The star of the north. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1849-1866, August 20, 1856, Image 1

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B. W. Weaver, Proprietor.]
.Volume 8.
OFFICE— Up stairs, in the new brick build
ingltm the south side of Main Street,
third square below Market.
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those who advertise by the ye*r.
Pod rj).
I'm fitting in a corner
Of my cosy little room ;
I'm thinking of the laces
That mark my distant home.
A quiet, hoi) whisper
Steals o'er the sacred spell;
I smile, whilst faintly sighing,
The reason shall f tell t
My heart is quickly beating
A true, responsive strain, .
It murmurs lorth a melody, if *
And murmurs not in vain; £
Each though! is fondly uttered,
Each note breathes forth a thrill,
That seems to waft an echo
From hearts not with me still.
Oh, deem it not a fancy,
A day-dream of the heart,
To cling to by-gone pleasures,
Where friendship played a part;
The blood that daily quickens
Emotion's hidden stream,
(A Irom its depths reflecting
An ever vcplconie stream—
A calm, a soul lit dawning—
A pure and sieadlaet light,
Is gently, softly spreading
Its halo purely bright ;
And from the distant mountain
Come stealing with the gloom,
A ray that ever kindles
A love, a thought of home.
A tear may longer glisten—
A sigh, unknown, may rise—
The heart in silence struggle,
Each thought may yield the prize:
But still they ever mingle
A soothing draft with rare,
From absent hearts distilling
The love still centered there.
The Democratic victory in Kentucky i '
overwhelming. Nobly have the old line j
Whigs of that gallant Slate carried out their
nrincfples in acting as our allies in this im
portant contest. Everywhere are the doing
the same, acting with and for the only Na- ■
tional parly now in existence in the country.
The Louisville Courier, an old line Whig pa- J
per, has the following gratifying intelligence: i
The Result in Kentucky. —We have returns
by telegraph from several of the most impor
tant points of the State They all indicate
very large and decisive gains for the Anti- :
Know-Nothings. Indeed, we have no doubt :
but (hat the result of yesterday's election in '
Kentucky will show a majority of ten thou
sand for the Democtacy. The issue of party !
politics in this election wis forced upon the 1
Democratic party, and it has manfully, and
triumphantly met the issue. This result ia
hut a foretaste of November. Throughout
Kentucky the love of the Union preponder
ates above all oath-bound and secret faotions.
The news strikes the enemies of the Union
with consternation. Their hopes are blasted
in every quarter. lowa as good as lost to
the Republicans, Indiana and Illinois sure lo
vote the Democratic ticket, with the chances
that Ohio will do the same—no hope for
them in Wisconsin, very little in Michigan,
New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, New ;
Hampshire, Maine, or Rhode Island, it ia no
wonder that the hxmonters have such long I
faces end heavy hearts.
The Louisville Times explains the causes
that operated to swell the Know Nothing ma
jority in that city. Tbey will hardly be al- j
lowed lo operate al the Presidential election
in November, so we may confidently expect
a still'greater majority al that lime than the
one we have now obtained. The following
is the article to which we have alluded:
7hi Election in Louisville. —There was an
•lection held in this city yesterday, but the
Know-Notbings bad it all tffelr own way.—
But few Democrats went to the polls, nor
could tbey be persuaded to do so. Numbers
of the very best Democrats in the city posi
tively refaeed to vole. Tbey preferred that
the election should go by default, than to en
ter the contest unorganized and unprepared,
. where but a pailial Democratic vole could
be given. As fot the Germsni they nedtly
- -all left the cily, with their fantilier, on Sat
urday, Sunday, and yesterday morning, ap
prehending rioting and mobs on the part of
the Know-Notbings. The city is yet under
•tfco reign of terror,' although there was no
riffling yesterday.
The Know-Nothings were busy all day, and
doubtless voted their full strength.
was srepaesenistive in Congress from Con
necticut , bis business had been that of mak
ing shoes. John Randolph, vr'ti had Indian
blood in cum,rose and with bis usual squeak
ing sounds said, "I should like to know what
the gentleman did with his leather apron be
fore he set out for Washington." Mr. Sher
man replied, imitating the same squeak, "I
cut it up, sir, to make moocasina for the de
scendants o< Pocahontas I'*
QT There' is something oesectially shallow
in the play of character, until feeling gives U
play and intensity.'
Some persons seem to go through the world
with (heir eyea shut, others keep them al
ways open. The latter, at every step, are
adding to their elock of knowledge and cor
recting and improving their judgmei*, by ex
perience and Observation. They keep their
minds ever awake and active, and on the
alert, gathering instruction from every occur
rence, watching for favorable opportunities,
and seeking, if possible to turn even their
failures and mischances to their advantage.
Such persons will rarely have occasion to
say, "I have lost a day" or
" To weep o'er that flew
More idly than the summer's wind."
They will make every event the occa6.on
of improvement, and will find
" Boooks in the running brooks,
Sermons in stones, and good in everything."
To the attentive observer, even irature it
self will appear a vast scroll, written over by
the finger of God, with instructive, though
sometimes mysterious, cheracters, while to
the careless it would seem at best but a blank
or scene of confusion "without form or come
liness," possessing little to excite curiosity or
To the yonng especially, we would recom
mend the habits of close and careful observa
tion. Wo .would say to them, "overlook
nothing, do not despise the day of small
things. Endeavor to turn the leisure time
you may hare, the money you mayeeatm t or
inherit, the privileges you may enjoy, in
short, everything to the best account. Take
care of the minutes and pence, and the hours
and pounds will take care of themselves.
He who learns lo regard his leisure mo
ments as valueless, and habitually-squanders
for trifles the small sums of money he may
have, because they are small, will never be
learned or rich. I lie secret of succe.s is to
be careful of little things.
" Spend no moment but in the purchase of
its worth,
And what its worth, ask deathbeds—they can
Hints to Yonng Learners.
Noah Webster, in his manual, says : In
early life, duriog my course of education,
much time was spent in learning what I nev
er had orcaeion to apply lo any purpose what
ever, and a great part of which has long since
been forgotten ; but I neglected to learn many
things which I have had occasion to use all
my life. A great deal of time and labor was
employed, for the most part, was wasted, in
reading, or reading and studying without any
specifio object. It "bras not (ill I commenced
the study of law that I discovered the mistake.
I then changed my conree of oiudy, and to.
stead of reading to learn general facts and
principles, many of which could not be re
tained in the memory, I directed my atten
tion to particular questions or points, each
separately, and thus was able to become fully
possessed of each subject, and to recollect
boih facts and principles.
A mistake like this is probably not
l mon. It often occurs in sohools in which
, children are directed to learn definitions, or
, general principles, without any, application
1 of them to particular objects or cases. These,
of course, make little impression on the
mind, and many of Ihem are soon forgot
, ten."
tbenp Premium ol Insurance-
George Sumner lately lectured in New
York upon the Educational characteristics of
Europe, where he spent several years. We
extract the following paragraph ;
11 If there be any moral to the tale I have
told, it may be enmmed up in a few wordi.
Pay your school lax without grumbling: it is
the cheapest premium of insurance on your
propriety. You are educating those who are
to make laws for yourselves and your child*
ren. In this State you are educating those
who are to elect your judges. Build more
school houses ; they will spare you the build
ing of more jails. Remember the experi
ment of other countries shows that the de
velopment of free and extended education
has been followed by public and private
prosperity; that financial "success and politi
cal tranquility hare blessed the lands which
have recognized itc importance. Remember
j that education without freedom is barren in
its results; that freedom without (he educa
tion of the moral sooiitnems soon runs into
anarchy and despotism ; and that liberty, ev
er vigilant herself, demands ceaseless vigil
ance in her votaries—liberty will not linger
long in these lands, where her (win-sister
knowledge was neglected.
Indian Summer r Life.
In (he life of the good man there is an In
dian summer more beautiful than (hat of the
seasons; richer, sunnier, and more sublime
than the most glorious Icdian summer which
the world knew—it is the Indian summer of
the soul. When the glow of youth has de
parted, when the warmth of middle age is
gone, and the buds and blossoms of spring
•re changing to the sere and yellow leaf, then
the mind of the good man, still ripe and vig
orous, relaxes its labors, end the memories
of a well-spent life gush forth from their re
cret fountains, enriching, rejoicing and fer- <
tiiizing; then the tiustful resignation of the
Cbristiau sheds around a sweet aud holy
warmth, and the soul, assuming a heavenly
lustre, is no longer Testricted to the nairow
confines of business, but soars far beyond
the winter of hoary age, and dwells peace
fully and happily upon that bright apricg and
summer that await bini within the gates of
Paradise, evermore. Let us strive for and
look trustingly forward to an Indian summer
litre this.
It is related of a Persian mother, that on
giving her eon forty pieces of silver as hie
portion, she made him swear never to tell a
lie, and said, "Go my son, I consign thee to
God, and we shall not meet again till the day
of judgment.
The youth went away, and the party he
traveled with were asaulted by robbers. One
fellow asked the boy what he had got, and
he said, "forty dinars are sewed up in my
garments." He laughed, thinking he jested.
Another asked the acme* question and re
ceived the same answer.
At last the chief called him,and asked him
the same question, and he said, "I have told
two of yoar people already that I have forty
dinars sewed up in my clothes."
He ordered the clothes to be ripped open,
and found the money.
"And bow cute you to tell this?" said
he. *
" Because," replied the child, "I would not
be false to my mother, when I promised nev
er to tell a lie."
"Child," said the robber, "art Ihou so
mindluOof tby duly to thy mother at tffy
years, and I am insensible al my age of the
duty I owe lo God 1 Give me tby hand that
I may swear repentance on it." He did so,
and his followers were all struck with the
" You have been our leader in guilt," said
they to the chief, "be the same in the path
of virtue;" and tbey instantly made restitution
of their spoils, and vowed repentance on the
boy's hand.
•' There is a moral in this story, which goes
beyond the direot influence of the mother on
the child. The noble sentiment infused into
the breast of the child, is again transformed
from breast to breast, till tbose who feel it
know not whence it came.— Mrs. Whittlesey's
Minerals we Km.
"All know," says the Portland Transcript,
"that many men have a great deal of brass
in their composition, but perhaps all are not
aware of'.he variety of materials that enter in
to and form a part of the hnman system." A
writer in Dickens' Household Work thus tells
the story :
" These minerals, which are inlerwoven
with the living stractureof the plant, are taken
up into the fabric of the animal. And to tis
they are as important as the meanest vegeta
ble that grows. I, who write this, boast my
self living flesh and blood. But lime strength
ens my bones ; iron flows in my blood ; flint
bristles in my hair; sulphur and phosphor
ous quiver in my flesh. In the hnman frame
tho rock moves, the metal flows, and tne ma
terials ol the earth, snatched by the divine
power of vitalitf from the realms of inertia,
live and move, jnd form part of a soul-ten
anted I rams. Ia (be very secret chamber of
the brain there lies a gland, gritty with earth
ly mineral matter, which Descartes did not
scruple with a crude scientific imoiety to as
sign as the residence of the soul. You could
no more have lived nor grown nor flourished
without iron, and silicia, and potash, and so
dium, and magnetism, than wheat could
flourish without phosphorous, grass without
silicia, cress without iodir.e, orclover without
lime. We are all of us, indeed, of earth,
Female Character^
Daughters should thoroughly acquaint them -
selves with the hgsiness and cares of a fam
ily. These are among the first object of a
woman's creation ; they ought to be among
the first branches of her education. They
should learn neatness, economy, industry and
sobriety. These will constitute their orna
ments. Nature will appear in all her loveli
ness of probation, of beauty ; and modesty,
unaffected genlleoess of maner, will render
them amiable in the kitchen and dining-room,
and ornaments in the sitting-room and parlor.
Everything, domeatio or social depends on
female character. As daughters and sisters
they decide the character of the family. As
wives, they emphatically decide the charac
ter of their husbands, and their condition also.
It has been, not unmeaningly, said that the
i husband may ask the wife whether he may
be respected. He certainly must inquire at
the altar whether he may be prosperous and
happy. As mothers, they decide the char
acter of the children. Nature has construct
ed them as the early guardians and instruct
ors of their children, and clothed them with
sympathies suited to this end..
some do, look on the child as born under the
curse of God, as natural hostile to ail good
oesa and trnth. What! the child totally de
praved I Can it be that such a thought ever
entered the mind Of a human being, espe
cially a parent? What! in the beauty of
childhood and youth, iu that open brow, that
cbeerfnl smile, do you see the band of total
corruption ? Is it a little fiend who sleeps so {
sweetly on his mother's breast? Was it an
infant demon which Jesus look in his arms
and said, "Of sueb is the kingdom of heav
en ?" Is the child who, as you relate a story
of suffering or generosity, listens with a tear
ful or kindling aye and a throbbing heart, is
be a child of hell ? As soon conld I look on
the countenance of childhood and youth, and
see total depravity written there.
IdT" Tiic iageof the Buffalo Republic thinks
that <if a young man spends two hours with
• lady every evening, and bar old folks don't
make any fuse about it, and his old folks
don't make any fusa about it.theyoung folas
may be said to be engaged.'
Truth Ami Bight Sod Aid oir Country.
The following tre the Committee* of Vig
ilance appfimed in the sf veral townships of
Columbia county by the Democratic Stand
ing Committee:
Bloom— Daniel Lee, M;C. Woodward, Ja
cob R. Grool.
Benton —Richard Stilea ( " Samuel Rhone,
Alonzo M. Baldwin.
Briar creek —Hudson Owpn, Dayid Shaffer,
Nathan Seely.
Beaver —Charlea Michael, Moses Shlicher,
Samuel Johnson.
Centre—Charles H. Dietench, Joseph Pohe,
Henry D. Knorr.
Cattawissa —Casper Rahn,fsaiah John, Pe
ter Bodine.
Conyngham— Dr. R. Wolfarth.
Franklin —Reuben Knittle, Wm. Robrbaoh,
Peter Kline.
onae- Doty, Apple
man, £larman Labor.
Greenwood— Samoel Gillespy, Isaac De
wilt, Elijah Albsrtson.
Hemlock —Jesse Ohl, Isaac Leidy, Win. 11.
Jackson —John McHenry, jr., Iram Derr
Thomas W. Young.
Locust —David Yeager, Jacob Sline, Leon
ard Adams.
Mifflin —J. C. Hetler, Jno. Michael, Chris
tian Wolf.
Maine —Jacob Sbugar, Jos. Geiger, Isaac
Mountpleasant —Sam'l Johnson, PhilipKis
tier, John Mordao.
Montour —Evan Welliver, Jacob Leiby,
W. G. Quick.
Madison—J. A. Funston, Schoo'.ey Allen,
John Fruit.
Orange —Hiram R. Kline, John Megargle,
John Lazarus. - • -
Pine —John Leggett, Albert Hunter, Enoch
Roaringcreek— John C. Myers, George W.
Dreisbach, M. FoeHeroff.
Scott— John H. Dewitt, Enoch Howell,
Charles Bachmah. • •
Sugar loaf —Alinas Cole, W. B. Peterman
David Lewis.
mention of the Fable imputed to Charles
Lamb, but whether assumed by him we know
not. ''When his lordship was newly advanc
ed to the Great Seal, Gondomar came to visit
him; my lord said, that he was to thank God
and the King for that l.onoi; but yet, so he
might be rid of the burthen, he might very
willingly forbear the honor; and that he for
merly had a desire, and the deFire remained
with-him yet to lead a private hie. Gondo
mar answered that he would tell him the tale
•f •<> old ral, who, must needs leave the
world, end acquainted the young rats that he
would retire into bis hole, and spend the rest
of his days solitarily, and would enjoy no
more comfort; and commanded them upon
his high displeasure not to come to see him.
They forbear two or three days. At last, one
that was more tardy than the rest, incited
some of his fellows to go in with him, and he
would venture to see how bis father did; for
be might be dead. They went in and found
the old rat sitting in the midst of a rich Par
mizan cheese. So be applied the Fable af
ter this witty manner.""
Lamb has tel l the story somewhat differ
ently and decidedly better, as follows:
A Fable.—By Charles Lamb. —" My dear
children,." said an old rat to his young ones,
"the infirmities of old stge are pressing so
heavily upon me, that 1 have determined to
dedicate the remainder of my days to morti
fication and penance, in a narrow aud lone,
ly hole which I have lately discovered; but
let me not interfere with your enjoyments.
Youth is the season lor pleasure; be happy,
therefore, and only obey my last injunction—
Never come near trie in my retreat. God
bless you all." Deeply affected, sniveling
audibly, and wiping bis paternal eyes with
his tail, the old rat withdrew, and was seen
no more for several days; when his youugest
daughter, moved rather with filial affection
than by that curiosity which has been attrib
uted to the sex, stole to bis cell of morlica
lion, wbioh turned out to be a hole, made
by his own teeth, in an enormous Cheshire
cheese I" a
kind-hearted teacher will always be welcome
to his pupils. They will rejoice to see him
approaph-the school house, even if the hour
of study has not yet arrived ; because tbey
know he rejoices in seeing them happy, and
will not interrupt their amusement before the
regular time. But the morose and ill-natured
teacher is ever unwelcome, and hated by his
scholars. He is regarded as the enemy of
their happiness, and rarely enjoys the confi
dence of his school. On the other hand, the
teacher, especially of large boys, should not
forget the dignity of his profession, nor place
himself entirely on a level with bis pupils.—
They should be taught to respect, as well as
to love and confide in him. While itiaprop
er that be should witness, approve and con
trol their recreations, we think it in general
unadvisabls for him to participate in them.
HUSBAND AND WlFE.— With a dug wife, the
husband's faults shouldbe a secret. A worn,
an forgets what is done to herself when she
condescends to that refuge of weakness, a
female confident. A wile's bosom should
be the tomb of her husband's failings, and
his character far more valuable, in her esti -
mation, than his life..
%3t " Some of the domestic evils of drunk
enness," says Franklin, "are houses without
windows, gardens without tillage, bams with
out roofs, children without clothing, princi
> pies, or maoners."
Like a maiden lightly laden,
Silken summer sweet and fair,
With the flowers wreathed by hours
In her flowing golden hair,
Comes in shadows o'er the meadows
Strewing sunshine everywhere.
Winds are blowing bland, and sowing
Life and fragrance on the breeze,
Or a-Maying blithely playing
Hide and seek me through the tree,
Or a skipping light and tripping
Winsome dances o'er tiie seas.
Father, mother, sister, brother,
Youthful, aged, rioh and poor,
Merrily weaving songs, are leaving
Gloomy room and dusky door,
For the fountains in the mountains
With their gladness running o'er.
What a feeling must be stealing
Through the city's panting clay,
As the singing birds are flinging
Hints about the fields away,
Where the showers clothe the flowers
In the velvet robe and gay.
Day resuming life is pluming
Giant pinions in the sky,
So that slumber shall not cumbet
Life and action till it die;
Waking ever great endeavor
To the deed sublime and high.
Day reclining is resigning
Life and action to the night,
While the paling moon is falling
O'er the valleys sweet and light,
So the spiiit cannot bear it,
But in dreamland takes a flight.
Livid moonlight, pallied moonlight,
Spreads a sheet upon the plain,
While the cleaving books are weaving
Threads of silver with a strain
Of jich laughter babbling after
Lovers happy in their puin.
BAYARD TAYLOR is the author of the follow
ing little gem :
* The rain is sobbing on the world,
The house is dsrk, the hearth is cold;
And stretching drear and ashy gray
Beyond the cedars lies the bay.
My neighbor at his window stands,
His youngest baby in his hands;
The others seek his tender kiss,
And one sweet woman crowns his bliss.
t look upon the rainy wild;
I have no wife, I have no child ;
There is no fire upon my hearth,
And none to love me on the earth.
17 Arnvine says of Slieiidan—"This able,
eloqueot and polite man, was the sou of an
actor without any fortune except his educa
tion, contrived in early life to purchase the
half of Durry Lane Theatre, without a shil
ling of property, and to live the greater part
of his life in princely splendour. And what
is more extraordinary, he acquired such con
fidence In the princes of the blood royal that,
when the regency government was formed
ia 1811, and a family counsel was held at
Carleton House after midnight, to arrange
the policy of the government, he was the only
person nt*"of blood royal present, and was
the chief and almost the only speaker in ef
fecting the important arrangements."
17 One of the principal actors at the Com
edie Francois stopped short in a tragedy at this
passage, "I was in Rome." It was in vain
that he began the passage several times ; ha
never could get farther than Rome. At last,
seeing there was no help for it, and the
prompter as embarras#ed as himself, was
unable to find the place, or to give him any
assistance, he turned his eyes coolly upon
him and said with an air of dignity, " Well,
•ir, what was I doing in Rome!"
GT Count D'orsay in his book on etiquette
has the following. It is a noble sentiment;
" Gentility is neither in birth, manner nor
fashion—hut in THE MIND. A high sense of
honor—a determination never to take a mean
advantage of another—an adherenoe to trnlb,
delicacy and politeness towards those with
whom yon have dealings, are the essential
and distinguished characteristics of a UENTLE
f?" The celebrated Comedian, Finn, is
sued the day previous to one of his benefits
at the Tremont Theatre in '.he city of Bos
i Like a grate full of coals 1 burn,
A great full house to see ;
And, if I prove not grateful too,
A great fool I shall be.
HT It was after Burke's celebrated speech
at the trial of Hastinge, that a friend of the
latter wrote the following impromptu, which
to our mind can hardly be surpassed :
Oft have I wondered, that on Irish ground,
No venomous reptile ever yet was found;
The secret stands revealed in nature's work—
She saved her venom to create a Burke."
17 Franklin was an observing end sensi
' ble man, ar.d his conclusions were seldom
incorrect. He said that a newspaper and bi
ble in every house, and a good scbool in ev
ery district—all studied and appreciated as
merited—are the principal supporters of vir.
tue, morality and civil liberty.
17 Words are little things, but they strike
bard. We wield them so easily that we are
apt to forget tbeir hidden power. Fi'ly spo
ken, they will fall like the sunshine, the
dew and fertilizing rain, but when unfitly,
like tbe frost, the hail and the desolating tem
13T In Bacon's Apopthema the following
is Tetnsrked of Queen Elizabeth : The Queen
used to eay in her instructions to her great
officers, 'they were like to garments, straight
at first putting on, but dicl, by aod by, weßr
loose enough.'
17 When a man dies, people generally
inquire what properly belts* left behind. Tbe
angels will ask what gdbd deeds he ha* sent
before him. u'
From the Medical Reformer.
The term Inflammation is applied to a col
lection of phenomenon that are found asso
ciated together in any portion of the organ
ism where a sufficient obstruction to the vi
tal functions exists. These phenomena are
all the result of the increased amount of
blood determined to the part by a kind of
vital, vegetal action peculiar to all the high
er grades of organized bodies.
It is unnecessary that we enter into an
original minute description of all the ana
tomical, physiological and pathological
changes that occur from the inception to the
termination of the inflammatory condition,
for in such a case it would necessarily be a
repetition of what had been well said by
many writes of modern times, and perhaps
by no One better ami more concisely than
by the world renowned author of "Lectures
on die Principles and Practice of Physic,"
Thomas Watson, M. D., etc., froni whom
for, the purpose of analysis and induction,
as well as for the description, we shall
Let us suppose, that a healthy man re
ceives some local, mechanical injury—thai
he falls, for instance against a window, and
gets a piece of glass stuck into his arm. In
a short time he begins to have pain in that
part of the arm, and this is soon succeeded
by redness, and increased heat and swel
ling. The skin becomes of a bright red col
or; the swelling increases. In the immedi
ate place of the injury the swelling is firm
and hard, and exquisitely tender: at some
distance from that centre, although there is
still swelling, the parts are softer and more
yie'ding. In the seat of the redness and
swelling the patient experiences a sense of
heat, a burning pain; the part is sensibly
hotter than natural to the touch of a by
stander ; and if its actual temperature be
measured by means of a thermometer, it
will be found to exceed the temperature of
the neighboring surface. Theparlisit\flamed.
The first condition here noticed is one of
injury to the vital organs of the part. Our
author states that in a short time he begins
to have pain in the part; but it is very cer
tain that the sensation of pain is felt on the
instant the injury is inflicted. This messen
ger (pain) instantly conveys to the sensori
um an indication of the injury, and the con
tinued presence of an irritant, keeps up this
effect upon the nerve, which constitutes ir
ritation. Irritation then is a vital act, exci
ted and maintained by any thing that inter
feres with the integrity of the organism. It
is simply a continuation and exaltation of
sensibility, in consequence of the continued
application of the cause or condition that
excites it. Irritation then, may be consider
ed the first step, on the part of the organ
ism, toward inflammation. The sensation
received by the nerves at the seat at
tack, by a reflex action, excites a change in
the circulation of the part and the bloodves
sels are seen to contract, (Paget's Lectures
on surgical pathology p. 198,) and their con
tents are forced onward more rapidly. If
now the excitant or the condition that gave
rise to this action is removed, this state grad
ually ceases and the vessels antl the circu
lation through them assume again their av
erage or normal slate. But in the case pro
posed by Mr. Watson the remote or exciting
cause is still continued and wo soon have
the second step in the inflammatory pro
cess, active congestion, fully developed.
This stato consists in a general enlarge
ment of the blood-vessels of the part, with
an increased flow of the blood in them, ac
companied by redness, heat and swelling.
I "In the immediate place of the injury the
| swelling is firm and hard, and exquisitely
tender: at some distance from that centre,
I although there is still swelling, the parts
: are softer and more yielding." In the im
| mediate place of the injury, the power and
j olasticity of the vessels is weakened and
! overcome; consequently they are unable to
i force the blood, that is driven into them from
the sound and healthy arteries, on, in its
| natural channels. This state of the vessels,
I a state of loss or debility of function, is a
j sine qua non of the inflammatory process.
! The inability of action on the part of the in
jured vessels admits all the blood that can
be forced into them, without the power on
their part to expel it. This constitutes a
state of "passive congestion" at the imme
diate seat of the injury, and plainly indi
cates the reason of the firmness of the swel
ling at that part; while the sound vessel of
the immediate vicinity are in a condition of
"active conjestion," until their natural con
tractility is overcome by the encroachments
of the 'passive conjestion' at the seat of the
injury. In every case of inflammation we
have these two conditions of the circulation
plainly manifest. That of "passive conges
tion" at the immediate seat of the injury, as
the legitimate result of a loss of function,
and that of "active congestion" consequent
upon an exaltation of function in the sound
and unobstructed vessels of the immediate
vicinity. In consequence of the loss of func
tion in the vessels, that are the seat of the
"passive conjestion" the circulation in that
part ultimately ceases, and the blood looses
its vitality, when a destructive chemical
process is set up by which the solids and
fluids that have been deprived of their vital
ity are changed into pus.
The symptoms of this second stage of the
inflammatory process, are increased red
ness, heat, pain and swelling; let us exam
ine them.
The redness is increased because the ves
sels of the part are fuller than usual of red
fluid, viz: the blood. This symptom requires
no comment.
It is a well ascertained fact, as long ago
demonstrated by the immortal Hunter, that
the temperature of an inflamed part never
; exceeds that of the hjood at the time. The
' natural heat of the blood is about 98* (F )
■■ M. i— : ■
[Two Dtllars per Annua.
-b, v-.u- ilm.circulation, in fa
ret and severe inflammatory affections, IU
temperainre of this fluid 'often rises to 108*,
or even more, and this degree of heat is of
ten manifested in the tissues that are the
seat of inflammation. Through the circu
lation, the animal heat generated in the lungs,
is transmitted to every part of the body, and
if an unusual quantity of blood is sont to
any particular locality, the temperature of
that part is increased ill a corresponding ra
tio: but this temperature never can &xceM
that of the scource from which it is derived.
The pain of inflammation seems to be en
tirely dependent upon the amount of com
pression exerted upon the nerves of the part
by the unusual fullness of the blood-vessels
and tissues of that locality. Hence in the
more dense and inelastic tissues, the paid
accompanying inflammation is, cccteris par
ibus, much more severe than in the muscu
lar aud more elastic structures of the body.
I An inflamed tendon is much more pain :
ful under an equal ambiint of inflammation;
than a muscle, because the latter structure,
more than the former, yields to the pres
sure applied. The tenderness or extreme
sensibility of the inflamed part when pres
sure is applied, is in a great measure the
result of the same condition; the pressure
increases the compression, and consequent
ly the pain. It is but another turn of the
screw of the vice that is already compres
sing the intervening finger to a very painful
degree. That there is an exaltation of func
tion in tho nerves of the part, we do, and
have horelofore admitted, in the beginning
of this chapter, and is it not that
this should occur? Irritability is a vital
property .of nervous matter, and this prop
erty may be excited far beyond its normal
exhibitions by the continued application of
an irritant, as is lite case in the condition
under consideration. Apart from the con-
tinued irritation applied to the ndtves of,an
inflamed part by the compression to which
they arc subjected, it is not an unreasona
ble inference that the increased flow of
blood through the uninjured and unobstruct
ed vessels ol the inflamed vicinity, should
imparl an increase in the nutrient materia!
of the nervous structure tvlioreby its natufal
function is iucreased. Sitnon, (general pa
thology p. 55) tells us, that, "the use of an
organ, in proportion as it is intense and long
continued, occasions an additional abund
ance of developmental blastema to exist in
that organ, as is evidenced by the greater
rapidity with which the elements of the or'
gan are reproduced.'"'
Another of lhe symptoms of iqflatnijia
tion, and one which perhaps requires a more
extended analysis is that of swelling. This
phenomenoji depends also an a great degreo
upon the unusual distension of the vessels
of the inflamed part. Ii all the blood ves
sels with which an inflamed locality is sup
plied are filled to their utmost capacity,
swelled out, enlarged, this must give an in-"
crease of bulk to the whole part in which
the condition obtains. But much of this
phenomenon is the result of another change
which is of great interest and importance td
the student of pathology; I refer to tfiat of
effusion. It is a well established physio
logical fact that the difforent tissues of the
body are nourished from the blood by a sys
tem of capillary exudation in which the no
trient material passes through the delicate
coats of the capillary vessels. Says the
author last quoted, (same book, p. 51,) "If
the capillaries did not suffer this certain
quantity to transudo for feeding the parus to
which they are distributed, then the circula
tion would be a fruitless performance; the
blood might as well bo in a bottle. You
may saj of all growing parts of the body
that their elements lie in an atmosphere of
fluid material derived by transudation from
the capillary blood-vessels—material con
stantly renewed from the same source, and
possessing all the characteristics of the orig
inal fluid, (i. e. of the liquor sanguinis,) with
no other differences than those of a varying
In inflammation this transudation is great
ly increased, owing to the increase of hy
drostatic pressure made upon the column of
blood in tho capillary vossels by the increas
ed determination of this fluid toward the
inflamed locality. This increase in the phys
iological activity of the circulation must be
followed by a corresponding increase in the
natural exudation of the ultimate vossels;
and when the inflammatory action is in
tense, the character of the exudation par
takes more of the more solid and plastic
constituents of the blood; and the force with
which the circulation is driven to the part
may be so great, as, in some debilitated con
dition of the vessels, to even rupture their
delicalo coats and allow all the constituents
of the blood to pass into the interstices of
the tissues. This increase in the' nutrient
exudation of an inflamed part fills Up the
cellular tissue and augments the phenome
non of which we speak.
In describing the condition of an inflam
ed part tho fluid which find their way into'
the interstices of the tissues are by patholo
gists generally reckoned as the result of
effusion. But it must be evident that there
can be no effusion, properly speaking, ex
cept the coals of the vessels are ruptured
either by the force of the original remote
cause of the inflammation, or by the amount
of pressure exerted by the congestion. Tho
exudation through the porous coats of the
capillary vessels may be so considerable
as to produce all the symptoms characteris
tic of effusion, but the product in such a
condition does not contain all the constitu
ents of effused blood, and the terminations
of such a condition will be . quite different
from that in which effusion, properly speak
ing. is foundr I" 'ho former case the termi
nation will usually be in resolution, in tho
latter suppuration. But, lest -1 anticipate
my subject, let me proceed to a continua
tion of the quotation from the learned au
thor, and leave tho further discussion of this
subject to occupy its appropriate place, a
mong the "terminations of inflammation."'