Maury says that an acre of sun
flowers will absorb during their growth many
thonsand gallons of water more than are
supplied by the rains. They are of easy
cultivation, and the seeds, which are very
valuable, flod a ready market at tho drug
stores. The theory or science of the experi
ment is this: The ague and fever poison is
set free during the process of vegetable de
cay, which poison ia absorbed by the rank
growing son flower, again elaborated into
vegetable matter, and so retained until cold
weather sets in. The result of the experi
ment is thus narrated;
"Finally, I resolved to make the experi
ment at the risk of spoiling the looks of a
beautiful lawn. Accordingly, in tbe fall of
1855, the gardener trenched up to the depth
of 2} feel a belt about 43 feet broad around
tbe Observatory on the marshy side, and from
150 to 200 yards from tbe buildings. The
conditions of the theory 1 was abont to try,
required rich ground, tall aun flowers and a
rank growth. Accordingly, after beipg well
manured from the stable yard, the ground
was properly prepared and planted in ann
flowers. They grew finely; the sickly season
was expected with more than ordinary anxi
ety. Finally it set in, and there was shaking
at ths President's House and other places as
usual, but for the first lima since the Ober
vatory was built, tbewatobmen about it wea
thered the summer clear of chills and fevers.
These men, being most exposed to the nsght
air, suffer most, and heretofore two or three
relays of them would be attacked during the
season—for aa one fallr sick, another is era
ployed in his place, who, in turn, being at
tacked, wonld in like manner give wey to a
fresh band. And last year, attacks of sgne
and fever were more than usually prevalent
in the neighboring parte of the city."
Daring the present year, Lieol. Maury in
tends to repeal (be experiment, with varia
tion in two respects. First the seeds are to
be planted later, and, second, there are to be
two plantings, so that ihe last crop may be
oanghl by the frost while yet in flower. If
on a second trial the result proves equally
favorable, the practical benefit of tbe discov
ery will he great indeed, and Lieut. Maury
will have added another to tbe evidences ha
has given, lhal true science it the handmaid
of practical utility.
IST A revolutionary patriot, a native of
Long Island, passed through Easton, lately,
on his wey to the plaoe of bit nativity, hav
ing walked ail .die way from (h* State of Illi
nois. He shams in excellent condition to
complete hi* journey. He gave his age at 110
One by one the sands are flowing,
One by one the moments fall;
Some are coming, some are going,
Do not strive to grasp them alt.
One by one thy duties wait thee,
Let thy'whole strength go to each; I
Let no future dreams elate thee,
Learn thou first what tfiese can teach.
One by one (bright gifts from heaven)
Joys are sent tnee here below;
Take them readily when given,
Ready too to let them go.
One by one thy griefs shall meet thee,
Do not fear an armed band;
One will fade as others greet thee,
Shadows passing through tbe land.
Do not look at life's long sorrow;
See how small each moment's p:dn,
God will help thee for to-morrow,
Every day begin again.
Every hour that fleets so slowly
Has its task to do or bear;
Luminous the crown, and holy,
If you set each gem with care.
Do not linger with regretting,
Or for passing hours despond,
Nor, the daily toil forgetting,
Look too eagerly beyond.
Hours are golden links, God's token,
flenching hoaven; but one by one,
Take them, lest the chain be broken,
Ere thy pilgrimage be done.
Our foreign files contain much interesting
information in relation to China aud Ihe Chi
nese. The town of Canton Is said to be nine
miles in circumference. It is the residence
of a Viceroy, and is divided by walls, into
the Chinese and Tarter towns. The popula
tion is reckoned at 400,000; it ia calculated
that 60,000 persons live in the boats, uod
about 900,000 in the immediate vicinity.—
Each trade or calling has its especial street,
ao that in one there is nothing hot crockery
and glass; in another, silks, &c. Between
the bouses small temples aro often seen, but
they do not differ from the surrounding build
ings. The gods, too,occupy the ground floor,
the upper stones being inhabited by simple
mortals. A traveler who sometime since vis
ited Canton, gives this sketoh:
The bustle in tbe streets was astonishing,
especially in those set apart for the sale ol
provisions. Women and girls of the lowftr
classes vent about with their purchasers, just,
ks in KuApa. Thfcy wyta U unfiled,
[borne of them waddled like geese, in consev
quence of their crippled feet, which, as I be
fore observed, extends to all ranks. The
crowd was considerably increased by the
number of porters, with large baskets of pro
visions on their shoulders, running along, and
praising in a loud voice their stock in trade,
and warning the people to make way for
them. At other times the whole breadth of
the street wdl be taken up, and the busy
stream of humau beings completely stopped
by ths liuer of some rich or noble personage
proceeding to his place of business. But
worse lhaa all were the numerous porter* we
met at every atep we look, carrying large
baskets of unsavory matter.
After threadiog our way for at least Iwo
miles through a succession of narrow streets,
we at length emerged into Ihe open space,
where we obtained a full view of the city
walls, and from tbe euramit of a small hill
wbieh was situated near them, a tolerably
exieusive one over the town itself. The oily
walls are about 60 feet high, and for most
part, so overgrown with grass, creeping
plants, and underwood, that they resemble
a magnificent mass ol living vegetation. The
town resembles a chaos of small house, with
new and then a solitary tree, but we saw
neither fice streets nor squares, nor any re
markable buildings, templet, or pagodas.—
A tingle pagoda, fivo stories high, reminded
us of the peculiar character of Chinese arch
The Chinese have many peculiarities.—
They begin their writing at the right hand ol
the page. The men wear a loose dress, and
carry a fan. The grandfathers often walk on
stilts, and amuse themselves by flying paper
| kites, while the bo>s look gravely on. The
' following frons.the writer already quoted,
will be read with interest:
When we had nearly reached the end ol
our excursion, we met a funeral. A horrible
kind of mosio gave us warniog that some
thing extraordinary was approaching, and we
bad hardly time to look up and step on one
tide, before the procession came flying past
□sat full sped. First came the worthy mus
icians, followed by • few Chinese, next two
empty litters carried by porters, and then th*
hollow truuk ol a tree, representing the cof
fin, hanging to a long pole, end carried in a
similar manner; last of ell were some priests
and a crowd of people. ,
A few daye later I visited s tea factory.—
The proprietor conducted me himself, over
the workshops, which consisted of large
halls, in whioh six hundred people, inolad
iag a great many old women *ad children,
were at work. My entrance occasioned a
perfect revolt; old end young roee from
work, the elder portion lifting up the younger
members of the community in their arm*and
pointing at me with their fiagera. The whole
mass then pressed close upon me and reteed
io horrible a cry that I began to he alarm
ed. The proprietor end hie overseer bad •
difficult twk to keep off the crowd, and
begged me to content myself with e hasty
glance at th* different objects, and then qnit
tbe building as icon a* possible.
In oonseqnenoe of ibis, I could only man
ege to oberve that tbe leaves of tbe plant ire
[Two Dollars por AMM#
thrown for a fewlrecondsipso
then plaoed^n'Bat
CMS they ARE'contirraallywffoTD^^^^^^^^H
Ai soon as they begin to a
thrown upon large planks, and
leaf ia rolled together. This is effeoted
such rapidity thai it requires a person's und
vided attention to perceive that no more
one leaf is rolled op at a time. Black tsa'
takes some lime to roast, sad ike green is
frequently colored with Prussian bias, an ex
ceedingly small quantity of ssbich ia added
during the second roasting. put ef all the
tea is once more shaken out upon the large
boards, in order that it may be carefully in
spected, and the leaves that tie not entirely
i closed are rolled over again.
Before I left, the proprietorpo&ducled mo
into his house, and treated nib to a cup of
lea prepared'after a the fatbiodii which it is
usually drank by rich and noble Chinese. A
small quantity was placed iaa China cop,
boiling water poured npon it, and the cop
then closed with a tight fitting cover. In a <*
few seconds the tea ia then drank, and ths
leaves left at the bottom. Tlie Chinese take
neither sugar, rum nor millr with their tea!
they say that anything added to it, causes it
to lose its sroma. In my cup, however, a
little sugar was put.
The London Morning Star,s)!sdmg to some
of the recent scenee in Canton, says:
Under the British flsg, and in the name of
a British Qusen, deeds ate perpetrated which
make one's blood boil witb indignation, and
which are rivalled by the merciless atrocities
of which we read in connection witb Pagan
We recently alluded to the destitution and
misery which prevail among the poor of Lou
don, and especially to the crowded and un
healthy manner in which aoma of them are
compelled to live, in narrow alleys sad damp
cellars. One instance* was* mentioned, in
which 48 men, 719 womeb, and 59 children
resided ia 34 rooraa. The London Timea baa
taken op the subject, with a view to arobs*
the authorities to the necessity of some sys
tem of reform, and conclude* a bold and
strong article with this language:
"Is there no moral from this contrast? la
the modern Dives guiltless because he rune
away, and the modern Lazarus to be left
alone because he hides in a corner bis mis
ery and his sin 1 Yet there is no oity in the
worfll like ihdfciity-df LotMoa-for its religion' ••
and its charities. There is no English oity
so well churched, so well clergyed, so well
bishoped, so well tithed, so well rated, so
well charitied, so well armed with all tbm
staffof long established piety and ostentatious
benevolence. Poverty, disease and crime in
this city are the material out of which whole
classes are enriched. We have Unions to
relieve them, hospitals to cure them, and
clergy to convert tbem. So well seemed are
the higher influences that when a parish dis
appears its church remains, and, if there be
uo flock to tithe, the very coil and bricks
maintain (lie pastor. There is no city in the
whole world in which the aggregate expen
diture for til publio purposes,—lor govern
ment, for police, for cbsrites, for schools, for
oburcbes, (or clergy, for infirmaries and die*
pensaries,—comes at all near tbat of the city
of London. Yet the result is the existsnce
and even the fresh growth, in (he heart of
this metropolis, and within the favored bor
ders of the 'City,' ol these physical and moral
plagne nests. In the whole world, far away
from the preaching of missionaries, there ft
no such utter brutishcess, such groveling sod
wallowing, as is discovered in the ' Ward of
Bithopsgate.' Dives is indeed wise in his
generation to fly o' nights from such a foul
proximity. When Lazarus had done his
day's work and betakes himself to his stye he
is a very unwholesome brnte. Where he,
his companions, and bis cabs feed end litter,
iheLdirt ferments, and tbs very air is enven
omed. Dr. Letheby has analyzed it and
found that it has lost its share of life-giving
power, and that it is charged, not only with
more than its share of sluggish elements but
also with the vapors of death, and the princi
ple of putrefaciion. Nature, which kindly
dissipate# this horrid effluvium, and raises it
from the lair where It ia generated, diflusea
it to the dwelling of the tradesman and the
daily resort of the merchant. They are made
fearfully aware of the present pest; they hear
witb alarm lbs advance of fever; they inves
tigate its sonrce, and find out a sink of crime.
Suoh is ths parable of our own City and our
own times. If, as we believe, the ease is
worse, and the contrast more flagrant, than
in ths sacred page, the lesson is at least as
plain sod as fearfuL Certainly there ought
not to be suoh a state of things. Its existence
is not only an evil, it is a crime; and the
the crime is shared by all who can do any
thing to abate it, and leave that undone."
UstroL Hurra.—Never enter e sick mat
in s slate of preepiration, as, the moment
yon become cool, year pores absorb. Do
not approach contagious diseases with an
empty stomach, nor Ml between the aiok and
the fire, boot use the heat euneia tbelhio
vapor. *
PT Says a scientific writer: "To obtain
some idea of the immensity of the Creator's
works, let us look through Lord Ross' tele
scope and ws discover a star In the infinite
depths ef space whose light is 8,500,000
years in traversing to oar earth,,moving at
the velocity of miles in a minute.
And behold Aod was there.^