Columbia Democrat and Bloomsburg general advertiser. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1850-1866, December 16, 1865, Image 1

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VOL. 19. NO. 42.
White Men Must Rule America!
N, Y.Day-Book for 'C6
Trip. DAY-l'noit prnpns's In Mnnd In Ilia future, n.
In the pnt' upon thu urcnt doctrine that thin la n
Wlilti- .Man's 'lovermnent Ni tin1 basis of n I'oilornl
Union thai white mpreiuay mill neuru miliordlualo
tm lire ci'i't til i li'iiifiils of Ainerlrnii rtv llizatlun
and industry, It desires tn Im distinctly counted out
pftliatilAM of Journals which prnnuta In mrrcndtr
Icinurratlc principles tn n cowardly public clamor.
It uspirn-i to no higher honor than In lie llio nrsan cf
the (treat Arrlliilturn 1,'lasse? nf Hie rnuntry ngnlntt
Uia pulillp. pliiiiilrrcrmit nil pnrtii'i, ivho now, tliiuugh
banks, tniill's, taso and fren nri'mlnm. arc striving
to critKh them, Thi! Uay-I'.onli, r lt nub rtitni?, 'I'ho
Caucasian, fur four long nml Moody year, kept tho
flag of Man. Rights and (.'(institutional Liberty llylni!
nt u great puciinlary nirrillo, In New Vmk, nnd at n
time, ton, when It no oilier Journal to keep it compa
ny It lino lira thsrefora. been printed merely In
imi'se 1111.110). hut has thoscn nil lie r in b. flight nml
Willi the People. Ibaii locontl the favor of cllmte, nnd
rich railroad corporations and bu wrong with tho
lew, It might liav.) h"cn better nil pecuniarily, but it
ould li.iMi been mily bankrupt In irineipia hail It
taken any other course. It Cocs ml mean tn inn a
competition with fluidity Democratic Abolition pa
per snpported bv pilllluil fundi robbed from tho
people, audit iirii tho masses tbnttlt.'ro are many
pn -tailed lleiuoof ralic paper enpii'.'u'l luih. cousplra
by l mortgage the bouei nniLsliiowa of tho Inriuiiijr
Mtid Industrial iliusos to bondholders nnd cipliolists ,
nnd surrender llio old Union ami tne old Uou litutloii
tu the ainngri litis. U, 'h.nlW, i alls upon nil true
men to etuml by It for nnoihcr year's tigut with tho
Abolitiuuists. Monopolists ami piiblir plunderer. 'I lia
luy.liook. in iiuw generally rcrugni.ed as Hie
Loading Democratic Weekly of tho G'oun-
try, ami lias the
Largest Circulation of any Published, bo-
lottlia only New Vnrk paper of in clnss m nle up a?
n r.iinily and Agricultural Journal.
nxrnussi.Y roit country circulation.
wim rett. rcroitTior ui, the sew- mint markcti.
Terms Cash in Advance,
One jopyone year.
Three mpies onj year.
1'ive copies nun jear. tin.l one lo the getter
up of the i tub.
Ten copies one jcar. and one to thi goiter
up of i tie club,
'Jwcnty copies one uir.
$ 2 00
10 00
17 St)
30 on
Gold Pen Premiums.
Stnd for n ypei linen copv, and see tlm full p.irllc
tars f 'Jieliold l;n t'reuiliiuis otl'eicd for set In" un
duos for Iboii. 1
We employ un traveling agents, Kvrry por.nn who
hntss negin equality is iiuiimnzed ind ri-'l'iolml to
uci us agent and send on subscriptions. ('."Address,
Slving poit-oilictf, count) and tftate'in fall
van i:t.hii:, iioiiru.v & cc ,
No Ib'J N.ibsau fJirect, Saw Vork.
Dec 2, 1SC3
T!io illag.izinc for (ho Times !
Pciersos)5 Magazine
Douulu Sized Sttxl Fashion' PV.-vrra.
Tills popular Me:i.7.inj
' lri. It will unit alll
will Ih greatly Improved
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Ml thl wl'l ! given fironlv Two I) il larsa car,
or a ilollar lesj Ibaii .)lui' of the lass ui l'e
Itrnoii." Us
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Are tlin boft published anywliere All tb'i mnt pop
ular wntcis are i ui lojeil to write originally lor
Peterson.' In Ifi.ti. 1.1 addition to its usual .Uanli
tr of short noriev. t'n tr Onginiil l! 'pyriglit f.uvi-l-
tts will begivin. by Ann IS. M. liens, I'rank Lie
r.eue.lii t, III.! iiMilior of' I." . in.iry." audilie Au
thor of "The r0Mn Life," It nlsu publishes
Mammctb (Ailorcd Tasliion Platoi
Ahead of all outers. Tit o se rial will be engraved
vntPi!l Twice tile uju il rfize, nutl will rmitai.i from
four in lix ftgui-' 'I'lo y Mill bu fitpi rbly colored.
Also. piitteiu. front winch a Dress, .Mantilla, or
Child's llres can be cut mi', ultli ml the aid a
liuiitii i uiuki r. .Mi ci, heteral pai'J of HoUftlluld
anil otiiiT Nuceipld,
ti-y li is the Dast Lady's Magazine in
the World. Trv it for one year.
Or.o copy, ono year
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four ti'i'ii. at til' above rales, a copy of tho JLiyuziuo
for IfcMiuill Le given gratis. Address, post-paid
nno Cbestuut Mreet. Philadelphia.
03" fjperiuiens tent gratis Hlien tent for.
Dec. -I I'US-Bl
Saturday Moruin?. Dec. 16. '65.
I'tllow citizens of the Senate and House
of Representatives :
To express ' rrratittido to God. in tho
naino of the people, for tho preservation of
tho United Statu, is my I'trt dutv in ml.
drcasiui; you. Our thoughts nest revert
totbo (loath of tho I're.idont by an act of
parricidal traaeon. Tho grief of tho uation
is Mill fresli ; it tinda 6omo solaoo in tho
conaiderution that ho lived lo cniov tho
highest proof of its confidence by entering
on tho ronowed term of tho Chief Mugis.
tracy to which ho had been elected ; that
ho brought the civil war substantially to
a cluso; that his loss was deplored iu all
parts of the Union, and that foreign na
tions havo rendered justice to his memory.
His removal enst upon me a heavier
weight of cure? than ever devolved upon
any ono of his predecessors.
To fulfil my trust Inecd the tupport nnd
confidence of all who nro associated with
mo in tho various departments of Govern
nient, and the support and confidence of
tho people. Tht;ro is but ono way in
which 1 cau hopo to gain their necessary
aid ; it is to date witli frankussa the prin
ciples which guide my conduct, and their
application to the present ttalu of affairs,
Well aware that the efficiency of my la
bors will, in a great measure," depend on
your antl their undivided approbation.
The Union of thn TJuitcd Sthtos of
America was intended by its authors lo
last as lung n the States themselves Bball
last. ''Tht Union shall be perpetual1' are
tho words of tho Oonfederation. "To form
a more purfuot Union," by an ordinance
nfthc peoplooftho United States, is the
declared purpose of tho Constitution.
Tho h'tiitl of JJ vino Providence was nev
er more plainly visible in tho aff.iirs of
men than iu the fi anting and the adopting
of that instrument. It is, beyond com
parison, tho greatest event in American
history ; and indeed is it not, of all events
in modem timca, the mot prennant with
coicrjuctjccfi fur every part ol tho earth I
The members of the convention whioh
-ircd it brought to their work the ex-Prel'-
ji,Q confederation, of their
ponencc oi f 0,hcr Vcpublioan
sevcral StaUs, u w . but they need
governrornts, old and ... ,ncrioto cx.
ed and obtained n wudom su, 'i(itv ,t
pcrience. And when for its yu.. y
roquirod the approval of a poopla that ol,"
cupitd a largu pirt of a continent, and
acted separately in mtiiij distinct conven
tions, what is more wonderful than that,
after lon contention and earnest dicus
liions. all ft'ilinr'3 and all opiuiona weru
uliiniatelj drawu in olc way to its sup
r.ili, ilm lininoferieausoef
" ' " " .l)2i no i tlls laPu of tim0 rCVi:;l1 dcf,''C,3 1 A
00 nlo modo of aniendincnt is provided i
oi.n EsTACi.taiico
u i e r u i u :
604 Market Street,
(Above Sixth.)
At JONUS' Urerrcnt Ono Trire riotblne Store, tUu
lowest helling price is marked in plain lijunw on eacli
atticle. and never varied. AH bay alike, li. tlior
ludite nrnot The tor.k . golten up in a superior man
.,.,.. l c.r retail sales. Those wauling a good
iiib'.tai'tlal ami fdtlnouablo nrlitla. should nut fail to
t0t JOXS 001 Street,
One Frice .V;oro.
May 13, H-Ga.-ly
.14(51. V DOhii,
cini:ui, French and English
Toys, and Fancy Goods, Pipes,
Canes, China Wares, &o.
BcptctnberS, lEOJ.
Ilinjliamplin " " ,,,,.,,,,,
Criuendeu's " " riilladelplih.
Hiralton.llryatlt&Cn.. "
v. . .1 il... IfoL lima li-tltlOffil. '
Tlicsrtcrips.ateinninoiintoft5l5nid j0 anil .are
vi fo much ci nit, bytheBtiidciit on ciitring either oftln
above i;ollc. Youna men ilcsirms tnobtaln a (Inuli
ed Collsplato Uducitluir, will here tlndugood ipoculn
Ion by arptvingui mo "','" "'
nv. ii tew
'1 he Con-titution to which life was thus
inipurtcd contains within itself amplo re
sources for iti own prciorvution. It has
power to enforce the laws, punish treason
and ensure domestic tranquility. In ciso
of uiurintiou of the rrovtTiitiieut of a State
by ono rain, or an oligarchy, it becomes a
duty of ttio United States to rauku good
tho gaurantce to that State of a republi
can loim of government, and so to main-
oi an- ijoca
nlo modo of aniendincnt is provulert in tsic
Constitution itself, so that its conditions
can alway he made to conform to the re
(luireincijU of advancing oivtliz.itiqn.
No room is allowed even fur tho thought
of a possibility of ita'comin to an end.
Aud these powers of self-preservation
rmim ahvnvs hten asserted in their com
plete integrity by every patiiotio Chief
Magistrate bv defforson and Jaekson,
not less than by Washington and Madi-
on. The parting advico qt tno l'atlier
of bis Country, v.hilo yet President, to
people of the United States, wa3 that at
tbeir liaua, mignt ue sacrcuiy itiaiuiuiu
cd, and tht inaugural words of President
Jefferson held up 'Hie preservation oi tuc
r,i-neral Oovoinmcnt.iu its conktttutionai
vigor, as tho i-hect auobor ol our peace at
liouio and r-afely abroad.' Tho Constitu
tion is the work of "tho people of tho Uni
ted States,' and it should be as iudestruot
iblo as the people.
It is not utraugo that the frames of the
Constitution, whioh had no model in tho
past, should not havo fully comprehend-
l, r II I'XOUIIUIIUU UI lllbl. w.,
Fresh from a etrugtilo against arbitrary
power, many patriots sulterea trom uar
rassinc fears of an absorption of tho State
governments by tho Gfuural l.ovonimeiii
.mi mnnv rom arcau unit. uu "i'"
would brcal. away from their orbits Rut
tho very greatness of oiircoiuitry should
allay tho apprehension of encroachments
by the General Government. .Tho sub
jootstliatoomo unriuostionablv within its
jurisdiction nre so numerous, that it must
. n..i,,enii., rofnen tn hi! g tubarr asscd bv
of tho rights or any State Government
to renounce its own place in tho Union, or
to nullify the laws of tho Union. Tin.
largest liberty is to be maintained in tho
discussion ol tho acts of the Federal Gov
ernment; btitthcro is no appeal Irom Its
laws, except to the various branches ol
mat people, who grant to tho members of
tho Legislature and of the Estcutivo De
partments no teuuro but a limited ono.
and in tint manner always retain the
powers of retires.
llbo sovereignty of tho Stales' is tlin
language of tho Coniedcraoy, aud not tho
langungo of tho Constitution. Tho lnttcr
contains etupbatio words: 'Tho Contita
tlon, and the laws of tho United States
which shall ho made in pursuance thereof,
and all treaties made, or which shall bo
made under tha authority of tho United
States, Elian be tho supremo law of the
land, and tho judges in every Stato shall
ho boutid thereby, anything in the Consti
tution or laws of any Stale to the contra
ry notwiiln-tandiug.'
Certainly the Government of tho United
States is n limited Government J and no is
every State Government a limited Gov
ernment. With us; this idea of limitation
spreads through every form of adminis
tration, General, State and muiiiepal, and
rests on the great distinguishing principle
of the lecognition of the rights of man
The ancient republics absorbed tho indi
vidual in the State, prescribed his religion
and controlled his activity. The Ameri
can system rests on tho assertion of the
equal right of every man to life, liberty
and the pursuit of happiueS3 ; to freedom
of conscience, to the culture and exercise
ol all his iactillios. As a consequence,
the State Kovernmeut is limited as to the
General government in thn interest of the
Union as the individual citizen in the in
terest of freedom.
States, with proper limitations of pow-
.. . ;. e .1 '
. uru cabuuiiai to niu existence oi toe
Constitution of the United Sta'es. At the
very commencement, wheu we assumed a
placo among tho powers of the earth, the
Declaration of Independence was adopted
by States; so also were tho Articles ol
Confederation ; and when 'the peoplo of
tho United btates ordained and establish
ed the Constitution, it was the assent of
the State, one by one, which gavo it vi
tality. In the event, too, ol any amend
mcnt to the Constitution, tho proposition
of Congress needs tho confirmation of
Without Stale?, one great branch of the
legislative government would be wanting
And ii we look bovotid tho letter of the
(j'stitution to the character of our coun
try" its cnnic';" or COuiPrehfntHng with
inlo inrrBdictii.: VMt continental em
pirei'sduetothesylc,nof SMes- Abor
hest security for tho porpoil exftence of
the States is the 'supremo autti'ritv ot
the Constitution of the United St.ttK
The pcrpetuily of the Constitution Irings
with it the perpetuity of the States j their
mutual relation makes us what wo arc,
and in our political system their connec
tion is iudbaolublo. The wliolo cauuot
exist without the parts, nor tho parts
without tho whole. So Ions as tho Jon-
stitiitioti of tho United States endures, th
of fllfll
States will endure ; the destruction ol one
is the destruction of tho other : the pros
creation of the one r the preservation of i is esclusivsly
tho other. j I
I havo thus explained my views of tho
mutual relations of tho Constitution and
tho States, because they unfold the princi
ples on which I havo sought to solve the
momentous qui;itiot)3 and overcome the
appalling dilliculties that mot tne at the
very commencement of my administration.
It lias been ray steaatast otjoet 10 escape
from tho sway of momentary passions and
derive a boalmg policy from the funda
mental and unchanging principles of tho
I found tho Slates suffeiing from the
effects of a civil war. Resistance to the
General Government nppeared to have
exhausted itself. The United States had
recovered possession of their forts and ar-
powers, if continued throuch a
period of years, would havo endaugored
the purity of tbo general ndminiitration
and tho liberties of tho States which re
mained loyal.
hesides, the polioy of military rule over
a' conquered territory would have implied
that the Slates whose inhabitants may
have taken part in the Rebellion had, by
tho net of those inhabitants, ceased to ex
ist. Rut tho truo theory is, that all pre
tended acts of scccrsiou were, from tho be
ginning, null aud void. The Slates can
not commit treason, nor screen the indi
vidual citizens who may have committed
treason, any more than they can make
valid treaties or cngago in lawful oom
moroo with any foreign Power. Tho
States attempting to sece"do placed them
selves in a condition where their vitality
was impaired, but not extinguished their
functions suspended, but not destroyed.
Rut if any State neglects or reluscs to
perforin its offices, tlieio is tho more need
that the General Government should
maintain all its authority, and, as soon as
practicable, resume the exerci e of all its
functions. On this principle I have acted,
anil have gradually and quietly, and by
almost imerccptiblo steps sought to restoro
tho rightful energy of the General Gov
ernment and of the States. To that end,
Provisional Governors have boon appoint
ed for thn State.", Conventions called,
Govenors elected, Legislatures assembled,
and Senators and Representatives ehoton
to the Coogioss of tho United States
At tho same time, the Courts of tho
United States, as far as could bo done,
have been re-opened, so that the laws of
tho Umteu btates maybe enforced through
tbeir agency. Tho blockade has been re
moved and tho custom houses ra-cstablish-
rd iu ports of entry, so that the
revenue of tho United States may be col
lected. The Post Office Department re
news its ceaseless activity, and tho Gen'
oral Government is thereby enabled to
communicate promptly with its officers
aud agents. The courts bring security to
persona and property; the opening of the
ports iuvitos tho restoration of industry
und commerce ; the post ofhso renews tho
facilties of social intercourse and uf biui-ucss.
Antl is it not happy for its all, that tho
restoration ol each one ot thoso lunetion
of the General Government brings with i
a blessiuc to the States over which they
are extended ! It is not sure a promiso of
harmony and renewed attachment to the
Union that, after all that has happened
tho return of the General Government
known only as a bencliconce?
I know very well that tb'13 polioy
attended with sorao risk ; that for it3 sue
cess it requires at least tho acquicseeneo
ot tuo estates wuten 11 concerns, mai u
implies an invitation to those States, by
I renewing their allegianeo to the United
pj'atcs, lo resume their luuctions as states
nf rim rinioo. J3'.U it is a risk that must
be tnken; in choice of difficulties it ii the
Host rislf. nnd to diminish , and, H pos
ciLin 1., romnvrt nil dangers, I havo felt
it inctibent on mo to assert one other pow
cr of the General Government the power
of pardon.
As no State can throw a defeneo over
tho crinii of treu-onthe power of pardon
vetted in the
Government of the United States. In ex
ureising thai, power 1 have taken every
precaution to oounert it with tho clearest
recognition of the binding force of the laws
of the United States and au unqualified
acknowledgement of the great social
change ot condition in regard to slavery
which has grown out of the war.
Tho next stop which I have taken to re
Btnre tbn constituioual relations of tho
thereby completo tho work of restoration.
Hero It is lor you fellow citizens of tho
Senate antl for you fellow oitircns of tho
House of Representatives, to judge, eaeh of
you for yourselves, of the olcetiousretiiriu
and qualifications ol your own members.
The lull assertion of thn powers of tho
Genoral Government requires the holding
tho Circuit Courts of the United Suites
within tho districts where their authority
has been interrupted. In tho present
posture of our public affairs, strong ob
jections have been urged to holding those
courts in any of tho btates whero tho re
bellion has exitcd; and it was ascertain
ed by inquiry, that the Circuit Court of
the United States would not bo held
withio the District of Virginia during the
autumn or early winter, nor until (Jurj
gress should have 'au oppornuuity to con
lUcr and act on the wliolo pulject.
To your deliberations the restoration of
this branch of tho civil authority of tho
United States is thereforo necessarily re
ferred, with the hope that early provision
will be made for the resumption of all its
functions. It is manifest that treason,
most flagrant in character, has been com
mitted. Persons wbo are charged with its
commission sltouid have lair and impartial
trials in the highest civil tribunals of the
country in order that the Constitution and
the laws may bo fully vindieatcd , the
truth clearly established aud affirmed that
treason Is a crime that traitors should be
punished and tbo offence made infamous ;
aud at the same time, that the question
may be judically settled, fiually and forev-
or that no blatc of its own will has tho
right to renounce its place in tho Union.
The relations of the General Govern
ment towards the four millions of inhabi
tants whom the war has called into free
dom have enuaged my most serious con
sideration. Un thn propriety ol attempting
to make tho Ircctlom electors by procla
mation ef the Executive, 1 took lor my
counsel the Constitution itsclf,the inter
pretations of that instrument by its authors
aud their cotonuiorane, and recent legis
lation of Congress. When, at the first
movement towards indedendenco the Con
cress ot tne uuiten aiatcs itisirucicti inu
overal Stales lo institute Governments oi
tbeir own, they loft each Stato to decide
for itself tho conditions for the enjoyment
of the elective franchise.
Purine tho period of tho Confedcraoy
thero continued to exist a very great di
versity in the qualifications of electors in
tho sevcral States ; and even within a
State a distinction of qualifications pre
vailed with rcsard to the officers who were
tn Im chosen. The Constitution of the
United States recognizes those diversities
when it enjoins that, iu the choice of
members of the House of Representatives
of the United Stales, 'the electors in each
b'tato shall have rqualificalions requisite
for electors of the most numerous branch
of tho Slate Legislature.
After the formation of the Constitution,
it remained, as before, tho uniform usage
for each Stato to enlarge tho body of its
electors, according to its own judgment ;
and. under this svatcm, one Statu after
another has proceeded to increase the num
ber of its electors until now universal suf
frage, or something very near it, is the
general rule.
So fixed was this reservation of power
in tho habits of the peoplo, and bo unqus-
tioued has been the interpretation ol tne
Coustitutiou that duriug th civil war the
late President never harbored the purpose
certaiuly never avowed the purpose
ol disregarding it ; and in the acts of Con
gress, during that period, notmng can on
found which, during the continuance of
hostilities, much loss after their closo,
would have sanctioned any departure by
the Executive from a policy which basso
uniformly obtained.
Mnreovor. a concession of the elective
not ot
havu been extended to all colored men,
must have, oslau-
livo side by side, in a stato of mutual bene
fit and cood will The cxnorlmcnt involves
us in no incompetency; let us, then, go on
und make that experiment In good laith,
and not bo too easily disheartened,
1 ho country is in uccd of labor, and tho
froedmen are in need of omploymont, oul
turc and protection, While their right of
voluntary mieration and expatriation is
not to bo questioned. I would not advise
their foreetl removal and colonization.
Lot us rather oticouraco them lo honora-
bio and useful industry, where it may bo
beneficial to themselves cud to tho coun
try ; and, instead of hasty anticipations of
the certainty of failure, let thero be noth
ing wanting to the fair trial ol tho experi
ment. 1 he chunco in their condition is
the substitution of labor by contract for
thost'itus of slavery. The freedmen can
not fairly be accused of unwillingness to
work, so long as n doubt remains about
his freedom of choice in his pursuits, and
the certainty of his receiving his stipulated
In this the interests of the employer
and employed coincide. The employer
desires in his workmen spirit and alacrity,
and these can be permanently scoured in
n) other wav. And if tho ono ought to
be able to enforce tho contract; so oucht
tho other. Tho puhlio interest will be best
promoted if the saver nl Stales will provide
adequate protection and remedies lor the
freedmen, Until this is in some way ac
complished, thero is no chance for tho ad
vantageous use of their labor , and tbo
Unvins thoroughly overhauled my a
Wra pi'nu Dry Tla.t ,.g and Wulcr 1'roof Paper, oil
,hor' neli; ' Und fa.r p.ices. 1 have owne4
liouso ill Wllkea-ltarre. nnd appointed Josepli "'own
lllio (Inn otllrnwii.iirny t.o my ajeiit touispose
of iny paper it. Luzerne Countjrjg TRr.NCU(
BlonmsbtirB.Bept, IB, 1P"3.
Lot For Sale.
k M iir,il,lo bntldinc lot. with an excel
jfXlent BARN thenon erected. ccntrillf locited in
HI. on.i.e lor isi. "I'l"' " nrrrc
i.ft.ii, iwi, Tin orrcs.
srruiln nnd their armies were in tho oc
ciipation of every State which had attempt
ed to secede. Whether the territory with
in tho limits of those States should be
held as conquered territory, under milita
ry authority cminating from tho President
as the head' of tho army, was the first
question that presented itself fur decision.
Now, military govuinmfinis.estahlishetl for
an iuiielimto period, wouiu nave oudruu
uo sccuiity for the early suppression of
di-ooutenl; would have divided the peo
ple iuto tiie anquisliers and the van
quished ; and would havo envenomed ha
tred. ratUur than restored affjetiun. Oneo
fbtablished, no ptecise limit to their con-
' ' n. MM .1,1
'.inuaiico was couccivame. iue nuum
have occasioned au incalculable and ex
hausting expense. Peaceful emigration
tnnnd irom that nortion of the country is
one of tho host means that can be thought
fo for the restoration ol harmony and that
m.iiirratinn would havo been prevented ;
. -. - , ... . i .t,.
for what omigraut irom auruuu, wusi
States has been an invitation to them to
participate in the high office of amending
.i... t .., .:,.;., r.!trinr. mint wish
lliu wuuniiiuiiwii. loui pw...-- . .el . . .
for a oeaeral amnesty at the earliest epoch franchise (o iho freed men , by the ,
consistent with public "safety. For this j the President ol the Un. ed States,
great end thero is need of a ooucuronce ot havu Deen exieuui.u .u
horever found, and so
P D!" " , : : .Tin c,l a 0Ua..o of suffrage in the North
:,. ' , bi n ! Ur, em. Middle and Western States, not las
r. .... -i. . .,ci.- I.. ii. nr. mi, of , than in the Soutliorn and Southwestern.
j.1 is nut, iuu miiuu ivi ' - - ,
.i. i.i nj, it.. nn the; onrt side, tho ' Such an act wauiu
w i- ..... . .
plan of restoration shall proceed in con-
lornuty witu a willingness iu u;ut mu un
orders of the past into oblivion; and that
on the other the evideneo of emceiity in
tho future maintenance of the Uuion shall
bo nut beyond any doubt bj tho ratification
. .'. i i . e i'ni,,il.
ol tho propiiaeu ameuuiucii. u. un uuuo..-
in nn w ill! I nrflvlllnS Or 1110 aUOIIllOU Ui
within tho limits oi
ever naturally rcu?c to bo embarrassed by
questions that lie beyouu u.
1 !. -it. il, Kvpnntivn would
WOtlJ l. UVIItlttiav, oo ,ftv-,..- -----p- ,, ,
sink beneath tho burden ; the channels o dustrioua citizen at homo, wou d place
Snellen wnnld bo -boked : lomslation wouiu
J , ... .Li tlirt.n ta n.
bo ousuuciou oy exodus, - -
creator temptation to exercise some of the
funotions ot tho General Government thro
tho States thati to trespass on tuoir nguv
ful sphere 'The absoluto acquicscnoo in
tho decisions ol tho majority' wa9, at tho
beciuniugof the century, enforoed by
iotreroti -as tuu vital uiiiiuiw-u
licj,' and tho events of the last four years
' .ii.i 1 -II l.nA fnrBVfir.
have estauusucu, wo win iwf .w.-.-.;
itiot thero lies no anneal to force.
Tho maintonanoo of tho Union brings
?fh it tho support of 'tho Stato govern
monU i" all Ihcir right; but it is not ona
class, of voters, and wuuld
assumption ol power uj
created a new
havo been an
iho President
which nothing in tho Constitution or laws
of tho United States would have warantod.
.On tho other hand, every danger of
conflict ? avoided when tho settlement of
tlin nnestion U referred to tho several
on the
Thcv can. eaeh for itself, deoido
.. .i.., it,,.- !j l.i
i r ihn i,iifa n nnr o niu i cii,un i iii ..v...... .v -
fiiavury iui "", ,"" ,.' ,i nl,.nl,.telv. or inlro-
suutry. bo ong as tho adoption oi mis - , -. ' "
. . Z .i.,ii..n,i inn will doubt duced craduallv and with conditions.
In mv iudsment, tho freedmen, il they
olf wilhnolv under 'military rulo I
,,..,.-.. ......- ., - .
Tho chief persons who wouiu nave im
Inned in tho train of the army would havo
Loon donendents on tho tienorii uoveru-
i . . . n. r
ment, or mon who expecicu prom nu.u
. . e ., t -nllMr.nllt90na.
tho miseries oi tiuir Brriug ibii,s-isi--
Tho powers of patronage and rule whioh
would have been exercised undortbe Pres
ident over a vast and populous, and nat
urally wealthy region, are greater than,
,.r,lnta nnilnr nxtreino IlCCUSsitV, I should
bo willing to entrust to any one man ;
thoy aro such as, for myself, I oould uov
cr. unless on occasions of great emergen
cy, consent to exercise. Tho willful "a
nniniirWntn dolaved so long will doubt
and jealousy and uncertainly prevail.
ThiB is tho measure whioh wilj cuaco tno
Bad monioryof tho past, this is the meas
ure which will most ccrUiniy can popula
tion and capital and security to thoso parts
of the Union that need them most.
Indeed it is not too much to asH oi ue .
States whioh are now resuming their places
in tho family of the Union to givo this
plodgo of perpetual loyalty and poaoe.
Until it is done tho pant however muoh
we may desire it will not bo forgotton.
The adoption of tho amendment reunites
o imrnnd all nower of disruption. It
heals tho wound that is still iinperfeotly
elosod- it removra slavery the element ,
whioh has so long perplexed apd dmdcu
tho country ; it makes of us once more a
united pooplo, tonowed aud strengthened,
bound more than over to mutual affection
and support.
Tho amendment of tho Constitution be
ing adopted it would remain for the States
whoso powers havo been so long in obey
auoe, to rcsumo thoir plaoes in the two
branches cf tho National Log'ulature, and
show natieuoe and manly virtues,will soon
or obtain a participation iu mo eieciiru
franchise through the States than through
tho General Government, eveu if it had
power to interveno. When the tumult of
emotions that havo been raised by ihciud
dnmieasol the social ohange shall have
subsided, it may prove that they will rc
ceivo the kindliest usago from somo of
ihose on whom thoy have herotoforo moat
olosely depended.
But whilo I havo uo doubt that now, af-
ter the oloso of tho war, it is not compe
tent for tho General Goverumoot to ex
tend the elective franchise in iho soveral
States, it is eouallv clear that cood faith
i rrnitirea the security of tho freedmen iu
1 their liberty and tbeir property, tbeir right
to labor, and their light to olatm tho just
return of their labor. I cannot too strong-
lv iirco a dispassionate treatment of this
subject, which should bo carefully kept
aloof from all party itrifo. Wo must
enuallv avoid hasty assumptions of any
natnrn.1 Imnossibilitv for the twi races to
blame of ill success will not rest on them.
I know that sincere philanthropy is
aaruest for the immediate realization of its
remotest aims ; but timo is always an ele
ment in reform. It is one of the greatest
acts on record to havo bronchi lour million
of peoplo into freedom. J. he career of freo
industry must bo fairly opened to them ;
and ibeu ihcir future prosperity and con
dition must, after all. rtst mainly on them
selves. If they fail, and so perish away,
let us be oarcful that the failuro fball not
bo attributable to any denial ef justice
In all that relates to tho destiny of the
freedmen, we need not bo too anxious to
rea.l the future ; many incidents which,
from a speculative point of view, might
raise alarm, will quietly settle themselves
Now that slavery is at an end, or uear
its end, the greatness of its evil, iu tjie
point of view of public economy, becomes
more and more apparent, blavery was
essoiuiallv a monopoly of labor, and as
such looked tho States where it prevailed
against the incoming of freo industry.
Where labor was the property of the cap
italist, the white man was oxcludcd from
employment, or had but iho second best
chance of boding it, and tho loruign cmi
grant turned away from .the region where
his condition woultl eo so precarious.
With the destruction of the monopoly, free
labor will h isten Irom all parts of the oivil
ized world to a-sirt in developing various
and immeasurable resources which have
hitherto Iain dorimnt.
The eight or nine States nearest the
Gulf of Mexico have a oil of exuberant
fertility, a climate ftiendly to long lilo and
can su-tain a denser population thau is
found as jet in any part of our country.
And in the futuro influx of population to
them will be m inly from the Norih, or
lioru the most cultivated nations iu Europe.
From the sufferings that havo attended
them during our late struggle, let us look
away to the luuire, winch is 'uro to uj la
den for them with greater prosperity than
has ever before been known. Tho removal
of tho monopoly of slave labor is a pledge
that those regions will he peopled Dy a nu
merous and enterprising population, which
will vie with any in tho Uuion in compact
ness, invetitiTO genius, wealth and indus
try: Our Government springs from and was
made for the people, not the people for the
Government. To them it owes allegianuc ;
from them it must derive its courage,
strength and wisdom. Rut, while the Gor-
eminent is thus hound to delcr to tho peo
ple, from whom it derives its existence, it
should, from the very consideration of its
origin, be strong in its power of resistance
to thu establishment of inequalities. Mo
nopolies, porpetutios and class legislation
aro contrary to the geunu ot lice govern
ment, and ought not to bo allowed. Hero
thero is no room for favored classes or
monopolies ; the priuoiplo of our Govern
ment is that of equal laws and freedom of
- . ... ..,
Whenever monopoly attains a tootnoiu,
it is sum to bo a source of danger, discord
and trouble. We shall but fulfil our duties
as legislators by acoording "equal and ex
act justice to all men," special privileges
to none. Tho Government is subordinate
to the peoplo ; but, as tho agent and rep
resentative o tho neon'.o, it must ue neiu
superior to monopolies, which in them
selves ought never id begranted.and whioh,
where they exist, must be suoorttinate,ana
yield to tho Government,
,n . rt .:. .! f - n....a
XU0 Vjousiiiuuou oouicra on vjuugn;,"
the right to rcgulato commerce amoug tho
several States. It is of tho first oeoe3ity
for tho maintenance of tho Union, that
that cotnmeroo should bo freo and unob
structed. No Stato oan be justified in any
dovico to tax tho transit ol travel and
commerce between States. Tho position
of many Stales is such that, if they were
allowed to tauo auvantago oi u ior purpu-
se. o( local revenue, tho commerce be
tween States might ba injuriously burden
ed, or svon virtually prohibited. It Is best
whilo tho oountry is still young, and while
the tendenoy to dangerous monopolies of
this kind is Btill feeble, to use the power of
uongresB bo ss to proveni any soiusu im
pediment to lb.9 fiea oiroulstion o( men
and merchandise. A tax on travel and
morchandi-e, in their tinns.t, constitutes
one of the worBt forms of monopoly, and
the evil is increased if coupled with a de
nial of the choice of route. When tho
ast extent of our country is considered,
it is plain that every obstacle lo the froo
circulation of commerco between tho Statoa
ought to bo etcrnly'guardod against y a p.
propriRto legislation, wulnn thu limits of
tho Constitution.
Tho report of tho Sccrotary of tho In
terior explains tho condition of tho publio
lands, tho transactions of the Patent Of
fice and the Pension Bureau, the manage
ment of our ludian affairs, tho progress
made in tho construction of tho Paeifio
Railroad, and furnishes information in rot-
ronce to matters of lecal interest in the
Disttict of Columbia. It also present
evidence of the successful operation of tho
Homestead Act, under tho provisions of
which 1,100,533 acres of the public lands
wero entered during the last Ileal year
more ihan one fourth of the whole number
aorcs sold or othcrwiso disposed of
during that period.
It is cstimat 'd that tho receipts domed
from this source are Buflkient to cover the
expenses incident to the survey and dispo
sal of the lauds entered under this not,
and that payments in cash to the extent of
from forty to Gfty per cent, will bo mado
by cltlers, who may thus at any timo ao
quire titlo beforo the expiration of tho pe-
npd nt which it would otherwise vest.
Tho Homestead policy was established
only niter long and earnest resistancn ;
czpsricuco proves its wisdom. The lands,
iu the hands ot industrious vottiers,wtioso
labor croa,sns wealth-and' contributes to tho
public resources, are worth mero to the
United states than il they bad been re
served as a' solitude for futuro purchasers.
Tho lamentable events of the last four
years, and tho sacrifices mide by the gal
lant men of our army nnd navy, havo
swelled tho records of the Pension Bu
rean to an unprecedented extent. On tho day ot June last, the total number
of pensioners was 85.980, requiring for
their annual pay, exelusivo ot ex'pensea,
the sum of 53,023,445. Tho number of
applications that have been allowed sinoo
that date will require a large increase of
this amount for Uie next fiscal year, tho
means for the payment of tho stipends du
uuder existing laws, to our disabled sol
diers aud sailors, and to tho families of
such as havo perished in the service of tko
country, will no doubt bo cheerfully and
promptly granted. A gratelul people will
not hesitate to sanction any measures hav
ing for their object tho relief of soldiera
mutilated aud families made lutherlcsi in
tho efforts to preserve our national exist
ence .
The report of the Postmaster General
presents an encouraging cxhihit of the op
erations of tho Poit Office Department da
ring the year. The revenues of the last
year fro u tho loyal States alouc exceeded
the maximum anuual receipts from all tho
States previous to the rebellion, iu the sum
of 0,0.58 091 ; and the annual avcrag.i
increase of revenue during tbo last four
years, compared with the reveuues of tho
four years immediately preceding tho ra
bullion, was 53,5'.3,845.
The revenues of the last fiscal year
amounted to 5U,55G,luS, and the cxpen
diiures to 81 H.OU 1 ,7i!8, leaving a surplus
of'reooipts over expenditures of 8301,430.
Progress has haen mado in restoring me
postal service in the Southern States. Tho
views presented by the PoStmisler Ganor
al against tbo polioy of grauting subsidies
to ocean aud mail steamship liues upon
established routes, and in favo' of coutina
iug the present syntera, which limits tho
compensation for oocan service to tho post
age earnings, aro recommended to tbs
careful consideration of Oougrcss.
It uproars, from the report of tha Sec
retary of tho Navy, thai while, at tho
commencement of thn present year, there)
wero in cominnsion uju vessels ot an
classes and descriptions, armod with 15 000
guns and manned by 51 000 men, tbo num.
bur of vessels at present in commission ii
117, with 830 guns anil 12,1'JS men. By
tins prompt rcductiou of tho naval foroos
the expenses of the Government have been
largely diminished, and a number of ves-
sels, purchased for naval purposes from
tho merchant marine, have been returned
to the peaceful pursuit? of comuieroo.
Since the suppression of nctivo hostili
ties our forcigu squadrons have been re
established, und consist of vessels much
more eliiotent than thoso ompioyeu on sim
ilar servico previous to the rebellion. Tho
suggestion for the enlargement of the navy
yards, and especially for tho establish
ment of ono in fresh water for iron-olad
vessels, is deserving af consideration, as is
also tho recommendation for a different
looation aud more ample grounds for tha
Naval Acadomy,
In tho report of the sjcretary nt ar a
general summary is given of tho military
compaigns of le)04 aud 1805, eudiug in
tbo suppression of armed resistance to the
national authority in the insurgent Siatos.
Tho operations of tho, genoral adminis
trative bureaus of tho War Department
during tho past year are detailed, and an
cstimato made of tho appropriations that
will bo required for military purposes in
tho Gtcal year commencing the 30tji day
of June, 1600. Tho uatiooal military
forco on Iho 1st of May, 1800, numbered
1,000,510 meu, it is proposou to reuueo
military establishment to a peace foot,
comprehending buy tuouaanu troops ot
all arms, organized to as to admit of nn
enlargement by Clling p ibe r-jnks in
sigbty-two thoiKund six huudrod, if tha
circumstanoei nf tha oountry should i.