Columbia Democrat and Bloomsburg general advertiser. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1850-1866, December 16, 1865, Image 1
DEMOCRAT AM) BLOOMSBUKG GENERAL ADVERTISER. LEVJL L. TATE, EDITOR "TO HOLD AND TRIM THE TOROU OF TIIUTII AND WAVE IT O'ER THE DARKENED EARTH." TERMS : 32 50 IN ADVANCE. VOL. 19. NO. 42. BLOOMSJBURG, COLUMBIA COUNTY, PENN'A,, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 16, 18G5. VOLUME 29.' ,'yjfjij;ii-inmt-nci-gtJw.iiuiJijjxBU3ai., White Men Must Rule America! N, Y.Day-Book for 'C6 Trip. DAY-l'noit prnpns's In Mnnd In Ilia future, n. In the pnt' upon thu urcnt doctrine that thin la n Wlilti- .Man's 'lovermnent Ni tin1 basis of n I'oilornl Union thai white mpreiuay mill neuru miliordlualo tm lire ci'i't til i li'iiifiils of Ainerlrnii rtv llizatlun and industry, It desires tn Im distinctly counted out pftliatilAM of Journals which prnnuta In mrrcndtr Icinurratlc principles tn n cowardly public clamor. It uspirn-i to no higher honor than In lie llio nrsan cf the (treat Arrlliilturn 1,'lasse? nf Hie rnuntry ngnlntt Uia pulillp. pliiiiilrrcrmit nil pnrtii'i, ivho now, tliiuugh banks, tniill's, taso and fren nri'mlnm. arc striving to critKh them, Thi! Uay-I'.onli, r lt nub rtitni?, 'I'ho Caucasian, fur four long nml Moody year, kept tho flag of Man. Rights and (.'(institutional Liberty llylni! nt u great puciinlary nirrillo, In New Vmk, nnd at n time, ton, when It no oilier Journal to keep it compa ny It lino lira thsrefora. been printed merely In imi'se 1111.110). hut has thoscn nil lie r in b. flight nml Willi the People. Ibaii locontl the favor of cllmte, nnd rich railroad corporations and bu wrong with tho lew, It might liav.) h"cn better nil pecuniarily, but it ould li.iMi been mily bankrupt In irineipia hail It taken any other course. It Cocs ml mean tn inn a competition with fluidity Democratic Abolition pa per snpported bv pilllluil fundi robbed from tho people, audit iirii tho masses tbnttlt.'ro are many pn -tailed lleiuoof ralic paper enpii'.'u'l luih. cousplra by l mortgage the bouei nniLsliiowa of tho Inriuiiijr Mtid Industrial iliusos to bondholders nnd cipliolists , nnd surrender llio old Union ami tne old Uou litutloii tu the ainngri litis. U, 'h.nlW, i alls upon nil true men to etuml by It for nnoihcr year's tigut with tho Abolitiuuists. Monopolists ami piiblir plunderer. 'I lia luy.liook. in iiuw generally rcrugni.ed as Hie Loading Democratic Weekly of tho G'oun- try, ami lias the Largest Circulation of any Published, bo- lottlia only New Vnrk paper of in clnss m nle up a? n r.iinily and Agricultural Journal. nxrnussi.Y roit country circulation. wim rett. rcroitTior ui, the sew- mint markcti. Terms Cash in Advance, One jopyone year. Three mpies onj year. 1'ive copies nun jear. tin.l one lo the getter up of the i tub. Ten copies one jcar. and one to thi goiter up of i tie club, 'Jwcnty copies one uir. $ 2 00 S .VI 10 00 17 St) 30 on Gold Pen Premiums. Stnd for n ypei linen copv, and see tlm full p.irllc tars f 'Jieliold l;n t'reuiliiuis otl'eicd for set In" un duos for Iboii. 1 We employ un traveling agents, Kvrry por.nn who hntss negin equality is iiuiimnzed ind ri-'l'iolml to uci us agent and send on subscriptions. ('."Address, Slving poit-oilictf, count) and tftate'in fall van i:t.hii:, iioiiru.v & cc , No Ib'J N.ibsau fJirect, Saw Vork. Dec 2, 1SC3 T!io illag.izinc for (ho Times ! Pciersos)5 Magazine Douulu Sized Sttxl Fashion' PV.-vrra. Tills popular Me:i.7.inj ' lri. It will unit alll will Ih greatly Improved On TLoufaad P:igo$ ! Kourtot'ii fplcndiu nlicl i'latcs : TwuUu innujiiiotli I'asbion Platoi ! Twelve Colorud 1'atteriH 1 'ino liuudrcd Wood Cuts ! Twenty-four P.ijzcs ol Music ! Ml thl wl'l ! given fironlv Two I) il larsa car, or a ilollar lesj Ibaii .)lui'a.ne of the lass ui l'e Itrnoii." Us Thrilling Talcs and Novelettes Are tlin boft published anywliere All tb'i mnt pop ular wntcis are i ui lojeil to write originally lor Peterson.' In Ifi.ti. 1.1 addition to its usual .Uanli tr of short noriev. t'n tr Onginiil l! 'pyriglit f.uvi-l- tts will begivin. by Ann IS. M. liens, I'rank Lie r.eue.lii t, III.! iiMilior of' S.mv I." . in.iry." audilie Au thor of "The r0Mn Life," It nlsu publishes Mammctb (Ailorcd Tasliion Platoi Ahead of all outers. Tit o se rial will be engraved vntPi!l Twice tile uju il rfize, nutl will rmitai.i from four in lix ftgui-' 'I'lo y Mill bu fitpi rbly colored. Also. piitteiu. front winch a Dress, .Mantilla, or Child's llres can be cut mi', ultli ml the aid a liuiitii i uiuki r. .Mi ci, heteral pai'J of HoUftlluld anil otiiiT Nuceipld, ti-y li is the Dast Lady's Magazine in the World. Trv it for one year. TKHMS-ALWAV3 IM ADVAXL'U. Or.o copy, ono year Five copies, fsr one year. J'i'glit copies, fur ouo year LVuttceii copies, one yenr I'ltEMIU.MS I'OIl OUTTIN't: UP CLUES To evi iy pereon g( ttnip tip a club c f five., right or four ti'i'ii. at til' above rales, a copy of tho JLiyuziuo for IfcMiuill Le given gratis. Address, post-paid CM MILLS J. IT.TLUjO.V, nno Cbestuut Mreet. Philadelphia. 03" fjperiuiens tent gratis Hlien tent for. Dec. -I I'US-Bl ON iriMlIGE CLOT iTlNG.-3 UuLunfiSIA DEMOCRAT. Saturday Moruin?. Dec. 16. '65. I'tllow citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives : To express ' rrratittido to God. in tho naino of the people, for tho preservation of tho United Statu, is my I'trt dutv in ml. drcasiui; you. Our thoughts nest revert totbo (loath of tho I're.idont by an act of parricidal traaeon. Tho grief of tho uation is Mill fresli ; it tinda 6omo solaoo in tho conaiderution that ho lived lo cniov tho highest proof of its confidence by entering on tho ronowed term of tho Chief Mugis. tracy to which ho had been elected ; that ho brought the civil war substantially to a cluso; that his loss was deplored iu all parts of the Union, and that foreign na tions havo rendered justice to his memory. His removal enst upon me a heavier weight of cure? than ever devolved upon any ono of his predecessors. To fulfil my trust Inecd the tupport nnd confidence of all who nro associated with mo in tho various departments of Govern nient, and the support and confidence of tho people. Tht;ro is but ono way in which 1 cau hopo to gain their necessary aid ; it is to date witli frankussa the prin ciples which guide my conduct, and their application to the present ttalu of affairs, Well aware that the efficiency of my la bors will, in a great measure," depend on your antl their undivided approbation. The Union of thn TJuitcd Sthtos of America was intended by its authors lo last as lung n the States themselves Bball last. ''Tht Union shall be perpetual1' are tho words of tho Oonfederation. "To form a more purfuot Union," by an ordinance nfthc peoplooftho United States, is the declared purpose of tho Constitution. Tho h'tiitl of JJ vino Providence was nev er more plainly visible in tho aff.iirs of men than iu the fi anting and the adopting of that instrument. It is, beyond com parison, tho greatest event in American history ; and indeed is it not, of all events in modem timca, the mot prennant with coicrjuctjccfi fur every part ol tho earth I The members of the convention whioh -ircd it brought to their work the ex-Prel'- ji,Q confederation, of their ponencc oi f 0,hcr Vcpublioan sevcral StaUs, u w . but they need governrornts, old and ... ,ncrioto cx. ed and obtained n wudom su, 'i(itv ,t pcrience. And when for its yu.. y roquirod the approval of a poopla that ol," cupitd a largu pirt of a continent, and acted separately in mtiiij distinct conven tions, what is more wonderful than that, after lon contention and earnest dicus liions. all ft'ilinr'3 and all opiuiona weru uliiniatelj drawu in olc way to its sup port. r.ili, ilm lininoferieausoef " ' " " .l)2i no i tlls laPu of tim0 rCVi:;l1 dcf,''C,3 1 A 00 nlo modo of aniendincnt is provided i JONES oi.n EsTACi.taiico u i e r u i u : CLOTHING HOUSE, 604 Market Street, (Above Sixth.) PHILADELPHIA. At JONUS' Urerrcnt Ono Trire riotblne Store, tUu lowest helling price is marked in plain lijunw on eacli atticle. and never varied. AH bay alike, li. tlior ludite nrnot The tor.k . golten up in a superior man .,.,.. l c.r retail sales. Those wauling a good iiib'.tai'tlal ami fdtlnouablo nrlitla. should nut fail to t0t JOXS 001 Muil.et Street, One Frice .V;oro. May 13, H-Ga.-ly .14(51. V DOhii, 002 MARKET STREET, PHILADELPHIA, IMl'ORTLIl Ol' cini:ui, French and English Toys, and Fancy Goods, Pipes, Canes, China Wares, &o. BcptctnberS, lEOJ. SCUOLASHU'S FOR SALE Ilinjliamplin " " ,,,,.,,,,, Criuendeu's " " riilladelplih. Hiralton.llryatlt&Cn.. " v. . .1 il... IfoL lima li-tltlOffil. ' Tlicsrtcrips.ateinninoiintoft5l5nid j0 anil .are vi fo much ci nit, bytheBtiidciit on ciitring either oftln above i;ollc. Youna men ilcsirms tnobtaln a (Inuli ed Collsplato Uducitluir, will here tlndugood ipoculn Ion by arptvingui mo "','" "' nv. ii tew '1 he Con-titution to which life was thus inipurtcd contains within itself amplo re sources for iti own prciorvution. It has power to enforce the laws, punish treason and ensure domestic tranquility. In ciso of uiurintiou of the rrovtTiitiieut of a State by ono rain, or an oligarchy, it becomes a duty of ttio United States to rauku good tho gaurantce to that State of a republi can loim of government, and so to main- oi an- ijoca siin- nlo modo of aniendincnt is provulert in tsic Constitution itself, so that its conditions can alway he made to conform to the re (luireincijU of advancing oivtliz.itiqn. No room is allowed even fur tho thought of a possibility of ita'comin to an end. Aud these powers of self-preservation rmim ahvnvs hten asserted in their com plete integrity by every patiiotio Chief Magistrate bv defforson and Jaekson, not less than by Washington and Madi- on. The parting advico qt tno l'atlier of bis Country, v.hilo yet President, to people of the United States, wa3 that at tbeir liaua, mignt ue sacrcuiy itiaiuiuiu cd, and tht inaugural words of President Jefferson held up 'Hie preservation oi tuc r,i-neral Oovoinmcnt.iu its conktttutionai vigor, as tho i-hect auobor ol our peace at liouio and r-afely abroad.' Tho Constitu tion is the work of "tho people of tho Uni ted States,' and it should be as iudestruot iblo as the people. It is not utraugo that the frames of the Constitution, whioh had no model in tho past, should not havo fully comprehend- l, r II I'XOUIIUIIUU UI lllbl. w., Fresh from a etrugtilo against arbitrary power, many patriots sulterea trom uar rassinc fears of an absorption of tho State governments by tho Gfuural l.ovonimeiii .mi mnnv rom arcau unit. uu "i'" would brcal. away from their orbits Rut tho very greatness of oiircoiuitry should allay tho apprehension of encroachments by the General Government. .Tho sub jootstliatoomo unriuostionablv within its jurisdiction nre so numerous, that it must . n..i,,enii., rofnen tn hi! g tubarr asscd bv of tho rights or any State Government to renounce its own place in tho Union, or to nullify the laws of tho Union. Tin. largest liberty is to be maintained in tho discussion ol tho acts of the Federal Gov ernment; btitthcro is no appeal Irom Its laws, except to the various branches ol mat people, who grant to tho members of tho Legislature and of the Estcutivo De partments no teuuro but a limited ono. and in tint manner always retain the powers of retires. llbo sovereignty of tho Stales' is tlin language of tho Coniedcraoy, aud not tho langungo of tho Constitution. Tho lnttcr contains etupbatio words: 'Tho Contita tlon, and the laws of tho United States which shall ho made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall bo made under tha authority of tho United States, Elian be tho supremo law of the land, and tho judges in every Stato shall ho boutid thereby, anything in the Consti tution or laws of any Stale to the contra ry notwiiln-tandiug.' Certainly the Government of tho United States is n limited Government J and no is every State Government a limited Gov ernment. With us; this idea of limitation spreads through every form of adminis tration, General, State and muiiiepal, and rests on the great distinguishing principle of the lecognition of the rights of man The ancient republics absorbed tho indi vidual in the State, prescribed his religion and controlled his activity. The Ameri can system rests on tho assertion of the equal right of every man to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiueS3 ; to freedom of conscience, to the culture and exercise ol all his iactillios. As a consequence, the State Kovernmeut is limited as to the General government in thn interest of the Union as the individual citizen in the in terest of freedom. States, with proper limitations of pow- .. . ;. e .1 ' . uru cabuuiiai to niu existence oi toe Constitution of the United Sta'es. At the very commencement, wheu we assumed a placo among tho powers of the earth, the Declaration of Independence was adopted by States; so also were tho Articles ol Confederation ; and when 'the peoplo of tho United btates ordained and establish ed the Constitution, it was the assent of the State, one by one, which gavo it vi tality. In the event, too, ol any amend mcnt to the Constitution, tho proposition of Congress needs tho confirmation of States. Without Stale?, one great branch of the legislative government would be wanting And ii we look bovotid tho letter of the (j'stitution to the character of our coun try" its cnnic';" or COuiPrehfntHng with inlo inrrBdictii.: VMt continental em pirei'sduetothesylc,nof SMes- Abor hest security for tho porpoil exftence of the States is the 'supremo autti'ritv ot the Constitution of the United St.ttK The pcrpetuily of the Constitution Irings with it the perpetuity of the States j their mutual relation makes us what wo arc, and in our political system their connec tion is iudbaolublo. The wliolo cauuot exist without the parts, nor tho parts without tho whole. So Ions as tho Jon- stitiitioti of tho United States endures, th of fllfll States will endure ; the destruction ol one is the destruction of tho other : the pros creation of the one r the preservation of i is esclusivsly tho other. j I I havo thus explained my views of tho mutual relations of tho Constitution and tho States, because they unfold the princi ples on which I havo sought to solve the momentous qui;itiot)3 and overcome the appalling dilliculties that mot tne at the very commencement of my administration. It lias been ray steaatast otjoet 10 escape from tho sway of momentary passions and derive a boalmg policy from the funda mental and unchanging principles of tho Constitution. I found tho Slates suffeiing from the effects of a civil war. Resistance to the General Government nppeared to have exhausted itself. The United States had recovered possession of their forts and ar- powers, if continued throuch a period of years, would havo endaugored the purity of tbo general ndminiitration and tho liberties of tho States which re mained loyal. hesides, the polioy of military rule over a' conquered territory would have implied that the Slates whose inhabitants may have taken part in the Rebellion had, by tho net of those inhabitants, ceased to ex ist. Rut tho truo theory is, that all pre tended acts of scccrsiou were, from tho be ginning, null aud void. The Slates can not commit treason, nor screen the indi vidual citizens who may have committed treason, any more than they can make valid treaties or cngago in lawful oom moroo with any foreign Power. Tho States attempting to sece"do placed them selves in a condition where their vitality was impaired, but not extinguished their functions suspended, but not destroyed. Rut if any State neglects or reluscs to perforin its offices, tlieio is tho more need that the General Government should maintain all its authority, and, as soon as practicable, resume the exerci e of all its functions. On this principle I have acted, anil have gradually and quietly, and by almost imerccptiblo steps sought to restoro tho rightful energy of the General Gov ernment and of the States. To that end, Provisional Governors have boon appoint ed for thn State.", Conventions called, Govenors elected, Legislatures assembled, and Senators and Representatives ehoton to the Coogioss of tho United States At tho same time, the Courts of tho United States, as far as could bo done, have been re-opened, so that the laws of tho Umteu btates maybe enforced through tbeir agency. Tho blockade has been re moved and tho custom houses ra-cstablish- rd iu ports of entry, so that the revenue of tho United States may be col lected. The Post Office Department re news its ceaseless activity, and tho Gen' oral Government is thereby enabled to communicate promptly with its officers aud agents. The courts bring security to persona and property; the opening of the ports iuvitos tho restoration of industry und commerce ; the post ofhso renews tho facilties of social intercourse and uf biui-ucss. Antl is it not happy for its all, that tho restoration ol each one ot thoso lunetion of the General Government brings with i a blessiuc to the States over which they are extended ! It is not sure a promiso of harmony and renewed attachment to the Union that, after all that has happened tho return of the General Government known only as a bencliconce? I know very well that tb'13 polioy attended with sorao risk ; that for it3 sue cess it requires at least tho acquicseeneo ot tuo estates wuten 11 concerns, mai u implies an invitation to those States, by I renewing their allegianeo to the United pj'atcs, lo resume their luuctions as states nf rim rinioo. J3'.U it is a risk that must be tnken; in choice of difficulties it ii the Host rislf. nnd to diminish , and, H pos ciLin 1., romnvrt nil dangers, I havo felt it inctibent on mo to assert one other pow cr of the General Government the power of pardon. As no State can throw a defeneo over tho crinii of treu-onthe power of pardon vetted in the is 13 Executive Government of the United States. In ex ureising thai, power 1 have taken every precaution to oounert it with tho clearest recognition of the binding force of the laws of the United States and au unqualified acknowledgement of the great social change ot condition in regard to slavery which has grown out of the war. Tho next stop which I have taken to re Btnre tbn constituioual relations of tho thereby completo tho work of restoration. Hero It is lor you fellow citizens of tho Senate antl for you fellow oitircns of tho House of Representatives, to judge, eaeh of you for yourselves, of the olcetiousretiiriu and qualifications ol your own members. The lull assertion of thn powers of tho Genoral Government requires the holding tho Circuit Courts of the United Suites within tho districts where their authority has been interrupted. In tho present posture of our public affairs, strong ob jections have been urged to holding those courts in any of tho btates whero tho re bellion has exitcd; and it was ascertain ed by inquiry, that the Circuit Court of the United States would not bo held withio the District of Virginia during the autumn or early winter, nor until (Jurj gress should have 'au oppornuuity to con lUcr and act on the wliolo pulject. To your deliberations the restoration of this branch of tho civil authority of tho United States is thereforo necessarily re ferred, with the hope that early provision will be made for the resumption of all its functions. It is manifest that treason, most flagrant in character, has been com mitted. Persons wbo are charged with its commission sltouid have lair and impartial trials in the highest civil tribunals of the country in order that the Constitution and the laws may bo fully vindieatcd , the truth clearly established aud affirmed that treason Is a crime that traitors should be punished and tbo offence made infamous ; aud at the same time, that the question may be judically settled, fiually and forev- or that no blatc of its own will has tho right to renounce its place in tho Union. The relations of the General Govern ment towards the four millions of inhabi tants whom the war has called into free dom have enuaged my most serious con sideration. Un thn propriety ol attempting to make tho Ircctlom electors by procla mation ef the Executive, 1 took lor my counsel the Constitution itsclf,the inter pretations of that instrument by its authors aud their cotonuiorane, and recent legis lation of Congress. When, at the first movement towards indedendenco the Con cress ot tne uuiten aiatcs itisirucicti inu overal Stales lo institute Governments oi tbeir own, they loft each Stato to decide for itself tho conditions for the enjoyment of the elective franchise. Purine tho period of tho Confedcraoy thero continued to exist a very great di versity in the qualifications of electors in tho sevcral States ; and even within a State a distinction of qualifications pre vailed with rcsard to the officers who were tn Im chosen. The Constitution of the United States recognizes those diversities when it enjoins that, iu the choice of members of the House of Representatives of the United Stales, 'the electors in each b'tato shall have rqualificalions requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of tho Slate Legislature. After the formation of the Constitution, it remained, as before, tho uniform usage for each Stato to enlarge tho body of its electors, according to its own judgment ; and. under this svatcm, one Statu after another has proceeded to increase the num ber of its electors until now universal suf frage, or something very near it, is the general rule. So fixed was this reservation of power in tho habits of the peoplo, and bo unqus- tioued has been the interpretation ol tne Coustitutiou that duriug th civil war the late President never harbored the purpose certaiuly never avowed the purpose ol disregarding it ; and in the acts of Con gress, during that period, notmng can on found which, during the continuance of hostilities, much loss after their closo, would have sanctioned any departure by the Executive from a policy which basso uniformly obtained. Mnreovor. a concession of the elective not ot must havu been extended to all colored men, must have, oslau- livo side by side, in a stato of mutual bene fit and cood will The cxnorlmcnt involves us in no incompetency; let us, then, go on und make that experiment In good laith, and not bo too easily disheartened, 1 ho country is in uccd of labor, and tho froedmen are in need of omploymont, oul turc and protection, While their right of voluntary mieration and expatriation is not to bo questioned. I would not advise their foreetl removal and colonization. Lot us rather oticouraco them lo honora- bio and useful industry, where it may bo beneficial to themselves cud to tho coun try ; and, instead of hasty anticipations of the certainty of failure, let thero be noth ing wanting to the fair trial ol tho experi ment. 1 he chunco in their condition is the substitution of labor by contract for thost'itus of slavery. The freedmen can not fairly be accused of unwillingness to work, so long as n doubt remains about his freedom of choice in his pursuits, and the certainty of his receiving his stipulated wages. In this the interests of the employer and employed coincide. The employer desires in his workmen spirit and alacrity, and these can be permanently scoured in n) other wav. And if tho ono ought to be able to enforce tho contract; so oucht tho other. Tho puhlio interest will be best promoted if the saver nl Stales will provide adequate protection and remedies lor the freedmen, Until this is in some way ac complished, thero is no chance for tho ad vantageous use of their labor , and tbo COLUMBIA DCM OCR AT. WRAPPING AND MINING PA-l-Eii. Unvins thoroughly overhauled my a Wra pi'nu Dry Tla.t ,.g and Wulcr 1'roof Paper, oil ,hor' neli; ' Und fa.r p.ices. 1 have owne4 liouso ill Wllkea-ltarre. nnd appointed Josepli "'own lllio (Inn otllrnwii.iirny t.o my ajeiit touispose of iny paper it. Luzerne Countjrjg TRr.NCU( BlonmsbtirB.Bept, IB, 1P"3. Lot For Sale. k M iir,il,lo bntldinc lot. with an excel jfXlent BARN thenon erected. ccntrillf locited in HI. oMiburt.it on.i.e lor isi. "I'l"' " nrrrc i.ft.ii, iwi, Tin orrcs. srruiln nnd their armies were in tho oc ciipation of every State which had attempt ed to secede. Whether the territory with in tho limits of those States should be held as conquered territory, under milita ry authority cminating from tho President as the head' of tho army, was the first question that presented itself fur decision. Now, military govuinmfinis.estahlishetl for an iuiielimto period, wouiu nave oudruu uo sccuiity for the early suppression of di-ooutenl; would have divided the peo ple iuto tiie anquisliers and the van quished ; and would havo envenomed ha tred. ratUur than restored affjetiun. Oneo fbtablished, no ptecise limit to their con- ' ' n. MM .1,1 '.inuaiico was couccivame. iue nuum have occasioned au incalculable and ex hausting expense. Peaceful emigration tnnnd irom that nortion of the country is one of tho host means that can be thought fo for the restoration ol harmony and that m.iiirratinn would havo been prevented ; . -. - , ... . i .t,. for what omigraut irom auruuu, wusi States has been an invitation to them to participate in the high office of amending .i... t .., .:,.;., r.!trinr. mint wish lliu wuuniiiuiiwii. loui pw...-- . .el . . . for a oeaeral amnesty at the earliest epoch franchise (o iho freed men , by the , consistent with public "safety. For this j the President ol the Un. ed States, great end thero is need of a ooucuronce ot havu Deen exieuui.u .u horever found, and so P D!" " , : : .Tin c,l a 0Ua..o of suffrage in the North :,. ' , bi n ! Ur, em. Middle and Western States, not las r. .... -i. . .,ci.- I.. ii. nr. mi, of , than in the Soutliorn and Southwestern. j.1 is nut, iuu miiuu ivi ' - - , .i. i.i nj, it.. nn the; onrt side, tho ' Such an act wauiu w i- ..... . . plan of restoration shall proceed in con- lornuty witu a willingness iu u;ut mu un orders of the past into oblivion; and that on the other the evideneo of emceiity in tho future maintenance of the Uuion shall bo nut beyond any doubt bj tho ratification . .'. i i . e i'ni,,il. ol tho propiiaeu ameuuiucii. u. un uuuo..- in nn w ill! I nrflvlllnS Or 1110 aUOIIllOU Ui within tho limits oi ever naturally rcu?c to bo embarrassed by questions that lie beyouu u. 1 !. -it. il, Kvpnntivn would WOtlJ l. UVIItlttiav, oo ,ftv-,..- -----p- ,, , sink beneath tho burden ; the channels o dustrioua citizen at homo, wou d place Snellen wnnld bo -boked : lomslation wouiu J , ... .Li tlirt.n ta n. bo ousuuciou oy exodus, - - creator temptation to exercise some of the funotions ot tho General Government thro tho States thati to trespass on tuoir nguv ful sphere 'The absoluto acquicscnoo in tho decisions ol tho majority' wa9, at tho beciuniugof the century, enforoed by iotreroti -as tuu vital uiiiiuiw-u licj,' and tho events of the last four years ' .ii.i 1 -II l.nA fnrBVfir. have estauusucu, wo win iwf .w.-.-.; itiot thero lies no anneal to force. Tho maintonanoo of tho Union brings ?fh it tho support of 'tho Stato govern monU i" all Ihcir right; but it is not ona havo class, of voters, and wuuld assumption ol power uj created a new havo been an iho President which nothing in tho Constitution or laws of tho United States would have warantod. .On tho other hand, every danger of conflict ? avoided when tho settlement of tlin nnestion U referred to tho several btates on the Thcv can. eaeh for itself, deoido .. .i.., it,,.- !j l.i i r ihn i,iifa n nnr o niu i cii,un i iii ..v...... .v - fiiavury iui "", ,"" ,.' ,i nl,.nl,.telv. or inlro- suutry. bo ong as tho adoption oi mis - , -. ' " . . Z .i.,ii..n,i inn will doubt duced craduallv and with conditions. In mv iudsment, tho freedmen, il they olf wilhnolv under 'military rulo I ,,..,.-.. ......- ., - . Tho chief persons who wouiu nave im Inned in tho train of the army would havo Loon donendents on tho tienorii uoveru- i . . . n. r ment, or mon who expecicu prom nu.u . . e ., t -nllMr.nllt90na. tho miseries oi tiuir Brriug ibii,s-isi-- Tho powers of patronage and rule whioh would have been exercised undortbe Pres ident over a vast and populous, and nat urally wealthy region, are greater than, ,.r,lnta nnilnr nxtreino IlCCUSsitV, I should bo willing to entrust to any one man ; thoy aro such as, for myself, I oould uov cr. unless on occasions of great emergen cy, consent to exercise. Tho willful "a nniniirWntn dolaved so long will doubt and jealousy and uncertainly prevail. ThiB is tho measure whioh wilj cuaco tno Bad monioryof tho past, this is the meas ure which will most ccrUiniy can popula tion and capital and security to thoso parts of the Union that need them most. Indeed it is not too much to asH oi ue . States whioh are now resuming their places in tho family of the Union to givo this plodgo of perpetual loyalty and poaoe. Until it is done tho pant however muoh we may desire it will not bo forgotton. The adoption of tho amendment reunites o imrnnd all nower of disruption. It heals tho wound that is still iinperfeotly elosod- it removra slavery the element , whioh has so long perplexed apd dmdcu tho country ; it makes of us once more a united pooplo, tonowed aud strengthened, bound more than over to mutual affection and support. Tho amendment of tho Constitution be ing adopted it would remain for the States whoso powers havo been so long in obey auoe, to rcsumo thoir plaoes in the two branches cf tho National Log'ulature, and show natieuoe and manly virtues,will soon or obtain a participation iu mo eieciiru franchise through the States than through tho General Government, eveu if it had power to interveno. When the tumult of emotions that havo been raised by ihciud dnmieasol the social ohange shall have subsided, it may prove that they will rc ceivo the kindliest usago from somo of ihose on whom thoy have herotoforo moat olosely depended. But whilo I havo uo doubt that now, af- ter the oloso of tho war, it is not compe tent for tho General Goverumoot to ex tend the elective franchise in iho soveral States, it is eouallv clear that cood faith i rrnitirea the security of tho freedmen iu 1 their liberty and tbeir property, tbeir right to labor, and their light to olatm tho just return of their labor. I cannot too strong- lv iirco a dispassionate treatment of this subject, which should bo carefully kept aloof from all party itrifo. Wo must enuallv avoid hasty assumptions of any natnrn.1 Imnossibilitv for the twi races to V blame of ill success will not rest on them. I know that sincere philanthropy is aaruest for the immediate realization of its remotest aims ; but timo is always an ele ment in reform. It is one of the greatest acts on record to havo bronchi lour million of peoplo into freedom. J. he career of freo industry must bo fairly opened to them ; and ibeu ihcir future prosperity and con dition must, after all. rtst mainly on them selves. If they fail, and so perish away, let us be oarcful that the failuro fball not bo attributable to any denial ef justice In all that relates to tho destiny of the freedmen, we need not bo too anxious to rea.l the future ; many incidents which, from a speculative point of view, might raise alarm, will quietly settle themselves Now that slavery is at an end, or uear its end, the greatness of its evil, iu tjie point of view of public economy, becomes more and more apparent, blavery was essoiuiallv a monopoly of labor, and as such looked tho States where it prevailed against the incoming of freo industry. Where labor was the property of the cap italist, the white man was oxcludcd from employment, or had but iho second best chance of boding it, and tho loruign cmi grant turned away from .the region where his condition woultl eo so precarious. With the destruction of the monopoly, free labor will h isten Irom all parts of the oivil ized world to a-sirt in developing various and immeasurable resources which have hitherto Iain dorimnt. The eight or nine States nearest the Gulf of Mexico have a oil of exuberant fertility, a climate ftiendly to long lilo and can su-tain a denser population thau is found as jet in any part of our country. And in the futuro influx of population to them will be m inly from the Norih, or lioru the most cultivated nations iu Europe. From the sufferings that havo attended them during our late struggle, let us look away to the luuire, winch is 'uro to uj la den for them with greater prosperity than has ever before been known. Tho removal of tho monopoly of slave labor is a pledge that those regions will he peopled Dy a nu merous and enterprising population, which will vie with any in tho Uuion in compact ness, invetitiTO genius, wealth and indus try: Our Government springs from and was made for the people, not the people for the Government. To them it owes allegianuc ; from them it must derive its courage, strength and wisdom. Rut, while the Gor- eminent is thus hound to delcr to tho peo ple, from whom it derives its existence, it should, from the very consideration of its origin, be strong in its power of resistance to thu establishment of inequalities. Mo nopolies, porpetutios and class legislation aro contrary to the geunu ot lice govern ment, and ought not to bo allowed. Hero thero is no room for favored classes or monopolies ; the priuoiplo of our Govern ment is that of equal laws and freedom of industry. - . ... .., Whenever monopoly attains a tootnoiu, it is sum to bo a source of danger, discord and trouble. We shall but fulfil our duties as legislators by acoording "equal and ex act justice to all men," special privileges to none. Tho Government is subordinate to the peoplo ; but, as tho agent and rep resentative o tho neon'.o, it must ue neiu superior to monopolies, which in them selves ought never id begranted.and whioh, where they exist, must be suoorttinate,ana yield to tho Government, ,n . rt .:. .! f - n....a XU0 Vjousiiiuuou oouicra on vjuugn;," the right to rcgulato commerce amoug tho several States. It is of tho first oeoe3ity for tho maintenance of tho Union, that that cotnmeroo should bo freo and unob structed. No Stato oan be justified in any dovico to tax tho transit ol travel and commerce between States. Tho position of many Stales is such that, if they were allowed to tauo auvantago oi u ior purpu- se. o( local revenue, tho commerce be tween States might ba injuriously burden ed, or svon virtually prohibited. It Is best whilo tho oountry is still young, and while the tendenoy to dangerous monopolies of this kind is Btill feeble, to use the power of uongresB bo ss to proveni any soiusu im pediment to lb.9 fiea oiroulstion o( men and merchandise. A tax on travel and morchandi-e, in their tinns.t, constitutes one of the worBt forms of monopoly, and the evil is increased if coupled with a de nial of the choice of route. When tho ast extent of our country is considered, it is plain that every obstacle lo the froo circulation of commerco between tho Statoa ought to bo etcrnly'guardod against y a p. propriRto legislation, wulnn thu limits of tho Constitution. Tho report of tho Sccrotary of tho In terior explains tho condition of tho publio lands, tho transactions of the Patent Of fice and the Pension Bureau, the manage ment of our ludian affairs, tho progress made in tho construction of tho Paeifio Railroad, and furnishes information in rot- ronce to matters of lecal interest in the Disttict of Columbia. It also present evidence of the successful operation of tho Homestead Act, under tho provisions of which 1,100,533 acres of the public lands wero entered during the last Ileal year more ihan one fourth of the whole number aorcs sold or othcrwiso disposed of during that period. It is cstimat 'd that tho receipts domed from this source are Buflkient to cover the expenses incident to the survey and dispo sal of the lauds entered under this not, and that payments in cash to the extent of from forty to Gfty per cent, will bo mado by cltlers, who may thus at any timo ao quire titlo beforo the expiration of tho pe- npd nt which it would otherwise vest. Tho Homestead policy was established only niter long and earnest resistancn ; czpsricuco proves its wisdom. The lands, iu the hands ot industrious vottiers,wtioso labor croa,sns wealth-and' contributes to tho public resources, are worth mero to the United states than il they bad been re served as a' solitude for futuro purchasers. Tho lamentable events of the last four years, and tho sacrifices mide by the gal lant men of our army nnd navy, havo swelled tho records of the Pension Bu rean to an unprecedented extent. On tho 30t.li day ot June last, the total number of pensioners was 85.980, requiring for their annual pay, exelusivo ot ex'pensea, the sum of 53,023,445. Tho number of applications that have been allowed sinoo that date will require a large increase of this amount for Uie next fiscal year, tho means for the payment of tho stipends du uuder existing laws, to our disabled sol diers aud sailors, and to tho families of such as havo perished in the service of tko country, will no doubt bo cheerfully and promptly granted. A gratelul people will not hesitate to sanction any measures hav ing for their object tho relief of soldiera mutilated aud families made lutherlcsi in tho efforts to preserve our national exist ence . The report of the Postmaster General presents an encouraging cxhihit of the op erations of tho Poit Office Department da ring the year. The revenues of the last year fro u tho loyal States alouc exceeded the maximum anuual receipts from all tho States previous to the rebellion, iu the sum of 0,0.58 091 ; and the annual avcrag.i increase of revenue during tbo last four years, compared with the reveuues of tho four years immediately preceding tho ra bullion, was 53,5'.3,845. The revenues of the last fiscal year amounted to 5U,55G,luS, and the cxpen diiures to 81 H.OU 1 ,7i!8, leaving a surplus of'reooipts over expenditures of 8301,430. Progress has haen mado in restoring me postal service in the Southern States. Tho views presented by the PoStmisler Ganor al against tbo polioy of grauting subsidies to ocean aud mail steamship liues upon established routes, and in favo' of coutina iug the present syntera, which limits tho compensation for oocan service to tho post age earnings, aro recommended to tbs careful consideration of Oougrcss. It uproars, from the report of tha Sec retary of tho Navy, thai while, at tho commencement of thn present year, there) wero in cominnsion uju vessels ot an classes and descriptions, armod with 15 000 guns and manned by 51 000 men, tbo num. bur of vessels at present in commission ii 117, with 830 guns anil 12,1'JS men. By tins prompt rcductiou of tho naval foroos the expenses of the Government have been largely diminished, and a number of ves- sels, purchased for naval purposes from tho merchant marine, have been returned to the peaceful pursuit? of comuieroo. Since the suppression of nctivo hostili ties our forcigu squadrons have been re established, und consist of vessels much more eliiotent than thoso ompioyeu on sim ilar servico previous to the rebellion. Tho suggestion for the enlargement of the navy yards, and especially for tho establish ment of ono in fresh water for iron-olad vessels, is deserving af consideration, as is also tho recommendation for a different looation aud more ample grounds for tha Naval Acadomy, In tho report of the sjcretary nt ar a general summary is given of tho military compaigns of le)04 aud 1805, eudiug in tbo suppression of armed resistance to the national authority in the insurgent Siatos. Tho operations of tho, genoral adminis trative bureaus of tho War Department during tho past year are detailed, and an cstimato made of tho appropriations that will bo required for military purposes in tho Gtcal year commencing the 30tji day of June, 1600. Tho uatiooal military forco on Iho 1st of May, 1800, numbered 1,000,510 meu, it is proposou to reuueo military establishment to a peace foot, comprehending buy tuouaanu troops ot all arms, organized to as to admit of nn enlargement by Clling p ibe r-jnks in sigbty-two thoiKund six huudrod, if tha circumstanoei nf tha oountry should i.