The Columbia Democrat. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1837-1850, December 05, 1846, Image 1

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I have iwnrniipnn the Alter of ;oi, eternal hostility to every form of Tyranny ever the Mind of M.ui." Thorn Julfcrmn
Volume A.
m j)03ism km;, colitjiiua cntXTV, pa. satukdav, decemhhii 5, is46.
Atiinbc i a a
South sidr of Main, a rt:w boohs bk
low Markkt-piruet.
The COr.UMltlJ DEMOClMTuillbe
published evert Saturday morning, al
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Ji I) VER Tl SEMENS not exceeding a
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LETTERS addressed on business, must
be post jHtid-
DECEMBER 5, '.810.
IIeadquauters Amir ofOcccpation
Camp near Monterey, Oct. 9, 1S4G.
Sir: I have now ihe honor to sub
mit a detailed report of ths recent oper
ations before Monterey, resulting in tht
capitulation of that city.
The information received on lhe. route
from Ceralvo, and particularly ihe con
tinual appearance in our front of the
Mexican cavalry which had a blight
skirmish with our advance at the village
of llamas, induced ihe belief, as we ap
proached Monterey, that the enemy
would defend that place. Upon reach
ing the neighborhood of the cily on the
morning ol the 19ih of September; this
belief was fully confirmed II was ascer
lained that he occupied the town in
forci; that a latge wmk had ben con
structed commanding all the northern
epproches' and thai the lL.-hop's l'al
tce and some heights in its vicinity .iear
Ihe Sltillo road, had alo been fortified
and occupied with troops and ariilirry
It was known from information previ
ously received, that Ihe eastern ap
proaches were commanded by several
finall works in the lower edge of the
The configuration of the highlg and
gorges in the direction of the Sallillo
road, as visible from the point attained
by our advance on the morning of the
19th, led me to suspect that it was prac
ticable to turn all Ihe woiks in that di
reclion, and thus cut the enemy's line
cf comuni;ation, After establishing
niy camp at Walnut Springs,' three
miles from Monterey, Ihe nearest suita
ble position, it was, accordingly, my
first care ",o order a close reconnoisanct
of the ground in q'iejtion, which was ex
ec uted on the evening of the 19;h, by
the engineer officers under ihe din clion
of Major Mansfield. A reconnnisance
of the eastern approaches was at thr
Bame time made by Cipt. Wi'liams, to
pographical engieers. The examina
tion made by Major Mansfield proved
the entire practicability of throwing fot
ward a column to ihe Sallillo road, and
and thus turning Ihe position of ihe en
emy. Deeming this lo ue an operation
of essential importance, orders were
given to Brevet LUig. Gen. Worih,
to march with his command on Ihe 20h
tj turn the hill of the Bishop's Palace,
to occupy a position on the Sallillo road
and lo carry Ihe enemy's detached works
in that quarter, where practicable. The
first regiment of Texas mounted volun
teer under command of Col. Hays, was
associated with Ihe econd division on
tlii? service. Capl. Sandeis' engineers
and Lieut. Meade, topographical egi
ncers, were also ordered to report to
Gen. Worth for duty with his column.
At 2 o'clock, P. M., on the 20 h,
the second division took up its nwch.
It was soon discovered, by officers who
were reconnoitering the town, and com
municated loGen. worth, dial ill move
menl had been perceived, and that tin
enemy was throwing leioforcementi
owards (lie Bishop's Palace and tlx
height which commands it. To diver
his attention a' fur ai practicable, tin
fust division, under Brig. Gen, Twiggs,
and field division of volunteers, undei
Miijoi. General Butler, were displayed
in front of Ihe town until d.irk. Ar
rangemenlg were made at Ihe same time
to place in batlery during Ihe night, a'
a suitable distance from ihe enemy'
main work, the citadel, two 24 pounder
howitzeis, and a ten inch morar, will
1 view to open a fire on Ihe following
day, when I proposed to mike a diver
ion in favor of Oen. Worth'- move
menl. The 4lh 'nfanlry covered this
battery durine the n ic ht. Gen. Worth
had in the meantime reached and occu
pied for the night, a defensive positioi
just wilhoul range of btttery ebove Ihe
Bishop's Palace, having made a recon
noissances as far as the Sallillo road
Before proceeding lo report the op
perations of the 21 t, anil following day.
I beg leave to stale that I shall mention
n delail only Ihoso which were con-
dieted against llm extremity of the city
or elsewhere, tinder my immediate di
rection, referring you lor the particulars
if Gen. Worth's operations, which were
?nlirely detached, to his own full tepon
transmitted herewith.
7:,irly on Ihe morning of the 21t. 1
received a note from Gen. Worth, wi it-
ten at half past 9 o'clock ihe night br
fore, suggesting what I had already in
tended, a strong diversion against lb'
centre and left of the town, to fevor his
enterprise aiinsl the heights, in rear
'he infantry and at t i 1 1 e r y of the firt-t
ivision, and the field division of volun
er, were ordered under nmrs and
nuk the direction of the city, leaving
ine company of each regiment ns a cmii
niani. i lie i dragoons, under l.ieui
Cot. May, and Col, Wood' regimen
f Text volunteers, under the innnnili
tie direction of Gen. Henderson, wen
reded lo ihe right lo support Genera!
Woith, if necessary, and lo make at
impresssion, if pi atiticaU , upon the u;
)r quarter of ihe city. Upon ap
proaching the mortar battery, the 1st &
J regiments of infantry, and baltallini.
f Bdlimoro and Washington volun
eers, with Capt. Bragg's field baitety
the whole under iho command rl
..ieut. Cul. Garland wero directed
towards ihe lower part of Ihe town, with
older to make a demonstration, anil
carry one of ihe enemy's advanced
works, if it could be done without to
heavy loss. Major Il jns!Hds, engi
neers, and Captain Williams and Lieu'.
ope, topographical engineer), accom
panied the column, Maj. Minsfie'd b'
ng charged with Us d recuon, and ihe
lesi&nation of points of atlark.
In Ihe meantime the monar, setvei!
by Captain Ramsay, of the ordnance,
and ihe howdzT batlery under Capia'n
Webster, 1st Ariillery, had opened
their fire upon the citadel, whird vva-
leliberattjy putt lined, and answered
from the woik. Gen. Bwln'p division
had now taken up a position in the re a r
of his battery, when Ihe discharges o1
attillery, mingled finally with a rapid
fire of small arms, showed that Lieu;.
Garland's command hart bi.-came wai m-
y engaged, 1 now deemed it nrci-ssa
ry to support this attack ind accoitting
ly ordered the 4th infantry, and line'
regiments of Gen. Butler' division, it
march at once by Ihe left flink in tin
direction of the advanced woik at the
lower extremity of the town, leaving
one tegimenl (1st Keri'ucky) to cover
the mortar and howitzer battery. Bj
some mistake, Iwo companies of Hit
4th irfantry did not receive this order,
nd conseqti' nt!y did noi j'dn the ad
vance companies uritil sume time afler
vards. Lieu'. Col. G land' ; command had
ipl roacked ihe town in a direction to
he righl of Ihe advanced woik, (No.l.)
it the Noilheistern angle of the city,
md the engineer office, covered by
kirmislurs, had succeeded in entering
;hesubuibi and caininc Cv,ver. The
remainder of this command now ad vane
ed, and entered the town under a heavy
lire of artillery from ihe citadel and Ihe
works on the left, and of muke!ry ftom
the houses and small works in fionl. A
rnovemtnl lo the righl was attempted
with a view to gain ihe rear of No. 1,
ndcairy that woik, bul ihe troops
were so much txpost d lo a fue which
hey could not tfl'eclually return, and
tiad already sufliiued such severe los.,
particularly in officers, thai it was deem-
-d best to withdiavv them to a mote se
ure position. Capt. Backus, 1st in
fantry, however, with a portion of his
iwo ai.d other companies, had gained
the roof ol a tannery, which looked di-
ecily into the gorge of No. 1, and from
which he poinh-d a most destrueiive fire
into thai woik, and upon Ihe strong
building in its rear. The fue happily
coincided in point of lime with the ad
vance t.f a portion of the volunteer di
vision tipn No. 1, and contributed
trgely to the fall of that stiong and
mpotlanl woik.
'1 he three regimenis of the Vulumeei
livisiun under the immediate command
f Major. Gen, Butler, had in the mean
me advanced in the directio.) of No. 1.
Impleading brigadp, undi r Bi igniter
Gen. Quilman, continued its advanct
pon mat woik, precreded by Idret
ompaniea of the -I'll infantry, while
Jenersl liuiler, had in the meantime
dvanced in the direction of No. 1. Tin
eatling brigade, under Brigadier Gen.
Quitman, continued lis advance upnt.
ha l woik, preceded by lluee companie-
f the 4di infantry, while Gen. I5utli'i,
villi the 1st Ohio tegimenl, entered the
own to the right. The companies 1 1
he 4 h infantrv had advanced wilhir
hoi I ringe ol the woik, when they
.vere received by a fno lhal alinoht
in one moment sir ur k down one thin
f the oflicen and men, and tendered i'
it'cisaary to leltre ind tllcl a conjune
on with tho i wo other compinies then
idvancing. Oen. (iirnins bugadt,
hough suflerirt" rnot severely, pat lieu
atly in ihe Tenne-see tegiineni , con
inued its advance, and finally carried
he work in handsome style, as well as
he sironu buil'linn in its rear. Five
O r
pieces of artillety ; a ronsiderable supply
.if ammunition, and ihitly prisoners,
including ihieo I'fliccrs, fell into cut
hands. Mj ir Gen. Butler, with the
1st Ohio ifgiment, after entering the
Hilge of the town, discoveied 1 1 1 a t noih
ng was lo b accomplished in his Ironi
md al tl is poini yit tiling lo the sug
gtsiions ol .-evtnl oflic Ts', I ordered a
it-tiogadtf movement; bul learning al
most immediately from one of my stafi
that Ihe batlery Ao. 1. was in our pos..
e?sun, the ordir was countermanded,
md 1 determined to hold the battery &
defences already giined. Gen. Brltt
.vith with Ihe 1st Ohio regiment, then
-nl. red the town at a point faiiher to
Ihe left, and marched in the ditectiou ol
he battery No. 2. While making ai
examination with a view lo ascertain the
possibility of catiying tdis second woik
No. 2. and the heavy musketry fir.
d mking the apptoich, tendered it im
possible lo carry it without great lose,
the 1 s' Oh 10 reei moot was wiihdrawi.
fron the town
Fragments of the varicus regimenis
engaged were now under covir of the
captured battery and some buildings in
is front, and on the right- The fiddiout any active operations in the lower par
- batteries of Captains Bragg and Ridelyjnf iho
were also partially covered by ihe bat
tr-iy, A n incessant fire was kept up on
this position from battery JVj. 2, and
toher wot ks on its right, ind from tht
citadel on all our approaches. General
Twiggs, ihough qitiie unwell, joined mt
4 this point, and wag ins'rumenlnl in
causing the attillery captured worn
the enemy to be dared in baliery, and
served Ly Captain R.dgely againsiNo.2
until the arrival of Jantain Web'lei'i-
howitzer battery which look its plate.
In the meantime, I directed such men a
could be collected of Ihe 1st, 3d and 4 V
regiment and 13adi more bat tal lion, lo en
er Ihe town, penetrating lo the righl
md carry ihe 2J batlery if possible.
This command, uWcr .ieut. Col. Gar
i-iiid advanced beyond tho bridge 'Purisiuia'
w hen finding it impiacticable to gain the
rear of Ihe 2J battery a portion of it sua
lained themsclve for some time in dial ad
vancid position; but as no permanent int
prtssion could le mode at tint point and
ihe main object of die general operation had
beeiieffeciud the command including a sec.
lion o Ridgely's battery which had joined
it was withliawn to baliery No. I.
During iho licence of lliii colum i
deinoRSiruiioii of civalry wtis reporiDil in
the direction of ihe citadel. Capt; Ur.igj;
who was at hand immediately gilluppud
with his baliery to a puiubli prisiiion liuin
which a fuw discharges tfl'eclually dispers
ed ilie tiicmy. Captain Miller Isl infantiv
was despatched Midi a mixed command u
stumor, the ballet v on this eervico. The
enemy's latims had previously rharged
upon the Ohio mid part of ihe Mississippi
regiments near some fields at u distance
f, c in the edge of ihe tow n and had been re
pulsed with considerable lots, A demonstra
tion of cavalry on the opposite side of tin-
river was also dispersed in ihe comae ol
die. afternoon by Captain Ridgely'u ballet
ir.d lhe scptadron returned loihe city.
Al lhe approach of evening all lhe Hoops
iha. hid bian engagrd were ordered back I
..amp except Caplain Zi'idgely's battery and
.he regulai i it fill try of the l.-l division who
wcru detailed as a guatd for the woiks dur
vi lhe night under command of Lieut. Col.
uathind One baitaliun of lhe Isl Kentucky
.eiment was ordered to reinforce ibis coin-
nand. Intrenching tools were procured
md additional sirt n(;tli was given lo the
ivorks and protection lo the men by woik-
ing pirties during lhe night under direction
f Lii ut IScarrili engineers.
Tho main oljeci in tho morning had
been enacted. A powerful diversion had
been made lo favor the operations of the
ml division one of lhe enemy's advanced
works had been carried and we now had a
strong foot-hold in the lown. ml this had
noi been accomplished without a heavy loss
embracing of our most gallanl ami
promising officer?. Captain Williams, top
ugrapieal engineers, Lietits. Terrell and
Ddworlh, 1st infatiliy Lieut. Woods 2nd
infantry Capts. Morris and rieid uvt. Maj.
lJarhour Lis. Irwin and HtzliU'Jrd infaiiuy
l,t Iloskins lib infantry I-ieut Col. Wat
son Haltimore baitalion Capt. Allen and Id.
I'utmati Tennessee regiment and Li. licit
Ohio regiment were killed or have since
lied of wounds received in lliis engagement
while the number and rank of Hie officer
wounded gives atld'lionil proof of lhe ob-
tiuacy of llie contest and the gooil conduct
ifouriroops. I he number of killed ai.d
wounded incident to the operations in tin
lower pail of tne city on Ihe 2 1 si is .'S91.
Early in the mottling of lliis d.iy, (2lai,;
the advance of the 2nd division hadcucuuii
icred lhe enemy in loice, and after a bricl
iiul sharp conllict, repulsed him with heavy
loss, (itn orth then stieceeilcd in gain
nig a position on lhe Sdtillo road, thus cul
ting lhe enemy's line of rouiiitunieation
From this position lhe two heights south ol
ihe Sahillo road wero carried in snece-sion
and the gun tdken in oneol them Hinted up
on lhe Uishop's Palacj. These important
successes were fortunately obtained will
comparatively small loss; Capt. M'Kaveti,
8di infantry, being the only officer killed.
The 22nd day of September passed wiili
ciiy.-TI.e tiu,lel and o.her
works continued lo fire al exposed would receive the answer of the Mexican
to their range, and at ihe work now oeetipi- Bei,cri, Cen W)r(j.i h(!
d by our troops. The E.,d left in it .he wllli;h l B00B repair(,di h
preceding nighl. ex-epi Capt. K.djjely . CJenrral Ampudia had si?niliej , UeuerJ
-ornpunv ... relieved , t tnnLd.y ly tie,,. Worth hts desire for . personal interview
Qomnan . br.gade. Cap.. D,arfg s bntmy .ilh me ,Q w)jo(i ,
.ns , under cove, in front of .lieHy resulted in a c.p.iul.tion. placing ,ha
town to repel any demonstration of cavalry ow anJ lhe materi-t of war, with certain
in that qnaier. At dawn ol'd it, Iho height exeentinn. in ...
.'..,. , , exccl,,lons. "i oir possession, A ropy (,(
" " -""
soon alter ntertOian, the ralace until was
taken and its guns turned upon tin fugitive
garrison. The objee for which the 2nd
division was detached hud thus been com
pletely accomplished, and 1 felt confident
dial wiih a strong force occupying ihe road
and heights in his rear and a good position
lielow the cily in our possession, the enemy
i:ou'd not possibly maintain i tie town.
During the night of the 22.1, the enemy
evacuated nearly all hit defences in .hi
lower part of tho city. This was reported
to me early in tho morning of the 23d by
Gen. Quitman, who had already meditated
an assault upon those works. 1 immediate
ly sent instructions lo that officer, leaving
n in his disere'.ion lo eniet the city covering
his men by t!ie houses and walls, and ad
vance carefully as far as he mij;hl deem ptu-
dcoi. Alter oidertns the remainder of tiie
troops as a reserve, undsr the orders ol
Brigadier General Twig9, I repair eJ it
the t.uMiiluned works, and discovered that a
portion of Gen. Qniimau's brigade had cu-
.ered the lown, and were successfully fore
ingtheir way towards the principal plaz ;
I then ordered ap the 2d regiment of Texas
mounlcu: volunteers, who entered tho city
J,s'unicd, and, under the immediate or
dersofCcu. Henderson, cooperated with
Gen. Quilriiau's brigade, Capl. Uragg'e
oaltory was also ordered up, supplied by
die 3d infantry, and after firing some lime
at the cathedral, a portion of it was l.kewUt
ihicwn itito the city. Our troops advanc
ed fron. house to house, and from square to
-quart, until they reached a street but one
qtiaro in tear of the principle plaz , and in
near of which the enemy 'u force was mainly
roncentrated. I'his advance was conducted
vigorously but with due caution, and ah
though destructive to the enemy, wis at
tended wiih but small loss on our part.
Captain Kidgoly, in the meantime, hat!
served a capturod piece in batlery So. I.
gainst the eiiy until lhe advance of our rnei
rendered it imprudent lo fire in lhe diretlioi
of the cathedral. I was now satisfied thai
we rotdd operate successfully in the city.
md that the enemy had rented front the
owcr portion of it to make a siand behind
his barricades. As (Jen. Q iiimau s bri-
ade had been on duty the previous night,
I dciermined lo withdraw lhe troops to the
vacuated works, and concert with Gen.
'orih a combined attack upon the low n
I'hc iruops acitoi Jingly lull back deliberate
ly, in good order, and resumed their origi
nal positions, Gen, Quitman's be
ing telieved after nightfall by lhal cf Gen.
flainci. On my reiuiri to camp, I met an
wJ'.lier with the intelligence that Own
Woith, induced by the filing in the lowei
part of the city, was about making an at
tack at the upper exttemity, which had al.
30 been cvaeuaied by the enemy to a con
siderable distance, I tegieiied thai this in
formation had noi reached nie before leav
ing tho city, bul siill deemed il inexpedi
ent to change my orders, and accordingly
renirned to camp. A note from Gen
Worth, written at 11 o'clock, P, M. inform
H me thai he had advanced to within a
ihorl distance of the pnncipal plazi, and
.hat the monar (which had been sent to his
liviaion in the morni g) was doing good
xsculioii within eil'etlive range of the ei.-
urny s position.
Desiring to make no further attempt up
m the city wuhuui complete concert as to
die lint s and moJe ol approach, I instruct-;
i ..... .... - . i .... i . ,
'd nisi tiurjer in suhiieuu m8 auvance uiil.l.
I could have ar. interview wiih linn on ide.
ollowing morning al Ins headquarters.
Karlv on the morning of the 24ih, I
reived, through Colonel Moreno, a eoinmu 1
nicalion from General Ampudia, proposing
o evacuate the lown; which, with the an-
swer, was forw ird. d wiih my first despatch.
srtarged with Colonel Moret.o a ceisa
- - , -- -i z irii"gfi
ti..n of fiie until 12 oVInrk. -i.i-k
inai rapiiuialion Wi
as transmitted wiih qjv
first despatch.
Upon occupying the city, it was discov
fred to be of great strength in itself, and n
hav iis approaches carefully and strongly
'.-rtified. The town and works were arm
ed with 42 pieces of cannon, well supplied!
ith ammnniiion, and manned with a force
of at least 7,000 troops of the line, and from.
2,000 to 3.000 irregulars. The force under
rV orders before Monterey, as exhibited by
the accompanying return, was 425 officers,
md G 220 men. Our ariillery consisted of
one 10 inch mortar two 24 pounder howit
zers, and four dfhl field batteries of four
ijuns each the mortar being the only piece
suitable to the operation of a seige.
Our loss is twelve officers and one hun
dred und eight men killed; thirty ono offi
cers and three hundred and thirty-seven
men wounded. That of the enemy is noi
known, but is believed considerably to ex
eed our own,
1 take pleasure in bringing to the notice
of the government the good conduct of the
troops boih regulars and volunteers, which
has been conspicuous throughout the oper
itions. I am proud to bear testimony lo
htir ronlne?! and constancy i battle Bnd
he cheerfulness wiih which they hsve tub
milted to exposure and privation. To the
general officers commanding divisions
Major Generals Butler and Henderson, and
Brigadier G.juerab Twiggs and Worth I
nusl my obligations for, the eft
ientaid which they have rsndared'in- their
respective comra.mds. I was unfortunately
leprived early on the 2 1 si of the valuable
icrvices of Major General Butler ho was
Usable J by a wound received in lhe attack
m tho city. Major General Henderson
ommanding the Texas voluntears, has giv
mi me important aid in the orgmization of
lis command, and iis subsequent operations
I5ngadir General Twiggo rendered itnpo
tanl services with his division, and. as the
second in command after M.dor (ieneral
j ------
Iniler was disabled. Brigadier General
Woilh svas intrusted wiih an important de
tachment, which rendered his operations in
dependent of my own, Those operations,
wero conducted with ability, and crowned,
wiih complete success.
I de.'iro also to notice Brigadier Generals
II -imer and Q.iiuian, commanding brigades
in (Jen. JJuiler's division. Lieutenant Cu
lonels Garland and Wilson, commanding
uigiJes in Gen, Twigg's division. Colo
nels Milchel, Campbell, Davis and Wood,
commanding the Ohio, Tennessee, Missis-.,
sippi, and 2d Texas regiments, lespeeiively
md Msjois Lear, Aden and Abercrombip,.
commanding the 3d, 4th, and 1st regiments,
of infantry ; all of whom served under my
eye and conducted their commands wild.
i:oolness and gallantry against ihe enemy,
Colonel Mitchell, Lieut. Col. A'Clung,
Mississippi regiment, Major Lear, 3d infan
try, and M ijor Alexander, Tennesses regi
ment, were all severely wounded, as weia
Capftin Lamottc, 1st infantry, Lieut. Gra.
lam, 4ih infantry, Adjutant Armstrong,
Ohio regiment, l.ieuts, Sucdder and Allen,.
1'ennnsse regiment and Lieut. Howard
.Mississippi regiment, while leading ihei,
men against the enemy's position oo the
21sl and S3J, Afier the fall of Cul.
Mitchell, the command of lhe 1st Ohio re-
tjiineiil devolved upon Lieut. Col. Welltr,
that of the 3d infantiy, after the fall ol -1aj.,
Lear, devolved n: succession upon Oapu
II..... I.. 11 .
"",,IL,,uir" m,u "i"- w;") mo luraier
being also wounded.
Lhe following pained officers hare been
re-favorably noticed by their commsndets;
Lieut. Col. Anderson, and Adjutant Ilei-
-nan I ennessee regiment; Lieut. Col. M'
Clung, Capiams Cooper and Downing
Lieutenants Puttrson, Calhoun, Moore, Kus-
scl and Cook, Miesiryirmi rtginenl; aln