Pennsylvania daily telegraph. (Harrisburg, Pa.) 1857-1862, February 22, 1861, Image 8

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

Aim* and Moto atizenz :
The period for a new election of it citizen to
administer -the executive government of the
United States being not , far distant, and the
time actually arrived when ! your thoughts must
be employed in designating the person who is
to be clOthed with that important trust, it ap
pears to me proper, especially as it may con
duce toe mere distinct expression of the public
voice, that I should now apprise you of the re
volution I have formed, to decline being con
sidered among the number of those out of
- whom a choice is to ba made.
I beg you, at the same time, to do me the
juati ce to be assured, that this resolution has
not been taken without a strict regard to all
the considerations appertaining to the relation
which binds the dutiful citizendo his country :
and that, in withdrawing thmtender of service
which silence to my situation might imply, I
am teflisenced by no diminution of zeal for
your future interest; no deficiency of grateful
respect foeyour past kindness; butam support
ed by a full conviction that the step is com
patible with both.
The acceptance of, and continuance hitherto
in, the office to which your suffrages have twice
called me, have been a uniform .sacrifice of in
clination to the cpinion of duty, and to a defer
ence for what appeared to be your desire. I
constantly hoped that it would have, een much
earlier in my power, consistently with motives
which I was not at liberty to disregard, to re
turn to that retirement from which I had been
reluctantly drawn. The strength of my in
clination to do this, previous to the last elec
tion, had even led to the preparation of en ad
sizess to declare it to you ; but mature re
fleetion on the then perplexed and critical
posture of our affairs with foreign nations, and
the unanimous advice of persons entitled to
pry cpuMence, impelled me to abandon the
I rejoice that tr . :,e stat e of Your coos ens, ex
ternal as well sd i s :ernal, no longer senders
the pursuit of incompatible with
the sentiment of duty or I :sropriety ; and . am
persuaded, whatever partiality 1.7 111 Y be retained
ent re
ro um
for my services, that, in the r,?'
e - lisaDerove
stances of our country, you will not u. •
my determination to retire.
The impressionswith which I first undertook
the arduous trust, were explained on the pro
per occasion. In the discharge of this trust, I
will only say that I have, with good intentions,
contributed towards the organization and ad
ministration of the government, the best exer
tions of which a very fallible judgment was
capable. Not unconscious in the outset, of the
inferiority of my qualifications, experience, in
my own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes of
others, has strengthened the motives to diffidence
of myself; and every day, the increasing weight
of years admonishes me more and more that
that the abode of retirement is as necessary to
me, as it will be welcome. Satisfied that if
any circumstances have given peculiar value
to my services, they were temporary, I have
the consolation to believe that, while choice
and prudence invite me to quit the political
patriotism does not forbid it. .
In looking forward to the moment wh; . „ s
Intended to terminate the career of my e ss a,7
life, my feelings do not permit me to P - m e"T:
deep acknowledgment of that det.7F'LT th e
A of gratitude
which I owe to my beloved
r sountrY , for the
many honors it has conferr
more, for the steadfast c
o e n uponc
e wl ni th e w ; h s itci still
it has supported me ; e
..ed for the opportunities
I have thence enjo
yed of manifesting my in
violable attachm'
~nt ti by services_ faithful and
, „ , usefulness unequal to
my te a '. ." oenefits have resulted to our coun
try from r .nose services, let it always be re
membe.zed to your praise, and as an instruct
ive e. .semple in our annals, that under circum
er.inees in which the passions, agitated in every
direction, were liable to mislead amidst ap
pearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of
fortune viten discouraging—ia situations in
which, not 'infrequently, want of success has
count, minced the spirit of criticism—the con
stancy of your support was the essential prop
of the efforts, and a guarantee of the plane, by
which they were effected. Profoundly pene
trated with this idea, I shall carry it with me
to my grave, as a strong incitement to unceas
ing vows, that Heaven may continue to you
the choicest tokens of its beneficence--that
your union and brotherly affection may be
perpetual—that the free constitution, which is
the work of your hands, may be sacredly main
tained—that its administration in every de
paitment may be stamped with wisdom and
virtue ; that, in fine, the happiness of the peo
ple of these States, under the auspices of liber
ty, may be made complete by to careful a pre
servation,and so prudent a use of this blessing,
as will acquire to them the glory of recom
mending it to the applause, the affection, and
the adoption of every nation which is yet a
stranger to it.
Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But a soli
citude for your welfare, which cannot end but
with my life, and the apprehension of dager,
mama] to that solicitude, urge me, on an oc
casion like the present, to offer to your solemn
contemplation, and to recommend to your fre
quent review, some sentiments which are the
result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable
observation, and which appear to me all im
portant to the permanency of your felicity as a
people. These will be offered to you with the
more freedom, as you can only see in them the
disinterested warnings of a parting friend,twho
can possibly have no personal motives to bias
his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encour
agement to it, your indulgent reception of my
sentiments on a former and not dissimilar c
Interwoven as is the love of liberty with
every ligament of your hearts, no recommend
ation of mine is necessary to-fortify or confirm
the attachment,
The unity of the government which consti
tutes you one people, is also now dear to you.
It is justly so; for it is the main pillar in the edi
fice of your real independence ; the auppoit of
your tranquility at home ; your peace abroad ;
of your safety ; of your prosperity ; of that very
liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is
easy to foresee that, from different causes and
from different quarters, much pains will be
taken, many artifices employed, to weaken in
your minds the conviction of this truth ; as
this is the point in your political fortress
against which the batteries of internal and ex
ternal enemies will be most constantly and am
tively, (though often covertly and insidiously,)
directed, it is of infinite moment that you
should properly estimate the immense value of
your national union to your collective and indi
vidual happiness; that you should cherish a
cordial, habitual and immovable attachment
to it ; accustoming yourselves to think and
speak of it as of the palladium of your political
safety and prosperity ; watching for its preser
vation with jealous anxiety ; discountenancing
whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it
can, in any event, be abandoned ; and indig
nantly frowning upon the first dawning of
every attempt to alienate any portion of our
country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred
ties which now link together the various parte.
For this you have every inducement of sym
pathy and interest. Citizena by birth, or
choice, of a common country, that country has
a right to concentrate your affectioni. The
name of American, which belongs to you in your
national capacity, must always exalt the just
pride of patriotism, more than any appellation
-.arrived from local dt.criminations. With
iehades of difference,. yon have the Brune
— '-'es,%stiners, habits and political princi
-- s r: in a common cause, fought 1
pennopluartia Malty eckgrapb, ,fribap. 'Afternoon, gebruarp 22, 1861.
and triumphed together ; the independence
and liberty you possess, are the work of joint
counsels and joint efforts, of common dangers,
sufferings and successes.
But these considerations, however powerfully
they address themselves to your sensibility, are
general ly outweighed by those which apply more
immediately to your interest. Here every por
tion of our c;:iuntry finds the most commanding
motives for carefully, guarding and preserving
the union of the whole.
The North, in an unrestrained intercourse
with the South,
,protected by the equal laws of a
common government,. finds in the productions
of the latter, great additional resources of mar
itime and commercial . enterprise, and precious
materials of manufacturing industry. The
South, in the same intercourse, benefitting by
the agency of the North, sees its agricul
ture grow and its commerce expand. Turning
partly into its own channels the seamen of the
North, it finds its particular navigation invigo
rated; and while it contributes in different ways
to nourish and increase the•general mass of the
national navigation, it looks forward to the
protection of a maritime strength, to which
itself is unequally adapted. The .East, in a like
intercourse with the West, already finds, and in
the progressive improvement of interior com
munications by land and water, will more and
more find a valuable vent , or e commodities
which each brings from abroad,,or manufactures
at home. The West derives from the Bag sup
plies requisite to its growth and comfort—and
what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it
must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of
indispensable outlets for its own productions,
to the weight, influence, and the maritime
strength of the Atlantic side of the Union, di
rected by an indissoluble community of inter
est as one nation. Any other tenure by which
the West can hold this essential advantage,
whether derived from its own separate strength,
or from an apostate 'and unnatural connexion
with any foreign power, must be intrinsically
then, every part of our country - thus ,
feels an immediate and particular interest in'
union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find
in the united masa of means and efforts, great
er strength, greatei resources, proportionably,
water security from external danger, a less
frequent interruption of their peace by foreign
nations; and, what is of inestimable value,
they inwt derbre from union, an exemption
from those ;broils and wars between themselves,
which so freroently afflict neighboring coun
tries, not tied :,:egether by the same govern
ment, which thel: own rivalship alone would
-- .4Eclent to p r ejuce, but which opposite
be 6 '. %tw ines o tt..-hments and intrigues,
and em.. • '
foreign in._ Miter Hence, like
would timula.. 4 7
the, rh7e.sailY. of those
wise, they will avoLI •.which,under
overgrownmilitary establist.nonle, - nieione to
any corm of government, are insure, • as ar _
liberty, and which are to be regarden / t ) v , ;s
ticalarly hostile to republice,a liberty. In
sense it is, that your v a ion o u ght to be C.
sidered as a main p , ... 0p of your liberty', and
that the love of th t 4
One ought to endear 10 you
the preservati on These con,' of the other.
41derations speak a persuasive
guae to 'every, reflecting and virtuous mind,
sad ex
41)11 the continuance of the Union as a
p rirr ety object of patriotic desire. Is there a
Astrt whether a common government can em-
Waco so large a sphere? Let experience solve
it. To listen to mere speculation in such a case
were criminal. We are authorized to hope that
a proper organization of the whole, with the
auxiliary agency of governments or the re
spective subdivisions, will afford a-happy issue
to the experiment. It is well worth a full and
fair experiment With such powerful and
obvious motives to union, affecting all parts of
our country, while experience shall not have
demonstrated its impracticability, there will
always be reason to distrust the patriotism of
those who, in any quarter, may endeavor to
weaken its bands.
In contemplating the causes which may dis
turb our Union, it occurs as matter of serious
concern, that any groom:1'811°111d have been fur
nished for characterizing parties by geographical
discriminations—northern and southern—Atlantis
and western ; whence designing men may en
deavor to excite a belief that there is a real dif
ference of local interests and views. One of the
expedients of party to acquire influence within
particular districts, is to misrepresent the opin
ions and alms of other districts. You cannot
shield yourselves to much against the jealousies
and heart burnings which spring from these
misrepresentations ; they tend to render alien
to each other those who ought to be bound
together by fraternil affection. The inhabit
ants of our western country, have lately had
a useful lesson on this head ; they have seen,
in the negociation by the Executive, and in
the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of
the treaty with Spain, and in the universal
satisfaction at that event throughout the United
States, a decisive proof of how unfounded
were the suspicions propagated among them,
of a policy in the general government and in
the Atlantic States, unfriendly to their inter
ests in regard to the Mississippi. They have
been witnesses to the formation of two treaties,
that with Great Britain and that with Spain,
which secure to them everything they could
desire, in respect to our foreign relations, tow
ards confirming their prosperity. Will it not
be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of
these advantages on the Union by which they
were procured ? Will they not henceforth be
deaf to those advisers, if such they are, who
would sever them from their brethren, and
connect them with aliens?
To the efficiency and permanency of your
Union, a government Of the whole Is indis-
pensable. No alliances, however strict, be
twben the parties,oan be an adequate substitute;
they must inevitably experience the infractions
and interruptions which all alliances, in all
times, have experienced. Sensible of this mo
mentous truth, you have improved upon your
first essay, by the adoption of a constitution
of government, better calculated than your
former, for an intimate union, and for the effica
cious management of your common concerns.
This government, the offspring of our own
choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon
full investigation and mature deliberation,
completely free in its principles, in the distri
bution of its powers, uniting security with en
ergy, and containing within itself a provision
for its own amendment, has a just claim to
your confidence and your support. Respect for
its authority, compliance with its laws, acqui
escence in its measures, are duties enjoined
by the fundamental maxims of tine liberty.—
The beats of our political systems is the right
of the people to make and to alter their consti
tutions of government. But the Constitution
which at any time exists, until changed by an
explicit and authentic act of the whole people,
is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea
of the power and the right of the people to
establish government, pre-supposes the duty of
the individual to obey the established gov
All obstructions to the execution of laws,
all combinations and associations under what
ever plausible character, with the real design
to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regu
lar deliberation and action of the constituted
authorities, are destructive of this fundamental
principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve
to organize faction, to give it an artificial and
extraordinary force, to put in the place of the
delegated will of the nation the will of party,
of en a small but artful and enterprising mi
nority of the community; and according to the
all ernat triumphs of d &Tent parties, to make
the pubic administration the mirror of the ill
cemc-rtvd and incongruous projects of faction,
rather than the organ of txmsistent.and whole
some plans, digested by common connsels, and
mcdified by mutual interests.
'However combinations or associations of the
above description. may now and then answer
popular ends, they are likely, in the course of
time and things, to become potent engines, by
which cunning, ambitions, and unprincipled
men, will be enabled to subvert the power of
the people, and to usurp for themselves the
reins of government ; destroying afterwards
the eery engines which had lifted them to un
just dominion.
Tower ds the presdrvation of your government
and the permanency of ,your present happy
ttate, it as requisite not only that you steadily
discountenance irregular opposition to its ac
knowledged authority, but also that you resist
with. care the spirit of innovation upon its prin
ciples,.however specious the pretexts. One me
thod of assault may be to ellect, in the forms
of the .constitution, alterations which will im
pair the energy of the system, and thus to urt
termine what cannot be directly overthrown.—
In all the,ehanges to which you may be invited,
remember that time and habit are at least as
necessary,to fix the true character of govern
ments, as of other huinan institutions ; that ex
perience-is the surest standard by which to test
the real tendency of the existing constitution of
a country.; that facility in changes, upon the
credit of .mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes
to perpetual change from the endless variety of
hypothesis and opinion ; an remember espe
cially, that for the efficient management of
your common 'interests, in a country so exten
sive as ours, a government of as much vigor as
is consistent with the perfect security of liberty,
is indispensable. ,Liberty itself will find in such
a government, with powers properly distributed
and adjusted, its surest guardian. It le, indeed,
little else than a name, where the government
is too feeble to withstand the enterprises of
faction, to confine each member of the society
within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to
maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoy
ment of the rights of person and property.
I have already intimated to yobs the danger
of parties in the State, with particular refer
ence to the founding of them on geographical
discrimination. Let me now take a more com
prehensive view, and warn you in the most
solemn manner against the baneful effects of
the spirit of party generally.
This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable
from our nature, having its root in the strong
est passions of the human mind. It exists
under different shapes in all governments,
more or has stifled, controlled, or repressed ;
but in those of the popular form it is seen in
its greatest rankness, and is truly their worst
The alternate domination of one faction
over another, sharpened by the spirit of re
venge natural to party dissensions, which, in
different ages and countries, has perpetrated
the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful
despotism. But this leads at length to a more
formal and permanent despotism. The disor
ders and miseries which result, gradually incline
the minds of men to seek security and repose
in the absolute power of an individual; and soon
er or later the chief of some prevailing faction,
more able or more fortunate than his coMpeti tors,
turns this disposition to the purposes of his ele
vation, on the ruins of public liberty.
ich,neye . .rtheless, ought not to
looking forward to anextremity of
this ma, k;:. 11
be entirely out of Eugnt,) the common and
continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are
sufficient to make it the interest and duty of
a wise people to discourage and restrain it.
It serves always to distract the public °ann
eals and enfeeble the public administration.—
It agitates the community with ill-founded
jealousies and false alarms ; kindles the ani
mosity of one part against the other ; foments
occasional riot and insurrection. It opens the
door to foreign influence and corruption, which
finds a facilitated access to the government it
self, through the channels of party passions.
Thus the policy and the will of one country are
eut t jected to the policy and will of another.
There is an opinion that putt - min frog , Oows
tries are useful checks upon the administration
of the government, and serve to keep alive the
spirit of liberty. This, within certain limits,
is probably true ; and in governments of a mo
narchial cast, patriotism may look with indul
gence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of
party. But in those of the popular character,
in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not
to be encouraged. From their natural ten
dency, it is certain there will always be enough
of that spirit for every salutary purpose. And,
there being constant danger of excess, the effort
ought to be, by force of public opinion, to mit
igate and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched,
it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its
bursting into a flame, lest, instead of warming,
it should consume.
It is important, likewise, that the habits of
thinking in a free country should inspire caution
in those intrusted with its administration, to
confine themselves uithin their respective con
stitutional spheres, avoiding, in the exercise of
the powers of one department to encroach upon _
another. The spirit of encroachment tends to
consolidate the powers of all the departments
in one, and thus to create, whatever the form
of government, a real despotism. A just esti
mate of that love of power and proneness to
abuse it which predominate in the human.
heart,-is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of
this position. The necessity of reciprocal checks,
in the exercise of political power, by dividing
and distributing it into different denositories,
aed constituting each the guardian of the pub
lic weal against invasion by the others, has
been evinced by experiments, ancient and
modern; some of them in our own country and
under our own eyes. To preserve them must be
as necessary as to institute them. If, in the
opinion of the people, the distribution or modi
fication of the consitutional powers be in any
particular wrong, let it be corrected by an
amendment in the way which the Constitution
designates. But let there be no change by
usurpation; for though this, in one instance,
may be the instrument of good, it is the custo
mary weapon by which free governments are
destroyed. The precedent must always greatly
overbalance, in permanent evil, any partial or
transient b.-.nefit which the use can at any time
Of all the dispositions and 'habits Which lead
to political proeperity, Religion and Morality
are indispensable supports In vain would that
man claim the tribute of patriotism, who should
labor to subvert these great pillars of human
happiness, these firmest props of the duties of
men and citizens. The mere politician, equally
with the pions man, ought to respect and to
cherish them. A volume could not trace all
their connexions with private and public felici
ty. Let it simply be asked, where is the secu
rity for property, for reputation, for life, if the
sense of religious obligation desert the oaths
which are the instruments of investigation in
Courts of justice? And let us, with caution,
indulge the supposition that morality can be
maintained without religion. Whatever may
be conceded to the influence of refined educa
tion on minds of peculiar structure, reason and
experience both forbid us to expect that nation
al morality can prevail in exclusion of religious
It is substantially true, that virtue or moral
ity is a necessary spring of popular government.
The rule indeed extends, with more or less force,
to every species of free government. Who,
that is a sincere friend to it, can look with in
difference upon attempts to shake the founda
tion of the fabric ?
Promote, then, as an object of primary import
ance, institutions for the general diffusion of
knowledge. In proportion as the structure of
a government gives force to public opinion, it
is essential that public opinion should be en
As a very, important source of strength and
security, cherish public credit. One method of
preserving it is, to use it as sparingly as possi
ble, avoiding occasions of expense by cultiva
ting peace, but remembering also, that timely
disbursements, to prepare for danger,frequently
prevent much greater disbuisements to repel
it ; avoiding, likewise, the accumulation of
debt, nut only by shunning occasions of expense
but by vigorous exertions, in time of peace, to
discharge the debts which unavoidable wars
may have occasioned, not ungenerously throw
ing upon posterity the burden which we our
selves ought to bear. The execution of these
maxims belongs to our representatives, but it
is necessary that public opinion should co-ope
rate. To facilitate to them the performance of
their duty, it is essential that you should prac
tically bear in mind, that towards the payment
of debts there must be revenue ; that to have
revenue there must be taxes ; that no taxes can
be devised, which are not more or less incon
venient and unpleasant; that the intrinsic em•
barramment inseparable from the selection of
the proper object, (which is always a choice of
difficulties,) ought to be a decisive motive for a
candid construction of the conduct of the gov
ernment in making it, and for a spirit of acqui
scence in the measure for obtaining revenue,
which the public exigencies may at any time
Observe good faith and justice towards all
nations ; cultivate peace and harmony with all.
Religion and morality enjoin this conduct, and
can it be that good policy does not equally en
join it? It will be wortt yof a free, enlighten
ed, and, at no distant period, a great nation,
to give to mankind the magnanimous and too
novel example of a people always guided by an
exalted justice and benevolence. Who can
doubt but, in the course of time and things,the
fruits of such a plan would richly repay any
temporary advantage which might be lost by
a steady adherence to it ; can it be that Provi
dence has not connected the permanent felicity
of a nation with its virtue ? The experiment,
at least, is recommended by every sentiment
which ennobles human nature. Alas !it is ren
dered impossible by its vices.
In the execution of such a plan, nothing is
more essential than that permanent, inveterate
antipathies against particular nations, and pas:
sionate attachments for others, should be ex
cluded; and that in place of them, just, amica
ble feelings towards all should be cultivated.—
The nation which indulges towards another an
habitual hatred, or an habitual fondness, is in
some degree a slave. It is a slave to its ani
mosity or to its affection, either of which is
sufficient to lead it astray from its duty or its
interest. Antipathy in one nation against
another, disposes each more readily to" offer
insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes
of umbrage, and to be haughty and intractable
when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute
occur. Hence, frequent collisions, obstinate,
envenomed by and resentment, some
times impel to war the government, contrary
the best calculations of policy. The govern
ment sometimes participates in the national
propensity, and adopts, through passion, what
reason would reject ; at other times, it makes
the animosity of the nation subservient to pro
jects of hostility, Instigated by pride, ambition,
and other sit ater and pernicious motives. The
peace often, 69inetim,%! Derhaps the liberty, of
nations, has been the victim.
So, likewise, a passionate attachmerit of one
nation for another, produces a variety of ev - 2 14 -
Synarathy for the favorite nation, facilitating
the illusion of an imaginary common interest,
in cases where no real common interests exists,
and infusing into one the enmities of the Other ;
betrays the former into a participation in the
quarrels and wars of the latter, without ade
quate . inducements or justification. It leads
also to concessions to the favorite nation, of
privileges denied by others, which is apt doub
ly to injure the nation making the concessions
by unnecessarily parting with what ought to
have been retained, and by exciting jealousy,
ill will, and a disposition to retalliste in the
parties from whom equal priviliges are with
held ; and it gives to ambitious, corrupted or
deluded citizens, (who devote themselves to the
fwvosikp rmAion), facility to betray, or sacrifices
the interests of their own country, without
odium, sometimes even with popularity ; gild
ing with the appearances of a virtuous sense
of obligation, a Commendable deference for
public opinion; or a laudable zeal for public
good, the base or foolish compliances of ambi
tion corruption or infatuation.
As avenues to foreign influences in innu
merable ways, such attachments are particu
larly alarming to the truly enlightened and
independent patriot. How many opportunities
do they afford to tamper with domestic factions,
to practice the arts of seduction, to mislead
public opinion, to influence or awe the public
councils? Such an attachment of a small or
weak, towards a great and powerful nation,
dooms the former to be the satelite of the
Against the insidious wiles of foreign influ
ence, (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citi
zens) the jealousy of a free people ought to be
constantly awake ; since history and experience
prove that foreign influence Is one of the moat
baneful foes of "republican government. But
that jealousy, to be useful, must be impartial,
else it becomes the instrument of the very in
fluence to be avoided, instead of a defence
against it. Excessive narkiality for one foreign
nation, and excessive dislike for another, cause
those whom they actuate, to see danger only
on one side, and serve to veil,and even second,
the arts of infiuencb on the other. Real patri-
ots, who may resist the intrigues of the fa
vorite, are liable to become snspected`and odi
ous ; while its tools and dupes usurp the ap
plause and confidence of the people, to surren
der their interests. The great rule of conduct
for na, in regard to foreign nations, is in ex
tending our foreign relations, to have with
them as littlepolitical connection as possible.—
So far as we have already formed engagements,
let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith.—
Here let us stop.
Europe has a set of primary interests, which
to us have none, or a very remote relation.—
' Hence, she must be engaged in frequent con
troversies, the causes of which are essentially
foreign to our cencerns. Hence, therefore, it
must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves, by
artificial ties, or the ordinary combinations and
collisions of her friendships•or enmities.
- Our detached and distant situation, invites
and enables us to pursue a different course. If
we remain one people, under an efficisnt gov
ernment, the period is not far off when we may
defy material injury from external annoyance;
when we may takesnch all attitude as will cause
the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon,
to be scrupulously respected; when belligerent
nations, under the impossibility of making ac
quisitions upon ns, will not lightly hazard the
giving us provocation, when we may choose
peace or war, as our interest, guided by justice,
shall counseL
Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a
situation ? Why quit our own, to stand upon
foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our
destiny with that of any part of Europe, entan
gle our peace and prosperity In the toils of Eu
ropean ambition, nvalship, interest, humor or
caprice ?
It is our true policy to steer clear of perma
nent alliance with any portion of the foreign
world ; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty
to do it ; for let me not be understood &sleepy.
ble of patronizing infidelity to existing engage
ments. I hold the maxim no less applicable to
public than private affairs; that honesty is al
ways the best policy. I repeat it, thorefore, let
those eugagementa be observed in the genuine
sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary,
and would be unwise to extend them.
Taking care always to keep ourselves, by
suitable establishments, on a respectable defen
sive posture, we may safely trust to temporary
alliances for extraordinary emergencies.
Harmony and a liberal intercourse with all
nations, are recommended by policy, humanity
and interest. But even our commercial policy
should hold an equal and impartial hand ;
neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors
or preferences ; consulting the natural course
of things ; diffusing and diversifying by gentle
means the streams of commerce, but forcing
nothing ; establishing with powers so di-posed,
in order to give trade a table course, to define
the rights of our merchants, and to enable the
government to support them ; conventional
rules of intercourse, the best that present cir
cumstances and mutual opinion will permit,
but temporary, and liable to ,be from time to
time abandoned or varied as experience and
circumstances shall dictate ; constantly keep
ing in view, that it is folly in one nation to
look for disinterested favors from another ;
that it must pay with a portion of its inde
pendence for whatever it may acccept under
that character ; that, by such acceptance, it
may place itself in the condition of having
given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet
of being reproached with ingratitude for not
giving more. There can be no greater error
than to expect, or calculate, upon real favors
from nation to nation. It is an Illusion which
experience must cure, which a just pride ought
to discard.
In offering to you, my countrymen, these
counsels of an old and affectionate friend,l dare
nothope they will make the strong and lasting
impression I could wish ; that they will control
the usual current of the passions, or prevent our
nation from running the course which has hith
erto marked the destiny of nations ; but if I may
even flatter myself that they may be productive
of some partial benefit, some occasional good ;
that they may now and then recur to moderate
the fury of party spirit, to warn against the
mischiefs of foreign intrigue t to guard against
the imposture of pretended patriotism ; this
hope will be a full recompense for the solici
tude for your welfare by which they have been
flow far, in the discharge of my official du •
ties, I have been guided by the principles which
have been delineated, the public records and
other evidenCes of my conduct, must witness
to you and to the world. To myself, the WM:t
rance of my own conscience is, that I have, at
least, believed myself to be guided by them.
In relation to the still subsisting war in Eu
rope, my proclamation of the 22d of April,
1798, is the index to my plan. Sanctioned by
your approving voice, and by that of your re
presentatives in both Houses of Congress, the
spirit of that measure has continually governed
me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or
divert me from it. ,
After deliberate examinatio , with the aid of
the best lights I could obtain," -was well satis
fied that our country, under all the circum
stances of the case, had a right to take, and was
bound, in duty and interest, to take a neutral
position. Having taken it, I determined, as far
as should depend upon me, to maintain it with
moderation, perseverance and firmness.
The considerations which respect the right to
hold his conduct, it is not necessary on this oc
casion to detail. I will only observe, that ac
cording to .my understabding of the matter,
that right, so far from being denied by any of
the belligerent poirers, has been virtually ad
mitted by all. •
The duty of holding a neutral conduct may
be inferred, without anything more, from the
obligation which it is free to act, to maintain
inviolate the relations of peace and amnesty to
wards other nations.
The indtronrate of interest for observing
that conduct will be had referred to your own
reflections and aperience. With me, a pre
dominant motive has been to endeavoi to gain
time to our country to settle and mature its yet
recent institutions, and to progress, wit 12.914
interruption, to that degree of strength and
consistency which is necessary, to give it, hu
manely speaking, the command of l's own
Though, in reviewing the incidents of my ad
ministration, I am unconscious of intentional
error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my
defects not to think it probable that I may
have committed many errors. Whatever they
may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to
avert or mitigate the evils to which they may
tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that
my country will never cease to view them with
indulgence ; and that, after forty-five years of
my life dedimted to its service, with an up
right zeal, the faults of ihcompetent abilities
will be consigned to oblivion, as myself mutat
I soon be to the mansions of rest.
Relying omits kindness in this as in other
things, and actuated by that fervent love to
wards it, which is so natural to a man who
views it in the native soil of himself and his
progenitors for several generations, I anticipate,
with pleasing expectations, that retreat in
which I promise myself to realize, without al
loy, the sweet enjoymept of partaking, in the
midst of my fellow citizens, the benign in
fluence of good laws under a free government
—the ever favorite object of my heart., and the
happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares,
labors and dangers.
UNITED STATES, 17th Sept., 1798.
Morrat'S Luz Pius AND PHO2IIX- BITTERA.—
free from an Mineral Poisons. —ln cases of Fcrofula
Ulcers, Scurvy, or Kruptious of the Skin, the operation
of the Life Medicines is truly astonishiny„ often removing
In a few days, every vestige of these leithsome diseases
by their purifying clients oil the blood. Billloos Fevers,
Fever and Ague, Dyspepsia, 'Dropsy, Hiles, and in short,
moat ail diseases soon yield to their curative propertler
No family should be wittiput them, ai by their timely
use much suffering and expense may be saved.
Prepared by WM. B. MOFFAT, IL D., New York, and
for sale by all Druggists uev9-wly
wt.—These deservedly popular medicines have met with
astonishing success In the cure of erysipelas, king's evil,
ring worm, scurvy, scrofulous eruptions r and all intim
mstory diseases tf the skin. Other preparations may
afford a temporary relief, but the combined acikm o
these remedies will by their detergent and purifying
properties effect a radical cure in the blood and system.
Sold by all Druggists, at 1150., 620. and $1 per box or
Cottons.—The sudden changes of our climate
are sources of Pulmonary, Bronchial and asthmatic Af
fections. Experience having proved that 'simple reme
dies often sot speedily and certainly when taken In the
early stages of the disease, recourse should at once be
had to "Brown's Bronchial Troches," or Lounges, let
the Cold, Cough or Irritation of the Throat be ever so
slight, as by this precaution a more serious attack may
be warded off. Public Speakers and Singers will end
them enctnal for clearing and strengthening the voice.
See advertisement. delo-d-swaw6m
imam.. in correcting, mutating, and removing all
obstructions, fiom whatever cause, and al
ways successful as a preven.
the doctors for many years, both in Prance and
erica, with unparalleled success In every case ; and
he is urged by.many thousand ladies who used them, to
make the Pills public for the alleviation of there suffering
from any irregulasities whatever, as well as to prevent
an increase of family where health will not permit it.—
Females particularly situated, or those supposing them
selves so, are cautioned against these Pills while In that
condition as they are sort to produce miscarriage, and
the proprietor assumes no responsibility alter this admo.
intim), although their mildness would prevent any mis
chief to health—otherwise the Pills are recommended.
Full and explicit directions accompany each box. Prise
$1 00 per box. Fold wholesale and retail by
" No. 2 Jones Row, Harrisburg, Pa.
Ladles," by ding him 11 to the Harrisburg
Post Office, can ha s ve en the Pills sent fr ee of observation to
any part of the country (confidentially) and "free of pos
tage" by mall_ Sold also by S. B. STEVENS, Reading,
Jointaos, HOLSOW.AT & Downs! Philadelphia, J. L Len.
BERGER, Lebanon, Hamm H. Hmassar,-...., Lancaster; J. A.
Worn, Wrightsville ; R. T. Mauna, York ,• and by one
druggist in every city and village in the Union, and by
S. D. How; sole proprietor, New York.
N. 13.—Look out for counterfeits. Buy no Golden Pills
of any kind unleas every box is signed S. D. Howe. AU
others are a base hsposition and unsafe; therefore, as
you value your livea and health, (td say nothing of be.
big humbugged out of your money.) buy only of those
who show the signature of S. D. Howe on every box,
which has recently been added on account of the Pills
being counterfeited. - dell-dwassrly.
New ':4lontrtlscll',
fad an assortment of fine La r
find a great variety of Waikin z , -
find an unrivallei istortrnent of i -
made; Bair Crib, Cosmetics, Soaps,
find all kinds of Brashos.---Fn e ,hi r -
Brushes, Cloth and Leather Brusher. '
find a fine lot of Glichrirt's l'oclot r,•
find a large Stock of Portmounaies,
and Seger Cases.
ZS_ find a eboice lot of HAMAD* Cigars.
No. 91 3lark
Two Doors FAA of
64cuR GOVERNMENT, - I,v !.1
itsr, is a work cOntalowg the 1
Tin immico Emus, giving the construe
and Prowls:ens, showing the r5t.‘1i.,,,.. . '
%steak° the UOlOll and each other, and ”t
rally the System or Government pi the
$1 00. Sold, and orders supplied, by -
burg, ra.
Agents for Counties and States wanrr 1
IN PURSUANCE of au order
'Shan's Court of Dauphin county,
sale, On WV/MAT, the 9th day of
BRAXVII BALI, In the city of Harnsburg, m -
W., the ibllowing real estate, viz A
Ground In the dty of Harrisburg, Men rai
Mulberry wrest about thirty lett, bout.:,
A began Horner, Andrew Patterson, and
from Mulberry street about two handrel 1.•
Lane; whereon is erected a TWO w
BOAH DF_D FRAME HOUSE., with back mil r.;
thereto, and a Stable on the back of e 21.1
estate of Levl Houston's minors.
Attendagee wW be given and cond.ti , ns r.
known by ANDREW l'A rr
Guardian of Minors u ,11.1
Jno. RINOWM, Clerk 0. C. (cbll
meat on the eyetem, will be given et LOCH
sums, miner or trawberry end Ref pbe.:- ;
Union Home Tamara. Admilkion 5o cts.
ONLY $1.75 PER Tc
it 76 per ton, delivered by Talent We:0:
PINEGROVE COAL, Just received by ray....r
feb2l JAMES M. ir!
Tw 0 STORE ROOMS, est 0,
business stands, on Market street b t",
and the Market &Inure. Enquire of
21 Std*
Just received and for a/le by
feb2o WY. DOCK .11
At No. 12 North- Western Side of ?1. •
T An NOW CLOSING 0111' nr,
± stock of Goods, embracing everything 1.. •
Cana, Glissware. Quaeoswate, Toss, L!quorq. •
los, Spices, &n.; BIM I end Coal Oil Lamps nut •
Glassidottles, Tumblers, Geblatr, Dino _•r ,
Toilet Betts, Old Bottles, Liquor, Cesar :
Baskets, aco. TM public are invited
the goods and the low prices I aro sonic r
for yourselves. [thaws] W. L. 1.1 t: A
WHO HAVE any Affection
Lungs or Throat, or ("ironic Diie e.
to be cured should consult, DR. STIRART, Wll/
many years experience in different w.Ct , .L.
lIATIIID STATES and CANADA, and has cuce,i c
had been treated without benefit by what sr
the beet P 11711101.018 In the Uatox.
He has been in Harrisburg for briny rho:lft
restored to health, invalids whJ had expert ~.
oC dollars with Physicians and Pstent 11 ,
can refer to some of the beat families in 11,,trri
can give the uacoes of perilous in the • icy ‘t.
parte of the State, wcom he has cured of
Cacoxic Daum
He does not profess to cure an dlorksei aft ' t
ner of some adoertirin2 quacks, but vial
Ottltdott In regard to curability after eXimir
medicines of Dr. S. are vegetable, and d.+11Y ,, %!'
than a hundred sources white traveling. It, L
THROAT EHARASIN he has hid great :RICCA, A
his CARRON CURS wtoloh May be taken try toe
and Immo).
Beware of CAtAme and the Throat Burner
totrtc.ble, aed he has cured affections
EAR Slid to be Inour..ble.
Dr Srawsitr solicit; cases or the follno!nz
others :
NIMALEIIII, ltextourtax,
thmme, Livos COX/LAIN r, 'w.'::
Sextra. Drearrr, DROPSf, / a:: ,
PREPA72 Dallans, Drarcrou. Gus. , ..
Cancers removed by 111100 restudy pracurnli ,,
When co requested Dr. &Warr Will v w,t
their residence.
be regard toqualitllettioes Dr. 9 rekr. to
nineteen, DungThion and Meg; of Philade!,
begs leave to refer to Senators Chem and r , gl.
nom3 a Corwin, of Ohio.
Patients or their [Heads should call at
Hoses from 9 a. m. to S p. re.
Letters promptly attended to.
MY WIFE ELIZA. having without c
left my bed and board, I do hero , y al
public against giving her credit as I alq voY
contracted by her. JACOB GAYNA
19-Btd• Dauphin, Daupha) C.
A"fictions indebted to the e 6!"
Daniel Rhoads, Assignor, are h.reb} E .,
upon the Assignee and make eettiement or '•
Wednesday the 20th of March, as after tti.“
books wilt be pimad in the hands of A. J. tier.
caftan:on. Elti BY,
Assignee of U. 1..
The Subscriber having lately Fr'
the good will and Furniture of the W. ,
Hotel in the city of Harrisburg, opposite CL ,
Court House, of which be will enter into
April, let next, will, therefore, otter at tusk
ON THE .13th DAY OF YARcil maT. i w
KITCHEN FURNITURE; inch as the Le_ ,
QUM lONSIVA I / 4 11 in general, and many other
not here numerated. ; ,-
Also, one FRESH . MILK COW, NOG '' ,
AND HARNASS, all of which will be BOW
and if not cenedudeflon that day said Sale b
°ad from day to day until the Feld property !
Atir The said sale will be held at THE FA'
HOTEL, (late gu i bp B ) .
Conditions will be made known on the ,lal r:
JACOB D. 110113 i
CLOSING OUT our still large 3F,:'"
oflTHS A c i rsiating of
Handsome k Sable Seas,
Handsome Dark Siberian Squirrel Sous,
Aline stock of all kinds of low price
chance for Bargains in Floe Furs. .„
Cad at CATEI' . 1, . ,
N 0.14 .113: ,
ext to the Harr:
MERC4OO, Plain and Figured.
OASEGIEBES, Plain and Figures.
ALL WOOL DhLAINES, Extra Styles :tn.! t,
um& LONG SHAWLS, different yr:,
The prices in all the above Goods, on ex.,
be mond "lower than ever," at
jah24 Next door to the Hat