The Columbia Democrat. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1837-1850, January 18, 1844, Image 1

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    The io hi m Is i a llemocral
I havo sworn upon the Altar of fiort, olernal hostility to ovory form of Tyranny ovor tho Mind of Man." Thorn" JeiTorson
Volume VIBB.
oi'i'osm: St. Paul's Cmiuoii, Mais-st.
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LETTERS addressed on business, must
be post paid.
To the Senate and House of Ilcprcscnta
tivts of the Commonwealth of Pcnn
Fkllow-Gitizhns : The term to
which mv e'lgilnlliy as ( ho Chief Exe
cutive officer of llie Commonwealth, a
restricted by tin Contilution, being a
hoot to close, 1 Miboiit lo tins Legist,
lure, the List ann.ial ni'j(i! which tin
duly of my station en joins upon mo. L
the performance of this dtry, I cannot
refrain from invoking your devout ac
knowledgements, will) my own. lo tin
Great Author of All Good, for His con
stant care nnd guardianship over the in
terests and welfare of our beloved Com
monwealth. Upheld by His paternal
arm, wo hive been rescued from the
most distressing embai r issmenis and
difliculiies to which, in a lime of peace,
nny people were ever strbj -el ed. Good
has sprung out of evil afeiy from dan
i;it wisdom from folly .mil justice
from a spirit ol ungenetous detraction.
The clouds lhat for several yens pist,
hive hu ii k upon our horizon, aro break
ing away; and the sunshine ot prospcri
iy once mote begins to beam upon qui
Wiiliin Inn d iys after mv induction
into office, I fell myself called upon, by
the higin ijt consideration of diry, lo
communicate lo the Legislature, a full
and frank expo-dtion nf the slate of our
pecuniary afTiirs. Upon a careful ex
animation, it was ascertained that the
amount of the public debt, including
s-npltis revenue from iho I'lnted Stales,
was a little upwards of thirty millions
of (Itilt.ii and I In; deficit in the Treasu
ly dui ing the year IS3.9, beyond llu
income fiom nil sources, was about four
millions of dollais. to meet this a-
mount t immediate provision had to be
made, nnd, lo add lo the perplexing em
hot rassmonls, the great cnmiuerr.ial con
vulsiou, which has since reached it?
begin, was then just beginning to b
felt in its operation. 1' or more than ton
years immediately preceding that ppii.
oil, the Stae of Ft tiny I vania,fi om hei
well known punctuality and great nalu
ral resources, had experienced no difli
cully in procuring upon loans, on favor
able lerms, any amount of money she
needed, lo exieuil and carry on her sin
petnlous system of internal improve
ments. Holh Foieign and A un pe n
capitalist!) were cumpcliior-1 for the ao
eeptance of her loans; and there seemed
lo bo no 11 in i is lo her credit and resour
ees, except those which hei own discre
lion imposed. She made large loans fo
the undertaking and completion of he
various lines of improvement, and pai
tho interest upon these loans by other
loans. Stimiilaied by these facilities
and forgetting tho day oyer would an ive
when her interest must bo paid, not by
loans, hut by taxation, n system of im
nrovemeuls, by railrnail and canal: was
undei taken, tar more cnmprebnusiyi
than her necessities1 required, and far
beyond her means to complete. The
same reckless spiiil which ue.ituled th
H0vcrnnu'nt,liad seized upon her private
eitiz'ins, ami iudueed iln-m to engage in
undei Inking' rqmlly indiscreet anil un
a'tatnable. Within a very lew yeai
immediately piecctltng the comincnce
irn.Mii of my adminisiraliun, banks werr
eieated to an extent, ami wilh capital
unheard of in IhisC'ommunwoalth at any
lormer period. Ihese banks, conlrolh
by men moved by such impulses, very
speedily exploded, ami, as every rational
man ought lo pave ioicscoii,ovci wiieim
ed, in their downfall, lliu enlire busi
11 bs of liic community. Williiu abou
two years after I entered upon the dis
charge of the Executive functions,bauks
the aggregate capital of which amounted
to more than two-thirds of tho entire
banking capital of the Siaie,and furnish
ing more than that propoition of its cur-
ency, were compelled to wind up their
(l.i i is; and, in doing so, not only extin
guish! d this amount of the osiensibli
oapilal of the Slate, but crippled the re
maining hanks, compelled them to witli
hold facilities from the business men ol
the community, nnd, by forcing i hei i
dehluis, constituting a large class of men
engaged in various pursuits ol hi.', to
discharge their liabilities, almost crushed
the large and nourishing class of busi
ness men in all parts of the Common
wealth. To udd still faiiher to ihes
perplexing evils; the condition of th.
pecuniary affairs of Eu opo bici ,ie al
most ns deeply a-s-d as our own.
mil foreign capitalists, who had sough
for opportunities to make invest nicnls it
Ins country, were induced lo wihhold
their uu:il loans,
During a whorl period previous to my
entering upon the duties of my office,
our internal improvement system, con
ssedly incomplete, was very laigeh
extended by making amironriations to
wards Ilia construction ol' the North ami
West Uranch and Erie Extensions, Wis-
onisco L inal, Allegheny I eerier and
Geltybutg Itiilroad, besides guarantee
ing llie interest upon loans made to pn-
ite companies, engaged in .the con
ruction of works leading into the im
provemenls ol the Slate, llie amount
which has been paid by tho State lor
these ami other improvements, which
iro wholly unproductive, is nearly nine
mllions of dollars.
Flic most strenuous excitions woro re
quired lo obttin, during thn first two
ears, a sufficient amonnl of money to
pay Uic interest upon the blate debt
lefray the expenses of the government;
nid to rny oil the large class of domestic
creditors, naturally and justly elamorotn
for the discharge of their demands upon
liooiale. uigid economy was recom
iiended, and enforced in all Iho publn
xponditures. The extended Iinc3 ol
improvement, winch might have been
completed a few years earlier by loans,
vero suspended in consenuenco of thi
inability of the Stale to raise the neces
sary funds; and finally the interest upon
lie puiilic dent tailed to be paid from
he same cause, and the want of time
requisite to mature a plan of taxation
winch would produce the necessary sum
Ibis source, fur iho present year.rnay.llinro- This bahnee embraces iho sum of $50,000
foro, bo estimated at about St, 200, 000 00 of relief notos, which the Stato I reasinei
I'lic acts havo been passed upon withheld Irom cancellation on llie 31st Ue
iho subject, and which arc now in force, cembcr, and which, if needed, may bo ap
provide for tho imposition of a tax, which, plied by tho Legislature lo iho payment ol
taking the valuation for 1811, of t!in real interest oil the public debt. From tin
ind personal properly as a tiasis. will anyacis nere presenieu, n is cviuenl thai llie
nually amount to tho sum of $1,-153 000, iCominonealtli will bo prepared to meet bci
I hat valuation, it may bo lemaiKed, was interest lulling mm on llin lsl ol februarv
considerably below lhat of 1811. If. there
lore, tho provisions ol the act ol toil ue
fairly carried into effeel, in the valuation of
properly, and iho collection ami prompt
payment of tho lax, bo enforced, the annual
revenue hereafter lo bo derived from thai
source, will amount to at least St 500 000
I'll is sum, wilh Iho other resources of the
(Jominonwaalth, will be entirely adequate
to furnish the necessary amount lodischarge
tho interest upon the public debt, ami thus
m-iire the fidelity ol the totaio to lie r cn
Without expressing tho opinion that the
letails of these laws are, in all their minute
particulars the most equal and just, in tin
objects selected for taxation, and tho rales
imnnsed. I will remark lhat. thoy seom lo
'to substantially conformable to public opin
ion. There is a defect in providing for the
punctual enlorcomcnt ol llie laws imposing
mil collecting the taxes, and I beg leave to
recommend to llie consideration ol ill e t,eg
islaiuru. toe adoption of some moro efficient
niodu of attaining llie end. This might
be done bv indicting penalties on Iho col
lectors, or other officers, found delinquent in
llie discharge of their dulies. That clrss ol
individuals is as Intle entitled to indulgence
or sympathy as any olbcrs engaged in tin
execution of the taws.
The entire amount of the public debt o
this time is:
Funded debt,
0 per cent
slocks. SI 37(i 910 at
5 31 721 03 t .Id
li 200 000 00
$39 203 450 G
Loan (rolieif
issue) per
act of -1th
May, 1811
bearing an
interest of
one per cent SI 175 000 00
six 171 030 00
five 7l5i:i 00
we have run since tho 1 5th of January, a department for iho charge of llie inann
1830. It can hardly bb possible for such h uiuuhcs. I hero have been utmost every
Amount in circula
tion, Balance due domes
tic creditors, on
certificates issued
by the Audilur
$1 138 ICS 0b
101,38-1 93
Attempts, it is truo, have been made to
create doubts in the public mind in relation
lo the propneiy or paying Iho interest on
thai day lest there should bo a deficiency
in tho Treasury, on the 1st of August, Din
it musi bo perfectly evident that the'Trea
jury will he in amplo funds, not only on
the first of August next, bin also on the first
nl I'ounnry, 1815. And the rcry fact thai
the interest is paid on tho first of Febiuary
next, will increase lliu means and credit of
the Slate to meet its interest in August, &
fierwaids, when it falls ('.ue. While, on
the other hand, if when it is admitted thai
enough money t discharge iho interest on
the tirsl of I'ebruary, is in tho treasury.
pptieauie to mat omect, anil u is not si-
pplied, we shall, wilh much appearance ol
justice, subject ourselves lo tho reproach ol
nur Irauucers. as willully dishonest, -anil re
gardless of iho faith and honor of the Stale
Wilh an exhausted Treasury ami tarnished
credit, wo could plead our necessities b
extenuation of our violation of contraels;bu
what shadow of excuso could bo offerei
when this necessity has ceased to exist''
None, whatever, that groil old-fasltiiiueo
integrity does not brand as disgraceful and
unworthy our character as u sovereign
Il must bn gratifying lo every Pennsyl
vanian to reflect that the credit of this ('tea
Slate, which has been, fur tipwaids ol Uv
years, subjected lo reproach, will thus In
testorcd to the unsullied purity of charade
which, uuli! ibis unavoidable reverse o
fortune, she bad steadfastly maintained,
Flie slairns of all her honest creditors hi'.
'ic punctually discharged, and the grosstiui
nutations which have been heaped upon
'ier name wiped out, and the abiding eun
lidenne which we have ever felt the dispns
ttiun & ability of the State to comply will
d! her engagements; will be fully realized
The report of the Canal Coinmissrnnert
eill present lo yoj, in detail, the operation
m llie public improvements, for the pas
ear. The lulls collected in 181-1 amount-
SI 107 003-12 being an increase ovei
1813 of SI72 199 10. The collections fo
he year exceed the expenditures the sun
ofS029 058 82.
The report of the Stato Treasurer vil
xplain. in detail, our financial condition.
That officer estimates tho receipts nt tin
I'reasury, for the current fiscal year endint
Amounting to the sum ofSlO 835 013 GO
for lhat object. Not a single dollar ha
been appropriated, or paid, under m
(1 in im eli at ion, lowaids the. commence
ment of any new woi k whatever. The
stale ot allairs was such, al Us outset, as
oloihidauy such undertaking, how-
ever merilonoiu in ns-elf, and 1 havi
strictly adhered to lint, rule of conduct.
Shortly alter I assumed the Execuiivr
lutics of the State, I became satisfied
lhat procrastination ot the evil day,
when resorl to taxation was demanded
by the most impe.ralivo obligation ol
of duly, could no lougi r bu indulged.
Faiulul as was the alternative,! fell how
deeply the honor of the Slate was in-
vulved, and recommended the imposi
tiou of a tax, which should supply an
uli quale sum to discharge the interest
m the public debt, committing the de
ads lo the L'-g'slaltire. the recommen
latiou I icitenled, in the most earnest
maimer, and ultimately il rceceived tin
sanction of the Legislature,
The assessment under the several laws,
imposing a tax on real and personal pro
perty, and the amount paid into the 1 fea
sor y, as follows:
Mo lit for tax us-
nosed fur 1811 SI 10 781 R5
1812 (iflUfilS 47
181.1 'JG8 70S10
1811 uliout UH 80S t(l
The increase to the Stato Debt, since 1
isMimcd tbc duties of the Executive chair,
nay be properly understood, when it is
slated that iho interest which has accured
diereon, since that period,
amounts to $10 301 100 00
The amount of interest guar
anteed lo privalo curpora
lions, to 1-1-1 310 00
And the amount of appropri
ations towards the comple
tion of unfinished lines of
public improvements, com
menced prior to that lime,
about -1 500 000 00
30ih November. 1815 at
I'o which add bat
ance in Treasury
on .'10di Novem
ber last, SG03.851
Also, the amount in
Uanal 'I'reasury,
on same day, 30,-197
$3 005 000 01
Whole umount assessed fur the past
four years S:)013 0;
Am'n'. rccei"-
edin 1811 $ ! 301 77
1813 18fi li:t.r) 85
IHI3 Q.V1 01 1 28
1811 751210 0.
1 12
-$1 825 05001
Leaving tlui amount of tax outstand
ing un the Jirat uf Dtecinbci
last. $1 188 071 11
subject to exonerations, commissions, &c,
which may be estimated al leu tier cent.
The balance, Ills fair lo presume, will be
made available the current year. Of llie
$701 210 90 paid into lite Treasury during
jibe past fiscal year, only 81-13 099 00 win
received from iho lax assessed lor 1814
leaving outstanding, for lhat year alone
over 9800 000 00. The receipts fron
Amounting to
$15 000 520 00
Tho annual interest nn the funded debt
of the State, payablo at iho Bank of I'cnn
sylvauia, exclusive of interest on certificates
issued lur interests, is $1 717 030 malline
luo respectively on the first of February it
August, nf which the sum of $873 515 00
is payable on the first day of .February next
If n should be determined to pay the inter
est on the interest eenificates on tho Isi
February, then the futiber sum of $97 880
8 1 will be required.
I he receipts into the I rpasnry during
the fiscal year, ending on the 30 ih Nuvem-
ier last, including a small available balaiu
from 'he previous year.were S2 511 237 03
I'ho expenditures for the
sain (i period, including the
amount of relief notes can-
celled, were 1 017 385 15
$703,348 88
Making a total of
$3,705,3-!S 88
lie also estimates the expen
ditures ot the Uuininon
wealth, for llie aame peri
od, Including interest on
public debt at 3,061,013 50
Leaving a balance in Treasu
y on 30th November,
1815, of $017,335 32
hcavinc- a balance in tho
'I'reasury nn that day of $ 005 851 88
There was also an availablo
ballanco in the Canal Troae
sury, un the same day, of 39 -197 00
The receipts during the
months of December, ex
clusive of disbuisements,
were 139 GS1 2
I'o which may bo added die
receipts over expenditures
for the present month, es-
limited at 120 000 00
Making the amount in tho
Treasury on l6t February
1 hero is, therefore, no maimer of doubt
mat, licncclorlli, the biate will bo able in
meet not only the interest on her public
debt bin all her other engagements of even
description; tho taxos now imposed by law
(it itieir collection and payment into the
Treasury be strictly enforced), and iho pro
reeds of the public improvements, with
oilier sources of revenue, constituting a fund
imply sufficient for that purpore
Itecuring to the history of the past six years
what a satisfactory answer does il furnish
hi the obiortioiis of the enemies nl Kcpuhli
can Goveruiucr.t, against its stability and in-
tinnnr. Oppressed by personal embarrass
uienls weighed down by public liabilities
teproaehed for not doing what the most
manlul struggles were unable lo accomplish
the people of Pennsylvania have still borne
themselves steadily in thodirkcsl hour hate
submitted lo taxation griovnns ot all limes,
and paitteularly so in convulsions of busi
ness, and havo at last reached the solid
footing which public integrity and pnblie
fidelity in the end never fad lo attain
Tho difficulties and embarrassments attend
ing ibis struggle, will hardly be credited
hy thoso who have nut shsred them, and,
confess, tl will ever be to me u source ol
3 prnud satisfaction to compare the condition
of the stale, wlien llie Helm ol tiovernment
was pul into m) hands, with its condition
when 1 surrendet it into the hands of my
successor. I say tint Ibis to reproach
thoee who preceded, nor to diminish llu
just credit of thoso uho succeed me; but as
$903 030 11
leason of trial ever to occur again: but if
unhapily it should, I trust thnsu who are
ailed upon lo encounter it w ill find some
diing in our cxamplo to cheer and animate
them to pcrsevoie in iho discharge of their
Having thus dispnsod of the financial con
cerns of the State, for llie last few years,
i subject of the deepest solicitude, I shall
proceed lo submit to you but few special
recommendations; for, at the present lime,
I docin it nu moro than an al of respectful
lourlesy to my successor, to leave entirely
in his hands those recommendations of a
genoral nature, which aro usually expected
to emanate from Iho Executive department,
I hero are a fov.lopics, however upon which
I feel n lo be my dulv to offer some sugges
lions for your consideration
I he unexampled cnmin-juun ami distnr
hance that recently prevailed in the business
concerns of the country, have, in a great
legree subsided, and left us in a state lo
survey tho held ol disaster with a calm and
nxucrienred eve 'The throes and eunvul
sions nf the banking system, for n lime
-ucnaced all those institutions, with speedy
lownfall but most of the in havo now outrode
'he slorm. No man could witness the exis
ing slate ol things without feeling conscious
'hai this system was essentially vicious and
ie 'ded efieetual reform.
To make banks useful without being dan
gfrut lo rorreel tho evils without depriv
tug them of all power to do gnod-lo restrain
iliein within their proper sphere by ngid ro
'illations is an object al which 1 think al
intelligent and honest legislation should
inn. In this opinion, I presume there will
'if no discordance whatever anion j well in
Inruied men
Farly in the month of May last a series
if the most alarming and sanguinary riot
nuke out in the Distiict of Kensington, it.
he enmity of Philadelphia. Oil ihelorigin
of these riotous proceedings I do not feel
called upon to make any particular animad
versions It is ruiougo to say that u large
iinount of privalo property dwelling houses
nid churches were burnt and destroyed;
nd that a large number uf valuable lives
vere. sacrificed. 'To such an extent wa
the public salely endangered, that 1 was
ailed upon by llie proper authorities of llu
nv and county of Philadelphia for an ade
quale force to arrest and quell these distur
slices. 1 immediately ordered a very con
iderablo numl er of troops from adjoininp
.nstricis, to repair to Philadelphia, and, b
f sinning a firm and determined position
peace and order were temporarily restor
In the month of July similar outrage,
-gain were committed in the District o
Souihwark, in the county of Philadelphia
nd wilh similar painful and bloody rebuilt
t was again called upon to interfere and
-ccond tune repaired to the city ol I'liila
I el phi a , having made similar lequisitioni-
pon (he volunteers of neighboring districts
mil by the adoption ol similar proceeding?
lawless outrage was agai.i suppressed, am'
public, tranquility as 1 trui thoroughly re
stored. On these occasions tho mob had
procured lite-arms of nearly all description
ind Used them both against private citizenc
and against tho military with deadly elleci.
i nan nn; j-iaiiiicaiion to witness thai llu
citizen soldiery, thus called at an hnur't
wi.ruiug from their homes to the scene i
'ilondy conflict acted, in all emergencies
with a coolness steadiness and courage
worthy of veterans and with a degree ol
1'nrbearniice without unlinking from theii
duly infinitely more to their honor. Offi.
eers and men all behaved in a manner cnii
led to the highest commendation. 1 rofei
you to the report of iMnjor General Patter
sun, herewith transmitted fur the detailed
operations of iho military on llie occasions
to which I hive referred, Il is due to these
citizen so'diers. to mako speedy and ade
quato remuneration for their services. 1
-.iibmii il lo the Legislature to ascertain tin
time to bo allowed ihem and fix the anioum
they ought lo icceivpj but I must urge upon
us consideration, in the most earnest terms
the justice and propriety of iheir claims,
Men who abandon their daily pursuits ot
life leave their wives and children without
pinteciion or support and peril thoir lives ii
die public service eiiher against fuieign oi
(brnestic fnes ore justly entitled lo a libera'
(ompcnsalion from that public whose law
they have defended. The salutary lessoi
taught by the rigid though considerate un
foreenieni of the laws by means of the mili
tary and the firm and er.lighiened eoursi
pursued by ihe judicial tribunals and llu
officers in Phiadelphia entrusted with tin
duty of bringing ollenders before tiieni will
doubtless prevents rer.uiieneo of these ovil
and guarantee hererfier the peace and guod
order of thai community
Although the system of imprisonment
auopicu uy rennsyivania some years ago
at the establishment nf her Penitentiaries
has been justly regarded as the most adini
rabid to bo iound
t ear, siiicp I liavo been liuveruor ol the
Giiinmoiiweallh some unfortunate persona
confined in the Penilentiaiy of this desert.
tiou, who either wcro partiilly Insane when
committed or liccamo so afterwards. As the
aw now stands thero is no remedy for ihese
cases but to pardon thorn or confine them in
the same manner as other erimnals aro eon
fined llolh iheio modes are often times
wrong and I respectfully urge -it upon
your consideration to make some provision
for redressing the evil in future.
1 he stale debt now consists ol thirty
toven distinct loans, for each of which, a
separate set of books must be kept ni
the loan office of the Commonwealth.
Constant divisions) sub-divisions, and
transfers of stocks, taro taking place, fc
tho whole system is becoming daily
more laborious and complicated. I
recommend an enquiry into the subject
nid, il practicable, the consolidation ot
these loans into some uniform system.
1 he careless manner in winch b llu
ire slranscribcd, is a subject which calls
for some remedy. Il not unfrequeutly
happens thai the Executive is compelled
io return bills lo the comparing com
mittees, fur corrections before he
can give them his approval, liills pre
sented during the last hours of the ses
sion, and as is usually Ihe case, on the,
days lifter the adjournment, cannot un
dei go this cot reeling process, and aro
necessarily placed upon the statute book
wilh such errois os they may contain,
it has likewise been discovered, ofier
the publication of the laws, that whole
sections which bad passed both houses,
had been omitted in the transcribed bill,
and stclions inserted which had never
teccived the sanction of the Legislature.
1 deem it only necessary to call your
attention lo this evil, without making;
my recommendation as lo the proper
Dui ing the timo I have been in office
no uppiopriatioiis have been made to
furnish the Executive chamber, in a man
ncr which seems to me to be suitable to
he character of Iho Slate. ! Itavu
avoided calling tho attention of the Leg
sUiure to this subject for obvious rea
son.,; but a sense of delicacy no longer
resirains me from pressing upon your
Mention, the necessity of supplying llie
Executive Chamber wilh furniture and
. onveninccs, a little less unbecoming
ban these that are found there at prc
'tiif. The ptiblic grounds surrounding the
oipitol, not withstanding lhat consider-
a ne Minis have been appropriated to im
prove and embelisli Ihem, are still in a
condition nut al all creditable lo the cap
ital of the Stale; and especially thai por
lon, not enclosed; upon Ihe south cast
side of ihe Capilol, stands in need of
impiovement and care. This ground
was a donation to llie State by tho
luuudir of Harrisburg,and il is scarcely
juit to his memory to neat his munifi
cence with audi negligence.
The lasto and self respect of a peonlo
are strikingly exemplified in the stmc
turo of Iheir public buildings,and in Ihe
embelishmenis surrounding Ihem. It
strangers wete to adopt this as a criteri
on hy which to estimale ihe character
of llie cilizons of Pennsylvanian, wo
should have little cause to bj proud of
the judgment they would form of us.
I beg leave lo recommend Hi at a suitable
ppropriation be made to render our
public grounds somewhat more worthy
the character of the people of the Stale.
The unfortunate destruction of ihe
bridge of the Cumberland Valley Rail
road Company, over the Susquehanna,
at fire,in a groat measure
cul olf the trade and business which that
valuable tributary in our public improve
ments supplied. The State hold in lhat
company, stock lo the amount of S70,.
(JUU. 1 lie original cost of the b r 1 1 1 it ft
was S124.000 and it will probably
cost $90,000 to re-build it on the most
approved plan. The condition of tho
company is such as 0 forbid the hope
of its being able to raise the whole of
the lunds necessary to re.enncinii.i ii.
ilany of ihe numerous brii'ges erected over
lhat river have been from lime lo lime do
stroyed by Hoods and otherwise and I bo
lieve thai the Legislature in every instance
nas n rrgrn anu proper to assist in their re
construction, I would therefore recotn
mend llie subject lo the favorable con
stderatinn of iho l.egislatuie and u:ge the
propriety ot naiuiig a reasonable apprnpn
iitton to aid llie company to this umlpnotr
ou i on no among all nations vei
itmvn io rLhntlirmni ...I.!.. I. .1
no provided lur that ol establt.lung in con 'The annual renoit of the
an act of sheer jusiicu to all who embarked
wilh me io tint gloomy pud peiilous voyage ncction with en,ei ofour State Penitentiaries 0f Common Schools,
acquaint you,