The Columbia Democrat. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1837-1850, July 14, 1849, Image 1

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Ladies and Gentj.emkn :
A question of the highest importance to
'the peoplo of this Union, is this : How slmll
civil liberty be poipeiuated 1 Other govern
ments have become corrupt; have been ty
ranical ; and amid the execrations of man
kind have sunk into ignoble sloth or rushed
into a career of crime the precurser of decay
or subjugation. How shall we escape their
fate ? Undoubtedly by avoiding the errors
that misled, and the vices that corrupted
them, , Burihis answer does not indicate the
path to bo pursued with sufficient clearness
for the wants' of the multitude'. Instruction
must go further than to denounce the evil to
be avoided ; it must inculcate the good to be
pursued. Hence those alone are true teach
ers who point out to us directly the objects to
be pursued and the means of attaining them.
, The wisest of all teachers did not simply de
nounce the abounding vices and follies of
man, but taught also a positive system of the
, most benignant and sublime character to en
list the belief and obedience of the world.
The iNquirer after truth is not to be told
:inerely that tyranny is odious, and that false
hood, violence, selfishness, ambition, pride
and lust, have filled the earth with sorrow
and wrong. After error is exposed, he is to
.be instructed in truth. He is to be uilormed
what thoughtful and wise men have demon
strated to be truth, and is to be invoked to act
How tnea is nnerty 10 uo pcrpetuaieu !
We have the direct and instructive reply to
this question in the Pennsylvania Constitu
tion of 1776, frwued by a Convention over
which Benjamin Franklin presided: "A
frequent recurrence to fundamental princi
ples, and a firm adherence to justice, moder
ation, teiupftunee, industry and frugality, are"
absolutely necessary to preserve the bless
ings of liberty, and keep a government
It is manifest that ihe masses of a Slate
must 1ms intelligent and virtu us, in a hiith
degree, to insure it againat a lots of freedom,
prosperity and power. The moral world,
like the na'ural, is under Lw. and dissolution
is every where the fate; of bodies that become
corrupt An intelligent, reflecting and vir
tuous people, are alone capacitated for free
government. The mere possession ol free
institutions, is no Mifficieut guaranty against
degeneracy and decay. Forms of govern
ment, and measures of legislation, are of se
condary importance to the character and pi
rit of the people. Establish ignorance, stu
pidity and vice generally in society, and con
stitutions aro not worth talking about. The
period of the English Commonwealth was
one of honor for England ; but a people too
mean-spirited and vicious to exist without a
scourge, voluntarily invited kingship back to
tho realm, with its train of courtesans, rakes,
nobles, prelates and buffoons !
The inculcation of this truth ; tho abso
lute necessity of popular intelligence, integ
rity and spirit; is of incalculable conse
quence to America and tho world. The ex
ternal form, the organization, the institutions,
and the municipal laws of bociety, are noth
ing to its inward life the moral and intellec
tual character of its members.
But, how shall we induce men to attain,
ind live up to, the standard of merit requir
ed. A mode of effecting this, is to present
samples of true greatness and virtue to the
Jeople for their instruction and imitation.
F:om considering a particular instance we
r?y ascend to the general rule. From the
characteristics of one good man, we may
foa a standard of character for all.
The. recent demise of tho eleventh Presi
de:!; of the United States, invites a reviewal
Hi his life. We may now, with propriety,
tiamine his character, and the causes and
jwness of the high distinction he attained.
M 1 believe, we may reap instruction from
his inquiry, and hold up the subject of it as
an example of virtue worthy of imitation
and praise
Mr. Polk died on the 15th of the last
month, at tl,B ago 0f fifty-three, and but
four months af!er tne cloe of his term as
Chief MagiMraiA 0f the Union. The even
ing of his If., :u period of expected repose
fo-r stirring ifu. , ( f.are 0f action, is
Py in Ul,ex,..-.-twllv shortened. 1
shall no, w,, h -j Iabored eu.
logmm upon , ,. Uv ,,.. hands
faithfully and fully perform
ed and f(!f.ble tribute to his
1 mrv. mav Ko ventured p.ven
as e - 'n'nou
that duty wil
1 n
rn. rv'ii a t-,,
worth and me ,.
quarter, without censure,
Let no ono bestow upon the lata President
indiscriminate praise, but let justice be done
to his conduct and his virtues. He had fail
ings, but they wcro neither numerous nor
striking, lie committed errors, but they
were not of wantonness or intention. Ho
had enemies, but they were evoked by par
tisan conflicts, and illustrate but tho usual
penalty paid for public distinction. Most
CilI concede to him, honesty of purpose, re
soluteness of action, and consistency of opin
ion. Subjected to purtisau analysis, the mea
sures he supported may be objected to vehe
mently, while the integrity of the statesman
is not seriously questioned. We stand yet
too close to the events in which he was a
prominent actor, to judgo with that imparti
ality which is indispensable to just history,
or intelligent praise. The men of another
generation will sketch with fidelity what is
now left unfinished, or is discolored either ba
overweening friendship or unjust opposition.
Dut wo may judge at once of his character
and intellectual qualities, and claim for them
their just position in the public estimation.
A prominent trait in the character of Mr.
Polk was integrity. He was immovably ho
nest. The temptations to which a long pub
lic career subjected him, did not, upon any
known occasion, seduce him into a dishonest
or disreputable action. Allied to this trait
was another firmness. When interest ap
parently called him to yield a just position,
he stood by it, regardless of personal results.
He was no worshipper of policy at the ex
pense of right. He was a man of principle,
and not of expediency. He was content to
fight for truth, even under obloquy and mis
representation, convinced that in the long run
his vindication was sure. It was natural that
such n man should be consistent, and ho was
so. Ho was no changeling. By friend and
foe his position was always distinctlykuown,
and could be depended upon as permanent.
Uufbehind these features of character, and
of a rarer excellence, was an abiding faith
in the capacity of our race for improvement.
He was no scoffer at humanity. He was
sensible of its corruptions, but ho did not be
lieve that they were iucnr;ililr Improve,
ineul, progress, amelioration ; these were, in
his view, tho watchwords of hope for our
race. And is it not one of the truest sub
jects of praise in a public character, that with
enlarged experience and in full view of a
bounding evils, he does not permit himself
to doubt tin; destiny of man ? To attain this
point we are called to pass through a fiery or
deal, and to resist the promptings of all the
evil and desponding elements of our nature.
True, in the spring of life we look forward
with unbounded hope. Wo arc sanguine of
achieving an honorable position for ourselves,
and are full of confidence iu the advance
ment of our race in virtue, intelligence and
happiness. But few clouds darken our sky,
and they cast but a transient shadow. We
see all things through a poetical medium.
We have a conviction that all mankind are
prompted, like ourselves, by aspirations af
ter the beautiful and the good. Our hearts
go out toward all men, and we aro ready to
submit to great sacrifices and to go through
arduous labors to advance their wellare.
Selfishness has not yet paralyzed our sym
pathies, nor distrust poisoned our minds.
We desire to break down all fetters upon
individual right ; and anticipate a time when
all corroding errors in societ) are to be swept
away and all abuses utterly destroyed. A
lime of peace, of right, of freedom, of un
bounded and buoyant happinca., is soon to
dawn upon the earth ! This is the spirit with
which we stand on the threshold of life, and
prepare to act our part in its eventful eceues.
But; as we advance, a thousand discour
agements encounter us. Vice, selfishness,
ignorance, pafsion, folly and violence, ren
der the world an apparent theatre of error,
tumult and wrong. And those who at
temnt to reform society are loaded with a-
i - '
buKe or derided as visionaries. This is the
crisis in our intellectual life : Happy he who
shall escape its perils unscathed ! Too ma
ny utterly abandon, at this point, what they
term "the dreams of youth," and are ever af
ter scoffers at "unattainable perfection."
They make shipwreck of all that is noblest
and purest within them, and are numbered
with the children of selfishness and guile.
fc'oe thorn ! pursuing tho dollar through all
the avenues of thrift with a zeal that knows
neither turning or pause. See ihem ! climb
ing with incredible industry up all the tortu
ous paths of selfish and heartless ambition
to places of trust and power. See them !
groping through all tho dens of sensuality for
pleasures wherein guilt and disappointment
are everlastingly mingled ! Nor is this all.
Corrupted themselves, they corrupt others.
They are apostles of evil, sapping alike the
vitals of public liberty and individual virtue
Mr. Polk was not of these. Ho passed
from youth to manhood, and thence to ape,
nth a fresh and h' t and spirit He
was not smitten with despondency, nor stain
ed with guilt. Regretting and avoiding thd
vices and evils about him, he looked forward
to a time for their repression and banishment
vSTUItDAY, JULY U, 1849.
ed not fi. a. . . . . --r-rr-.-L
Oh It
deed not fA. .i.
j . v uugunoracy or national rum
iaunenwAeastiside HobL'r aml H'ice
' rulers, and . wr.- t0 honor and imi
e tlioir virtues, that we mav oxucci nam...
All relorms received trom him a willing audi4 Chastisement. May such a time be Ion;'
enco, and if approved, countenance and HeA from our beloved country, and may
support. And his spirit did not flag to the
last. Beneath the whitened hair of aire
dwelt the same faith that had fired his zeal
in boyhood by the banks of the Cumberland.
Ripened, sobered, enlightened and yet stren
gthened, it had survived contests, contumely
and time. He carried to his last retirement
nn unshaken confidence, in Goodness, Truth,
and Humanity. What is higher praise for a
public man than thisl It was the same lof
ty, unbent, indomitable and hopeful spirit,
with which Milton, old, and blind and poor,
within hearing of a ribald court and surroun-
5e continue advancing permanently in lib-
rty, intelligence, virtue, prosperity and
tower !
By Reuben W. Weaver.
This day it is just seventy-lhree years
pico h new nation sprang into free existence
ion a seemingly barren strip of sea-coast in
e unfilled wilderness of America. We are
ded by a degenerate people, sang tha advent et here to commemorate the returniug an-
versary of that day.
Unfettered by antiquated heresies in relig
;i and government, tho adventurous eini
anls had been thrown into circumstances
i privation and peril which forced them to
ly upon their own energies, and to govern
ein.selves. They were here untramineled
. .1 . . .1 it f
r vne niom-eaien customs anu laws ol a
mi-batliarous feudalism; and blind Con
rvutisil had not yet reared its altars nor
buldedits idols for their superstitious rev
pnee. I'M aided here in forming a govern
tut, ail its free institutions were hence of
tharacir to protect all who were iudustri
is, frugl and virtuous. Tho necessities of
te emjrants made legislators of them,
idle lb oppression they had escaped and
wan which their little communities felt,
uglit tm tho tfue principles upon which
o base eir laws. It is invariably true that
of truth, justice and brotherhood among men
Mr. Polk's opinions upon public questions,
(as has beeu well said ot a distinguished his
torian,) "were philosophical and therefore
uncompromising." They were of the school
of Progress, and few will question that they
were honestly entertained. We hero ap
proach ground where sentiment is permanent
ly divided, and where it is vain to expect a
greement or compromise. War, unending
and unyielding, has ever been waged be
tween Conservatism and Innovation: we aro
only left to choose sides in the struggle.
This much may however bo asserted in tho
ear of all ; that the golden mean between an
archy and tyranny is to be attained by prac
tiealizing rational and just reforms, and a
sentiment therefore against progression is
iudefonsible and injurious. Tha blind, un
reasoning fpar of change and liberalism is
not even promotive of order and content
ment, but exactly the opposite. Justly con
sidered, liberty is the ally of order, or as my
author better words it, "honest liberty is the
greatest foe to dishonest license." Of all
tho prominent governments of tho world,
that one is at this moment the most secure
which is the most free. All Europe is rock
ed with commotion : war, rebellion -and ap-
nrehensimi, everv where nhni.mtifirr It.
the United Stales, where there is less res
traint upon the citizen than in any other civ
ilized country upon the globe, absolute peace
and quietude prevail. The lesson is being
learned that a free people are the most or
derly. The country where radical reforms
aro frequent, and where government itself is
but a creature of the popular will, is secure
and peaceful amid world-wide commotions.
Let the fact be noted as a justification of lib
eral opinions and an innovating policy, and
let uo otio hereafter imagine that the smi
ting down of abuses will be productive of
anarchy and disorder.
In the public record of Mr. Polk's life, we
have abundant evidence of his possession
of popular confidence and respect. He was
the architect of his own fortunes, without
extraordinary advantages by birth or con
nexions; in bliort. with his character, indus
try, talents und opinions only to recommend
him ; yet they were sufficient to lift him into
public station, and continue him there, un
til the dose of life. He was in public sta
tion, by repeated elections, and almost un
interruotedlv. for twenty two years : two in
the Legislature and two as Governor of Ten
nessee ; fourteen iu Congress, and four as
President of the Union.
His Presidential administration was truly
an eventful one. A large circle of domestic
questions, many of them of a highly exci
ting character, were acted upon and adjusted.
A foreign war, exhibiting the patriotism and
prowess of our citizen soldiery iu a most
creditable aspect, was conducted to a suc
cessful conclusion. Starving thousands in
in the old world wero fed by contributions
from the new. Territory west and south, lar
ger than all Europe, was added to the Union,
and a highway to Asia opened by the Pacif
ic to develooc the enterprise and extend the
power of the Republic through the centuries
looming up from the future! History only,
in view of results hereafter appearing, can
properly estimate the importance of the e-vent.-
crowded in to the pa3t four ycais.
In private life Mr. Polk was distinguished
for amenity of disposition, a gentlemanly de
portment, and a strict regard for the rights of
othcts. His reputation was absolutely with
out stain or suspicion. Although childless,
his domestic relations were mo.-t fortunate.
His wife, who turvives him, was calculated
to giace any station ; she was attached to
her husband by a real affection, and will re
ceive tho heartfelt sympathy of the Ameri
can people in her groat and irreparable ber
eavement. This imperfect sketch is now concluded
W'e have the deceased before us in the purity
of his character and the sincerity of his n
pinions, as an example for imitation and a
Fubjert for praise. If such men aro taken
as mc'lrls rd cIw.tC't by m-i- "a
a oar own country Weliavo
the ordeal but , being ,v firs,
em republics, we have acqui..j . ,
.w-r. ., .,. ' . . f ,, a weighty
r -nd the cause of Prog.. a
freedom throughout the wonu ana ull1
time demands that we retain unimpaired the
Wussings which heaven has beneficently
conferred upon our country and our age.
Hie benighted pilgrim of trnodom in tho old
world looks here for cheer and sympathy in
Ins struggles. From all nations rins hither
the Macedonian cry o'er the broad Atlantic
"Come over and help us." Tfce kinsmen
of Kosiusco, of De Kalb, and jfayette uro
battling for freedom in EuVoii 5md stretch
out their arms to us imploring uta And tho'
the strong arm of our government may be
bound and stayed by the inexorable ureeo-
dents of a despotic age, which we have ta
ken to be a law to us, jet the true hearts of
our generous peoplo know but the law of
free Nature's God, and beat iu responsive
sympathy to every throb of freedom through
out the world. A loud cry of cheer Roe.sup
from our laud for the struggling republicans
ot all earth. It echoes ov
SiJitlVS.. Tlf
it .
Z "'US' 7" f J" a spirit of repining.--y
study the by-g0tl3 age to learn, "but
- me-eonung ,a lor U3 t0 m '
I a.- is eloquent with admonition and instruct
KM! f we heed ,ts teachings. But so too is
generous pTght and g)orioU3 t0
noblest praise. oura the lot to win iU
And meanwhile, may the
in the attainment and enjoyment of tru,,
rational, und religious freedom, until, onward
and upward, man ewer true and just to the
cause of Liberty, we shall attain to that glc
nous era when all earth shall be one nation,
and all mankind one kindred brotherhood ot'
cr ocean, .,d thrills
and nerves and fires the children of Liberty.
Kings tremble and flee iu dismay. Thrones
totter, and crowns crumble away. The A
mericaa citizen is embraced as a brother by
the free of all nations.
the cmitiuts to a new country, it left free to
act, wi,V)stablish better laws than those
which tic have escaped. Even iu our own
republii vBee this exemplified in the im
proved coqiutions of our western States,
so far supel j0 t(l0S0 mouldering relics of.
the past to yq, tlf. conservatism of our
older States ' tenaciously clings. Thus,
Texas and Vy,li ;;n jlave perhaps the best COIIStitUtlp j the Union
The cmigramto America were those,
who, amid the dtness of despotism, stood
highest upon fi mount of Progress, and
caurhnhe first 's of the bright sunlight of
Refinu. J'liu ifit of that ago was fur free
don of tlough't'd mind and speech. Des
poluin ii polit), as superstition beforo it in
religinihad iflauted into Time the seed
of its vn ejftual Reformation, and the
Amuan eviiitiun brought forth iho first
fruit the nc' cause, as a fit offering upon
the or of Fredoin. From that day until
this. Jgrebs las battled with Conservatism,
and,fultem'g and unfailing, has won its
wayh by inch into every nook of tho hab
italurth. The death-knell of the antiqn
atecesies iu government has been rung
in tar of the despots, and is now echoed
frortion to nation.
I tho land ol eloquence and song, looks
to fjhter day, when her patriotic tribunes
shaain shake th Roman forum with the
thus of their eloquence. The Pope has
protreacherous to the cause of the people,
andill an exile from the Vatican. Ger-
m'ill and must bo again one nation.
Au will be astato of Hungary, of France
or eirnany. The indomitable Magyars
aratned to map out Europe anew and
me not expect that on that day a large
sptthe new map 6hall be marked "Po
lar Perhaps, even now as we aro met
hee tramping of the war steed may ro
soibout the citadel of Warsaw to fright
thesian despot from his lair. Even Ire
land smile again, while her children,
altiuy days of suffering, shall find their
hrgaiu; and they shall then take their
haotn the willows and attune them to a
sol festivity ami joy
Our origen and history as a nation is an
ennobling incentive to others. A baud of
three millions of discontented colonists by
valor and virtue carved out for themselves a
name as a free people. This day seven-three
years ago they pledged "their lives, their for
tunes and their sacred honor" to the cause of
American Independence; and now in less
than three quarters of a century, that peoplo
numbers twenty-five millions of happy, pros
perous and independent citizens. Thirteen
states have grown to thirty , and instead of
a narrow strip of sea coast, we have a popu
lous country extendin; fiom ocean to ocean,
blessed with a genial climate and a fertile
soil. Tho products of American ingenuity
vie with those of the oldest nations, our agri
cultural wealth can feed the famishiin: of all
l ..v.,1,1, ,u,a uui nun mines, which furnish
us with the sinews of war and the ornaments
of peace, win tho adiniratiun and envy of
the age. On tho Atlantic and on the Pacific,
our harbors entice the bounteous commerce
ot eveiy nation, and ull the wide expanse of
the land is redolent with active life and buoy
ant industry. The war whoop of the savage
is changed for the din of the looms, or the
ringing of the anvil. Tho light cauoe has
given way to the huge leviathan of the wa
ters that roars like a monster and walks our
rivers and bays like a thing of life. The deer
is frighted from off our mountains by the en
croachments of civilization, but a steed of
iron nerve and sinews, breathing fire, now
speeds over mountain and plain, and drags
along his ponderous train of heavy freighted
cars. The very lightning is tamed, and made
the harmless vehicle of intelligence. How
much of ull this has been done toward the
perfection of the urts and sciences by Ameri
cans, the lives of Franklin, Rittenhouse,
Fulton, Whitney and Morse must tell.
Iu our day, men stem the stormiest ocean
without sails. They rise und fly thro' mid
air. They plough without horses, spin with
out bauds, and calculate by machines. They
have found rnctal3 that swim on the water,
and others that burn under it. They have
founded new empires on the earth, and dis
covered new planctsi u the heavens. They
read the rocks like a scroll, and decipher in
them tho hihtory of races long Riuce passed
away. They dig tunnels under tho sea, and
build bridges over it. They travel with tho
The Sabbath toavtutio::.
IWniUMBKRLAND, Jlllie 20, 18l).
In pursuance of a notice previously
en in the several papers of this region, tha
menus ot the SbaiU met in (iv;i ';,.
vcntionat !0 o'clock A. M.. i,.
'umat. church oM Whl 0f thia place
Ou motion Mr. Gaston wM t,.ted
Chairman and J. J. A.Mortfa, Secrcf.ry.
The Convention being organized was
then opened with prayer by Kev. Ceor.e
On motion, it was resolved, that each
person in a attendance whether delegate
or not be invited to take part in the Coil
On motion a committee of six, consist
ing of Kev. Foote, Itittenhouse, Ciawfor.i
and Messrs. Durham, Shannon and VVel
rick were appealed to prepare business
for the Convention.
After some d sultory discussion tha
Convention adjourned for recess until i
o'clock P.M.
2 o'clock P. M.
Convention met and proceeded to busi
ness. The com. appointed to prepare
..s., lor .invention reported the fol
lowing memorial.
To the Honorable Senate and House of
K' tprescntaiivcs of the Commonwelth of
IVnnsUvania in Lejrisb.turc assembled
IM i
i ue .sim.scnners, ciuzcus f ihe comuion
weakh of I'enn-Uvania,
fully represent that they regard the right
of petition an nuctedand inviofuU in every
free government: and that while it is the
duty ol thegoverncd to preserve a
speed of the wind, and send news by the
Truly our progress as a nation has been
rapidly and richly blessed. But while wo
contemplate ii, let us remember that all this
political reformation may cost life and i nas hc(2n wo "V the stout hearts and strong
trt ; and the loss will be minutely and ! ,;anc's pl 'i:iri'y toi'- Industry has enriched
tne land with smiling plenty, and decorated
it with the mansions where contentment and
ease enjoy life. A virtuous people wero they
who founded our nation, and thir frugality,
temperance and integrity crown their labors
with success. Thky reared their families by
ctho cost of monarchy to thr world ! , the precepts of religious honesty and econo
mies if terrors and i's wrongs ! Let . and sustained their wise laws and free
t'fe rings of India rise in judgment a-: motitutions by the eternal vigilance ot good
ghe rapacity of monarchy, and let the j and faithful citizens. Let us remember what
made them a prosperous ana respected nation
when we would emulate their high example ;
and let tho nations of Europe remember what
ofs told by tyranny. But who counts
thtims of despotism ? Who tells the
at and agony of those whose liveshavo
blasted away by the oppressions and
rations of tyranny, as the successive
vdrops can waste away a rock Who
Eg debts of its kingly wars be its curse
jhcap up the bones of the famished
en of Ireland, as its monument of in-
and then let it inscribe on this niatisn. characters those were which heaven blessed
I'its Bartholomew mastacres, and the
;rs of its high-pripst Windishgratj for
humanity cannot and will not always
The day of retribution is coming,
ien the clear mulight and pure air of
rial freedom will follow tit. temrst of
with success and liberty
Aye, citizens, the past has bright spots It
l .taph! Vengeance is the Lord,, but hai hi,llo'-Ved as80cia,io,,s !" day
ire the instruments of heaven, and out- "Ke ""s'"le --P3"'S " me inner-
mod penetralia ot the heart's temple We
mny long for the time
"When none was for a party;
When all were for tho state
When the great man helped the poor,
And the poor mia loved the great "
m alter of
an admission of the in
due re-
. r
speci ior tne constituted autheriiics in the
mailer and manner of their petitions, tk-y
man claim it an a merej rigid, growi,!
out their inviolable right of petition, u,hl
their petitions should be heard, and acted
upon as their importance demands. It is
not enough that their petitions be read and
relerred, or laid on tho table. Tha rik-ht
of petition implies a corresponding right
lo expect that their wrongs fchould be rc.
dressed, in all matters affecting their per
sons, their interest, ad their'conacieuce.
I he reception . f petitions, nn I giving th
a respectnu hearing merely, while no
pn.pnaie action is had o:i the
uiene petitions, 13
violability of the right of petition in thcorr
but a dcniul of it in practice. It was one
of the grounds of complaint of the colonies
against the king of Great Britain, and one
of the reasons why they took up arms lo
free themselves from despotic power, that
he had refused to pass laws "of inunediata
and pressing importance, wholesome and
necessary to the public grind." ' hat is
of a Jree government in which the rea
sonable ranonxtrniv.e of the people, Low
ever small may be their number, i. riot ac
ted upon, and their wrongs speedily redres
sed. Your Petitioner! would represent that
they are aggrieved by those regulations of
thcgovcrniiicntiiudcr which they livc.whieh
allow the public works to bo used on th
Lord'3 day; That they have a right to re
gard this regulation as a grievance, is evid
ent from the fact, that while, men who are
engaged in the ordinary avocations of
the farm and of the shop on the Sabbath
day, are liable to prosecution and fine, eth
er men employed en iIip public works aro
required by the agents of the common
wealth to perform theirordinary avocations
on Paid day under penalry of dismission
from the public employment. We are
professedly a people, claiming and entitled
to enjoy equal rights. This claim is in
herent in the structure of a free govern'