The Columbia Democrat. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1837-1850, January 12, 1839, Image 1

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ul'hate sworn upou ilio Altar of God, denial hostility to eiory form of Tyranny otcr the Blind of Man.Thoma8 Jefferson.
Volume II.
IViinibcv 38.
Nkxt poor to Robison'3 Stage OffIce.
published every Saturday homing, al
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BLoosignuHo, pa.
For the Udlumbia Democrat.
Between a Teacher dnd.his Pfipils, on the
scene .1 School-room at the close of a
JPutor.Wcll my young friend you have
been to see the strolling Necromancei !
William. Yes Sir.wc saw him perform
several very amusing exploits, but the whole
pleasure of the jaunt has been destroyed
by an unfortunate quarrel between CSeorge
and James ,
Tutor. A (Juarrel ! how so t I thought
you belter taught. It grieves me, but let
me hear the particulars.
James. I will tell you and when I have
done, I presume you will bo surprised at
the unprovoked wickedness of George. E v
en he does not pretend to say I did any
harm to hirti., -'. ,
Ocotge. tadmit he did no mischief to
mo.arid 1 did nothing to mm. v
James.'--If he did no injury to me, then
I must believe in witch-craft, apd you sir,
have always told us tliat no such thing ex
ists; and that all things can be accounted
for on rational principles.
Tutor. I told you so: but moderate your
anger and tell your story, and William and
Levi can eay say whether you state the case
jamts, Aa wbcaffle home from the vil
lage, we took the path across Mr. Joncj's
meadow. A littlo before wc came to the
creek, tve crossed over the the mill-race on a
1aH which lav close to,the water. While
ire stood on trio slab 0 TSV (id ho saw a
orab crawling along tho "bottom amongst the
tonefl and esked mo to let hitn have my
long Cossack Bpear to catch it with. I gave,
it to liirij, but told him to be very careful
and not brook it, because my Uncle gave it
to me, and would bo offended if it were bro
ken. "The moment he hod the spear in his
hoods ho thru6t it into the water and I ex
pect it must have truck the bottom, for it
bent Tery much.
George. It did not touch the bottom.
James. It must have struck something
for I eay it bent and we do not see straight
iticks bend of themselves. Well Sir, The
farther the crab moved from him tho more
violently he forced my spear in tho ground
for it bent almost double. The more I hed
ged him to quit, the more determined he
ecemcd to break the spear.
George. I say again it did not touch the
ground, and when I had done I returned
him the shear straight and sound. When I
gave it to htm he struck me on the head whli
It and said I was a wicked wretch. ,
Tutor Vc Levi, has James stated the
cose fairly t
ert. Yes Sir.
"Tutor. Was tho spear bent! ,
rti- -U was : And the louder James
begged to save his spear the more George
bent it Until the crab got under a big stone
and thus escaped from him.
Qcorze. I nroiosl it did not touch the
' f i'. I did not seo the spesr. hit any
thing but it was certainly voiy crooked, and
grow VTOrsU'lho idugor'Goorgq had it.
George. They may say what they will,
I did pot sec that the spear was bent at all,
arid I'll enrage If James produce it now, it
is neither broken nor bent. , , .
(Sppar produced and examined by the Tu
tor and all tho boys)
lulor. The spear is both sound and
straight. , ,
James. It is not through George's care
fulness or goc-d will if it is.
Tutor. Hush ! James. Perhaps George
learned so much slight of hand from the
Showman that ho witched it crooked;
James. Then Sir, Wo have learned
your lessons in vain, if every wicked fel
low nau play tricks as tic. pleases.
William. I thought it very naughty to
heiui the stick so', because it might break
and then Jamc's Uncle woiild bo angry with
him. , .
Tutor. George has done nothing
wrong. Tho spear was not bent. I will
explain this matter as well as I can, and
when you understand the scienre of natnp
al philosophy better I will explain it more
fuy- , .
Levi. I shall be glad to hear it cxplain
edf(, Tutor. Every thing we see is brought
to our senses by means of light. Light
comes from the sun or from a flame. It
mav come in a secondary way 'by reflec-
lion. That is, a dark body such as a piece
of metal or.a looking-glass, may throw back
the light (if a candle or the sun so as to
make it shine in a place which is in the shade
of some object which stands between that
spot and tho body from w.hich the rays of
light come. The moon shines only by re
flection. THat is', the light whicli we call
"Moon-ligtit" is really the ligiit of the sun
thrown upon us by the modrt. Intercepting
the sun's rays and throwing them back, or
to one side on us. Lisht or Rays of
light fly Straight and never bend except
when turned aside by striking something.
The rays may be turned'precisely- taeL. io
tiie object whicli gave them out, or more or
less to one side, according to ihe position
in winch you hold the looking-glass that
is to reflect them.. If you hold the glass
square across the straight lino of rays, it
will throw them exactly back to the point
that gave them; bill if you turn the glass to
onb side, then the light will be thrown to
that side. The more obliquily you hold
the glass' the more the rays will ho, cast to
one sido. This you can provo when you
please by means of a looking-glass; and by
using two a boy may see the back part of
his owji head;
Levi. This subject is very pleasing and
I shall be glad if you will assist us in try
ing the experiments; but I do not seo what
this bending of light has. to do with giving
George a right to break Jame's spear.
Tutor. It gives no sucli right. Lnt lis
ten. Light passes straight except when
turned aside. ,Now if something crosses a
straight line drawn from your eye to any
object at a distauce you cannot seo that ob
jects; Levi. That I understand very well. If
Williani goes behind the door I cannot see
Tutor. Tho cause of that is, that the
rays of light thrown off or reflected by his
body pass in a direct lino and hence strike
the door and come no further. But when
these ray3 pass through a medium that is
dense they are more obstriictPif than if the
medium be more rare. By medium I mean
any substance of matter which lies round
about tlio object seen! or between you and
that object as air! water &e.'. Deiisc means
thick or more easily perceived and Hare
means (hin or less easily perceived, thus
water is more easily perceived if you pass
a stick thro' it than Air and honce it is said
to be more dense. Now the rays of light
in passing from a denso to a thinner medi
um are bent or as philosophers say refrac
ted siid Ihe more obliquely or aslant they
pass from one to the other tho more they
William. I begin to seo now what you
will make of it.
f?vior. Goorgo thrust ihe spear into the
' ...I ' I . .. Ml I
f II- . . - I
wilier nimosi perpendicularly ai nrsi, you
say, and at that timo the spear was not much
James. So it appeared to me, and I sup
pose tie did not push so hard at firsL
ITilliam.-As the crab ran away he leaned
the staff'ovcr more and then it bent very
Tutor. True. The light In passing
from so much of the staff as was under wa
ter passed through the water in passing to
your eye; and when it came to the top of the
water :t"ariiito the air (a thinner medi
um) nnd hence, though the stick remained
perfectly straight, the rays sent off (rpm it
were bent, conforming lo the image of a
crooked stick all seen through one medium
Tho more you leaned the slick the erook-
eilcr it seemed to be, became the rays min
ing passed fio.n the one medium in
to ihe olhei more obliquely. This fact can
be proved by laying a piece of silver in a
bowl, then walk backwards from the bowl
until the silver totally diiapcars behind the
edge of the bowl. Let some one poiir water
inlo the bowl and the silver will rc-appcar.
James.-l see how it is now. When George
first put my stick in the water il was straight
dow.n and Ihen appeared straight because
all the rays came out of the water from the
stick at once; but when the crab run away
of course he reached after il and then some
of the rays had to pass further through the
water than others, and so represented or re
flected , it crooked. I now perceived that
the stick scented to bo bent owing to its po
aitionj but was really straight as ever. This
singular matter is now accounted for with
out witch-craft. Gcoigc, 1 ask your par
don, and am sorry I struck you.
George. It is granted. I knew it did
not touch tho bottom, but I was puzzled to
accounUbr the bending which you all declar
ed took place, and therefore did not believe
you. 1 did not notice it myselt because l
orily watched Hie crab.
iitfu.-. ij!f? Vonelusicn' is cV?rcc.'
James, thoug!- your reasoning differs from
received opinion and is somewhat errone
ous. (Enter TfiJlicm with tt bucket of clear
water and a straight slick.)
Trillium. Seo hero James; this stick is
straight or crooked according as I hold it
upright or inclined.
Tffor. I am happy to see you reconcil
ed. From ibis incident we may learn to de
liberate before wc decide.
Jjtvi. The show-man performed some
tricks that I think will puzzle you to account
Tuor. That may bo, but it only proves
my ignorance of that branch of science, but
docs not prove any supernatural agency, but
let us noro you uescrine one porlormance.
Levi. He had a swan in a large basin
of water; and though the fowl was only an
image artificially mado yet it moved about
the basin just as he told it or directed itj witll
his wand; s .
.William. I can account for that myself.
There was a magnet in the Swan's bill and
the fellow had a piece of iron fastened on
the stick which he called his wand. Of
course the swan drew towards the iron be
cause of tho magnet.
James. You have riot explained It after
all. Why does a magnet run towards I-
ron t
Ttfor. -That is hard to explain; But
it is true that a piece of steej,rubbed with
a stone called "Load Stone" will attract iron
or steel. A piece of Iron standing long on
the same end becomes magnetic; and hing
rubbing two pieces of iron together in a cer
tain wnyf makes the ono attract other Iron.
The steel when magnetised and hung on a
centre pin immediately assumes a north and
south position'
. William. This is the way the needles
for mariners and surveyors' Compasses ore
mado I believe.
Tutor. It is; but as the matter is hard
to explain in words, here is a magnet with
which you may try tho experiments. ,
(Magnet'producod and and William picks
up needles &c.)
walcr almost perpendicularly at first, you
ucurzrc Another 0
George. 'A no th er of tils tricks is now
explained. Ho caused a needle to dance
on a pewter plate while he beat a time on
the opposite side with a nail. That hail I
suppose was a magnet.
Levi. I suspect you will find tt pretty
difficult to tell how he enabled us to see the
timo of day by Mr. Jono's watch when a
piece of Iron an inch thick was placed be
tween us and the watch.
James. That I think I understood.
You know we looked through a long lube,
shaped somewhat like a carpenter's brace
for boring. Tho tube went straight, about
six inches and there went out a branch to
tho right hand, which turned and run some
distance parallel with the main tube and
then turned a square corner and joined the
main lube again about six inches from the
end. The main tube was cut off in tlio
middle and had about two inches of it taken
but. The iron bar was placed in this gap,
When any thing was held at the further
end of the tube we saw it just as plainly as
if the irdu were not there. When Mr,
June's held his watch there we saw ihe
time as well as if nothing had been in the
way. . I heli'ovo however we did not see
Mr. iohe's watch' at all, but saw another
watch in the tube h'etwceii us arid the iron
Levi. An that you are mistaken, fot the
watch disappeared wheii Jo'ries tool; his
away. Besides how could wo see any
thing else if a watch had been ill the tube.
James. True. I did not think of that,
Vutor. 1 lie sight ot tne watcli was in
consequence of a looking glass placed ob
liquely at each angle of the crooked tube so
as to bend the rays and throw them along
three sides of ihe square, you spoke of,' in
stead of allowing them to pass straight ihro'
the main tube as tticy would do if left un
disturbed. Every object you saw through
the tube was seen through tho three 3ides
and not through the one; so that shuttng up
the main tube made rio difference In fact
it was shut all the time, because vqacannoi
see through a looking glass.
George. I have soine idea of it no.w
But how miserably the fellow lied ! H
said the power of ihat tubo was sucli that he
could see things hid in the bowels of the
earth, locked up in drawers, or at the bot
tom of the sea, as well as when plainly in
view.' He said he could see men's hearts
as well as ihev codld see their own hands
and that his ability to lellforluucs depended
on that fact:
Tutor. The tube is a simple instru
incnt that any carpenter, with a lew nun
utes instruction, can make, and with its aid
either of you caritell fortunes as well as he
As to his secinff invisible things, his asser
lion Is a falsehood: And his fortune tellin
is merely telling ignorant people any thing
whicli he supposes will please them; for
the purpose of swindling them out of their
WMiayi.llv had a box into which wc
put our heads, and ho covered ua up quite
dark. When wo wcro ready to look he
opened a hole by mentis of vrliich Wc saw
persons walking, riding, working, &'c. and
3aw towns, woods! rivers, and many other
things, He said he was showing us, the
city of Jerusalem during the. building of Sol
omori'sTemple.and I really saw men work
ing at a very great building.
Tutor. All ho showed you was the vil
lage aid the people in it by means of re
flected light. The building was the new
clidrch, and no doubt the mystery he threw
about the matter raised your expectations so
high that you failed to notice that tho ob
jeefs shown you were the same thut you
saw before you entered the box. t
Levi. Although the fellow has cheated
us, I do not begrudge my shilling seeing it
has led to ap explanation of tho matter so
as to prevent being cheated again. 1 should
like to have sonie fuiihcr explanation.
Tutor. You shall havp it nt th? proper
It is too late now. , In the mean
. i .!.... I...
tune you may
iTrtiu muu i .micjuuuiiuii "
reading a (realise on natural philosophy.
You will find a description of the way in
which the city ami temple, was showu. un
der the head of Camera Obscdra.
HiiiinwissnJ January 1. 1839,
A . .1 '
Fellow Citizens .
The Committee of Safely embtaces this
occasion to announce to you, the peaceful
... i 'A c . ... . Lr.l.- .1! J
nu sausiaciory termination oi wie uisuiucrs,
surpations and'dangcrs, at the capitol of
the state, which menaced the purity of ,1110
elective franchuc ihr'eateniid . lo subvert
the constitution and laws, and to prostrate
our republican government! at the dato of
Is last address to the people. This happy'
result, is the fruit of the firmness, union and
moderation of the democratic members of
f both houses of the legislature sustained
y the approving plaudits of the entire de-i
inocraeraey, and a respcclauie portion oi
the federalists, of the state. The disgrace
ful proceedings of the secretary of stale,
nd other officers of government of .Pennr
sylvaiiia, on the 4th ihst. in the senate and
House of representatives, produced (a burs:
of indignant condemnation from every coun
ty and township within the borders of this
ommonweallh, which struck the governor
and Ins confederate conspirators against tho
liberties f the people, with the deepest dis
may. ( They, faultercd in their highhanded
ustirpatiqna, but refused to recede, i nev
nilitary forces were called here to stimulate
the friends of the .Governor, as well as io
overawe the people'. , it was hoped that the
oice of censure would be hushed, and tho
hearts of the wavering friends of ihe admin
islralion be inspired with new courage by
the gleaming of a thousand bayonets, and
the intimidations of a battery of canhon. , ,
I IIP preicxi, inai an "lniuwaicu anncu
mob," was in possession of the capita
used to justify the assembling of soldiers
in Harrisburg, is considered too idle and
ridiculous for refutation, by all honorable
and candid men even of the federal party.
It is known to be false,, by every individual
who was in the capital during the urttieudo
scribed, and il is a subject of painful and
mortifying, contemplation to all, that tho
governor of Pennsylvania should have cotiilc
sccuded to give Ins official sanction to such
groundless attacks upon that portion of tho
people, whom accideqt curiosityt or an
anxious devotion to the cause bf the consti
tution and laws, convened iiUhe borough of
Harrisburg on tiie 4th of December! What
ever violence of proceeding occurred in the
senate on that day, is immediately atlributa-(
ble to the lawless, unconstitutional andtieI
sonable conduct of the secretary of statej,
and his political friends and associates
They .alono produced, and uro answerable
for, ihe consequences. Tncro was "no
mob," armed or unarmed, organized in
the 6cnato chamber, to overawe the mem
bers or subject their actions to his will.
Tho confusions that followed the unscrupu
lous usurpations of the secretary of elate
and his political adherents in that body, oq
the day referred to, were tho sudilen and
uncontrolablu emotions of honest freumoti
when ihey beheld tlio constitution and lawai
trampled on and insulted, by the'tjiarty;
whoso organ, the present printer oi tlio son
ate, had proclaimed, a month before tho
meeting of the legislature! that the minority
federal candidates for the sehato end house
of representatives front the coUnty of fhila
dclphia, "would have their seats-fyeacea
bly if they could,forcibly if (hey mutt?'
It was manifest from the proceedings of
tko senate, that this threat was ntelideil to
be carried into execution, and if disappro
bation was expressed,' everj iff the senate
chamber, by the citizens thero ossembfefl,'
it should no surprise those who oto proud
to emulate ihe example of their ji'alriotic
fathers and who hope if they err in so doing
that "something will be pardoned io the
spirit of liberty."' ,. , f1 ,i
But if it was even true, as alleged, that
the proceedings of the people in the senate
chamber on tho -ith iiwt. were so rioious
and violent as lu interrupt the action of tho
senate, it would not justify the asscmb'tinj
of tho military forces al tho capital, lor it is
;uti prolcudod by any matt who had a "con-