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AND BLOOMSBUKG GENERAL ADVERTISER;
JLEVB 5i. TATE, Editor.
TO HOLD AND TRIM TIIH TOKO II OF TltUTII AND WAVE IT O'ER THE DARKENED EARTH."
TERMS iSB,00 Villi ANNUM.
VOL. 16. NO. 48.
BLOOMSBUKG, COLUMBIA COUNTY, PBNN'A., SATURDAY, JANUARY 31, 1803,
puBLtsiiBn every Saturday, by
LEVI L. TATE.
at DLOoMsDuno, Columbia county, pa.
o f fTo E
tin new Drltk nultilnff, npjiotlte the Ktthnngt, iij tide
of the (Vurt llause. " Demotrule Iliad QuaMeri."
TI.HMS Or HUIiKClllVTTO.V.
Vjl 00 In advnnco, fnr one copy, for six mouths,
1 In ndvnnci!. for one ropy, one your.
S U') If luit pnlil w itliin Urn lint throo inniitlii.
5.1 If not paid within tli.; first its months.
l At) If not paid within the year,
F f No subscription taken for less thin si months,
In I mi paper discontinued until nil arrearages shall havu
ADVKivrtsKtti'NT" InnTtod conspicuously (it one dollar
iit .'inure, nf ID lines each. for the three lrt insertions
s.u.1 tweutv fl vtj cents, per s.pinrs , fur every subseuuent
I iimlinn, until ordered riii nntlnuod.
Jnu Work, nfeverv desriiptlon, neatly and cheap'"
(trcutei! at His shorleit tiotira
!'!ii!,i(!(lihi,i & ICrio Kail Itoail.
This (Trent line traverses tho Northern and XortM
west counties nf l'unnrjlvaula tn the 1 ity of line, 1)
It has b'on leased by the Peti"vlvanla P.allrnad
rtitnpatiy, mill under their nuspii-es Is helig rapidly
0ii'iH'd thrmtzlioiit Its entire, length.
11 is now In ui" for Passenger an I frpigtit business
tr nm llarrl-h iri! In drove I'l.il, 1 II'.' mill's) mi the l!.it
e rn IHvisiou. and front Bhelhcld to laic on thu West
t rn division. i miles )
TIME or nsSKSjahll TIUINS AT liOlirnt-'MllFR I, VVP.
Mail Train loaves, Ihst 1 V.3 P. M.
l',.irn.j Train " " II I'll "
Mill " " West .1 M "
Express (I :i-J A. .M.
t'ors run thrniich with fiUNnr hoth ways on thoso
traiita lu't'vfon Philadelphia and I. nek Haven, ami
Iialtlmor''r7d Look llafii. , 'W and eleg-iut Sleep
ing (Jura nceouipnning Hi Ktprcn Train both ways
b 'two. 'ii Willluiuspiirl and ISalliiunrc, sud Williams
port an I I'lillu lolplila.
I'or infiirination respecting Passenger business, ap
111) ntt'ii' H V.. !or. I Mil an I M irk.-t 'is.
A'l.l for I'r i?ht irisine-snf th" i'oinimy's Agents :
H il Kingston. Jr . i'or. 13th and Market Sts., l'lul'a.
J. - . Itoviwl.ls. I!n
J t. drill, a -lit V. t'. It It., Ilnltluinre.
II II Houston. 0 ui. I'fUht Am . rhll.idolphla,
1,' wh .. Ilrinpt. ii n'l.Tirk.'t Agt I'lnla letphiu.
Joj ill II I'oit- 1; ii'l. M.uujor, W illi.iiusport.
Jiuniry 1;, IH..3.
LIST OF "CAUSES
rnn rmiurAtx 'ieiui, H0fl.
) B-imuel IU.tl,rraJ.il.n K firnt7. t Dr. Ron U' I.
U 1 ary VVVrtinau vs John l (irotz &s llr ;uo VF I.
3 I'liilip Winttfri-ioon vs Val-Mi'l i' Wmttrstren. mt
i I J 1 1 11 J iiniiip-.iMi. 1 1 1:1 1 i It I'll- r ! 1
5 .Id 111 ! I' rfoyb -rt v-, A It Pi rn ft al.
e llnnry U'clls vs Ooorg' K ml ), jr.
7 Jarob L'y r v-i Mir.ih.iin Klisi.
H .lirJbim KI.h vs .1 01 0I1 l'.)i'r.
V Diynl l! al vs Hiniii. I 1. licttli!
ij Ds.iiitl rob t vti JoS' ph (loiwil.
11 i:ii)ih W mt T-ttfcn "t al vst I1r11tir.11 tVidf.
11 llirs.u U Tr 'as vs Jo baa tt-i iiian ot al.
M iljn II. ilro.vo ot a', v. 1, 'un.ir'l 11 Knpiirt.
H tVt.'r M T au'ili vh A.iroii 1 latou.
12 -iiiu'i lliti "lib -ii'L-r vh ri'l.ii 11 iMgur.
Irt Jiius Unrio vs Ijli.is li
IT 1 cun u i-li Kob Tt II iji'itbucb.
li tjtissniidli I urh vsll'di-rt lias 'iibiifh,
1.1 Ai lr I.'iri-'li s yt is vs l.iVjt.-rt liiinliuch.
'.'J Isiiah II Proas vs t m lk.-lr.
2l I .on 1 a (tiiwan vs liti.ab Ih D-iImm.
'it Willi 1111 I, Parks v. J:li. iV'lli It .till i 11 b .
ii I ic ib Harris vs iVl r Jiuoliy.
1(4 Jscob Hon I vs I ilium V mlo.
S tl orao ' J l; 1 'S i t ul vs J V ' riswcl! ct nl.
1W Uaul I It.'i ibold vs Mli'hvl (!nw"f.
11 t.'il b llolui.'S 1 lal vs I) twiii !l,.liii;' A dm'trli.
'ii u'si l P. SMk t vs Win Ik lor.
'II W A Klino vs (i W lliplf.iian .1 nl.
30 TI11 Minor's Uaiik otal vs IMniu VI Uiilnor.
"r!v virtue of f-uuilrv writs of I'cwlitinni
' tftjimii In 1110 illr"oti'(t. lssnod nut iiftho r.tiirt of i
Couininu Pious if Uoluinbia county
public sjIo on
Silwihui Thhlu firM of January, 186'l.
t ons o'ejork. p. 10., of said day n. th Cnint llnufe, in
lilnuMsburg, the fi'lluiiine Roal r.n..li; m vmi:
All tbnt cert'iin lot ol "round situato in
Hspy. Brolt township, roluinhia ooiinty, Pciinvlvanta,
bot 1 f rty ona and a half fiiot fiont and ono Jiiindrod
and uim ly tlroo f m t 111 di plh. I'oiimloil as follow s to
vrit - on tho iionli hy laitiip of John tlfKaiiiy, 011 tho
nnrtheu t by b) II W II Vnuackcr, 111IH1 by M.1111 t.
and south bv an alloy w Inn 011 aro oroct.'d a garni
t'ruiiu Us. cllinc lluubc anil ktnllr n 1II1 the appiuloR.
On other Lotr-ituatn in E"py, township
and county .ilor.u J, u .Mill streot, north nf Mum
tri't h 111- 1 ot 'o. 71 l'l plii 11 of slid town, bull;
i,'lilv tno and (1110 half IV.'l front au.l una huudrod &
oviiiv thro.- f i t in di'pth, wli roon am crorii'da
K.i I rr.i'iiu D'V.'llin House a Triune Stablu Willi tfu
Two other Town Lots lying rontnpous
to onch nth 'r. unil situato in 1',-py tmiishii and roiin
ty .ifoiosanl. froiilmi: 1 11 Mill stto' t, b'lui! oiid hnii
ilrad nnd sixty fiv foot in I mil mid nun hundred
mid sov ntv thri o f "it in di'ptli. hunnili'd on tho woi-t
by lauds nf Put. on tho nor Hi by Uano frovol-
! ' . .. I .1 III.., .,,. 11, 11,. Mil .1
nni uu u.tposcu 10
iu, t oeri.'o.i nr. net i' u 'i i 1 1" . ... "" "
lurgii Fniislilnj HJinp. u nil thu nppiirtonaui.ee.
One other tract or p'ircci of land, situato
In Omcnwnnd township. Columbia county, runtiiinin;
oiL'bty.oiijht aeros. woll tinibvod. bniiudod and dos
rrih.nl as follows to wit; -on tho north by lands of
t.'lark Morrill on tho oht!iv lands nf Xii hnlns Kindt,
nud on thu south In l,iuds of Janios P.ittrrson, wln ronn
oru uroitcd a onod Saw Mil . 11 ennd I'raino nivulling
House and a Hani, w Ith tho nppurteiiRncea.
Ono other Lot Mtuate in Espy, Polum-
linibia enmity, aaid r,iitb"iui! ono l.uiidi.'d nv.d niin'tv
su foot in W' dth and two hundred and thirty lout 111
depth, hounded 11s follows to w it -on tho north.'iist by
lamia nf John K rcs.lor. on Iho north by nil alloy, nn
the west by n slroot, and on tho south hv thr North
llrmirli Canal, nru ortrtod n lumo tSPnin Mill, n Rood
Praine lln . Hiug lloitsu nud a r'ramu liarn, ith tlis np
Ono other Lot situate in Epv, township
nnd fnuntv nrorosanl, froutinj si' ty foot n Msin st .
.nnd 01111 li.iudrod nnd oiahly foot in depth to an nlloy.
fcminded on tlo woFt In lot nf "round liclmisnis to
Ilrnlnl, unrthoa.t hv lauds of J. P.vans, whoroon
jroiroctod a so ul I'raino llmtau and Stablu with Iho
One othor L"t sifimte in Espy, township
ind county aforesaid, frontine nuo liunilrod anil twenty
Toot on Main Hr. it. nud one Hundred and clBhtv reel
Jn dipth, bo'iiided on the west by lands of 1 nomas
I'nwlor. on tin- imrllionH by lauds nf A bnydor, 011 the
north by an alloy nud nu tho south by Main j root,
whoreon nrn ororted n largo Fiainu Dwclllii!,' Iniiso
a rramn Htablo and other outbuildings w ith tho up
Two other Lots situate in Epy, town
ship nnd county nfnresaid, bnundoil nnd dosrribod ns
follows to wit ;-nntho northeast by lands of Hllas 1,1
gj.r,on the west by lands orrupled by Samuel 1 owlcr.
on Iho south by nn nlley. and notlh by Mnln alrfol. bo
Init sixty fei I in front and ono hundred nnd eishty foot
In depth, tilmrenn mocrortedtwn sno.l 1 raine Hwellins
Houses, snnd t-tablcs, Willi outbuilding! with tho ap-
'sa'ui'ullTaken In execution aitd to bo sold as tho prop
erty ot Thomas IV. Udgar.
At tho samo timo nntl placo by virtue of
a writ of .earl JVirlm nil thosn thrco certain I.nts n I
Ground, with tho buildings and improvement. thereon
sreiled. lyliH! coiilnsloiu to each other l "Itohert s
Adilitlnii" uilinlniiiB the town nl Cattawisia, be ng
three I.nl. ninikcd and numbered on tho plot ond plan
cf said llnhetfi Addition number (Ifty-llJ, nlly-sevcii
and fifty rinht, fnruilns one whnlo squs.ro In P'"
or plan, of two hundred nud ten feet in length anil the
tame in brendth, bounded on tho east by fourth Urco
ofsnld linherl'i Addition, on tho north by U nliiul
street, on tho wi st by nn alley, and on tho South by tho
boundary llnuof mid Robcifa Addition to the town 01
1 Hslted taken ii rxeculinn and to bo sold as tho pro
Tistty nf Truinau -M, llubblo nud Mnry Ann his nt.
SitrmrriOrnc j J03IAII II. rUKMAV.
nioom.btirir, Jin 10. IBM. I MMtf
Ii ifS Rs Ei B6 E Ba A 5B fl A3.
Tho pure, tho bright, th beautiful,
Th.it stirred our hurt in youth,
Thu impulse 1 0 a worldless prsyer,
The dreams of lovo and truth,
The lotiirlii-s after something lost,
The r pn It's yearning cry;
The strlt Inns after belter hopes,
I nose things ran net cr die.
Iho timid hand strcched fntth to aid
A brother in his need,
Tho kindly word lugtiif's tlark hour
That proves tho friend Indued.
Thu pl iafor mercy, si.ltly breathod,
Wlunjustlco threatens liluli j
Tho sorrow nfu contrite heart,
Thescthings shall 110 verdie.
Tho luoinory nfiiil,isiii; h.iu.l,
Thu pressure nf u kiss,
And all the trlrles.sweut mid frail,
That makeup love's lirst bliss,
If w Ith a linn, uiieh iiiglug faith,
And holy tnut 1111.I high,
Tlioso bauds ha e oluspcd, thoso lips havo met,
These things fhall never die.
Th" rritel and ths bitter word,
'I'hat wiiiiuded 11- it foil ;
Th ihiliiii want of sympathy,
VVu f. cl but never tell,
The hard repulse, that cheers tho heart
Whoso hop's wore bounding high,
In nn iiiif.iliu roiordkept,
Tluse things shall never die:
l.tt ii'itliin; pass, nr oviry I. and
Must nud Mime ivurl to do ;
1,0.-0 not a chance to waken lovo
Unflnn.and Just, und true.
oshitla lljlitthnt c.inuoifilo
it. 11111 on thec from 011 high,
An.langi'l voiios uy to thee,
These tilings shall never die.
lion. C. L. Yalliiiiililiiim.
of on 10,
In the House nf ll'-ps., January 1 1, 1808.
Mr. VALLANDIG II AM. Mr. Speak
er, iuJuroiril ut tlu rccunt election wiiliin
tbu sumii dit,ii':t for which L dtill bold a
scat ou tbib rljor, by a majority four times
grtMler than over before, I ipeak to-day
in lli titiuie and by the aulbority of (be
pjoplo who, for ix yeard, liavo intrusted
me fcith lite offieo of a Representative.
Loyal, in the true and lushest eenac of
the word, to the Constitution and the Uni
on, tbuy liive proved tbetusMilves devoted
ly att.iebcd to and worthy of the liberties
to secure wbicb the Union and the (Jon
btltution were established. With candor
and freedom, therefore, as their Represeu
lj(ive,inl much pluiiineas of speech, but
with lite dignity and decency due to this
presence, I prupose to ctm-sider the state
of tli o Union to-day, uud to inquire what
the duty is of evi'ry pjblic man and every
ciiiz 'U i'i this the very crisis of the Gre.it
It is now two years, dir. since Congress
assembled soou alter the Presidential elec
tion. A sectional anti-S'lavery nifty bad
llirn just succeeded tlnough the forma of
tho (Jou-iiittilion. For the lirst time a
Pre.-idcut had been chosen upon a platform
of avowed hostility to un institution peuii
liar to nearly one half of the States of the
Unio i, and who had himself proclaimed
that (here wis an irrepressible conflict be
cause of (hat institution between tho
St. Kef ; and tint the Union could not en
dure 'part slave and part free," Con
gress met, therefore, in the iiiid:tbf the
profoindeHt agitation, not hero only but
throughout tho entire Sou'li. Kevolutiou
glared upon us. Repented cfforti for con
oiliation and compromise were a'.tenipted
in Coii'M'CBi nud out of it. All wcro re
jected by the partj just coming into pow-
- . ,1.1. . 0 .1... I .
er,oxccpt oniy uy iue pratuinuoi uiu ih
hours of the session, and that, too, against
the content of a majority of that party
both in the Senate and House; that Cou
grcs,I10t tho EkccuHvo bhould never
bo authorized to hooiimi or inienero wtiu
slavcrv in the St.'ttci whore it exited
South Oiroliua seceiled ; Georgi i, Ala
bama, Florid i, Missis-ippi, Lou-i.uia, and
Texas speedily followed. Tho Confeder
ate government was establihcd. Iho
oiling tnvr Slates held back. Virciuia
demanded a peace congros. I ho Com-
. i .. o. ... ......
niis-ioners met, unu niter oyuiL- umu,
agreed upon terms of final adjustment.
Rut neither iu the Senate nor tho House
wore they allowed i veii a respectful con
sideration. The PrcMdont cltet left lin
home in Febn-ary, and journeyea towarus
this capitol, jo.iting a ho came, proclaim
ing that the crisis was only artificial, and
that "nobody was hurt." Ho entered tho
oity under cover of nii-ht nud in disguise.
On tho Ith of March be was iinugurattd,
surrounded by soldiery, and, swearing to
support tho Contitutioii of tho Lnitod
Statss announced in the same breath that
tlio platform of his paity should bo tho
law unto him. From that moment all
hope of pcaooablo adjustment tied. ' ut
for a little while, eithor witu unstoidfast
sincerity or promeditated deceit, tho pol
ioy ol peace was proclaimed, oven to the
ovacuatiou of Sumpter aud tho other bed
oral forts and arsenals in tho sooedod
Stntc. Why tbnt policy was suddenly
abandoned, timo will fully disclose, liut
iust after the spring elections and tho se
cret meeting in this city of tho Governors
of several northern and western Slates, a
fleet carrying a largo number of men was
sent down ostensibly to provision bort
Sumpter. Tho autnormes oi awn
olina eagerly ncooptod tho challenge, and
bombarded the fort into surrender, wlulo
ih0 tlect llrcd int a pun, but, just so soon
as the flag was struck, vo away and rc
Sm .Uo tbo North. It wa- Sunday, the
Mill of April, 1801 ; nud that day tho
PreMdout, in fatal liasto and without the
tuvico or consent of Cougross, issued his
proclamation, dated tho next day, calling
out sovotitylivo thousand militia for three
months, to repossess the foiti, places, and
property seized from tho United States,
mul .n,...,.n,.,11.... it. :.....HMA.t.. .ltnA..,n
vUU...,a,.u.uS u . .uau.uuin-, ui-.in.-mo
in twenty days. Again the gage, was ta
Ken up by tue South, and thus tho flames
of a civil war, tho I'randfst, bloodiest, and
Jsaddestiiiliistosy lighted up the whole
heavens, iliitia seceded. North I'aro-
lina, Toniiesseo, and Arkansas followed;
Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, aud Mis
souri wore in a blaze of agitation, and
within a week fron tho proclamation, tho :
line of tho Confederate States w.ts trans-!
furred from tho cotton States to the Poto
mac, aud almost to iho Ohio aud the Mia-
.souri, and their population and fighting I
men doublud. I
Iu the North and West, too, the storm I
raged with the fury of a hurricane. Nev
or iu history was anything equal to it. '
Men, women, and children, native and j
foreign born, Chuieh and State, clergy and I
laymen, wero all swept along with the!
current. Distinction of age, sex, station,!
party, perished in an iiirtant. Thousands,
bent buforo the tempest ; and hero and
there only was ouo found bold etiough,
foolbaidy enough it may have been, to
bend not, and him it smote fell as a eon-
"umiiig lire. The spirit of peraccuiion for
opinion s bako, almo-t extiuct m tho Old
World, now, by some mysterious transini
gration, appeared incarnate iu tho New.
Social relations were dis.-olved ; friend
ships broken up ; the ties of family and
kindred snappod asunder. Stripes and
hanging were overywhero threatened,
sometimes executed. Assassination was
invoked; sUnder hharpcucd lib tooth;
falsehood crushed truth to the earth ;
reason fled : maduess reigned. Not jus
tice only cseapud lo the skies, but peace
returned to the bosom of God, whence she
came. The gospel of love perished ; hate
sat enthroned, and the .sacrifices of blood
smoked upnu every altar.
liut tho reign of the mob was inaugu
rated only to bo supplanted by the iron
dominatiou of arbitrary power. Constitu
tional limitation was broken down ; hubc'is
cirpus (ell ; libcity of the press, of speech,
of the person, of mails, of travel, of one's
own house, aud nf religion ; tho right lo
bear arms, due process of law, judicial tri
al, trial by jury, trial at all ; every badge
aud muuimeut of freedom in republican
givenimvnt or kingly government -nil
went down at a blow ; aud the chief law
officer of tho crown I beg pardon, sir,
but it is easy now to fall into the courtly
language the Attorney lliiiicral. first ot
all men, proclaimed iu the United States
the maxim of Roman servility: Wuacrci
ikuba the I icn'nU, I'mt i-, laiv ! Pris
oners ot otato were then hrt heard ol
here. Midnight aud arbitrary arrest
commenced; travel was interdicted, trade
embargoed, passports demanded, b.istiles
were introduced, -tra,no o.itlis niveuted,
a secret police organised, ''piping" began,
informers multiplied, spies now first ap
peared iu America. Tho right to declare
war, to raii-e and support armies, aud to
provide and maintain a navy was usurped
by the Executive ; and a little more than
two months a land and naval force of over
throe hundred thousand men was iu tho
field or upon the ?ca. An army of pub
lic plunderers followed, aud corruption
struggled with power in friendly strite for
the mastery at Uomo
On iho 4th of July Congress mot, not
to sock peace, not to rebuuo usurpation
nor to restrain powor, not certainly to
deliberate, uot cveu to legislate, but regis
ter aud ratify tho edicts and acts ol the
Lxi'cutivo ; iu your lansuago, sir, upon
the fiist day of tho session, to invoke a
universal baptiMa ot lire aud blood amid
tho roar of cannon and tho dm of battlo.
Free bp icch was had onlv at the riek of
prison ; possibly of life. Opposition was
sileiiord by tho fierce clamor of "dis'oyal
ty." All business not of war was voted
out of order, Five huudrod thousaud
men, au immense navy, nud two hundred
ami fitly millions of money wero speedily
granted. In twouty. at most iu sixty days
the rebellion was to be crushed out. To
doubt it was treason. Abject submission
was demauded. hay down your arms, suo
for peaco, surrender your leaders forfeit
ure, death this was the only languago
heard on this floor. Tho galleries re
sponded, tho corridors echoed, and con
tractors and placemen and other vonal
patriots overywhero gnashod upon tho
friends of peaco as they passed by. In fivo
weeks seventy tight publio and piiva'o
ii... ii... i ..
acts and ioiut resolutions, with declaratory
resolutions, in tho tsenato anil nouso, qutto
as nuniurous, all full ol slaughter, wcro
hurried through without delay aud almost
Thus was civil war inaugurated in
America. .Cau any man today soo tho
eud of itf
And now pardon mo, sir(4if I pnuso
horo a moment to define my awn pssition
at this timo upon this great quostion.
Sir, I am ouo of that uutnber who havo
opposed abolitionism, or tho politioal de
velopment oftho anti-slavery sontiment of
tho North and West, from tho beginning.
In school, at collego, at the bar, iu publio
assemblies, in tho Lcgisluturo, in Congress,
boy and man, aw private cittzon and in
publio lifo, in timo of penco nnd in time of
war, at a'l times nnd nt ovory saorifico, I
havo fou?ht against it, Tt cost mc ten
yours exclusion from office and honor, at
that poriod of life when honors aro sweet
est. No matter: I learned early lo do
I ri.ht and to wait. Sir, it is but tho do-
j vdopiucnt of tho spirit ' or intermeddling,
) wi103 children aro stiifo and murder-
, Gan iroub0d himself about the saeriBees
I nf a l.nl ...i ,i,w !,!, -tn.i
contention, litigation, and bloodshed!
' from til0 bcciiattirin 0f time, have been its
. . . P J .
truU3i T10 8pIrjt cf 0n intervention is
tho very spirit of peace and concord. I
,!,, ,lnf v,i;n n.r if .im-sr. i..i
r,i.t,i i,rn ro.mI.1 lnv. I. ml ...Ai:n...
aI ControvorIo. This very civil war
might havo happened fifty, perhaps a hun
dred years later. Oilier and stronger
enures ot tltscoutent anu ot disunion, it
may be, havo exited between other
States and sections, arc now bcim? devel-
oped every day into maturity. The spiiit
of inrnrvnminti nsunmnil tlin fnrm nf ,,
litiouisin becauso slavery was odious
nainrj and by association to the Northern
Mind, and becauso it was that which most
nlivinll.! v lnfivl.-i tlin iliffnrimt r-ti-ilivnt.M.ta
of the two sections. Tho South herself, d.i?"'!lic wholly iiieansistent with tho sta
in her early and later ellbrts to rid her- b. lv 1,10 on.stitutiou aud the peace oi
self of it, had exposed the weak and oiTon
mvo paits of slavery to the world. Abo
litiori intermeddling taught her at la-t to
search for and defend tho assumed social,
economic, and political merit and values
of the institution. Hut there never was an
hour from the beginning wben it did not
seem to me as clear as tho sun nt bioad
noon, that the agitation in any form in
the Noith and West of the slavery ques
tion must sooner or later end iu disunion
aud civil war. This was the opinion and
pr;dii'tion for yc'irs of Whig and, Demo
cratic btntcMiiuti alike ; and after tho un
fortunate dissolution of the Whig party in
1S54, and the orgtmiz nion of tho present
Republican party upon au exclusively anti
slavery and sectional basis, tho event was
inevitable ; because!, in the then existing
temper of tho public mind, and alter the
education through tho press and by the
pulpit, the lecture and the political canvass
for twenty years, of a generation taught lo
hate slavery and tho South, the success of
that party, posscs-cd, as it was, cf every
on iue ol political business, social, and
religious influ'noo, was certain. It was
nnly a question of time, and short time.
Such w.ts its strength, indeed, thai 1 do
not believe that the union of iho Demo
cratic party iu ltffld en any candidate,
uvea though h s had been supported also
by tho entire bo called conservative or auti
Lincoln vote of the country, would havo
availed to drfe.it it; aud if it had, the sue
cess of tho abolition party would only have
been postponed four years loiigur. The
disoneo li id fastened too strongly upon the
system to ho healed until it had run its
course. The doettino of the ''irrepressible
eontlier' had Ij. cn t;i niriit ton long and
aecpltd ton widely and earnestly to die
out, until it should culminate in seces.-ion
and disunion; and, if coercion were resort
ed to, then in civil war. I believed from
tin? (irt that it was the puiposo of some
of the iipostlcs of that doctrine to force a
collision betweou the Noith aad fouth,
either to bring about a separation or to
And a vain but bloidy pretext for abolish
ing slavery in tho States. In any event,
knew, or thought I know, that tbc cud
was certain collision, aud death to tho
Relieving thus, 1 have for years past
deuouneed thoso who taught that doctrine
with all tho vehemence, the
you choose I thought it a righteous, a
patriotic bitterness of an earnest and im
passioned nature. Thinking thus, I fore
warned all who believed tho tlocrino, or
followed tho party which taught il, with a
sincerity and a drpth of conviction as pro
found as ever penetrated tho heart of man.
And when, lor eijht years past, over and
over again, I havo proclaimed to tho peo
ple that the success of a sectional anti
slavery party would bo the boiiiuing of
disjiiiou and civil war iu America, I be
lieved il. I did. I had read history, and
studied human uaturc, and meditated for
years upon tlio character of our institu
tions and form of government, and of tho
people South as well as North ; and I
could not doubt tho event. Rut tho peo
ple did not believe mo, uor thoso older
and wi'tr and greater than I. Thov re-
jeetetl the prophecy, and stoned tho pronl
..I. 'I'l.n ..,,!;, I .... e ii t.ii
I'll. s ii I..1IIUIUUIU ui iuu iii'imuiieau
party was chosen President. Secssion
began. Civil w.tr was iintuincut. It was
no potty insurrection; no temporary cont
inuation to obstruct tho exoouiion oi tho
laws in certain Stttcs; butn iievoi.utio.v,
systcmatto, deliberate, determined, and
with thq consent of a inajoiity oftho pC0- ,
plo of oach Stato which seceded. Cause
less it may havo been; wicked it mav
havo been; but there it was, not to bo
. .:n i.. , i , i ., i . .
railed at, still los to bolaujihed at, but lo
bo doalt with by statesman as a fact. No
display of vigor or force alouo, however
sudden or great, could havo arrested it
even at tho outset. It was disunion at
last. The wolf had oonio, Rut civil war
had not yet followed, In my deliberate
and most solemn judgment, thero was but
nuo wbc and masterly mode ofdealing with
it. Non coercion would avert civil war, and
compromise crush out both abolitionism
and secession. 'I ho parent and tho child
woultl thus both polish. Rut a resort to
forco would at onco precipitate war, has
ten secession, extend disunion, and, while
it lasted, utterly cutoff all hopo of com
promise. I beliovcd tbnt war, if long
enough continued, would bo final, eternal
disunion, I said it; I meant it; and ac
cordingly, to tho uttmost of tny ability
and influence, I exerted my?ulf in behalf
of tho poliov of non-coercion. It was
adoptod by Mr. Ruolianan's Administsa
tion, with tho almost unanimous nruaot
n4rmtimmrvnMitnK.mmmi iss iI'j'Ji'ji.jiui'i1 jlisisL-isarws wnumjrjjiwsJM
of tlie Democratic and Uonstitutional Uu-
ion P"tioi in and out of L ongrcai ; and in
February, with tho concurrence of a ma
Jorit.v f ,h'' Kopublican party in tho Sen.
ate and this Hou?o. Lut that party, most
Jtsnstrously for tho country, refused all
coinpromi.se. How, indeed, could they
a ........ .. I rni,n, ,l.t r t, s.,,il, A
accent any ? That which tho youth de
manded and tho Democratic nnd conser
vative parties of tho tNorth and West were
willing to grant, nnd which alone could
avail to keep the poaco and savo tho Union,
implied a surrender of the sole vital ele
ment of tho party and its platform of the
very principle, in fact, upon whioh it had
ju-t won tho onntcst for the Presidency ;
i ,lot ""'"d, by a majority ot ttio popular
! vote tho majority was nearly a million
! "fiaHlSt It but Utltlor tllC forms of tllO
Constitution. Sir, the crime, the ''high
orimo" of tho Republican party was not so
much its refusal to compromiic, as its
original organization upon a basis and
But to resume: the session of Congress
expired. The President elect was inau
gurated ; and now, if only tho policy of
uon coercion could bo maintained, and war
thus averted, time would do its work in
the North and the South, aud final peace
able adjustment aud rcuuiou be secured,
Some time in Match it was nunouueed
that the President had resolved to contin
ue tho policy of his predecessor, and even
go a step further, and evacuate Sumter
and the other Federal forts and arscuals
in Iho seceded States. His own party ac
quiesced; the whole country rejuiced. Tho
policy of iion-coerciou had triumphed, and
for once, sir, in my life I found myself in
an immense inajoiity. No man then pre
tended that a Union founded in cou'-cnt
could be cemented by force. Nay, more, j
the President anil the Secretary of State i
wont further. Sin Mr. Seward, in an1
official diplomntti: lit or t Mr. Ad.tins;
"Tor those reason- ho (the Pre-ldent) would not
bo disposed to reject ucardiu.il iloiina of theirs, (tho '
scros-iouitt-,) namely, that the 1'Ydcrat (loveruiuoot
could not loduco Hie sotediii'i sUute- to obedieuco by i
roa.pictl, although ho won ilit-posod to iiistioii that
propo-itiou. Il.it in lacltlie President willingly uc- I
ccpls it as true. Onlj 1111 iuiierl.il or ileipulii: Cov- i
i rniiieiit I'ould subjugate thoroughly disallcf ted and j
iiiMirn.-ctioii.iry members ol tin Sjtato."
Pardon me, sir, but I beg to know '
whether this -conviction of tho President
and his Secretary, is not tho philosophy of
the persistent aud moat vigorous eilorts '
made by this administration, nnd first oi l
all through this same Secretary, tho mo
ment war broke out aud ever since till the
late elections, to convert the United States
into an imperial or despotic Government .'
liut Mr. Seward adds, aud I a.reo with
"This federal Itr publican system nf ours is, of nil .
foiuis nf government, the very nue which is inoi-t un
fitted for such a labor." .
This, sir, was on the 10th of April, and '
yet that very day tue licet was under sail
for Charleston. Tho policy of peace hud
been abandoned. Collision followed; the
militia were ordeied out ; civil war began.
Now, sir, on tho Mth of April, I bo
licved that coercion would bring on war,
and war d suuion. More thuii that, I be
lieved, what you all in your hearts be
lieve to-day, that the South could mver
be conquered never. And not that only
but I was sati-fied and you of tho aboli
tion party have now proved it to tho world
that tlie sceiet but real nurposo of the
war was to abolish slavery iu thu States.
iu any uvont, t uiu not uouot mat wiiat-
over might bo the momentary impulses of
, ...e ..,, ' '. .. .. . .
illUCU (11 JJJWU1, UUU II UttlUI Vll ni;iius LIIUJT
mitrjit make in tho midst of tho fury for
the Constitution, the Union, and the flag,
yet the natuial aud inexorable logic of
revolutions would sooner or later, dtivc
them into that to icy, and with il to it
li ti.il but inevitable result, the change of
our present dcmocratieal form of govern
ment into an imperial despotism.
These wero my convictions on tho 11th
of April. Had I ehaugctl them on the lo,
wheu I read tho President's proclamation,
aud become convinced that 1 had been
wrong all my life, anil that all history
was a fable, and all hum tin nature false
in its development from tho beginning of
time, I would havo changed my public
conduct also, Rut my couviotioni did not
change' I thought that if war was disun
ion on tbc Mth of A pi il , it was equally
disunion on tho Ifith, and at ull times.
Helioving this, 1 could not, as au honest
man, a Union man aud patriot, lend an
active support to the war; aud I did not:
1 had rather my right arm wero plucked
from its socket, nnd cast mto eternal burn
inSs than, with my convictions, to havo
thus defiled my soul with thu guilt of mor
al perjury. Sir, I was not taught iu that
school which proclaims that ''all is fair iu
politios." I loathe, abhor, and detest tho
excroablo maxim. I stamp upon it. No
Stato can enduro a s'ui";lo generation whoso
publio uion practice it. Whoever toachos
it is a corrupter of youth. What wo most
want in these times, aud at all times, is
honest and independent publio men, That
man who is dishonest in politics is not hon
est at heart, in anything; and somotimos
moral cowardice is dishonesty. Da right;
ni d trust to God, and Truth, nnd tho
Peoplo. Perish offieo, parish honors, per
ish life itself; but do tho thing that is
right, nnd do it liko a man, I did it,
Cortaitily, sir, I could not doubt what ho
must suffer who daro defy tlio opinions and
and tho passsoin, not to say tho madness,
of twenty millions nf peoplo. Had I not
road history? i id I not know human na
turu ? Hut I appealed to Time, and right
nobly hath tho Avenger answered me.
I did not support tho war; and to-day I
bloss God that not tho smoll of so muoh as
ouo drop of its blood is upon, uy garments.
Sir, I censure no bravo man who rushed
patriotionlly into this war ; neither will I
quarral with any ono, hero or elsewhere,
who gavo to it nn honest support. Had
their convictions been miuo, 1 too, would
doubtless havo dono ns they did. Willi
iuy convictions I could not.
Rut I was a Representative. War cx
isted by whoso act no matter uot mine.
The President, the Senate, tho Housoand
tho country, all said that there should be
war war lor thu Union; n union of con
sent and good will. Our southern breth
ren wero to bo whipped back into love ami
fellowship nt tho poiut of tho bayonet. Oh,
monstrous delusion ! I can comprehend
a war to compel a people to ncccpt a mas
ter; to chauge a form of government ; to
give up territory; to abolish a domestic
institution in short, a war of conquost
and subjugation? but.a war for Union !
Was the Union thus made? Was it ever
thus preserved ? Sir, hiitory trill record
that after nearly six thousand years of
folly and wickedness in every form and
administration of government, thcocratio,
Democratic, monarchic, oligarchic, des
potic, and mixed, it wus reserved to
American statesmanship iu tho nineteenth
ecntury of the Chiistiun era to try the
! grand experiment on a scale tho most cost-
1 ly and gigantic in its proportions, ot crea-
I ting lovo by loroe, and developing trater-
' nal affection by war; and history will rc-
! cord, too, on tho same page, the utter,
disastrous, nud most bloody tailitie ot the
Hut to return i tho country was at war
and I belonged to that school of polities
which teaches that when wo arc at war
he Government 1 do not mean tho Exe
cutive alone, but the Government is en
titled to demand nnd have, without resist
ance, such number of men, and 3uch
amount of money and supplies generally,
as may bo nece.-sary tor tho war, until an
appea' can bo bad to the people. Rtforo
th.it tribunal alone, in tho first instance,
limit tho question of the continuance ot
the war bo tried. This was Mr. Calhoun's
opinion, and ho laid it down very broadly
and strongly iu a speech on tho loan bill,
in ldJl. Speaking of supplies, lie 9aid :
"I hold tbnt there is a ili-litn tinu in this respect be'
tvvci ii a state nf pcaro and war, In Iho latter, the ri;bt
of withholding supplies ought oior to behild -ul.i.r.li
nnt li the nergetie and suirosslul prosecution nt the
wur, 1 gofurth"r,nudro!.,ard the withholding supplies
vtlh a tilio pf furexng the country into a dishonorable
prtrt, as not only to bo what it h is been c.ilt.'il, mor.
al treason, but very little short of actual treason itself."
Upon this principle, sir, ho acted after
wards in the Mexican war. Speaking of
that war in 1817, no and :
"Pvory iScnator knows that I was opposed to the
war ; but none knows but in) i-lf tlw depth of that op
position. With my conception nf its character and
cousi-'iitences, it was impossible for me to vote for it."
And again, iu 1818 :
"Hut, after the war was declared by authority of the
Oovermui'iit, 1 acpue-ced in what I could uot prevent,
and which it was Impossible for me to arrest ; and then
I felt it to bo my duty to limit my efforts to pivo urli
diroition to the war ns would, ns far as possible, pre
M'ul the CMlsaud dangers with whirh it threatened
the ccuutry aud lis institutions."
Sir, I adopt all this as my own position
nnd my defence; though, perhaps, in a
civil war, I might fnirly go further in op
positiou. I could uot, with my convic
tions, vote men and money for this war,
and I would not, as a Representative, vote
again -t them. 1 meant that, whithout op
position, the President might take all the
men and money ho should demand, and
then to hold him to a strict accountability
befo o the pcopl.5 for tho results. Not be
lieving tin soldiers responsible for tho war,
or in purpose, or its consequences, I havo
i. ..l.l -I. ...1 .1..!.
r. ' ulu , ' Ti 7r
larato interests wore coucernod. Rut I
have donounced from tho beginning tho
usurpations and the infractions, ono and
all, of law and Constitution, by tho Presi
dent and those under him; their repeated
and pomstcut aibittary arrests, the eus
pension of hnbeus cn ;, tho violation of
j freedom of the mails, of the private bouse,
oi llio press and ot spcecn, anu ait ttio old
or multiplied wrongs and outrages upon
public liberty and privato right, which
havo mado this country ono of tho worst
despotisms on earth for tho past twouty
months; .ind I will coutinuo to rebuke and
denounce them to tho ond; and tho people
thank God, have at last hcaid aud heeded,
and rebuked them, too. To the record
and to timo I appeal again for my justifi
cation. And now, sir, 1 recur to tho stato of tho (
Union to day. What is it I Sir, twenty,
months have clasped, but tho rebellion is I
is not crushed out; its military power has
not been broken ; tho insurgents havo not,
I. . M. If ... . . 1
dispersed 'tis union is uot restored;
nor the Constitution maintained ; nor tho
laws enforced. Twenty, fixty, ninety,
thrco huudrod, six hundred diys havo pas
sed ; a thousand millions been expended ; :
and three hundred thousand lives lost or j
bodies mangled ; and to day the confeder
ate (lag is btill near tho Potomao and tho
Ohio, and tho confederate government
stronger, many timosi than at the begin- 1
ning. Not a Stato has been restored, not 1
any part of any Stato has voluntarily ro-1
turned to tho Union. And has anything
been wanton that Congress, or tho States,
or tho peoplo in thoir most generous en-!
thusiasm, their most impassioned patriot
ijin, oould bestow ? Was it power I And
did not the party of tho cxecutivo control
tho entire Fcdoral Government, ever,)
Stato govornni'jnt, overy oouuty, every
city, town and illago in tho North anil t
West? Was it patronage? All belonged
to it. Was it influence ! What more ?
Did not tho school, the college, tho church
tho proas, tho seorot orders, tho municipal
ity, tho corporation, railroads, telegraphs,
express companies, tho voluntary nssooin
tiou,nll, all yield it to tho utmost ? Was it
unanimity? Novcr was an Administration
so supported in Filmland or America.
Ftvo men nnd half score of nowspapors
mado up the opposition. Was it ontbust
asm ?-lt was fanatical. Thero has boon
tiothtng liko it it since tho Crusades. Wnfl
it confulenoo ? Sir tho faith of the peoplo
crceoded that of tho patriarch. Thoy
gavo up Conititntion, law, right liberty,
all at your demand for arbiiary powor
that tho rebellion might, ay, you promisod,
bo prushed out in thrco months and tho
Union restored W.ts credit noodetl ?
You took control of n country, young, vig
orous, and inexhaustible 'in wealth and
resources, nud of a Government almost
free from publio debt, and whoso good faith
bad never been tarnished. Tour great
national loan bubble failed miserably, as
it deserved to fail ; but tho bankers and
merchants of Philadelphia, New York, and
Ronton lent you more that) their entiro
banking capital. And when thai failed
too, you forced orcdit by declaring your
paper promises to pay a legal omlcr for
all debts. Was money wanted? Yoa
bad all the revenues of tho United States,
diminished indeed, but still in gold. Tho
whole wealth of the country, to tho last
dollar, lay at your feet. Private individ
uals, municipal corporations, tho Stato
governments, all iu their freuzy gavo you
money or mean, with reckless prodigality.
The groHt eastern cities lent you 8150,000
OUO.. Congress voted first, 8250,000,000,
and next 5500,000,000 more in loans : and
then, first, ?30,000,00p, then 510,000,000
mm 800,00(1,000, rind, in July last 8150
000,000 in Treasury notes; and iho Sec
rctary has issued also a paper "postago
currency," in sums as low as fivo cents,
limited in amount only by his discretion.
Nay, more : already siuee the -Ith of July
l&Ot, this House has appropriated 82,017
90 1 000, almost every dollar without
debate, and without a recorded vote. A
thousand millions havo been expended
since the 15th of April, 1801; and a
public debt or liability of SI ,500,000,000
already incurred. And to support all
this stupendous outlay and indebtedness,
a system of taxation, direct and indirect,
has been inaugurated, the most oneroua
and unjust ever imposed upon any but a
Money and credit, then, you havo hae
in prodigal profusion. Aud were men
wanted ? More than a million rushed to'
arms.' Seventy fivo thonstinrl flrk fnmi
the country stood aghast at tho multitude,)
then eighty thrco thousaud more wero
domauded ; and thrco hundred and ten
thousand responded to tho call. Tho
President nexi asked for four hundred
thousand, and, Congress, in its generous
confidence, gave him fivo hundred thou
sand ; and, not to be outdone, lie took six
hundred and thirty seven thousand I Half
of these melted away in their tirsl campaign;
and tho President de.nandcd three hun
dred thousand more for the war, and then
drafted yet another three hundred thou
sand for nine month. Tho fabled hosts
of Xerxes bavo been oiittiiimrinrnri Ami'
yet victory strangely follows tho standard
f ,l.. r . ti . . ..... . ...
oi uiu loe, rrom ureat JJetliei to vtcks
burg, tho batcle has not been to tho strong.
Yet every disaster, except tho last, has
bi?en followed by a call for more troops,
and ovcry timo so far they havo been
promptly furnished. From tho beginning
tbc war has been conducted like a political
campaign, and it has been the folly of the,
party in powor that they have assumod
that numbers alono would win tho field in
a contest not with ballots but with musket
and sword. Rut numbers you have had
almost without number the largest, best
appointed, be.-t armed, fed, aud clad host
of brave men, well organized and well
disciplined, ever marshaled. A Navy, too,
not tho most formidable perhaps, but tho
most numerous and gaiiaut, and tho costli
est in the world, and against a foe almost
without a navy at all. Thus with twenty
millions of peoplo, and every clement of
strength and forco at command power
patronage influenco, unanimity, eulhusi
nsm, coufidenco, credit, money, men, an
Army and a Navy tho largest and tho
noblest ever set iu tho field or afloat upon
the sea ; with the support, almost servile,
of every Stato, county, and municipality in
the North and West ; with a Uongrcis
swift to do the bidding of tho Executive;
without opposition anywhere at home, and
with an aibitary p wer which ueither tho
Czar of Russia nor tho Kmperor of Austria
daro exercise; yet after neatly two years
or more vigoious r.tosocuto'in of thenar
than oror recorded in history ; after tnoro
skirmishes, combats aud battles than Alex
ander, Cicsar, or tho first Napoleon ever
fought in any five years of their military
career, you have utterly, signally, disas.
trously I wi 1 not say ignominiou ly
failed to bubdue tcu millions of "rebels"
whom you had taught tho peoplo oftho
North and West uot only to hate but to
despise. Rebels, did I say ? Yes, your
fathers were rebels, or your grandfathers.
Ho who now beforo mo on canvas looks
down io sadly upon us, the faho, tfconor
nto, and iinbecilo gunrdians of tho great
Repub io which ho founded, was a rebel.
And yet wo, cradled ourselves in rebellion
nnd who havo fostered and fraternized
with every insurrection in tho u'meteonth
eeutury evory wboro throughout tho globe,
would uow, forsooth, maRo thu word
"rebel" a reproach. Rebels certainly
they arc; but all tho persistent and stu
pendous efforts oftho most gigantio warfaro
olinovdcrn times havo, th-ough your in
competency and folly, availed nothing to
crush them out, cut off though thoy havu
been by blockndo from a, I tho world, and
depondent only upon their own oourago
and resources' And yet thoy woro to ba
utterly conquered and subdued in six'weoks'