Newspaper Page Text
RATES OF ADVERTISING.
Four line , or less ecosstitute half a square. Ten ones
er more than four, constitute a square.
Half al., one 30 Ono sq., one day......• $0 IM
one week.... 140 " week... 200
./ one month.. 3 " one month- • 3 IP_
ft th ree mon th s 600 " three monthslo on,
laths.. 800 " six months. •/5 00
o one year..... 12 00 " one year..... 20 00
Mr Business notices inserted in the LOCAL oommor,
or w ore magrlag96 and de.ithi. Xll OBITS PIM LINN for
each l iowir ti on . T o merchants and others advertising
by the year s liberal terms Id il be offered.
D' The number of insertions mast be designated.=
117' Marriages and Deaths trill be inserted at the same
rates as regular advertisements.
P ENSIONS, BOUNTIES, BACK PAY,
Was Claims and Claims far Indemnity.
sTrff ART, STEVENS, MARI dk CO.,
and CotmaeLlomot-Law, and Saticitara
for ail kinds of 4ilitor3i Cloa,o;
450 PF;INbYLVANI4 AVENUE,
This firm, havint a thorough knowledge of the -Pen
sion Business , and being familiar with the praetiee in
all the Departments of tkoveritnienl; Denims that they
can effort greaser facilities to P• 11011011, Bounty, and
other Claimants, for the livisMpt and. sneeesiitslueeem
plielament of besiness.entriated to them, Musa any other
firm in. Washington.. They deans to secure inch an
amount of this busdness as will enable . them to execute
the business for each clamant very cheaply, and on the •
basis of th arlow. contingent upon their success is each
case. _Yoe thin purpose they will secure the services of
Law firms in.each. prominent locality throughout the
States where such business rely be had, furnish mush
with all the necessary blank forme of appliestion and
evidence, requisite printed pamphlet instructions, and
circulars for distribution in their vicinity, with asso
ciates names inserted, and upon the due execution of
the papers and trananuseloa of the same to them by
their local associatel, 'they will promptly perform the
EX Their charges will be ten dollars for a a licers and.
gt , :e a dollars for eivotes, for each Pension or Bounty and,
Pay obtained, and ten per vent. on amount of
Claims for Military Supplies or Claims for bieletnairy.
Kr. Soldiers - enlisted since the lat of arch, 1861, in
any kind of eerviee,"Military or Naval, who' re disabled..
by disease or wounds, are entitled to Paiselooa. All
soldiers who serve for two, years,: or during the war, •
should it 'sooner close, Will be entitled to $lOO Bounty.
Widows ofaeldiers who die or are killed, are entitled to
Pensions, and the $lOO BOunty. If there he no widow,
then the minor children. And if no minor children;
then the father, mother, sisters or brothers are mai
led Y abate to the 1100 Bounty and Back PaT i . r .
" 3081211 8.13T8 ART,
BIIISTOR L. STBVBNS,
• ' BDINABD:CLARK,
'OSCAR A. fiTRYBNB r .
• 'WILLIS B. GAIILOILD.
Wasanturow, D. C., WC. •
Apply at our °like, or to our Asimilate at
Itanistesoaci, P i —4OBIN A_ BIGLBR, Attorney and .
PrYINIStme, Pa.--AItTIEUES •it BIDISILL, Attar.
811.411; Attorney and
PamanzavanA, PA.,-J. 11: XINWICHILD, 46 AlwOod,
*trent, Whf.M. BNLlTll,*AttOniey and Connselior:.
lo,usdasards, P.5..-119TB - 0817.1111/1108, Attorney
and Cknuisell9r. • • .
ACC - X,Elo_ti . 4' 0 . 13' •
S. 0 E . 8' T OSE
1103( MAIIRZT BIBMIIe t
--' //Alt Ripß G; PA. t
11 . rliiiithor.ntood to devote their entire time totals
13.43:0'T *AN=D BEOEB
all kinds end varietlee, in tad neatest and most bin.
onable styles, insist watlefiatory priced.
Their.siocitwill ooneist,ie part, of Gensisoun's Ikes•
(Wand Patna .Liwthor Boots and Siewss, ;shut styles;
Ladies' mod Misuse Gaiters, and otheraiihoei in great
yidetiri mind,is Stet "Norything anroted with the
Shoo Inwinoso. ' • -
crusrearia WORK milli. partite:duly attended to,
and in all Casio will satisfaction be warranted: Lasts
Manley by ass of *hoboes "eskers is tka emattry.
pisetieel - e4ooenee ofthe Mideadge&l,end
their thoittutt tiertlhdgvitAbo:
trait, be rutacient guarantee to the publfe - that thej
win do them justice, and furnish them an artichi the
will recommend itself for utility, cheapness and dura.
fis.n9] JACKSON & aO.
-. 14 - BRINGER'S PATENT BEEF TEA,
, u_ a solid, concentrated extract of
BEEF AND VEGETABLES,
Dourvrtible immediately into a nourishing said deli.
thous soup: ifitigitly approved by a number of eminent
Thisadmirable article condensed into a compact form,
all the substantial and nutritive properties of a large
bulk of meat and vegetables. The readinesswithWhich
it dissolves into a rich and palatable Soup, which would
require hours of preparation according to the usual
method, is an advantage in many situations of life too
obvious to need urging. Its highly nourishing qualities
combircei With its definer, renders it invaluable for the
sick; while for those in health, Aim a perfectsubstithte
for ire* meat and vegetables. It will keep good is any
It is peculiarly well adapted TOR TRAVELERS, by
bad Or sea, who can thus avoidthose accidenteldepriva
times of a comfortable meal, to which they are soluble.
FOR INVALIDS, whoa capricious appetite can thus
he satisfied in a "moment.
FOR SPORTSMAN and'ABOURSIONISTS. to Whom,
both its compactness and easy preparation will ramp
canal it. Nor sale by
UNEXCELLED BY ANY IN THE U. STATES !
AND summit TO ANY
4C3 -Jr 33 XL I\T 3=o
°FINNS], IN _PENNSYLVANIA -I
IT IS MADR oft
CHOICE MISSOURI WHITE WHEAT.
117' Delivered any place in the city free of charge
Tams cash on delivery.
J 720 WM_ DOM, & CO_
QOLDIDER'S CAMP COMPANION.-
Li A very imeenient Writing Desk; also, Portfolios,
ilensommicom Books, Portuoanalee, Ice., at
IiCHJIMIII I 3 BOOKSTORD
REESE i :--100 Oozes Prime Cheese
Vv (on consignment) for aide at less than market rate.
i3 l O WM. DOCK, Ja., & CO •
VOTIONB.—Quite a variety of useful
.01 wa entertaining articles—cheap—at
liT.A.NTED.—A GOOD COOK at thE
BOMGARDNER gam. Apply linmewlist
CLARET WINE I !!—We are closing oat
a 'Tsar artraazoa Loy at Lam Man Cost!
j 99 WM. DOOM as CO
TIIRIME POTATOES I-A LAT6GB LOT
I just received And foe ale law.
cd4l4-41tf WM. DOCK, Ji., & CO.
111 DICE MEA.T!—Very superior, just
roestred and for sale by Wit BOOK, jr.. & 00.
VONDENSIMI) MILK '—Just received
and for sale by WIC DOCK jr.,lt 4)0.
Peashos, Tomatoes, Lobster, Salmon, oyrters,
epised Oysters. for We by WM. DOOM, & CO.
RMOKED HALIBUT —A very choice
&.) article, jut , remumired and for male by
WM. DOCK, Jr., & 00.
pRENca MUSTARD, ENGLISH and
Dornestio Pickles, (by the dozen or hundred,) Su
perior BUM 011, Ketchup, Bartow and condiments of
every deaoripties, for ode by
WK. DOOR, Ja., it Co
T AKE TROUT ! !—A =all invoice of
LA LAKE TROUT, piserkinaw,) trimmed, ant the
quality ‘ , 41240.1," just tooriived and for sale very low
by WM. DOOK, JA.. & 00
WAR! WAR' —BRADY, No. 62
Market street, below Third, has reeeieed *large
sesOrtoreat of Swim", Bassos sad Bezels, Vial* h
wail sell very low. ard.o-dtf
'ELF SEALING FRUIT. JARS I
Bunt and Oheapeat In the smatetsl Call and
IttiNT—Two desirable °FMB
BOOMS, second - story front of WyettOs Building
comer of Market [W i llard and Kafka! Meat. Merit
kis moo seuSidaf
Ai A O.K. B - It E Lill
. 0111111112., Nat. 1, 2 and 3, skid isobars
sew, sod ascii package worraated. Just received, ead
fir sale low by WK. DOCK. & 00.
DR. C. WIICHE L,
SURGEON AND OCULIST,
Toomporom TIMID MIAS HOSTS 13 1 T112112.
Us is now hilly private' to attend promptly to tam
duties of profendon is all its branches.
• hone win slaw, soomissrm iilDlOll aminainnOn
fnatihti him in promising MI and ample satisfaction to
all who maySaror him with a Gong be tiol disease; Obroldll
Or oar other Imitator*. oild-dkwly
WM. DOCK. Js., k Co
WM. DOOK, 0:1
• -': ;'III I , • . t
~.----- =•l ,--
.._ ilk %_ , . • -
Vii. _ •
VOL. 5 --NO. 177.,
Ottointeo , Cutts.
WM. m MILL . E)X,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
.01131[011 IN r
• • SECOND STREET ' •
NITWIIN WALNUT 5Q17411).
no2B] the Enabler House. plit.wlt;
ATToRNCY AT LA
' W, .
eM AIL/T HY CLAIM AND PATENT AGENT.
Office in Burke's. Row, Third deed, (Up Stairs.)
Having formed * connection with parties in Wash
ington Oity, who are reliable luminous men, any busi
ness connected with any of the Departments will moat
with immediate and careful attention. • • mil-y
H .A. L 'F. V 0 E
Chestnut street, four doors above Secotut,
(Orman% WAsimunos Iron Roves.)
Is prepared to funiiiih to order, la Ihe very beet' Style of
workmanship, Spring and flair Mattresses, Window cur
tains, Lounges, and all other articles of Furniture in die
lies, on short notice end moderate terms.' Hiving ex
perience in the business, he feels- warranted in asking a
Aare of public patronage, confidentof his ability to give
NO. 11, NORTH TRIAD BT.', RaItnISIBIGIO.
MBLOPRONS, "VIOLINS, GUITARS, •
Banjo', Finks, Fifti, Drums', Accordions,
WRINGS, Ma' .111f1D 1 3d0111171310, &O.;
PHOTOGRAPH . *MAME S. .`ALBUMS,
Image Pier and Mantle' Mirrors, ignore and Oval Trials.
of every daseriptioa made to Oder. Regallding don'
AgenFy - for Howe a Sewing libgchinsa. •
11:r Sheet zinnia sent by Mail. : • astl.-1
J OHN W. P - 4 Y . 11:1 ;
His *at - received' from' Now York, an alp*
-• . • ,
szA • scorAtLE .- pro9op, ,
whith . he Offers to his enstoiners end the public
ner22) ' MODERATE PRICES. ' dtt
AT T 0 It,
THIRH STREET, Harrisburg,
Praetiee in the sesersl Courts of Dauphin county. Col
lections made promptly. A. 0.. WITH,
fob%) J. B. EWING.
JCOOK, Merchant" Tailor,
27 CHBI3NUT 13T., between Second did Front,
Has just returned from the city with an assortment of
, - 41,32Z11C Af4 SrAtEREs. AND .4rESTINBI
Which will tie sold at 'moderate prim:lmm mrdo-qt.te
order; andi also, an assortment of HEAVY MADE
Clothing and Gentlemen's Furnishing. Goods.
-'-- B. L GILBEI, D. D. S.,
N 0 119 MARKET STREET
41 414. ►
EBY & 'MICKEL'S 811/LDING, STUBS.
RELIGIOU K S 800 STORE,
TRACT AND SUNDAY . SCHOOL. DEPOSITORY,
E. S. GERMAN. .
IT 11013TH MOOND 6TB,HST I ABOYN 0f113311T,
Depot for them& of Sterobseopee,Stireoseoploirierre,
Mode and Musical Instruments. Also, snbeeriptione
taken for religious publications. no2XI-dl
JOHN G. w.. MARTIN,
HERR% HOTEL, HARRISBURQ . , PA.
Allmasiner of visiTING, WEDDING AND Busi-
NZTS CARDS executed In the most attistie styles and
most reasonable terima. dociai-dtf
BArLT 'KORN, MD.
This pleasant and commodious Hotel has been the
roughly re-fitted and re-funished. • It is pleasantly
situated on North-West corner of Iloward and Pranklin
streets, a few doors,west of the Northern Central Bell
way Depot. livery attention paid to the comfort of his
cle U- ats. G. LMISNEING, Proprve . ietor,
(Late of Selina Gro.)
T' 0. F. SCHEFTE.Ii f
BOOK, CARD AND JOB PRINTER,,
NO. 18 KARR= BTRRNT, HARR/PHI/G.
CY" Particular attention paid to printing, ruling and
binding of Railroad Blanks, Manifests, Insurance Poli
cies, Cheeks, Bill-Heads, &c.
Wedding, Visiting and Brodneen Cards printodat Tory
low prices and in the best stfle. 9an2l
DYOTTVILLE GLASS WORKS,
%INS, PRITNA, NiSNAMA WATAA, P/iNglal AND
OP WORT DPOOPIPTION.
H. B. & G. W . BIANNIRIS
27 South Front ateret. Philadelphia.
411 - 810 STORNI
NO. DS MARILET STREET, HARRISBURG, PA.
SHEET MUSIC, PIANOS,
VIOLINS. BANJO STRINGS ,
Of every deeoritition.
VIZIO L IITIUTRa, AhOOOF•DEONO, eta. at
the lowest OITY PRIORS, ,at
W. IiIIOCHSW MUSIC STORE,
No- SS MANZI? STRZWIP.
A BOOK FOR THE TIMES
American Atrisuisi Cyelopedia and Rogue.?
Important AIWA /or the Year 1861. In 1 not
8 vo. over 760 pages. Cloth 03, Leather $3.50
Published by D. Appleton 4. Co.. New York.
The design of this work to to tarnish a reeord of an
the important knowledge of the year. The events of
the war, owing to their prominenee, will, of tonne, oe.
eapy a eonspionou part, tut all other branches—fini•
once, Art, Literature, the Mechanic Arta, ece_. will re
eeive due attention. The work will be published ex
clusively by subemiptiOn, and ready for delivery in Yew
Alm, new complete
Becmois Debatds of Cowes', le ookowes, $8 and 5310
Per eOllOl/14. • •
&atom's Thirty Wang is 17. 5: Bert frig 2vokomfus . NIA
and sa Fa col.
CY4lopedia of Americas Bioreereca, esstaining tds
speeches of the roost eminent Orators of damien, 14
sled portraits, 2 vols. $2. 60 auk.
Partows Lift and Times of Andros Issokseas,l4 elohnriss
. Address 1. I. STRAUS/et/GU I nag 4411117 & Pa.
General Agent for D. ,APPLIIITO OO .
TOr.Ohnnlars descriptive of Annul 074 110 Palia•
SWELT CIDER !—A very superior lot
just received alui for Pei. by WM. DOCK.,--
;pOTATORS.-36 BUSH 141 S OF A
superior qualOy Just reoalved and for ago low, by
WM. DOCK, Ja., & CO.
'DRIED III&CHES-PARED AND
PASED—Iwit recei WS J
. DOOl4 Is., k W.
HARRISBURG, PA:, FRIDAY, MARCH 27. 1863.
T I-1 E
Weekly "Patriot & Union, "
THE CHEAPEST PAPER PITI3tIsRED IN
TSI ONLY DMILOORATIO - PAMIR 'PITBLIOMID AT
THE SEAT Or' GOVERNMENT !
FORTY-FOUR COLUMN§ OF READING MAT
. TER 'EACH'IiRICR I
AT THE LOW PRICE OF' ONE tougt
ANv FIFTY CENTS I
8 ORSCRIBRD FOR !la etußs op Nor LESS
THAN TEN' COPIES 70 ONE ADDRESS!
We have been compelled: torah* theelub sitbssription .
pries to one dollar and fifty *nit in Order to Same our
selves from actual loss.; Paper kali risen, including
tales, about twenty-fire per cant„ and is Still *ling
and when 'we tell our pemocratio friends, candidly, that
we can no longer afford to sell the Weekly isvitiOr isn
Minos at one 'dollar a year, and must add fifty cents or
stop the publication, we trust they.will aptoreciate our
oirl,.ipetood of withdrawing their unbacrir
tions, go to work with a will to increase our list in every
county in 'the State. 'We have endeavored: and 'shall
continue our efforts, to make the paper useful as a party
organ, ana,welanne as a ROWS tooseenger to every fam
ily, We Satter orrelvee that It haa pot been without
some influence in producing the glorious revolution in
the politirs of the State 'achieved at the late - eleetlon
and if fearlessness in the discharge of duty, fidelity to
the principles of the party, and sq. anxious desire to pro
moteits interests, with come experience and a moderate
gree of ability, can be Made tierrieeable hereafter, the
Weekly PAIPRIOT 'AND Utlolll . irill not be 'less useful fil
the party or lessiwelcome to the family 'circle in the fn.
tare than it baq been in the put.; We confidently look
for increased encouragement in this great enterprise,
and aPpeal to every inffuenild Demoirit in the State to
lend Us his aid in Tinning Mir supseription hist rip to
twenty or, thirtj thousand. The expense to' each, indi
vidual is trifling, the benefit to ; the party may be great.
Believing that the Democracy of the State feel the no-.
eeisity of sustaining a fearless central organ, we make
this appeal to-theta for assistainee•with.thnlnUest coon
dance.of ;ascots, - ,
The same minus which induce us -to raise the price .
of the Weekly, operate in regard to the Daily paper, the
pries id which is alai IncreiMed; The additipnal cost to
each dubsoriber Will be but trilling; and; whileve cam
notinamtade.entselvee thetthe change neoessarily made
will result in any, diUtinfition of oar
. daily circulation,
yet, were we certain dint inch would be the come
quence,'We 'should' still be eompellitil to Make lt, or euf
fer a ruinous loss. Under these circumstances we mutt '
throw ourselves upon the geiterosity, ! or, rather, the
justice of the public, and abide their verdict, whatever
it may be.
The period for which Many tenni. anbiekbers Mee
paid for their paper being'on the eve of expiring, we
take,theliberty, of issuing this notice, reminding them
of the same, in order that they may ,
RENEW, TAE/ CLUBS.
We shall also take it as an especial favor if our present
subscribers will Urge Upon their neighboisihe fact that
the PATRIOI , AND :UNION ll' the only Democratic (paper
printed in Harrisburg, and considering the large amount
of reading matter, einbraning all tbn, ourr.oot newol of
the day, and •
initICiRA.P II IC D fiCP - A C trfirg"'
From everywhere' np to the moment the paper goes to
press, political, miscellaneous, ganeiall: and local news
market reports, is decidedly the
CHEAPEST NEWSPAPER PUBLISHED IN
There is marcely a village or town In the State in
which a club cannot be raised if the proper exertion be
made, insi surely there are law places in which , one or
more energetic men cannot be found who are in favor of
the dissemination of Sound Democratic docZrines, who
would be willing to make the effort to raise a club.
DEMOCRATS OF THE INTERIOR !
Let no hear from , yon. The existing war, tad the ap
proaching onions of °engross and the Mato Legiela•
tare, are invented with sumuitial intermit, and every man
should have the news. •
DAILY PATRIOT AND UNION.
Single copy for oae year, in advance vr, 00
Single anyydnring the pension of the Legislature.. 2 00
City subscribers ten cents per week.
Coplei supplied to agents at the rate of 51 50 per bun
WRICRLY PATRIOT AND UNION,
published every Thursday.
Single copy one year, in !Jessie* 54 00
Ten copies to one address 15 00
Subscriptions may commence at any time. PAY AL
WAYS IN. ADVAIIOIO. We are obliged to make this
imperative, /a every inetaries cask oust
subscriPtiin. Any person sending ne a &lib of twenty
subscribers to the Weekly Will be entitled to a eopy for
his services., The price, even at the advanced rate is
so low that we cannot offer greater inducements than
this. Additions maybe made at any time to a club, of
subscribers by remitting one dollar and fifty cents
for each additional name. It is not neceeearyte send
ne the names of those constituting a club, as we cannot
undertake to address each paper to club subscribers
separately. Specimen copies of the Weekly will be sent
to all who desire it. •
0. BARRSTT k. 00., Ilsrrisburg, Pa.
N. B.—The following tiw , peughedby Congress an 1860,
defines Vas duty of Postmaatera in relation to the de
livery of newspapers to club Subscribers :
(See Lsttle, Brown Co.'s edition ofthe/aws of 1860,
page 38, 7 cha?ter. 181, sec Lion 1.)
"Provided, liowe , ier, that where packages of newspa
pe rs or periodicals are received at any post office directed
to one address, and the names of the club subscribers to
whi oh they belong, with the postage for a quarter in ad
vance, thall he banded to the po'stmaiter, he shall de•
liver the same to their respective owners."
• To enable the Postmaster to comply with this regala•
tient, it will be necessary that be be furnished with the
list of names composing the stub, and paid a quarter's
(or year's) postage in advance.: The uniform courtesy
of Postmasters, , sifords theisatirauce that they Will
eheerfuliyaccommooate club subscribers, and the latter
should take care that the postage, which Is bat a trigs
In each cage, bepaid in advance. Send on the clubs
STEW ORLEANS SUGAR I—FuesT ix
IBM 3f !—For sale by
iyl3 . WM. DOCK. & 00.
(" 1 0AL NOTICE.—We would respect
``) fully inform our eratomere that we have appointed
Major D /MID M'OOKMICK Agent for the sale of Tre.
Tartan (MAL All orders sent to him will receive prompt
attention at our regniar pricer. MOWTON do 00 ,
Lome of Treverton Coal Miner.
Having received en agency for the sale of Treverton
Coal, I lake pleasure in recommending it to all my cus
tomers as &first class, free burning coal, free from all im
purities and does not ol , nker. Per dr =esti() and steam
purposes this coal cannot be excelled. -
Da: 1 710 WCOILDUCK.
liarriaburg, Betrnary 14,1883-febld•6t*
HAMS, DRIED BEEF, BOLOGNA
EIkIISAGDS, TONGUES, &c ., for aide low, by
WM DOCK, Jo.. & CO.
TAPANE‘E TEA.—A choice' lot of
o this celebrated Teajusr received. It is of the first
cargo ever imported, and ip much superior to the • (Mi
neola Tea& in quality, strength end fragrance. and ilialso
entirely tree of adulteration, coloring or mixture of any
It is the natural leaf of the Japenese Tea Plant.
Per sal.- by • Wit. DOCK, jr , Co.
TIPTY DROSS of the above Superior IlaSehee join
°wired. unit for ' ash by WM. DOOR. & OD.
WRITE BRANDY !!!---FOR
BIG Poarosse.—A very superior Wide, (strictly_
pore.) Just reeetegod bad ter sole by
inlja WM. DOCK, Jr., k Cs_
Eke IP atria tt anion,
FRIDAY MORNING, MARCH 27. 1868
RIMERS'S 'CRADLE SORE OF 'THE POOR.
Hunk, I cmnot bear to see thee
• Stretch thy tiny kande in vain;
I have got no bread to give thee, ,
Nothing, child, to ease thy pain.
When God sent thee-Snit to bless me,
Proud and thankful, too, wa4 I;
Now,;my darling, I, thy mother, • -
Almost long to see t,hee.ele. r
' 0144, ditling—ihon art weary;
God is good, butlife Mdleary.
I .have seen t,by beauty fading,
And tby strength mink del , by day,-
Soon I. know will warrtand fever
!taste thy little life away.
Famine makes thy. mother 'reckless,
Rope and ley are gone from me,
I could suffer all, toy' baby,
• !d I but a crust for thee.
I am wasted, dear, with hungei,.'
.And in; brain is sore opptessed;
I have sesreely strength to preis thee,
Wattand feeble 4 to my breast.
Patience, baby,. God will help us,
Death will come to you and me;
He will take us to-his heaven,
. Where rio want or pain can be. .
sleep, my darling—thou art weary;
God is good, but life is dreary.
EARTH-OIL IN AMERICA.
From Chambers' Journal.
Petroleum. or earth-oil, has long been known
to exist 'in different parts of the world, under
the various Minnie and shapes Tof Barbadoes
tar, Rangoon petroleum. Cuba chapapote, and
Trinidad asphaltum, which last seems to be
merely petroleum of the thicker kind, hardened
by exposure to 'the sun and air,' and in many
other conditions of density verying'with loca
tion. From the compact asphaltum of Trinidad
to the, light and volatile, earth-oils, there ap
pears a line of niose relationship running
through the terrY and viscid mineral pitph and
the dentre semi• fluid petroleums. '
At 'Gaspe Canada East; petroleum oases out
of a eandatone cliff,. and in Wm' weather
spreads itself , over, a large portion of the sea.
In the fissures of this sandstone cliff, where
the petroleum has been prevented froM reach
ing the °Mimi, it :ippears hardened, like' the
pitch. of ',Cabs, baring parted. with its lighter
portions, by eyaporation. The petroleum, how-.
ever, of which it is proposed to speak more
particularly, is thaf Of the American o il region,
a 'district from: which, within the past two
yeare, large quantities have been procured, and
from which there is a probability of a supply
being derived for years to come, which will
materially modify or change the business of
people engaged in providing that prime neces
sity of civilized life—a safe and economical
The line of country along which, within a
range of one to two hundred miles on each side,
the earth-oil is Obtained in America, can be beat
observed by placing a strigbt edge or ruler on
the map of North America, with one end •at
Gasps Bay, Cauat!tt east. and the other at
lionston,_,Tex:ts.. A _lila talt t n.ititauAl leak
of the disteinie bilifeen thilirt points will pasS
through the country drained by tribti!aries of
the great rivers west of the Allegheny range,
which consists of hills under various names,
extending from the low lands of the Mississipi
outlet through Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky,
Tennesseee, Virginia; Ohio; Pennsylvania, New
York, Vermont, New Hampshire, the province
of New Brunswick, and terminating in the rug
ged cliffs of Ship Head, Gaspe. ,
The country on this line between Gaspe and
the State of New York is as yet wild and poorly
cultivated, with the exception of the valley of
the St. Lawrence, and.has not yet been ex
plored for t petrolenm. When, however, we
reach Seneca, in &nem. county, New York, we
find petroleum under the name of Seneca oil,
obtained with the water of the salt-wells of
that part, of the State. This was probably the
first petroleum obtained by white men in
America. in Pennsylvania there are indica
tions which show that the. Indians long ago
used it as a medicine, probably like the Bar
bailees tar or British r oil, of ,the apothecaries'
shops, for rheumatic affections. Seneca oil is
still celebrated as a remedy for stiff joints and
aching limbs. It was not, however, until the
discovery of the mode of extracting a market
able burning oil from coal, and the difficulties
and expense of obtaining such had been fully
understood, that those persons engaged in its
manufaCture in the western coal-fields began
to consider the practicability of obtaining an
oil already distilled, and of much better quality,
directly from the earth.. In 1859, Pennsylva
nia, which contains a portion of the Alleghany
coal-field, upon which numerous works for
distilling crude oil from the cannel coals and
shalds were located, was the scene of the first
operations of the " oil borers," as they were
called. Their attention was attracted to the
earth oil as a means of supplying their wanti,
by observing that when the small runs" or
wate: - .*:Jourtsea were dammed, or wnen the water
had collected in stagnant pools in midsummer,
an oily scum floated upon its surface, and could
be seen oozing from the bed and sides of the
In some places the petroleum escaped; ac
companied by large quantities of carbnretted
hydrogen gas, which bubbled up in the pools,
and often gave them the appearance of being
boiling caldrons. These water-courses were
followed up; and the places where the escape
of gas was greatest were.marked as the best
for " boring ;" for the idea of those who were
engaged in these exploretions was to tap the
spares of the petroleum by means of artesian
wells, and by , the same 'appliances which are
used for sinking those wells. " Boring for oil"
was by no means eo difficult a matter as man
ufacturing the fine oils from coal-11 Keene
requiring great experience and chemical knowl
edge; and therefore the number of walls which
were begun by the speculators in petroleum
stood in no danger of failing,for want of skill.
The first attempt was so successful as to lead
nulnbore of people to plunge into the oil busi
flees with great ardor,
The farmers, reflecting that there was no
probability of any one getting the petroleum
without first boring through the soil, claimed
a large share in the prospective profits of the
welle,'and in some instances demanded and
received, as their portion of the proceeds, as
mob as one half of the oil obtained, and a
round sum besides in yearly rental. Lots
were staked off like mining claims in Austra
lia. Wells of four inches diameter were eunk
within a few feet of each other, and many die
pates arose between the well owners, as each
‘ that the other was tapping his
own peculiar oil vat below. The i• oil fever"
increased with the number of wells, and in a
few Months the counties of Venatigo, Craw.
ford 'and Warren became as lively a spectacle
of speculation, enterprise and busy industry
as could well be imagined.
The price of the earth-oil, When it was first
obtained; was from forty to forty-five cents per
Americas gallon, which in one fifth lees titan
the imperial gallon; but the owners of the
'nett tried very hard to raise the price to seventy
tents, and succeeded so far as to increase the
speculative feeling. In 1859, the wells Yielded
not leas than tto million gallons, and their
PRICE. TWO. CENTS.
number coustantly increased. The.proprieters,
of the large coal districts endeavored to un
derrate the yield of petroleum, and went so
far as to say that the wells would soon be dry,
pointing to several ; which had begun to fail•
as a proof of their assertion;, but by the sum-
mer of 1860, the oil wells took a fresh start,
some entetprising borer going deeper thin his
neighbors, having Struck that great desidera
tum of the well-owner, a "flowing well,": one
in which the oil is forced,up by the pressure
of the gas below, and for I considerable time
yields its oil free from Water, without the as
sistance of a pump, se in the "pumping wen t "
where water to the extent of fifty per cent. is
brought up with the
, etl. This .flowing well
gave a new impetus to the business, and if,
speculation iti 'petroleum lands and privileges
had been wild before ; it Was' now' stark 'Mad.
To strike the deep fissures of the • rock below
was now the aim of all, Many of the pumping
wells which were, hardly paying were. sunk
deeper, and often repaid their ownes' outlay
by .Pouring out , petroleum at the enormotis rate
of sixteen thousand gallons per day—the hith
erto pent up gas below forcing it out, for days
and weeks together, so rapidly. that in many
cases it was, lost for want of vats or casks at
hand in which to store it. The land-owners
became still more exacting' in their demands, ,
and many stories 'are told of the effect of the
sudden wealth which poured into the oil region
upon persons unaccustomed to handle large
sums °treacly money; for although the American
farmer may possess the means of a comforta
ble subsistence; yet, in the interior, cash is
generally rare with him.
An instance of the effect of the prospect of
sudden wealth upon a farmer's daughter is told
with great unction by the oil men. The father
of the girl lived in a poot cabin by the side of
Oil creek, and because he was not so prospe
rous as his neighbors, was not considered as
of the best rank in country society. An oil
well bad been sunk on the opposite aide of the
creek, and bad proied to be most successful,
and bad induced a 'speculator to offer the far
mer a large sum of money and a ,large share
of the oil for the privilege of boring on his
land. ' The bargain was made and the work in
progress.' The daughter' and her sister bad
not been well' treated by the country •swains,
when they happened to meet at singing school
or meeting-house,, and the prospect of being
as rich as their neighbors was, of bourse, "most
agreeable lo them. After the well had been
begun, one young fellow, who seems to have
had .art eye to business, became more attentive
to our heroine, and after "meeting" was over,
would offer his' arm, or tender some other po
lite attention. These little evidences of inte
reet were graciously received by the• hitherto
neglected girl;' and the people of the place at
once set the pair down as " keepin' company"—
the American for " engaged." One Sunday
morning as she came'out of the meeting house
door, the young man stepped forward, ita
usual, to offer his attentions, but., drawing
herself up with the most scornful air in the
world, she cat him dead with the words :
" No, sir-ree i dad has struck ile!" Which
was the fact. Dad, as she termed her father,
had struck oil tin night before, and she was
now the daughter of .a first ease .oil..taillion : -.
laire, and could mate only with one of her own
With the influx of people engaged in the pe
troleum business, came the means of supplying
their various wants, and towns and, villages
soon rose along the principal stream,i in the
oil region. The labors of the oil well borers
were now directed by experience, and many of
them became very expert in their pursuit, and
were able to explore the adjoining States with
practiced eyes. The salt wells of the Great
Kanawha, river, in Virginia, had always yielded
a small quantity of petroleum with the brine,
and the country lying between that river and
Oil creek, in Pennsylvania, • and on the line of
which mention has been made, in a short time
was'explored with good results. On the Little
Kanawha' and its tributaries numerous very
fruitful wells have been discovered; one of
them, the Running Spring. quite eclipsing the
best of those of Pennsylvania. In Ohio, also,
some very good petroleum wells have been
opened. Southward, the petroleum is found
in Kentucky,. in various conditions ; on the
Big Sandy river in that State it. has exuded
from the face of a sandstone cliff, and formed
a deep layer of pitch along the banks of the
stream. Pitieleum has also been found at va
rious places in Tennessee, Georgia and Ala
bama.; and at the Sour ; lake, not far from
Liberty, in Texas, it has been discovered in the
shape of a thick pitch, not 'unlike that of Cuba.
The petroleum of the Southern States is not
yet,' fully developed, but there is little doubt
that they will yet supply the 'earth oil in abun
dance. If peace should again be established
between the Northern and Southern States,
and the Northern speculators be permitted to
reside in the South unmolested, no doubt they
will endeavor to develope the oil wells to as
great a degree as those of Pennsylvania and
The earth-oils, as at present procured, vary
in speific gravity flout 'NV to 883°, twa tem
perature of 60° Fahrenheit:'the' average
grvity being about 830°. The Ohio wells yield
a heavier oil; in some cases, like that of Can
ada West, it is quite tar-like in consistence.
The number of oil wells at present in active
operation in America is over one thousand, and
the extent to which they will supply; the oil for
the present, year will not be much short of ten
millions of American gallons. It, is exported
largely to Europe from the Atlantic ports of the
Northern States; and, besides, is largely con
slimed in the States generally. One thousand.
'dollars is the average cost of the labor and
plant required for an ordinary well of one,
hundred feet or so in depth. The petroleum
is delivered•at the seaport at a price varying
from twenty to twenty-two cents per American
gallon- From these facts will be seen the im
portance of a business which, but slew years
ago, was wholly neglected.
Regarding the origin of these earth-oils there
have been many themfies. One writer states
that at a period when-the earth was in a highly
heated condition, asphaltum was volatilized
and suspended over the earth in the form of a
vast cloud ; and that when the earth began, to
cool; the lighter portion of the asphaltum e
gan to condense in the cooler, latitudes, and
descended upon the disturbed Orate of the Al
legheny coalfields and the oil-producing
States ; and 'that, the hat d asphaltum of Trini
dad is nothing more than the residuum which .
might be expected after distillation on so grand
a scalS7 Another states that the great reser
voirs of. petroleum are the work of the coral
insect, and that the earth-oil occurs in rocks
far below the coal formation. Another believes
the petroleum to he the bitumen of the anthra
cite coal, which has been extracted from it by
heat on the east side of the Alleghenies, and
ejected on the west side of those bills. Others'
suppose' Jhat 'petroleum is merely the gases,
front 'the deep' coal-bcds,, which
.may be sub
jected to a low heat, poridensed upon wowing
in contact with; water which fille the Assures
of the strata in the coal-fields; au4 the,ti t 1
gas Which escapes no violently when the reser-,
voirs are Wiped, iit nierelY4e, free gas which
occurs when coal is distilled in retorts, and
which is only eendeneed by artificial means:
There is a Very strong resemblance between
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Connected with this establichnsent_ in en enterudve
JOB OPPICS, containing a variety of plain and fancy
type, unequalled by any eetabliehment.in the intsbitir of
the State, for which the patronage of the puhllo
rostrolento and the crude oil distilled from coal ;
but similarity of origin ought-to have produced
oils precisely similar, which it must be ad.
miited-they are not. Al it-is, there to a wide
field for the conjectures of both the seientiflie
and nucleoli° °Wiener.
The memory of inn' ruHineth not to the eon.
trary—pearla,'diambids, ostrichleather s , au
costly perfumes bare 'been obj , eets of 'admira
tion. since their first discovery. inch they
are referred to in Holy Fin. all lies*, ihe
diamond is but a bit of charcoal—the pearl the
product of disease in a shell-fish—an empress
will delight to adorn her head with appendage*
pulled from the body of an untidy bfrd—atid •
chemistry establishes the fact that the elementd
from which the richest perfumes are produced -
are unmentionable ffor thole filth and offen•
In the time.of Vioy, the emerald was se-,
counted more beautiful than the diamond; but
it must be remembered that the art of euttint
the diamond in brilliant was unknoWo to nit
We lately went to see ' the great ,American.
diamond," as it has been called, now exhibited
at the store of Crosby Sr, liunnewell. It it a
beautiful little jewel, of not more thatt twelve
carats, very skillfully out, and of grant, bril
In Dodsley's Annual . Register, 'rot B;'p 154,
we have an account of a valuable diamond
found in the stomach of a wookeock. How it
came there we know not, but we know well:
enough how valuable diamonde find their' way
into the stomachs and intestines of Brazilian.
slaves. Mawe describes the process in his
travels. Those who work at the diamond mines
are Sorely tempted to swallowthe smaller peb
bles. When they are suspected, ther•ere looked
up and subjected to' emetics and eatharties,
like the pearl fishers of Ceylon. When' a nel
gro, says Mr. Mawe, is so fortunate as to find.
a dianiond of seventeen carats and a half, he
obtains his freedom: If• of ten carats . ; he re
ceives a new suit, a hat, and a knife: While• "
Mr. Mawe was at.the mines, a stone of sixteen
carats and'a half was found, and it was plea
sing to see the anxiety manifested by the offi
cers that it might prove lA' sufficient weight to
insure the negro's freedom, , and their disap
pointment when it 'proved one carat short of
the Weight prescribed. • •
The- celebrated Tigot diaziond. Weighs forty:.
five osrats. and Was sold at auction in London,
May .10, 1802, for nine thousand fire hundred'
guineas. 'lt was rained at.E16,200--$Bl,OOO.
These, however, MAY be set down, as diamOnds
of modern pretensions compared with those
which we are now to describe;• and first of the'.
Pitt, or, as it is often called, the Regency dia
mond. Thie splendid gem was purchased in
1701, by Thomas Pitt, then Governor of,Port
St. George, in India, of Taurobund, deafer itt
•diamonds. for forty-eight thousand pagodas,
or £20,400. Governor Pitt brought it to En
gland, rough ; in which state it weighed four.
hundred and ten carats, and. when cut, One
hundred and thirty.five. The cost of cutting
it, in brilliant, was £5,000. The diamond dust.
employed in the procesh of cutting it cost
£1,400. The chips yielded 28,000. Dr; Mead's
model .of this diamond, in its present state,
gives one inch and a•quarter in diameter, and'
thirteen-sixteenths of one inch in depth. Two.
years were employed in the operation of cut
ting. The weight is about one ounce and an
Eighty thousand pounds were offered for
this pebble alone by a private individual: It
was finally sold to the crown of France for
£200,000, payable in install rents ; and the
crown jewels, in corresponding packages, were
pledged to Governor Pitt as collateral secu
rity. When au installment became due, his
son-in-law, Mr. Cholmoncleley, met the French
messenger at Dover, received the amount, sad
delivered a package. It obtained the name of
the Regency diamond, from having been pur
chased when the Duke of Orleans was Regent
of Prance. It was reported, that Gov. Fitt
had wronged the Indian dealer, and gotten
possession of the jewel unfairly. The charge
probably arose from the fact that he bought it
for a sum so much less than that demanded at
first by the dealer. The price at which if was
held by Jaurchund was 200,000 pagadas .or
more than four times the sum paid for it by
Governor Pitt, whose very clear and satisfac
tory account of the transaction may be found
in Nichols's Literary History, volume 6 ) page
70, with an excellent engraving of the pill-
Haut. On great occasions, the king wore it
as a button in his hat. Governor Pitt is'repre.: '
seated, in a portrait by Sir llodfrey Kneller,
bediamonded in a similar manner.; Napoleon
placed it in the hilt of his sword of state.
. . .
There is E O nething exceed ingly pntastical in
the results of calcultiting the value of diamonds
by carats. Betas furnish an ilhistration. In
the Gentleman's Magazine for 1746; vol. 16,
page 665„, there is en outline of tLe famous
diamond sent from Brazil to the King of Portu
gal. It is four inches long, two inches and
three quarters broad, and weighs twelve min
ces and a half, or 1,680 carats. This pebble
stone is valued at £224,000,000, or, at five
dollars to the pound sterling, $1,120,000,000,
just about the sum of our national debt, as
predicted by Mr. Secretary Chasa,.for JnlY 1,
1863: The process of caleulation by . which
the diamond fancier pursues his way to this
result may interest the reader. The rule of
valuation laid down by Mr. Jetferies, but with
certain exceptions, is to assume a rough dia
mond of one carat to be worth two pounds
sterling; then to square the weight and mul
tiply the square by the price per (mat;
with a diamond of ten carats, 10x. 1 .1.100x
£2-=£2oo=sl,ooo. A diamond of the purest
water, and cut "brilliant"—that is, both at
top and bottom—is rated at eight pounds ; for
the purpose of this valuation, thus.: carats
Upon what grit oiple M. Rome de Vide as
cribed the enormous value of £224,000:000 to
the uncut Portuguese diamond, it is hardlo
conjecture. He must have valued the carat at,
£BO instead of £2, or adopted some novel Beale
of valuation. If we adopt that of Mr. Jager
les, the value of the stone will be £5,644 800
There is another diamond among the imperial
jewels of France, called the .Saticy, weighing
55 carats, and valued at 25,000 guineas ; sup
posed to be a low estimate.
There is also another, belonging to thicrown
of Portugal, extremely fine, weighing 215 ca
rats, and valued at 209,800 guineas.
The Grand Duke of Tuscany possessed a
diamond, weighing 139 carats, valued at 109.-
420 guineas. it was bought at a stall for a bit
of crystal. as Keyltek 'Mitten in hie travels, vol.
4, page 298, and for.a single paolis—seven,
In 'April, 1765, Prince Qalitrin, Ministr gt
Parii, 'from the Emperor of Russia, purchased
a fine almond; weighing one hundred and Nur.
teen grain; of the • Sieur Burry, for .100i0uit
riz dolls - U. ; Four grains to the carat would,
give twentY-eight carats and a half to this dia.
mond. • •
The diamond of the (heat• Mogul, said to'
have weighed, before cutting, 798 musts, or
900. a cc or ding to Tavernier. volume % page
389, met ham suffered from the procese of