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learning taught'ln schools, and the educa
tion of books, ate beneficial in their place:
yet these are not indispensable' to Oman's
enlightened tlischa'rgc of his duties as-a cit
izen. A stron'g-mituled, s"ou"nd-jlidging
man, educated by observation and thought,
and deeply interested in his country's wel
fare, thought ho may be so unskilled in
school-boy acquirements as to bo unable to
write his own name, or'cven'fead'that of
his chosen candidate, is yet far more capa
ble of rightly using his nrivileraf vnlinir.
than the. graduate of college, who has cir
cumnavigated, tnc 'whole circle of the sci
ences, and is familiar with every written
language, but who haa-ncver spent a thought
upon the government of his country, or
upon the requisite qualifications of its offi
cers. 1 he education of children is ho w be
coming usuojeci 01 great anu engrossing-
interest, -ana it is anOblo cause tor exertion.
This is planting for the coming generation:
but cannot something also be done for the
present? Is not the moral' ifnpr&vcihcnt of
inosc wno are now men anrt women, fath
ers and mothers, as binding on tlleloverof-
Miis.-country, ana his Kind, as that of chil
urcn who ate to become these in future?
Suroly it must be. Ev.cn the cause of edu
cation would prospcY more successfully, if
the duty ol enlightning the opinions of the
patents received its due share ot attention.
-.Parental example and authority arc power
ful instruments 'in-clevaling or debasing the
character of a child. 'And all efforts to ben-
' cfit mankind should begin' in he'family cir
cle, Tor liere is the fountain-head of good
and of evil. Contrast the influence of a
teacher, however competent by his know!
edge and wisdom, or Venerated for his pic
ty and benevolence, with that of a parent,
the brothers and sisters. The few precepts
given, 'and a few hours spent in a school.
are but feeble restraints in checking the vi
cious tendencies wrought by the example,
-of home, and fostered by its powerful and
Let the patriot, the philanthropist, and
the Christian, think of these things. Let
them 'follow the- example of those whom
they must unite to oppose, in their perseve
Tance, their activity, and iheir untiring ef
fort. Let them enlist the press in their
caiisc, and give 'the people line upon line,
and precept upon precept leading them
gradually and pleasantly onward in the
knowledge -of their various duties. And
surely the advantage of oral instruction and
"public addresses should not bo left wholly
in'the possession ofthciropponents. Then
lot those who have studied human nature
and who are friendly to the true interests of
their fellow creatures, search outand reflect
upon the best plans for enlightening public
1 -opinion, and diligently pursue those most
-suitable for promoting the desired end
'To such, we take the liberty of suggesting
a plan which was lound eminently usetu
in a period strikingly similar, in many re
spects.'to oor own. Then as how, there
were disaffection and rebellion against the
laws, fc murmurings and threatcnings, riots
aud tumults, among the people, from the
scarcity -and Inch prices oi provisions
There was also an active dissemination of
infidel and disorganizing doctrines, written
In a stylo to attract thooor, sold at low
prices, and disseminated with incredible
industry. This plan was, to fight these
vendors of anarcliy and atheism with their
own weapons, and to establish by suu
enrintinn n lind nfnnrinfllpril lSSUO nflrooMi
called 'The. Cheap J?-Pitory,' in which
three separate publications were produced
every month, 'consisting of stories, ballads,
and Sunday readings, written in a lively
and popular manner, by way of counterac
tion to the poison continually flowing
through the channel of vulgar, licentious,
and seditious publications.'
The design succeeded beyond the most
sanguine expectations of its projector and
principal writer. Two millions of these
publications wore sold in the first year; and
the good effects said to have proceeded
from these tracts, would be almost beyond
ibelief, "were they not recorded in the letters
oT Bishop Portucs, and others, equally cel
cbraied characters of the time. Of one
ballad called 'The Riot,' it is staled that it
prevented a mob among the colliers near
Balli, 'in "which the mills were to bo at
tacked, and the flour seized, And it is re
lated Of the 'Villago Politics,' -that it flew,
with a rapidity which may appear incredi
ble to those whose memories do not reacli
hack to that period, into every part of the
kingdom. Many thousands were sent by
.government to Scotland and Ireland. Nu
merous patriotic persons printed large cdi
tions,at their own expense, and in London
alone many hundred thousand were soon
circulated.' And this little publication is
niil in have wielded at will, the fierce de
mocracy of England,' and to havo tamed
the tide of misguided opinion. And many
persons-of tlio soundest judgment went so
.far as to affirm, that it had essentially con
iiiiiiiml wnilr.r Providence, to prevent a
Although" we are not so sanguine as to
expect that any single publication would
;havc the effect in ' wielding1 will' an Amcr
iV -nnmaaec. vet we are confident that
much good might be wrought upon the
public mind, by the circulation of tracts
;,;non in suit the limes and the people,
nn, iii.ietrMincr. in a popular and attractive
manner, tho dangerous tendency of these
f-..o ,-lc-inrrs rtfrnmst laW Olid gOOd Or
,der pointing out tho mischiefs of disorgani
zing the infidel doctrines, and oxcitinfc a
desire to be faithful as Christians, husbands,
' r.u. ...i niiniH. To baring forward
nny effectual result, there must be combi-
ned, constant, and long-continued effort;
there must bo nnweariod perseverance, "and
untiring activity. Wo have made the sug
gestion, arid leave it in the hands of thosc
who love their Country 'and their country
men, and are willing to labor in the good
cause of enlightning public opinion.
From the Saturday Chronicle.
'HUMAN GOVERNMENT A'NTJ
The relative proportions which Republi
can forms of Government bear to those of a
monarchial or dospotic character, have ever
been a subject of enquiry amongst politi
cians, 'philosophers, and historians of every
age; and tracing the rise and fall ol em
pires, with thc.progrcss of Republicanism
from the earliest ages of mankind to 'the
present day, would afford an admirable view
of the march of humanfrecdom. We much
regret that the synopsis from which we
have made tho lollowing liberal extracts, in
illustration of the present state of the differ
ent governments of nations, lias never been
published with the name of its compiler.
It Would have afforded us pleasure to have
awarded to him in our columns, tiic credit
which is eminently -due for his able re
search and dovelopem'ent. It will be seen
by a reference to the subjoined statistics,
that the human lamuy, is, as yet, only in
the infancy tf a progress towards the en
joyment of the natural and social rights of
man. We begin with
The only countries possessing a republi
can fornvof Government, or a system which
acknowledges the people to bo the source
of power, recognizing no self appointed, or
hereditary" authority, are the following
1. The United States of America, the
freest, most enlightened and prosperous,
which has a population of about 10,080, 000.
2. Mexico, whose population is 8,200,
000. 3. Colombia, 3,400,000. 4. Boli
via, 1,500,000. 5. Guatemala, 2,000,000.
0. Peru, '2,000,000. 7. Chili, 1,700,000.
Embraced in fhe continent of South Amer
ica. 8. Hayti, population 810,000 (blacks.)
9. Switzerland, population 2,090,000.
10. San Merino (in Italy) population
about 12,000. 1 1. Cracow, 30,000.
We would further remark, that with the
excoption of the United States and Switz
erland, very few of the above nations can
boast a population sufficiently rational and
intellectual, to be enabled to appreciate the
nature and blessings of Self Government.
The countries possessing a government
m which the hereditary sovereignty of one
Chief Magistrate or King, balanced by
legislative representation of the people, upon
constitutional principles and a greater or less
extension of the elective franchise, are the
1. Great Britain, the freest, most intclli
gent, powerful & prosperous of them, has
a home population ot 25,000,000; in llano
ver 1,000,000; in British India, 159,352,
000; in Canada, N. American and West
Indian Islands, 3,100,000; in the Ionian
Islands (Mediterranean,) 209,000; in Cape
of Good Hope, and other colonies, 1,000,-
000 in the Island of Ceylon, 1,000,000
The whole population of tl "--''"
piro is thus lf. ,
in unlimited monarchies, there is a lib
eral infusion of Republican principles.
This is particularly remarkable in the Gov
ernment of Great Britain, in which all sup
plies arc wanted bu the House of Commons
or ueprcsciuauves oi uiu i cujm;. .no iui
as payment goes, therctorc, tne crown, al
though hereditary, is quite under the re
straint of the people. Tho ministers are
also held responsible lor the public acts ol
the King, Ihcy being his good or evil coun
sellors. If the ministers recommend or
bring forward measures that are obnoxious
or injurious to the interests of the People
they are not supported by the Commons,
and necessarily dismissed by the King.
" . i r i
The three great principles oi unman
Government, which have subsisted from
time immemorial Monarchy, Aristocracy
and Democracy are said to be combined in
the British Constitution. But it is remark
able, that the more Rcpnldican reforms
have been introduced, and tho nearer tho
popular branch of that Constitution has ap
proximated to the system of the United
States the nearer also, lias it approached
towards rational freedom and perfection
We now turn to a darker side of the pu
lure, and quote
The countries in which tho will of the
sovereign is tho supreme law, but in which
there arc various codes of subordinate laws,
and governors, arc the following
1. Russia, which in Europe has a pdpu
lation of 53 millions, and in Asia 3 millions,
2. Egypt 4-millions. 3. Denmark 2 do
4. Prussia 15 millions.
5. Saxony 1 million 5 hundred thousand.
0. Turkey in Asia 1 1 millions 5 hundred
thousand, in Europo 10 millions.
7. Arabia (despotic chiefs) 11 millions
8. Tartary (despotic chiefs) 10 millions.
9. China 170 millions. Japan ao uo.
' 11. Austria 34 millidns and a half.
12. Asiatic Isles 20 millions. 18. Ba.
varia4 millions 4 hundred thousand.
14. Italian Stato (papal) 10 millidns.
15. Brazil 5 millions. 10. Independent
Indians (by chiefs) 1 million and a hall.
17. Snanish colonies 2 millions 7 hun
died thousand. 18. Daniuli 110 thousand.
Annum, if! 'Asia, 15 millions. 20.
3 millions. 21. Sigia 4, millions.
Burmah 3 millions and a half.
Ncpaul 2 millions and a half.
Sindhi-l million. 25. CabaulOdo.
Bohemia between 2 and four mil-
Thibet 30 millions.
African "Nations, unknown, but sup
to be 200;000,000.
It therefore appears.that there are' now
six hundred and sixty-five millions, nine
hundred and ninety thousand of the human
race, in a state of political slavery.
The following list of Officers, of the
General Government, from its commence
ment under the present constitution until
tho present time, is extracted fom the Cin
cinnati Gazette; as a matterof reference, it
will no 'doubt-prove valuable to all.
178D, Gedrgc Washington, of Virginia.
1797, John Adams, of Massachusetts.
1801, Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia.
1809, James Madison, of Virginia.
1817, James Monioe, of Virginia.
1723, John Quincy Adams, of Mass.
1829, Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee.
1837, Martin Van Bur'cn.of New York.
1789, John Adams, of Massachusetts.
1797, Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia.
1801, Aaron Burr, of Now York.
1805, George Clinton, of New York.
1813, Eldridge Gerry, of Massachusetts.
1817, Daniel D. Tompkins, of S. Carolina
1825, John 0. Calhoun, of South Carolina
1833, Martin Van Burcn, of New York.
1837, Richard M. Johnson, of Kentucky
Secretaries of stale.
1789, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia.
1791, Edmund Randolph, of Virginia.
1795, Timothy Pickering, ofPcnn.
1800, John Marshall, of Virginia.
1801, James Madison, of Virginia.
1809, Robert Smith, of Maryland.
1811, James Monroe, of Virginia.
1817, John Quincy Adams, of Mass.
1825, Henry Clay, of Kentucky.
1829, Martin Van Burcn, of New York.
1831-, Edward Livingston, of Louisiana.
1833 Louis McLane, of Delaware.
1835, John Forsyth, of Georgia.
Secretaries of the treasury.
1789, Alexander Hamilton, of New York.
1795, Samuel Dexter, of Massaclruset'ts.
1801, Oliver Wolcott, of Connecticut,
1802, Albert Gallatin, of Pennsylvania.
1814, George W. Campbell, of Tennessee.
1814, Alexander J. Dallas, of Pennsylvania.
1817, Wm. H. Crawford, of Georgia.
1825, Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania.
1829, Sam'l. D. Inglfam. of Pennsylvania.
1831, Louis McLane, of Delaware.
1833, William J. Duafic, of Pennsylvania.
1833, Roger B. Taney, of Maryland.
1834, Levi Woodbury, of New Hampshire.
Secretaries of war.
1789, Henry Knox, of Massachusetts.
1796, Timothy Pickering, of Pennsylvania.
1790, James McHenryl
loui, iicnry ucaruoni, oi iiiussuouusuua.
1809. William Eustus, of Massachusetts.
1813, John Armstrong, of New York.
1815, William II. Crawford, of Georgia.
1817 Isacc Shelby, of Kentucky, (did not
accept the appointment)
1817, John C Calhoun, of South Carolina.
1825, James Barhour, of Virginia.
1828, Peter B. Porter, of Now York.
1829, John II. Eaton, of Tennessee
1834. Lewis Cass, of Ohio.
1837, Joel R, Poinsett, of South Carolina.
Secretaries of the navy.
1789, George Cabot, of Massachusetts.
1798, Benjamin Stoddart, of Maryland.
1802, Robert Smith, of Maryland.
1805. Jacob Crowninshield, of Mass.
1809, Paul Hamilton, of South Carolina.
1812, William Jons, of Pennsylvania.
1814, Benj. W. Crowninshield, of Mass.
1818, Smith Thompson, of New York.
1823, Samuel Southard, of New Jersey-.
1829, John Branch, bf North Carolina.
1831, Levi AVoodbury, of New Hampshire.
1831, Mahlon Dickcrson, of New Jersey.
Post masters general.
1789, Samuel Osgood, of Massachusetts,
1791, Timothy Pickering, of Pennsylvania.
1795, Joseph Habersham, of Georgia.
1802, Gideon Granger, of New York.
1814, Return J. Meigs, Jr. of Ohio.
1823, John McLane, of Ohio.
1820, William T. Barry, of Kentucky.
1835, Amos Kendall, of Ken'Ucky.
Chief justices of the supreme coiirt
1789, John Jay, ofNew York.
1790, William Cushing, of Massachusetts.
1'790, Oliver Ellsworth, of Connecticut.
1800, John Jay, df New York(
1801, John Marshall, of Virginia.
1833, Roger B. Taney, of Maryland.
1780, Edmund Randolph, of Virginia.
1704, William Bradford, of Pennsylvania.
ft Ml I T - t
nva, unanes iec, ot Virginia.
1801, Levi Lincoln, of Massachusetts;
1805, Robert Smith, of Maryland.
1800, John Brcckcnbridgo, of Kentucky
1807, Cresar A. Rodney, of Delaware.
1811, William Pinkney, of Maryland.
2814, Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania.
1817, William Wirt, of Virginia.
1829, John McPhcrson Berrien, of Georgia
1821, Roger B. Taney, of Maryland.
tooi, uimjamni r. uuuer, oi Hew Yorli
ITAUTiOirOTTIIE SHIP PEiNnSKL,-
This Ship, the largest ever built, was
launcbed from the Navy xani, rnuaucipnm,
on Tuesday last, the 18th July. Tho fol
lowing account we tane irom me aihuucu"
Sentinel. . ,
ttVnr tlin benefit ol our distant reaucrs,
wo will remark, that the day was one dllic
finest that can well be imagined in our cli
mate; and that Irom an cany nour m mo
forenoon until the tunc fixed on lor tnc
launch, about half past two o'clock In the
afternoon, all the streets and avenues in the
southern part of the city and district, were
thronged with men, women and children,
hastening to occupy the windows and roofs
of the houses, the temporary sianus wnicn
had been erected for the occasion, as well
as tiie wharves from which it was suppo
sed a glimpse of the splendib spectacle
could be caught. The river was filled, with
vessels of all descriptions, from tbelarge
shin down to tho slight battcau, all tlccora-
ted with streaming banners, anu several oi
them enlivened with military music. The
Jersey shore, as far as tile eye could leach,
above and below the Navy Yard, was oc
cupied hy'a continuous line of spectators.
At about ten minutes past two, the appoint
ed signal guns were fired, and the noble
Pennsylvania glided into the water in the
most easy and graceful manner, so much
so, that instead of the mdlintain waves and
'the danger to 'small craft, which had been
predicted, the swell was so slight as to be
scarcely perceptible to persons on shore,
and could not have caused the least alarm
to tho most timid lady oh the river. Her
reception into the water was hailed by the
enthusiastic and successive cheers of the
immense assemblage. Every one was de
lighted all expressed their high gratifica
tion at the scene. In the course of an hour
or two, the ship was placed in a suitable
position, and tho multitude had quietly dis
persed. Oife of the features in the specta
cle that we heard frequently spolccn of du
ring the three or four hours that were oc
cupied with it and it is one that reflects the
highest credit on our population, was the
perfect order and sobriety that characterised
the deportment of the immense multitude,
with scarcely an exception.
It is scarcely possible, for such an occa
sion to pass, without tho Occurrence of
0mc unforeseen accident. We have, how
ever, as yet heard of but three. A short
time previous to the launch, an individual
fell into the river from a vessel nearly oppo
site Christian street, and almost immediately
disappeared, although there were a number
of boats at a short distance, whose crews
made every exertion to save him. We un
'derstand that a boy fell from a wharf or
pile of lumber, and was drowned; and at
the same time another was severely injured.
We sincerely trust that this catalogue will
not be greatly 'enlarged. With these un
fortunate exceptions, the day was 0119 of
the most delightful and inferesting that has
been witnessed by the citizens of Philadel
phia, lor many, many years
.rrffucfics vs. Shin Plasters 'How
much have I to pay for my breakfast said
a gentleman yesterday morning to the keep
er of a French Restaurateur below Canal
'Seven bill, sarc.
'There take your change out of thai,'
said tho gentleman, throwing down apledge
of the Second Municipality, which looked
like an old tattered and pasted Continenta
ler, although only two days out of Mr.
'Sacre.' I no want such dam roltane stuff
as dat, I no take him no more, sarc.'
'Why not? It passes current.'
'Yes, sare, he pass too tarn current for my
use. I lock up twelve dollar and twenty
five cent last night in my drawer, and ile
dam cockroaches he take him all, no leave
me nolin but fragment. Ho eat up Mon
sieur Nye, he eat up Monsieur Doane.
He eat up do Second Municipality he eat
my profit dam he cat me up next.'
'But, my dear sir, can you give irie any
reason why these 'dam cockroach,' as you
call them, should cat up these noles in pref
erence to any other?'
'Give you reason? by gar, Igivoyou six,
seven, eight reason! Do hill he is so ragged,
so what you call him rottunc, dat dey paste
him all up all ovarc. Do cockroach ho like
paste, he dat him and he cat dd bill too,
and I make all dc loss and lose do profit, I
take no more Second Municipality Sacre!
do more I take do poorer I get ofl'.'
The gentleman finding thn KmnMiM
determined in Ins opposition,
Mexican cating, received his
Women and Horses. "When I sec a
a child," said the clockmaker, "I always
feel safe with the women folk; for 1 have
always found that the road to a Woman's
heart lies through her child."
"You seem," said I, "to understand the
female heart so well, I make 110 doubt you
are a general favorite ambng the fair sex,''
"Any man,' ho rdnlicih "that nn.lor.
stands horses, has a pretty considerable fair
knowledge or women, for they are jist alike
111 temper, and require tho very identical
same treatment. Encourage tho timid ones,
be genllo and steady with tho fractious, but
lather tho sulky ones liko blazes.' Sam
Luther says, that human reason is liko a
uruiihen man on horseback, set it nn on ono
cifln n.1 !. i I 1 .. .
uiiun uimoics over on the other;
The opposition papers ask whether ti,c
lnmnpml!f 'nnrtv nrn in favnr nf n mm.ii
hard money currency? If by this is mcuiit ,
a currency cxtlusively metallic, wo answer
,,. , , luc
democratic press, nor the. leaders of the
democratic party, have, as far ns wo know,
nn tiMiimr inn ucmncrauc nnriv. nn. 11.. k
ever uccn in lavouroi a currency exclusive.
ly metallic; and tho federal whigs know it
well enough: but they merely reiterate and
circulate tho charge, false and unfounded as
it is, for political effect. "We liave thougln,
and still Jhink, the specie basis, loo narro
and that it ought to be enlarged; but neither
convenience nor expediency require thai
the precious metals should be made the ex
clusive medium of the country.
Wc are not opposed to banks regulated
and restrained by legislative acts but
thinic tne time nas arnvcu wncn tnc public
safisty requires that our banking system
should' be rcrilodclled, and the pr;icti"c
the destructive practice of monicd institu- .
lions increasing their paper circulation st
pleasure, 'should be strictly prohibited by
the legislature, under the heaviest penalties
We believe that by the time the next Ic.
gislature of Pennsylvania assembles, there
will be a strong leolmg throughout the com-
mon.wcalth against the present condition
of things, and that, in order to allay tin
feeling, 'it Will be necessary to impose the
following restrictions upon the banks:
No bank to divide more than 0 per ccrr.
in one vear anv surnlus above this in h
paid into the state treasury.
No bank 'to issuo notes uNDiiit $10.
No bank to permit its circulation lo
cecd three dollars in notes, to one dollar r
specie, Returns to be made monthly, uc C
The charter of every bank in Pennsylva
nia, that shall not pay specie by the first'
January, 1838, to ba forfeited and foil
The directors to boliablo in their nersnrj
uuu in uift:i tv 11 iiiiv til liii.-su uriiYis r.i i
.,,! ... :i r :.: ....
1 1 j j 1
shall be violated during tlfci'r adiniuisir
By these means tho specje basis vou!
be sufficiently enlarged for :il( the purposp
of life,and the public secured 'for the fuiu.
Irom the present disastrous state of linn?
which, if not entirely produced, has be
greatly aggravated by the over issues
The federal whigs allege that tho laic.
well as the present administration was r
posed to the credit system. What th
mean by this term wo do not understa.
becanso they have never distinctly su
their views on tins subject. But if ih.
mean, by the credit system, that sjsr
which has prevailed for several years pa
which seems to be made up of a spiru
wild speculation and enormous overlradn.
and under which the banks have flom1-
the country with a paper circulation vL
in '".i"rL-'tJe no reason w
not reuecijj.. .Qf my frieml ;
ministration, should be ashamed or afr '
to avow that he is opposed to it. I'c
Specik Circular. It was alleged bv t
federalists, that the specie circular open:
to drain tho specie from the east to the
By the returns from the banks of Kcntuck
Indiana, Ohio, anil Michigan, it appr
that the entire aggregate of specie im
four States, is only $5,080,094, whilst
circulation & deposites of the banks hiiku.
nts to $23,388,114. As there is no m
than the due proportion of specie in t
quarter, it appears that the federal clamr
against the treasury order, has been ra1
without a cause. Keystone.
No return yet from tho Bank of tho l'i
ted States agreeably lo the terms of its r
charlcf. Why talk bf the safety of gin'
and restrictions, when this corporation u
tramples with impunity upon tho slighi r
straints imposed upon it by tho venal 1
la'ture of 1835-0. Ibid.
Specie ijj tiik country. AVo have k
assured' on the best authority, that in 1
single township of Oley, in Berks cow.
remote from.the scat of justice, and the
then of activo business, there is Ttt
HUNDRED THOUSAND DOLLAR
gold and silver coin. This is by no nir
ii solitary instance of the abundance ol'-,
cip now jn the country. Yet, Cover,
Ritnqr and his federal , 'friends are flow'
us with ''shin-plasters," because there is
apecio !!! Ibid.
Tin: DiJik. A friend has shown us a
pent picco of the new coinage; it is stna,
in circumference than those formerly c
tdd; on one side are the words oni; W
encircled with a wreath, on the oilier
finely cut figure of liberty; not tho old h(
and trunk, that onco looked so ilarinr
from our coin; butaneat. tidy female fig
suiiicionllv dressed, linltlmrr 111 onciu1"
siau, surmounted with n 1 lortv can.
. - - , n
nthni hntlfl cnelniiiu n oltll.l ..icinhPfl B'1 '
the word mdcutv. The figure is in
representation of Britannia or the 1W
coins. U. S. Gaz. f
Some contracts, says tho Baltimorf
morican, fordiliveries of wheat of the'
crop have been made at Richmond, at ,
vii n mi 'n nirnniu 1 in nn f 11 uivr
snnf mnnlli nt fill fifl A I fioi nr W
deliveries; and at 1.50 for Septcmbc '