The star of the north. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1849-1866, February 18, 1857, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

K. W. Wearer, Proprietor.]
n niumn AVEER WIMIMUT aomie IT
. W. WMTtR,
OFVlCK— Upstairs, in Ike new brick build
ing, on the south side of Main Street, third
square helots Market.
T ER H BTwo Dalian par annom, if!
paid within aix months from iba lima of snb-1
seribins ; two dollars and fifty cents if not
paid within the year. No subscription re- 1
reived for a less period than eta months; no |
discootinoanee permitted ontilall arrearages
are paid, unless at tbe option of the editor. 1
ADTESTISCHEBTS not exceeding one square
will be inserted three times for One Dollar, 1
and tweulT-five cents for each additional in- !
eettioa. A liberal discount will be made to '
those who advertise by the year.
' ' ———————
Many tell na of the beauties
Of the world wherein we dwell;
Of the forest, rock and fountain,
Of the crysiai light and dell,
Of the eoward ties that chain u*
With a bolv binding spell;
Of the gentle word Of kindness,
That invite us—that is well.
Still there's a world of beauty
Lies hidden from the view—
The sacred world within as,
With its varied shape and hue.
Who can read the happy spirit!
Who can paint the pleasing scene ?
Are not thoughts that thus inherit
than gems may aeem I
Have noniupes more verdant foliage
Than the palm or forest tree?
Do not thoughts mors gently ripple
Than a peaceful moon-lit sea ?
Though the storms of sdvsrse fortune
On tbe ontwsrd world mar frown,
Still the inward world may glisten
With a radianee all its own.
The rock majestic towering,
Tbe cavetn-bonnded shore,
Afay be matched in mind's imagining
Till time shall be no more;
The ocean's vast expansion,
With its fathomless abyss,
And tress ores deeply bidden,
Are small compared this.
insatiate longing
\m endless motions rife,
KnoOT no ending or a limit
Through tbe active path of life ;
Even then its powers expanding
When Shis world no more it seen,
Proves the beautiful enduring
Of the world that dwells within.
From Macaalay's History of England.
Titus Dates and Know-Nothiagtsai la 1879
la L'nglaad.
One Titus Oatss, a clergyman of the Church
of England, haj, by his disorderly life and
listamfsa disni is, Inm w kits Um •en
sure jf his spiritual superiors, bad been com
pelled to qoit bis benefice, and bad ever
since led a vagrant life. He had once pro- ,
fsteed himself a Roman Catholic, and had
passed some time on the Continent in Eng
lish colleges of the order of Jesos. In those
seminaries be bad heard much wild talk
about the best mean* of bringing England
back to tbe'true Church. From hints thus
famished he constructed a hideous romance, j
resembling rather the dresm of a sick man
than any transaction which ever took place
in tbe real world. Tbe pope, be said, hid
intrusted the government of England to the
Jesuits. Tbe Jesuits bsd, by commissions
under the great seal of their society, appoint- :
ad Catholic clergymen, noblemen, and gen- j
lleman to all the highest offices in Church j
and Slate. Tbe papista had burned down :
London once. Tbey bad tried to bum it •
down again. Tbey were at that moment
planning a scheme for setting fire to all the
shipping in the Thames. They were to rise ,
at the signal and massacre aft their Proles-:
tant neighbors. A French army was at the ,
same time to land in Ireland. All tbe lead
ing statesmen and divines of Eogland were
to be murdered. Three or foor scheme* had
been formed for aasassiaating tbe king. He
was to be stabbed. He was to be poisoned
iu bis medicine. He was to be abot with
silver bullets. The public mind was to sore
and excitable that these lies readily found
crvdit with tbe vulgar; and two events which
speedily took place led even some reflecting
men to suspect that the tale, though evidently
distorted and exaggerated, might have some
Edward Coleman, a very busy and not
very honest Roman Catholic intriguer, bad
been the Deison* uwi s***ah
was made for bis papers. .It was fonod that
he had jost destroyed the greater part of
them; bnt a few which bad escaped con
tained some pass ages which, to minds
strongly prepossessed, might seem to confirm
the evidence of Oates. Those passages in
deed, when eaedidly construed, appear to
express little more than tbe hopes which the
posture of affairs, the predilection* of Charles,
lb* Mill stronger predilections of James, and
tbe rslaiions existiog between the French
and Eogliab conns, might naturally excite
in the mind of a Roman Catholic strongly
attached te the interests of bis Church. Bat
the country was not then inclined to construe
lbs letters of papists candidly; and it was
utged, with some show of reason, that if pa
per* which had been passed over a* unim
portant were filled with matter so suspicious,
some great mystery of iniquity mutt have
been contained in those documents which
bad been carefully committed to tbe flame*.
A lew days later it was known that Sir
Edmoudsbury Godfrey, an eminent jastice
Of the peace, who bad taken the depositions
of Oates against Coleman, bsd disappeared.
Search wee made, mud Godfrey's eorpao was
found in a field near London. It was clear
that be bad died by violence. It was equally
dear that be bad not been set a poo by rob
ber*. His fata it ts this day s Secret. Some
think-that he perished by bis own baud;
some, that be was stain by a privets enemy.
. The meet improbable (apposition is, that he
| was murdered by the party hostHo to the
J court, in order to give color to the story of
I the plot. The -most probable supposition
: seems, on the whole, to be that tome hoi
headed Roman Catholic, driven to phrensy
I by the lies of Oates and by the iusolis of the
, multitude, and not nicely distinguishing bo
-1 tween the perjured securer and the innocent
I magistrate, bad taken revenge of' which the
! history of persecuted sects furnishes but too
j many examples. If this were ao, the assas
; sin must have afterwards bitterly execrated
i his own wickedness and folly. The capital
; and the whole nation went mad with hatred
and fear. The penal laws, which had began
to lose something ot their edge, were shar
pened anew. Everywhere junices were bn
sied in searching hooses and seizing paperß.
All the jails were filled with papists. Lon
don bad tbn aspect of a city in a slate of
■isga. The train-bands were tinder arms all
night Preparations were made for barrica
ding the great tboroaghfaree. Patrols march
ed up and down the streets. Cannon were
i planted round Whitehall. No citizen thought
] himself safe unless he carried nndrr his coat
i a small flail loaded with lead to brain the
| popish assassins. The corpse of the mur
dered magistrate waa exhibited during seve
ral days to the gaze of great multitudes, ar.d
was then committed to the grave with strange
| and terrible ceremonies, which indicated
! rather fear and the thirst of vengeance than
! sorrow or religious hopes. The hooset in
sisted that a guard should be placed in the
vaults over which they sat, in order to se
cure them against a second gunpowder plot.
All their proceedings were of a piece with
this demand. Ever since the reign of Eliza
beth the Oath of Supremacy had been el
ected from members of the Home of C om*
tnons. Some Roman Catholics, however,
had contrived so to interpret that oath that
they could take it withoot scrapie. A more
stringent test was now added, and the Ro
[ man Catholic lords were for the first time
! time excloded from their seals in Parliament.
The Dnke of York was driven from the Privy
Council. Strong resolutions were adopted
against the Qoeen. The Commons threw
one of the secretaries of state into prison for
having countersigned commissions directed !
to gentlemen who were not good Protestants.
I They impeached the lord treasurer of high
treason ; nay, they so far forgot the doctrine
which, while the memory of the civil war
was still recent, they hsd loudly professed,
that tbey even attempted to wrest the com
mand ot the militia bat of the King's hands.
' To <bch a' temper had eighteen years of mi#
government brought the most loyal Parlia
ment that had ever met in England.
Yet it may teem strange that, even in that
extremity, the King should have ventured to
appeal to the people, for the people were
more excited than their representatives. The
Lower Honse,discontented as it was,contained
a larger number of Cavaliers than were likely
: to find seats again. Bat it was thought that
; a dissolution wonld pot a stop to the prose
cution of the lord treasurer; a prosecution
which might probably bring to light all the
. goi|ly mysteries of the French alliance, and
' might thus canse extreme persons! annoy
ance and embarrassment to Charles. Ac
-1 cordingly, in January, 1679, the Parliament,
which had been in existence ever since the
: beginning of the year 1661, was dissolved,
| and writs were issued for e general elec
i During some weeks the contention over
I the whole country was fierce and obstinate
| beyond example. Unprecedented sums were
i expended. New tactics were employed. It
: wis remarked by the pamphleteers of that
lime as something extraordinary, that horses
were hired at a great charge for the convey
ance of electors. Tbe practice of splitting
freeholds for the purpose of multiplying votes
dates from ibis memorable struggle. Dis
senting preachers, wl o had long hidden
themselves in qniet nooks from persecution,
uow emerged from their retreats, and rode
from village to village for the purpose of re
kindling tbe zeal of the scattered people of
, God. The tide ran strong against the gov
ernment. Most of the new members came
up to Westminster in a mood little diffe/ing
I from that of their predecessors who had sent
SirafTnrd and Land In lt" T,
Meanwhile tbe coorta of justice, which
ongbt to be, in the midst of political commo
tions, sure places of refnge for the innocent
of every party, were disgraced by wilder
passions' and fonler corrnptions than were to
be fonnd even on the hustings. Tbe tale of
Oates, though it had sufficed to convulse the
whole tealra, would not, until confirmed by
other evidence, suffice te destroy the hum
blest of those whom he had accused; for,
by the old law of England, two witnesses
are necessary to establish a charge of trea
son. Bat the sacosss of tbe first imposter
prodaced its nstnral consequences. In a few
weeka be had been raiaed from penary and
obsenrity to oppolence, to power which
made htm the dread of princes and nobles,
and to notoriety such as ha* for low and bad
minds all tbe attractions of glory. He was
not long withoot coadjutors and rivals.—
A wretch named Caratairs, who had earned
a living in Scotland by going disguised to
conventicles and then informing against the
preachers, led the way. Bedloe, a noted
•windier, followed; and soon, from all the
brothels, gambling-booses, and (ponging
houses of London, falae witnesses poured
forth to s*oar away tbe lives of Romao
Catholics. One came with a glory aboot an
army of thirty thousand men who were to
mnster in the dwgoise of pilgrims at Cor
xoara, and to tail thence to Wales. Another
bad been promised canonization and five
hundred pounds to (Border the King. A
' third had stepped into an eating-house in
Covent Garden, and there had heard a great
Roman Catholic banker row, in the hearing
of all the goeats and drawers, to kill the he
retical tyrant. Oates, that he might not be
eclipsed by his imitators, soon added a large
supplement to his original narrative,. He
had the portentous impudence to affirm,
among other things, that he had ooce stood
behind a door which was sjar, and had there
heard the Queen declare that she bad re
solved to give her consent to the assassina
tion of her husband. The vulgar believed,
and the highest magistrates pretended to be
lieve, even such fictions as these. The
chief judges of the realm were corrupt,
cruel, and timid. The leaders of the coun
try party encouraged the delusion. The
most respectable among them, indeed, were
themselves so for deluded as to believe the
greater part of the evidence of the plot to be
troe. Such men as Shaflsbury and Buck
ingham doubtless perceived that the whole
was a romance ; but it was a romance which
served their turn, and to their seared con
sciences the death of an innocent man gave
no more nneasiness than the death of a part
ridge. The juries partook of the feelings
then common throughout the nation, and
were enconraged by tbe bench to indulge
those leelings without restraint. Tbe multi
(nde applauded Oates and bis confederates,
booted and pelted the witnesses who appear
ed on behalf of the accused, and shouted
with joy when the verdict of guilty was pro
nounced. It was in vain that the sufferers
appealed ,to the respectability of their past
lives ; for the public mind was possessed
the belief that the more consctenlous a
papist was, the more likely he must be to
plot against a Protestant government, ft was
in vain that, just before tbe cart passed from
under their feet, they resolutely affirmed
their innocence; for the general opinion was,
that a good papist considered all lies which
were serviceable to his Church as hot only
excusable, but meritorious.
While innocent blood was shedding under
the forms of justice, the new Parliament
met; and such was the violence of the pre
dominant party, that even men whose youth
! had been passed amid revolutions—men
who remembered the attainder of Strafford,
the attempt on the five members, the aboli
tion of the Honse of Lords, the execntton of
the King—stood aghast at the aspect of pub
lic affairs. The impeachment of Danby was
resumed. He pleaded the royal pardon; bnt
the Commons treated the plea wilb contempt,
1 and insisted that the trial should proceed.—
Danby, however, was not their chief object.
Tbey were convinced that tbe only effectual
nay of securing the liberties and religion of
the nation was to exclude the Duke of York
from the throne.
Itrromi nnd Appirntion*.
From the experience of many observers,
and my own, (says Dr. Forbes YVinslow,) it'
seems evident that in all cases of incubus, a
disturbance of Iba circulation is the predis
posing cause, and the dreamer thus affected
invariably seems to lose all power over the
voluntary muscles, and this condition of the
muscular system differs from others to be
subsequently indicated. And, further, we
make remark, that in true incubus the inter
costal muscles are implicated, hence the im
potent efforts of the dteamer to resist attacks,
and so forth. One example will suffice to
illustrate the latter atatement:—
"A pemteman or oor acquaintance, of a
robust, active temperament, and well formed
head, dreamed that he saw a low, dirty look
ing boy open his bed room door, and in the
most impudent manner stare him in the
face, seemingly without heeding that lie was
wide awake; and from this circumstance he
became alarmed, from a conviction that
there was some adult associate at the out
side of the bed-room; that he attempted,
nevertheless, to speak to the intruder, but be
could not; and yet he saw. with a sense of
indignation, the juvenile thief open different
drawers, from one of which he extracted a
gold watch, and diamond stnds and rings,
with a handful of notes and a bag of sover
eigns ; and after packing them up, deliber
ately, the delinquent came up to his bedside,
■net wWi ■ tmiii impudent loei, uudded I]is 1
head, and said, '-Good night, old chap." The
wrath ol the sleeper was so great that he
tried bard to rise and seize the thief, but he
could not; he was equally impotent in the
attempt to throw something at him, or to
make any noise to arouse his servants. But
these efforts awoke him, lying upon his left
side, and his arm pressed againit the heart,
while bis lower extremelies were cold."
We may, therefore, reasonably suppose,
the whole phenomena to the fact, that some
of the muscles were deprived of a due sup
ply of blood, and to an excessive supply of
this fluid to the brain.
The Norwegian and Swsdish Lapps make
cheese of reindeer milk, and carefully save
for nse all the whey, &c. They milk their
animals summer and winter, and fteeze the
milk which is set apart foi cheese. The wo
men consider this as a great luxury. It is
remarkable for its pleasant odor, and bus a
ready sale in Norway at a rather high price.
The Russian Lapps have no Idea or making
cheese from their reindeer milk, although
the manufacture, beyond a doubt, woald be
of great advantage to Ibem. Tbe milk is dis
tinguished for iu excellent flavor; in oolor
and consistency it is Tike thick orsam from
tbe milk of cows, and ia remarkably nour
ishing. •
j ry Wealth creates more went* than it
' supplies.
Troth and HRIU- r -Co<i Md oar Conutry.
The number of the Russian-Lapps doss not:
exceed 2,000 ; those of the Swedish I.upland
were estimated in 1844 at 4,000, and those of
Northern Norway 6,000 —on aggregatoof only
11,000 souls. Besides the Lapp population,
there are to be fonnd on the shore of the
While Sea several villsges of Russians,
stretching along ftom Kerett In the Uay of
Kandalasch (or Candalax.) Between the vil
lage of Kandalnschka and Kola, on the eoait
at the mooth of the Touloma, a distance of
213 worsts,—l4l miles—there are seven post j
stations, the mails being carried from one to !
another bv reindeer, four of which animals:
are kept at each station. This mode of trans
port, however, is only employed in winter;
in summer everything being transported first
a few miles by land to Lake lmandra,
then the whola length of that fine body of
water some sixty miles, thence across to (he
River Touloma, and down that stream to
Kola. Tbe navigation of the lake, by the
way, is not always free from danger.
The language of the Lapps is similat to
that of the Finns, from which race they are
originally an offshoot. The Lapps are gen
erally of middle stature. They have lerge
heads, short necks, small brown-red eyes, I
owing to the constant smoke in their huts,
high cheek bones, tbin beards and large
hands. Those of Norway are distinguish
ed from the Russian Lapps by the blackness,
luxuriance and gloss of their hair; the more
northern portion of the race are somewhat
larger, more mascular and ol a lighter com
plexion than the rest. Those of Sweden and
Norway are to some extent more oultivaled,
enterprising and industrious than those of
Russia, and make light of the greatest priva
tions and hardship*. Tbe richest of the lat
ter have not more than 800 reindeer, while
the former possess from 2,000, to 3,000. In
Sweden and Norway, whoever owns from
400 to 500 passes for a man in moderate cir
cumstances; with 200 a small family with
proper prudence can live without suffering
from want but less than this number plunges
a family into all the troubles of poverty. —
Whoever has not more than SO, adds his
beard to that of some rich man, and becomes
his servant—almost his slave, and he is bound
in the proper season to follow him to the
hunting or fishing grounds.
Fish, game and the flesh of the reindeer
are the usual food of the Lapps. Bread they
never eat, though of the rye meal which they
procure ill Kola or of tHWabermcnln barter
for Hie products of their reindeer herds, they
make a sort of flat or pan cake, mingling the
meal with the pounded bark of trees. For
this purpose the meal is first soaked in cold
water, and the cakes baked upon a hot iron.
They are eaten with butter or codfish oil,
which is esteemed a great luxury. The min
gling of the bark with the meal is not done
merely for the sake of economy, the Lapps
considering it an excellent anti-scorbutic.—
• They are very fond of salt, and eat nothing
uncooked. Their cookery is all done in nn
tinned copper vessels, perhaps because in all
Lapland there are no pewlerers ; more prob
ably, however, it is o long-descended cus
tom, since in all Northern Asia the nse of
copper was formerly universal, and the Brt of!
overlaying that metal could hardly be known j
by the rode inhabitants. Nevertheless cases j
of poisoning from tbe copper never occur, I
being rendered impossible by the perfect
cleanliness of the which after
every mear are scoured with sand till tbey
shine like mirrors. Besides, after the food
is rufficiemly cooked it is immediately pour
ed into wooden vessels ol home manufac
A Clean Sell.
A shrewd countryman was in New York
(he other day, gawky, uncouth, and innocent
enongh in appearance, bat in reality with
bis eye teeth cot. Passing up Chatham
street, through the Jew's quarter, lie was
continually encountered with importunities
to buy. From almost every store nee rushed
out, in accordance with the annoying cus
tom of that street, to seize upon and try to
force him to boy. At last a dirty Isoking
fellow caught him by the arm, and clamor
ously urged him to become a customer.
"Have you got any shirts 1" inquired the
countryman wilb a very innocent look.
"A splendid aseortmen 1 , sir. Step in sir.
Every prise, sir, and every style. The cheap
est in the street, sir."
"Are they clean l "
"To be sure sir, step in air."
"Then," resumed the countryman with
perfect gravity, "put one on for you need
The rage of the shop keeper may be ima
, gined, as the countryman, turning nnon his
heel, quietly pursued his way.
ty Eliza Emery warns all girls in the
Sooth, and West to look out for her gy, de
ceiving runaway husband, David. Thinks
he may be easily known ; and to prove so,
says "David has a scar on bis nose where f
scratched him."
fcW A law in Kentucky allows any widow
who has a child between six and eighteen
years of age, to vote in tbe school district
tW It is a singular fact, that wheh the In
dian swears he swears in English. There
ere no oaths in the Indian vernacular.
An old maid, speaking of marriage,
•Rys it is like any other disease—while there
Is life there is hope.
ET Hop? >* ibe light of the laitip, bnt
Faith is the fight of the sue.
: Hoops make useful, pretty toys
For active lillle gir'a and boys ;
Hut hoops on woman, cenile,
Are thinjin to sneer at and to scoff,
And like the whoop of a whooping cough,
Neither useful nor ornamental.
For while frail woman bones her skirte,
And with a skeleton flaunts and flirts,
She has so much to carry,
; Man finds it hard with her to talk,
' And hsrder still >o sit or walk,
| But hardest of all to marry.
For when a smitten wretch has seen,
! Among the lost in crinoline,
I The one his heart holds dearer,
: Oh ! what a chill to ardent pasaion,
To feel that thro' this hollow fashion,
lie never can be nearer!
Thai instead of timidly drawing near,
And pouring into tne thrilling ear
I Ttie flood of his soul's devotion,
lie must stand and bellow in thunder (ones,
Across a half acre of skirts and bones,
As if bailing a ship on the ocean !
And if, by Chance, the maid of his choice,
Shall faintly hear Iter lover's voice.
And smiles her condescension—
Why he captures a mass of hoops and rings,
Skeletons, bones, and nther thioga
Too horrible to mention.
| Thus lovely woman hoops to folly,
And drives poor man to melancholy,
By her great frigid zones;
Then let her hear a warning voice,
Between her hoops and hopes make choice,
And give the dogs her bones.
flatd Study versus Hard Eating.
Students and dyspeptics, read this article
from Hall's New York Journal of Health:
Hard study hurts nobgo'y, but hard eating
does, ft is a very common thing to attribute
the premature disability or death of students
and eminent men to too close application to
their studies. It has now come to be a gen
erally admitted truth, that hard sttidy, as it
is called, endangers life. It is a mischievous
error that severe mental application under
mines health. Unthinking people will dis
miss this with the exclamation of "That's
all stuff," or something equally conclusive.
To those who search after truth, in the love
I of it, we wish to offer some suggestions.
Many German scholars have studied for a
lifetime, for sixteen hours out of tho twenty
four, and a very large number, from twelve i
to fifteen Honrs; lived in comparative health j
and died beyond the sixties. !
One of the
Professor li:
the age of neilQHnHltij la jreod j
health, deli living i
: mentally on
the like. Annmer strong example of the j
troth that health and hard study are not in- j
compatible, is found in the great Missourian,
Thomas H. Benton, now past three score and
ten, and in the enjoymentjof vigorous health;
a more severe student than he has been and
is now, the American public does not know. I
Dr. Charles Caldwell, our honored precep- '
tor, lived beyond the eighties, with high i
bodily health, remarkable physical vigor, I
and menial force scarcely abated ; yet for a j
great part of his life, he studied fifteen hours j
! out of the twenty-fonr, and at one lime gave
j but'four hours to sleep. John Quincy Ad-
I ams, "rhe old man eloquent," is another
I equally strong example of our position. All
1 these men, with the venerable Dr. Nott, now
moro than eighty years old, made the pres
ervation of health a scientific study, and by i
systematic temperance, neither blind cor j
spasmodic, secured the for which they
labored, and with it, .years, usefulness, and j
honor. The inculcation of these important l
troths was precisely the object we had in i
view, in the projection of this journal, with I
the more immediate practical application to i
the clergy of this country, whom we see j
daily disabled or dying scores of years be
fore their lime; not as is uniformly benevo-
I lently stated, from their "arduous labors,"
1 but by a persistent and inexcusable ignorance
of the laws of life and health, and wicked j
neglect of them. We use this strong lan
guage purposely, for the ignorance of duty I
to '.heir own souls; for upon both classes of ;
duly the lights brightly shir.e, fall bright ■
enough for all practical purposes—lights of
nature, of science, of experience, and oft
grace. How much of the hard intolerant,
theology of the times wss concocted and !
perpetuated by dyspeptic stomachs, reflect
ing men can readily conjecture. We take it
upon ourselves to guard and guide the shep
herds. We would like to say much more
on this subject, but long orticlos ate neither'
read nor copied, and by many a long cigar or
a long quid would be preferred. For the
present, therefore, we content ourselves with
the enunciation of the gist of this article
Students and professional men are not so
much injured l y bard study as by hard eat
ing ; nor is severe study for a lifetime, of
itself incompatible with mental and bodily
vigor to the full age of threescore- years and
Great Britain about sixty thousand families
own all the territory, which is occupied by
over twenty-seven millions of inhabitants.—
Five noblemen—the Marquis of Dreadal
bane, the Dukes of Argyle, Athol, Sunder
land and Buccleugh—own, perbsps, one
fourth of Scotland. The estate of the Duke
of Sunderland comprises about seventy thou
sand acres, or more than one thousand square
CAN rr BE TRUE f—The New York Even
ing Post says there are at least two thousand
gambling houses in that city, and probably
a hundred faro banks.
Ancient and Modern Water Worm nod
We are liable In lorgel the great works of
die pif>t| in our adffliritioii cf the preienl
! lienee it ii a good.thing sometimes to recall
what the old engineers hare accomplished,
an a healthful stimulant to excite oar modern
engineers to greater efforts.
The old Roman aqueduct*, for anpplying
dial city with water, in thedaya of it* glory,
when compared with the greatest of modem
works of this kind, ilwarf them into insignifi
cance. Rome had one aquaduet—Aqna Apia
—ten miles long all onderground ; another —
Anio Vetus—forty-three miles and nearly all
underground also; another—Aqna Marcia—
fifty miles long, and the Anoi Nevus fifty
nine miles long, with arches 109 feet high.
There were nUo four other aqueducts a
mountiug to nine altogether, for supplying
Rome with water by gravitation, for there
were n steam engines in those to pump it up
from the adjacent river Tiber for city use, as
is now done in Philadelphia, Chicago, Clev
eland and other ofour cities. ~
The noblest work of modern engineering
for supplying any city with water is undoubt
edly the Croton Water Works of New York.
Its artificial tunnels are carried over valltes,
through hills, and over rivers a distance of
forty miles. The work is stupendnus to be
sure, (or it carries a condensed river from the
mountains into the City, but compared to the
old Roman water tunnels is not so much to
boast of.
The city of Montreal has recently finished
some great work of engineering for supplying
itselT with in the same manner as the city of
Philadelphia, by employing the WBter power
of the river to pump itself up to an elevated
reservoir. The water from the St. Lawrence
immediately above the rapids, is connected
by canal five miles long to a basin where two
large wheels 36 feet in diameter work force
pumps, which drive the water through iron
pipes lor about three miles to a double res
ervoir situated on the mountain behind the
city, at a height of 200 feet above the tivcr
I level. These resprvoirs contain 20,000 000
gallons, and were cut out of the solid rock.—
Thus from the efevation of 200 feet the wa
ter is conducted through the whole city
Next to the Croton Water works those of Mon
treal, we understand are the greatest of the
I kind in our continent.
j good supply
tell them to go to Rome for en- i
i couragcment and example,
i Some great works of tunneling or boring
: through moutTlaina, have, within a few years, 1
| been executed in Europe and in onrown cou.i- 1
, try, for carrying railroads thro' ibem, and the
j tunnel now boring through the Green Moun- i
' tains, three miles long, is considered to be 1
1 the most expensive work of jhe kind ever ;
' attempted by our engineers; but we havo
j only begun to execute works of this kind,.
I and we require to be stimulated. The Alle
| ghenies, the Rocky Mountains and other
j mountains have yet to be tunneled to make
: pathways through thewt for the "Iron shred."
I Look at what the oitl Romans did. They cut
| a tnnnel as patt of a drain for Lake Fucinus,
j and it was bored one mile through a moun
| tain of hard cornelian. It was in the form
jot an arch, nine feet wide and nineteen feet
| high. There was no gunpowder then to as
' sist the miners in blasting; all the work of
i cutting was executed inch by inch by steady
| labor with the pick, wedge and chisel. On
i sidering the amount of labor required for this
| work, our engineers have much to incite
them.— Scientific American.
Wright of Northampton, Mass., is something
of a wng. A few days ajjp, a scurvy.looking
stranger presented him with a paper, ear
nestly beggiug for money. Believing him
i an imposter, Mr. Wright handed back the
j PP e r, saying: "I {Resume you would'ct
| have asked me if you had known my situs
j lion ; for whether you believe it or not, ev
j ery bit of property I have in the world uin
: the hands of the Sheriff." The astonished and
! compassionate stare of the fellow's eyes at
; that moment was a sight to see.—Springfield
I Republican,
PRECOCIOUS CHILDREN. —A writer in Black-
I wood's Magazine has the following sensible
I remarks upon the system of unnatural forc
ing many parents adopt in training their
children in ordor to gratify their own pride
with their preternatural displays of smart
" How I have heard yon, Eusebius, pity
the poor children! 1 remember you looking
at a group of them, and reflecting, 'For of
such is the kingdom of heaven,' and turn
ing away thoughtfully, and saying, 'Of such
is the kingdom of trade!' A child of three
years of age, with a book in its infant
hands, is a fearful sight! It is too often the 1
death warrant, such as the condemned stu
pidity looks at —fatal, yet beyond his com
prehension. What should a child three I
years old—nay, live or six years old—bo
taught? Strong meats for weak digestions
make not bodily strength. Let there be
nursery tales and nursery rhymes. I would
say to every parent, especially to every
mother, sing to your children; tell them
pleasant stories; if in the country, be not
too careful lest they get a little dirt upon
their hands and clothes; each is very much
akin to ns all, in children's out of
door play soils them not inwardly. There
is in it a kind of consanguinity between
all creatures; by it we touch upon
[Tn Hffiltri per linai
, the common sympathy first sob
\ stance, and beget • kindness for our poor
f ! relations, the brutes. Let children have a
,! free, open-air sport, and fear not thongii
II > they make acquaintance with the pigs, the
, • donkeys, and the chickens—they may form
i worse friendships with wiser-looking ones:
| encourage a familiarity with all that love to
; court them— dumb animals love children,
.; and children love them. There is a lan
i : gunge among them which the world's lan
- j guago obliterates in the elders. It is of more
i importance that you shonid make your chd
- I dren lorirg, than that you should make
I tbcm wise, that is, book-wise. Above alt
-( things, make them loving; then will they
- be gentle and obedient; then, also, parents,
. if you become old and poor these will be
- belter than friends that will never neglect
t yon. Children brought np lovingly at your
; knees, wiH never shut their doors upon you,
> and point where they would have you go."
BREATHING. —There are cortain physiolog
ical laws which, from their simplicity ar
, well as their importance, should be familiar
to every person. These principles can hard
ly be too often urged upon the attention of
the reading community; for it is a melan-
I clioly fact that with all tlint has been writ
, ten and said upon the subject of health,
. there is a widespread ignorance or indif
, fcrence in relation to its preservation.
, The process of breathing is very simple,
though the machinery by which it is per-
I formed is complicated and wonderful. And
, herein, at least, 'all men are created equal;'
f neither can man boast in this respect over
the brutes beneath him, for all existence is
I sustained by the same process. Here tho
, priuce and the beggar—the man of colossal
I intellect and the meanest insect, are upon
, a common level.
, Yot the art of breathing seems but ill
, understood, or if understood but poorly pwc
. ticed. Certain it is that thousands of peo
, pie of both sexes stop breathing altogether
. long before they havo lived to old age, for
, the simple reason that they do not breathe
properly while they have a chance. Con
sumption. asthma, and kindred disorders,
that count their victims by multitudes which
no man can number,
; the largest 1 prop
a gat -
| ion cf 06 to
when this
I stage or contraction is reached, a person
had better make his will, and all other
! necessary arrangements for an untimely
j death. 7
! It is just as easy to have a broad chest
and fully developed lungs as is to have
| them contracted: yet there is only one way
given, "under heaven or among men,"
whereby this result may be a'tained, and
j that is to breathe properly. In the first
place, if yon would do this, you must keep
: erect, whether sitting or standing; and then
you must breathe lully—that is, you must
• fill the lungs to their very bottom. Further
more, you should often give the lungs ad
extra, strengthening, by throwing back your
I arms and shoulders as far as possible, draw
' ing in all the air yon can, and then letting it
'. olTby the slowest process. This invigorates
i the whole system, and soon becomes a lux*
• i ury which one will not dispense with. It is
i particularly necessary for persons of seden
' tary habits, such as clerks, shoemakers,
■ 1 tailors, teachers, etc. These persons should
f never allow themselves to sit in a stooping
r i posture; and as often as every half hour
• should get up and fill their lungs in the
t manner just described.
t ; There is a stylo particularly common with
j Young America, of sitting with the heels as
1 high or highor than the head. What is
I. more common than to see a man reading
; his newspaper, or smoking u cigar, with
; his feet perched upon a desk, or some ob
■ ject higher than his chair? The practice is
II at once vulgar and mischievous, and, long
continued, can but result disastrously to the
' health.
- j The true position of the body is indispens
■ ; able. A person should make it a matter of
, , serious and solemn duty not to get into the
I habit of stooping. They can soon get ac
i customed to it, that it is as easy to stand
I erect as to bend. Those in the habit of
stooping may find it quite a struggle to over
; come it; but tho reward will rickly repay
• the labor. Not only should tho stooping
i posture bo avoided through the day, but
. 1 also in bed. The position should be such
' during sleep that the lungs will imbibe tha
: ; greatest possible quantity of air.
• j This leads us to remark upon the ventil
| ation of sleeping apartments. It is an amsz
; ing fact that hundreds of families sleep with
;: out fresh air, carefully closing all the doors
r and windows that can admit any, as though
■ it were an enemy against which they WOTS
to barricade their castles, instead of a friend
without which they can not live. The air
: of a bedroom is thus breathed over and
over again, till it becomes impure and un
■ heal liy : and by this means the system is
enervated, and disease is engendered—i
Dwellings shonid be bailt with an eye to
this important matter of ventilation; but
even where they are not, a partial remedy
exists, for a window cin be raised, or a door
opened, or both.
These suggestions, as we hare already
intimated, nre of tho simplest kind, which
every person can understand and adopt
Their importance can not be over-estimt
ted. The whole subject of physiology is
one of the greatest Importance, and no man
should be ignorant in relation to the struc
ture of hia system and the proper us# of its
functions.— Life Mistraled.