Evening telegraph. (Harrisburg, Pa.) 1863-1864, December 02, 1862, Image 1

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by ' EOi a ?BE (1N ER.
(T,Ot glitg
.Felloto citizens of the Senate and House of Represew
since your last annual assembling another
year of health and bountiffilharvesta has paned:
And. while it has not pleased. the Almighty to
bless us with a return of peace, we pan but press
on, guided by the beat light He gives us, trust
ing that in his own. good time, and wise way,
all will yet be well. ,
The correspondence touching foreign affairs
which has taken place during the ;last year Is
herewith submitted, in virtual oomtplianexe with
a request to that effect, made by the House of
Representatives near the close of the last fibs
-810.11 of Congress.
If the condition of our relations with other
nations is less gratifying than it bag usually
been at former periods, it is certainly more
satisfactory than a nation so unhappily distract
ed as we are, might reasonably have appre
hended. In the month ofJune last there were
some grounds to expect that the maritime pow
ers which, at the beginning , of oar domestic
difficulties, so unwisely and oneoessarily, as
we think, recognized the instirgentS as a bellig
erent, would soon recede from that position,
which now proved only less injurious to them
set ve a than to our own country, .But the tem
porary reverses which afterwards befell the
national. aims, and Which were exaggerated. by
our own disloyal citizens abroad, have hitherto
delayed that act of sinqile juistice .! .
The civil war, which tiaa se radically changed,.
for tho moment, the occupations add habitant
the American people has necessarily disturbed .I
the social con ration, and affected yery deeply
the prosperity of the, nations withl which we
have carried on a commerce that :has been
steadily increasing throughout a periodsof half
a century. It has, at the same tinny molted
political ambitions and apprehensions which
have produced a profound agitation throughout
the civilized world. lu this unusual agitation
we have forborne from taking part in any con
troversy -between foreign states, arid between
parties or factions in such states..; .We heree ab
tempted no propagandism, and acknowledged
no revolution. But we have left td every na
tion the exclusive conduct and management of
Its own . affairs. , Our struggle 11 been, of
coae, contomPlated by foreign n thins with
reference lee to, its own merits , tha to its sup. ,
posed, and often exaggerated effect/34 , RM conse
quences resulting to these tattoo, emselves.
Nevertheless, ecaiiphiffit On. the • pint Of this
government, reten if' it . 1 were just, isticturd cer
tainly tre'unwise: ' i
' The. treeity e rrith Great Britain for the sup-
Precision Of ltle,'Slave trade has beep put into
opersition''With a good prospect of complete'
success., 'tie an occasion of special pleasure to
ackhoWleidge 'that the execution of f it, on the
part of heir Majeity's' governtrienti has been
marked with a jealousiespiect lot theLauthority
of• the United States, and the righ l of their
moraLand loyal citizens.;
The convention with. Hanover for the aboli
lbw ofthe state dues has been carried into full
-effect :en d er the act of
l:nal • Congress fok that pur
- • • • • . ".2..
A blockade of three thousand miiefrnf !foa l
' coast could not be established, and itigoronsly
enforced, in a season of great commercial ac
,3ivity, like the present, without °Omitting
; Ttlocreslonal mistakes, and, inflicting nointen
•''''l Injuries upon foreign: nations' and ,their
',.tecta. 1
' ' s • 4l '• A cavil war occurring in a country Where
,•'.fereigners reside and eau on trade under
' • ty stipulations, is necessarily 'fruitful of
libintes of the violation of 5
neutral; rights._ ,
ouch collisions tend to 'excite mistipprehen
sifate, and possibly to producedinutual ref:dinner
time+ hetween nations which •hairl i comrami,
Interest inpresorvhig peace and frie dshire,rl-3.
In clear new of these kinds I ha ve „ so far as
' possible, heard and redressed complaiaMwhieki
, have been preseated , by•friendly pow . 'There
Il ls
Is still, however,, a large and l augmen ng num
ber of doubtful cases upon which govern
ment ift mdile, tp,' agree with. theg etininti
w l / 060 PrOff 6 o 4o4 tfidfmaticksd by the aimantki
&here are,. "(moreover, noinypsffi in. inch the
oAlted pirates,, or their, citizens, offer wrongs
from the tut Val or military , anthorities'cif foil
oho, nations,, which the, governments ' ' of theme
estates are not , at ,Once prepared( torsidreim ''.l. I
baVe proposed to sowed o f them foreign 'states;
interested, mutual conventions to solne and
adjust such scsupleiots. -, This proptiein 114
been.made especially to GreatliriMfunto France,
tp Spain, and to Prussia. ~ In each case it his ,
been kindly received, but has not yet Peen feri
, Willy adopted. •,. , „ • I 1' •
I deem it my duty to reertnanwlid'in appror,
priation in behalf of- the owners Of` th Noriva t
i gianbark Admiral P. Toriienakidd, w hich ves
ael was, in May, 1881; prevented "b'y the coml. : ,
'mender of the blocluuting - force off Charleston
from leaving that port with cargo; Inotwith
standing a similar privilege had, belt:ire, , been
granted to. an Sheik vessel. I have directed
the Secretary of 16tate to cause` the papers in
:, (the case to be' coniniunicoted I to' the proper.
contimittees. 1 , I
Appliiiations ifivC'been made to me by many
frde Americanii of African desCent to favor their
') eniiiration, with a'viewcelenieatOe as
Wastontepapibted in recent ,acts Of ()engross,
Other pallid it home arid abioaci 7 soine,frein
interested mntives, 0 4(ers 4' 61 0 4 / I ° Bo c9u
sideirations;'ind 'Still others liAinenced lorphik
anthropio sentiideilt bsve suggested sindlor
pleasures,arhile, oh other hand, ieverai,of
the Spanish American republics bari protested
against the korit of bush, culoniel to chair
respective territo Under these ' circum
(Mr*? I have declined to wove any such
' colotiY any state, without first obtaining the'
.'consent ofita government, with 161 4 agFeemant
shits part to receive and protect Stich emigrants
in all the righta ,cf. freemen ; and I have at;
the sans 4 time, offered to the severat•states
situated within the tropics ' or having ' c ofeniee
there, to negotiate with them subject-tw the'
advice and consent Mf ,the ;Senate, to favor the .
voluntary emigration of penicinsef thatclass tO
their respective territones, 'upon conditions
which shall be 'equal, just and humane. Li
beria and Hayti aim, Mild, - the only .onuitirielf
to Which colonists of African dekor# aon here
could go with certainty of being received anil
iidoPted m citizens; alaCl r. 60, to 81(y iamb
persons, contemplating ' ocilonization, do not
118eXalit; willing to migratold Parini' countries,
as .to some others, 'hor so wills as l l WA:
their , interest demands. I beliete, hbwever„
among them, in thiw is im
.' - pr g; and that, ae , long, , the:m.4On be an
augmented, and considerable migiiitienhulioth
giejr,(PPßitneth,tinin the United Edges.
tie` tion eommeicial treaty - , heir
United Statee and the Sultan of Turkey has
been, carried into execution.
A conintercial and &mauler treaty has hemi
nogollated, subject to the Senate's consent,' with .
Liberia'; and; a similar negotiation is now pend
log with the republic of Hayti: A considerable
improvement of ,the national, cOmmerce is ex
peeled'to result from these measures.
Our relatiOus with great Britain,, France,
Spain ; POrtug4' Hues* Prussia, Danmark; Sweden;AUstriii, t the Netherlands, Italy, Nome,
and the Other European States, remain Midis
to rbed . - Vitry favorablijalitions also continue
to be Maintained with Turkey, Morocco,•Chitta,
and Japan.
During . the last year there has not only 'been
no Change of our previous relations With" the
indepeudene States of 'our own continent;' but,
more, friendly sentiments than have heretofore
existed; are believed tphe entertained by these
neighbors, whose 'safety ' and progress are so
intimately connected with our own. Ibis state
ment'eapecially &Mlles to Mexico, Nicaragua,
Costa Rica, Honduras, Peru and . Chili. '
• The nommilision under the Convention - With
the republic of New Grenada closed - its session,
without having audited and passed upOn, all
the claims Which were submitted to it. A
proposition is pending to revive the conven
tion; that it may be able to do more complete
justide. The joint commission between the
United States and the republic of Costa Bibs
has completed in; labors and submitted its re
prot. •
I have favored the project for connecting the
United States with Europe by en Atlantic tale-
graph, and a similar project to extend the tele.
graph to San Francisco, to connect, by a hiCifie
telegraph with the line which is being extended ,
across the Russian empire.
The Territories of the United States, With
unimportant exceptions, have remained undis
turbed by the civil war; and they are ethibit
ing such evidence of prosperity as justifies an
expectation that some of them will soon be in
a condition to be organized as States, and be
Constitutionally admitted into the Federal
Union. - '
The immense mineral resources' of' some of
these Territories ought to be developed he rap"-,
idly as possible:. Every step in thit directiOn
would have a tendency to improve the revenue
of the government, and diminish the biudenti
of the people. It is worthy of your serious
consideration whether some extraordinary inert- ,
Surat to prornote that end cannot be adopted.
The means.whieb suggests itself as most likely
to be effective, Is a icientific'exploration of the
mineral regions in those Territories, with a
view to the publication of its results at home
and in, foreign countries—results which cannot
fail to be auspicious. _ ; ' 1 '
The, ondition of the finances willlchtia,yOur
Most diligeit,thimideralion. The. vast extort =
dittires incident to Alm milit ary and' lineal' ' op
erations required for the suppression of the
rebellion, have' thitherto been met with a
promptitude, and certainty, wius ' hi; iiiiiiiiiitr
e t raus . e t a rieee 1 " t to toe put:meet ltioili 'tett
fully maintained. The continuance f the ,war,
howeeer, and 'the ' increased dis umenienhi
made necessary by the augmented orces 'new
in the field, demand your best reflections tie' to
the bait modes of providing the n
y rev
enue,, without injury to business, and with the
least possible burdens upon labor. ' '
The suspension of specie payments
ditbl I by' the,
banks, soon after file commencement' of yoUr
lath selisicui;libriigniesus of Ell(ted States
notes nnavoidahlo, ;In no ether 11/4 could the
*Melt of thetkbobs, in 4 the satitifaction 'of
other just demands, be so economica lly , or 'so
well provided for. The judicious edislitiOn 1
of Congrese, securing ; the repeivabili of th ese
l as
notes for loans and internal duties,.a d making
them a legal tender for other debts, made
them,universal currency . ;,andhas! satis fi ed,
partially, at least, and for ;the ,tintel the long
felt want of an, uniform, pirculatingi ruedinin,
saving 'thereby to , the people, bummer sums in
disatunta and exchange. ~ , . 1
A return to specie paymmite, however, at the
earliest period compatible with due hegard to
au hantilitirpmfrigli ) littp*it ever be kept ,in
Vit'' lehlofilatroliii .- m the value of currency
are alwayeinjterinne,_and to ;educe /hese finc
tuationii 4i:tithe OWEist liciasibie paint Vi' al way 8
be a iii phitthe in wise legislatl D.' Con
veraMy, prompt and certain conyertibility
%p, ilsfPn_94l47. , aPialoWletieled be the
I n
:.(; l swop, saregniq against the ; and it
it iemelyllontitful Whether a eke lation of
United States notes, payable in coin, d snffil
Mentlydlarge for , the wants of Abe plc can ;
be perratmerdairt usefully . add W Y, 1 11 41
tain4ed•s ::
TO there, then, any other mode ins ' bieli Ake
i l
necessary: provision for the public w can be
made, and the great advantages of :a safe and
Pirdormi , currency secured! . , ,
~I know of none which promises certain
reenite, arab at the sometime , so int bjection
able, as the organization. of bankin associa
tions, under a general - act of Con ~ well
.guarded faits provisions. To suchlotions
a f
the government might furnish circula 'g notes,
on int+, securiry of .United States ben detail
,: ted in the treasury. These notes, prepared un-!
' der the supervision of proper officers, being
uniform-In- - ' once and security, and COD
veitible sltie Into coke,. would at once pro
tectlabor against the e*llstif it vicious curren
cy, and facilitate coinmeree byi cheap and safe
etchangts. ' - .'
A' moderate reservation front the interest on
the bonds would compensate the United States
for ,the prifpiration and ,distribution of the
notes, and a general superviidon ott,htt system,
and would lighten the burden; of that; part of
the, public debt employed sis soiniiiiiset. , The'
public credit, moreover Would; be ignittly kit-,
proved, and; the negotiation of nevi loans great-
ly fsellitated-bytthe steady market demand for
government bonds whisk the adoptiOh Of the
propofetsystem would ciente. -- '
—ltt.4ll- 41111 additional recommendation of the
mufti* Pf'g a ble weight in my4rfig..
meat, that it would r000noile„ as far as *table
'ail i eitisting kOkelds, by opportunity offered
Ito tainting hkstithtlOne to reorganhai under the
det, sastitntlng'ionly_thk*ured ;uniform nn;
tional eirctinition, fer:ilui load - and:various 'cir
onliLtbmt:o3-aiil:laniebiliOAt o.ii c ,t honed by
The recelptaintethe Treattury front all sour
tea, inchiffing leak anebtilinne froM the pre.
ceding year, for the fiscal year ending on the
30th June, 1862, were-4588,88 6 , 24 7 66, of
which enni149,068,397 62 Were derived from
,customs ; $1,796,831.73i frorii the direct tax ;
kom public lands, $152,203 77 ; .. froni Owens'
nevus I.sources, 8931,787 64 ; from loans in all
forme, 5529,692,460'50. The remeinder„,B2;;
267,1165 80, was, the.be,loce from last yea ~.
The' ilisbursenientirdVms pm same :WO, od;
'were for. catigt4lsitientk exeCulti4, iand 4 incimi4
pirpoyea, $5;980,09949'; for 'foreign OeFoOe. ,p
11,339,710 35; for miscellaneous expeesni,, in- ,
°lndiOsl l rbi#o 4 l l 9Rith wit .01106 defit*oki
iiiii.. i*liefAiS li P. k,„,94f5, 1 4 1- a,4her like
, , ' ot4 ip,, ou; for earpoosep.., ! ;
` , f . - $ , Vo4Or ' " '0 $8 102,935 52* ; ;M.
the War 'Departinent, 394,368,407 36 ; under
the Nevi! Departmont, $42,674,669 69'; for
the intert on public debt, $13,190,324 45;
and' for, paytnetit of public debt, indudiog
ioimbtuLments of trimporary loans, and re-
demptions; $96,696,922 ,09 ; making an aggre
gate of $5,70,841,70Q.25;and leaving a balance'
in the'treasury on the first ,day of July, 1862,
of $13,043,546 81.
It', Shot:lld be Owned 'that the sum of
$96,096,922 09,
,expended for reimbursements
and redemption of , public debt, being included
also in the loans made, may be properly
deducted, both from receipts and expenditures,
leaving the actual receipts for the year $487,-
788,324' 97, and the expenditures, ' $474,744,-
778 16.
Other ,information On the subject of finan- .
ces will be found in the report of the Secretary
of the Treasury, to whose statements and views
I' invite your most candid and considerate at
The,reporte of the Seeretaries of War, and of '
the Navy, lire herewith transmitted. These re
ports, though lengthy, are scarce more than
brief abstracts of the, very numerous and ex
teusive transactions and operation's conducted
through thOse departments. Nor Icouid I give
a grimmer)? of them here, upou any principle,
Which would admit of its being much shorter
than the reports : themselves. I therefore con
tent 'myself with laying the.reports before you,
and asking' ou attention to them..
gives me pleasure to;report it decided im
proveMent in the financial condition of the Post'
Office' Departinent, as= compared with several
preceding years. The :receipts for the fiscal
year 1861 ,amounted to .$8,349,296 90, which
embraced, the :revenue from all the States of the
Union for three quarters, of that year. Not-
withstandingthe cessation of revenue from the
80-called seceded . States during, the last fiscal
year, the increase of the correspondence of the
loyal States has been sufficient to produce a
revenue during the same year of $8,299,820 90,
being only•$611,000 law than, was derived from
all: the States of the Union during the previous
Xealr. The ,expenditures show a : stiil more
favorable result. , The tunount eapentled in .1861
was $1.8,806;769, Jl.-1 For the, last year the
amount,has been xeduced ,to $11,125,364,13,
showing a,depreitee of About $2,484000 Inlthe
expenditures as compared with the preceding
year, and about $3,760,000. as compared with
the Lod year 1860. The deficiency in the-De
partment for the previous year was $4,661,
966 98.. YOr t 4 he last Mica year. it Was reduced
to $2,112,814.67.
These favorable results are in patt owing to
the cessation , of mad service in thb insurrec
tionary States, Nadi in , part to careful review
of all eXPelitthtliree in; ,that* deparunent in the
interest of ocolituay, The efficiency of the pos
tal orrice* it IP helieved, has also •been much
improved. The .E'oetuiester General! has also
opened* correspondence, ; through the Depart
ment of write,. with ,ioreigu governmente, 'tro
weling emiyeateuxtof postai, reptheratati,the
eign postage and to expedite , the fur igu mails.
Dot ,proposition, equally important to our
adopted citizann, aid, to the cotstitakcihl ihter.
este of this country, has been favorably &ter
tausetti And t agreed too by all the governments
from whom replies have been received. I**
I ask the attentiontof Congress to the sugges
tions of the Postmaster General in this report
resPeetiog the further legWahon required, in
his opinion, for.the benefitof the potoal service
Tike Secretary, of, the Interior reports awful-
Lowtro regard to tbe public lauds .
"he public, lands have ceased to- a a source
of revenue. From the Ist of Jely, 1661, to , the
30th of September, 1862, the entire each Amiss
from the sale of lands were $246,476 20—a sten
much less than the expmeas of our land system
during, the same Petiod. The homeatead •law,
which will take OWon the
lat o Jauntily
next, offers such mducemeuts to settlers that
sales for oil* cannot be expected to n extent
sufficient to meet the expenses of the General
utild ()a nger 'Witt* oast of surveying and
briging the landanto market."
ThetbserePttnoY between the sum here stated
as arising Erin the sales of the public lands,
and the sum derived from the *met puree as
reported front the r Tressury Department arises,
as 'I understand, froia:the fact that die ;periods
of,time, , though apptineutlyi were nit really,
cob/cadent - et the beginning point—the Treasury
report mambo& a considerable sum now,
[ attach, had verb:inlay been reported from the
interior—sufficiently large to greatly overreach
thulium derived from the three months now
reported upon by the Interior, and not by the
Treasury. *-
The Indian tribes upon our „frontiers have,
during:the past year, Manifested a spitit of in
subordination, and, at beveral points, have
engaged in open hostilities against the white
settlements in their vicinity. The tribes occu
pying the Indian oionntry south of Kansas, re
nounced their allegiance to the Unund Stator,
and entered into treaties with the insurgents '
Time who remained /43%1 to the United otates
wprp frontk, the eountry. The Chief of
the Ofierokem rtes yleited this • city for the pur
pose Of rmthring the former relations of 'the
tribe with the United States. He alleges that
they were constrained, by superior force, to
enter into teeters iwith the insurgenttl, and
that the United States neglected to futhish the
protection which their treaty stipulations re
in the month of August last the Silent In
dians, in Minnesota, attacked the settlements
in their !vicinity with extreme ferocity.Ailling
indiscriminately men, women and chihlren
This attack •was wholly mexpected, and i there
fore no means, of defence had been pthliiied
It is estimated that not less than eight tinndred
persons were killed by, the Indians, and a large
amount of property wasAlestroyed._ ilow this
cintblealewasinduced is not definitely I c known!,
and suspicions,
which may be unjust, geed net
to be stated. Information was receiv by the
Indian, bureau, from different ao , about
the gone hoitalities were cowrie , that `s;
iimulthnsona attack was to be made upon the
white settlements by all the tribes betviebn'thli
kiwensippi river , and , the Rocky. mowitains. 2 —
The State of Minnesota has, suffered great in-
jury from this Indian war. A large pottion of
her territory has been depopulated, and a se
vere'losii has' been sustained by the destruction
of, property. , The people of that State mani
fest," much anxiety • for the temovid ithe
tribes' beyond the limits of the State assx guar
anteesgamst future hositilitik ' The' flommis
sioner of Indian Affairs will furoish full kletails;
I hour consideration,
Ihether our Indian • system shall tit be r re
m:oo4 , Many i wise „and geodt ifter : , have
immised. pie With the belief that this maybe
W6iiigith, One, • , ,
, 4 sahmk, a. statement of the proceedings of
conrudedeaers, which shows ,the „progress .that
.4bfir+3411404 gui*nterpriem constiFuoting
4-143.04•40434 And. this sugge li cste the
earliest ( owfliffhithW tit this „roadi and, sof-the
~f1.1314-4tolf , action of 09011 rem mpon 31p projects
r4Ow glii keteie..theati:fat mlasMpg the
, • pe t 4i
capacities of the great - canal in New York and
Illinois, as being of vital and rapidly increasing
•iinportance to the whole nation, and especially
to . the vast interior region hereinafter to be
noticed at some , greater length. 1 purpose
having prepared and laid before you at an early
day'' some interesting and valuable statistical
information upon this subject. 'The militury
and commercial importance of enlarging the
Illinois and Michigan canal, and improving,the
Illinois river, is presented in the report of Col
onel Webster to the Secretary of War and now
transmitted to. Congress I respectively 'ask
attention to it.
To carryout the provisions of the act of Con
&cgs of the 15th of May last, I have caused
the Department of Agriculture ol the United
States to be organised.
The Commissioner informs me !that within
the period.of a few months this department has
establisfiedan extensive system of correspond
ence and exchanges, both at home And abroad,
which promises to effect highly Beneficial ,
results in the development of a co rect knowl
edge of recent improvements in ag iculture, in
the introduction of new products and in the
collection of the agricultural stat*tics of the
several States. ' !
Also that it will soon be prepared to distri
bute largely seeds, cereals, plants and cuttings,
and has already established, and liberally dif
fused, muLh valuable information in antiolpa
tion of a more elaborated report, which will in
due time be furnished, embracing Some valua
ble tests in chemical,seience now inl i - progress in
the laboratory
The creation of this decartment was for the
more immediate benefit of a large class of our
most valuable citizens ; and I trust that the
liberal'asis upon which it has been organized
will-not only meet your approbation, but that
it will realize, at no distant day, all the fondest
anticipations of its most sanguine 4riends, and
become the fruitful source of advantage to all
our people.
On the twenty-second day of September last
a' proclamation was issued by the llixecutive, a
copy of which is herewith submitted.
In accordance With the purpose expressed in
the second paragraph'of that paper,' I now re
spectfully recall your attention to what may be
called ," compensated emancipation;"
A nationinay be said to con 3 st of its territory,
its people,, and its laws. The territory is the
only part which is of certain durabiLtY. "One
generation'passeth away, and another genera
tion oometh, but the earth abideth forever." It
is of the first importanciTto daily consider, and
estimate,' this ever enduring part. That portion
of the earth's surface' W hich is owned and in
habited by the people of the United States, is
well adapted to be the home of one, national
family ; and it is not well adapted • r
two, or
more. Its vast extent, and its va ety of cli
mate and productions, are of wivan ge, inthis
age, for one, people, whatever they 'gilt have
'been in former ages. Steam, telegtaphs, and
intgence, have brought these, to i be .an ad-
Viudageons - combination for one united people.
In the inaugural address I brleity , pointed
out the total inadequacy . of alien ion, as a
thiirtifor the differences of, ths ph pie of , the
o sections. I did so in langua e which I
cannot improve, and which theref e I beg to
repeat" : ' ; • "
"One section of our country believes slavery
Is right, and ought to 'be extended,' while, the
other believes it to be 'Wrong, and ought not to
extended. This is the only substant* - dispute'.
The' fugitive Slave clause of 'the Co stitution;
and the law for the suppression of e foreign
slave trade, are each as well enforced; perhaps,
at Any laW can ever be in a community where
the moral sense of the people imperfectly
supports the law itself. The great bOdy of the
people abide by the dry legal obligation •in
both eases, and a few break over in each.—
This, I think, cannot be perfectly cured ; and
it would be worse in both cases, i after the
separation of the ' sections, than before. The
foreign slave trade, snow imperfectly suppressed,
would be ultimately revived without restriction
in one section ; while fugitive slaves, mow only
partially surrendered, would not be surrendered
at all the other.
1 ."Physically . speaking, we cannot separate.
We Cannot "remove our respective sections from
each other, nor' build an impassable , wall be-
tweeu them. A hnisband and Wife may be di
vorced, and go out of the presence and beyond
the reach of eabli other; NAM° different parts of,
our country Cannot dd this. They'eannot but
+remain face to face. and intercourse, either anti
cable or 'hostile, mint continue between them: ,
Is it possible; then, to make . that intercourse
More advantageous, or more ' satisfactory, after
separation than before ? Can 'aliens m a ke trea
ties, easier than friends can make la' ? Can
tier:dee be' more faithfully enforeed 'between
'alieira, than laws can among friends? ;Suppose
you goto war, you cannot . fight 'always, and
when; after much lbss on both • sidea," and no
gain on'eithirr; you dease figliting, the identical
tad piestion, es to terms of intgrecirse, ere
again upon you." . ' ' ,' ' ' ' t '..
There is no line Straight or crooked, ' suitable
for a national boundary, ripen Which to tiiiitie.
Tracelhrougis, from east to west; Upon the
the between the free and slave country, and
We'shalt find a 'little more than one third of its
length are rivers, easy ici'lie crossed;, and pepu-,
lateti, or soon to 'be ptifsilated, thickly upon
both' sides; while' nearly 'all its' remaining
length, MO - Merely surveyor'S lines, over which
'people may Walk brick and feral 'without any,
consciousness ' fit their preterite. No part of
this line can be Made anyjncire difficult to pass,
'by writing it down on paper, or parchment, as
anaticinal boundary, The fact of seParatioD,.
if it comes, gives up; on the part of the sece
ding 'section, the fugitive slave clause, along
with all Other "constitutional obligations upon
the section seceded from, while I should expect
no'tfreaty itiyulation would ever be 'Made to
take its place. 1
But there is anothei difficulty. The great in-1
teriorjegion, "bounded' east by the Alleghenies, 1
Mirth 'by the British dominions, west by the
Rocky mountains, and south by the line along
'Whieh the &Attire of corn and cotton meets,
hint , Which ineludes part of Virginia; part of
.Tennessee, all of Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana,
Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Missouri, Kau,
taw, Towag—lifirateseta, and the Territories of
Dakota ; ,Nebraska, and' part of Colorado, al
meady, has .- above ten millions of peoPle, and
will have. fifty, millions within fifty years, if
4 0 1 [invented by any political folly or mistake.
14 contains more than one-third of the celnday
owned by the United States—certainly more
than.one 'Million ot square miles. One-half as
,populonsmrtMassachesetts alreadyds, it would
havernofe than seventy-five millions of people.
A glanoe at the map - shows that;-territorially
Speaking, it is:the great body of the•nipuhlic.
The other parts are but marginal•borders to it,
the magnificent . iregion , sloping west from the
[tacky . mountainsyto the Pacific, tieing the
deepest, as also , the- richest, t • in! undeveloped :
resources, —, I , . 0 ' ' ,
do, the .production •of provisions, gridoi;
passes, and all which' proceed :from' tbetc,l this
great interior region is naturally 'one of the
most iintiortant hillier world. AsCertain from
the stabil& the small proportion Of the region
which lies; as yet, been brought into cultiva
tion, and also the, large and rapidly increasing •
amount of its products, and we shall be over- J
wh'elined with the' magnitude of the prospect •
presented.; And yet this region has no. sew- •
coast, touches no•oceart anywhere. : As' part of
one nation, its people now find, and may for
ever find their way AO Europe by ,New York,
to South America and Africa by New Orleans, I
and to Asia by Safi Francisco But separate
our common country into two nations, as de
signed by the preitent,re.beiliott, anti every man
of - this great interior region is thCreby cut off
from some one or more ot these outlets, not,
perhaps, by a• physical barrier, but by embar
rassing and onerous: trade regulations.
And this, is true, , wherever.a dividing, or
boundary , line, maybe fixed. Place it between
the now free and slave country, or place it
south of Kentucky, or north of Ohio, and still
the truth remains, that none sonar of it, can`
trade to any.port or place nortn edit, and none
north of it can trade to any port orl place south
of it4'eXcept upon terms' dictated by a govern
ment ' foreign to them. These luitlets, east,
west and south, are, Militipensable to the well
being of the peopie inhabiting, anti to inhabit,
all this vast' interior region. Which of the
three mhy be`the best, is no proper iqUestion.—
All, are better than either ; and - all, of right;
belong to the • people, and to their successors
forever. ,'.Prue, to themselves, they Shull,not ask
where a lineOf Separation shall be, btitwill vow,
, rather, that there shall be no such line. Nor
' are the marginal regions less interesite d in these
communications to, and through them, to the'
great outside world. They too,and each of
thew, must have access to this Egypt of the
. .
West, without paying tolls at the, crossing' of
any national boundary,..,; • . ; •
Our national suite springs not from our per..
maneut ; part; not inn' the laud we int:titbit not
from our national tiOnieStearf. Trier is Lio pos
sible severing•ie tuts, but. would mphiply, and
. c ot mitigate, evils among us. lu all its adap
tations and aptitude, it demands lunion, and
abhors separation. it would, ere long,
for& •re-union,' hoivever Much' of blood and
treasure the separation might have cost.
Our strife pertains to, ourselves to the platt
ing generations of. men, and it. can, without
convulsions, be hushed forever with the pae r
lug of one generation. " - ' '• I
In this vievt,ll .o:commend the adoption of
the tollowing reaultitiou awl articles. au.euda
tory to the Uunstitution of the United btotes:
Resolved by' the Seruite - and Rouse ol leepresenta
ewes of the Undid Stales of' America miCongress as
sembled, (two-ttiuds.uf bath houses etincdiriug,)
That pie folluwiug articles , ipe,propdsed to , 'the
legislatures (Ur ,curiventions) the , beyond
statesameddnients to the' 04tiution of
the United Stads, , -alt or lair et which ' articles
whsu tanned ;by Ahree-tourths: of Le bald le
go:datums (or, conventions) to, lie valid as part
ur parte en the' said o,,,bsucl
...harict.s..u. 'Every wher4c i a slavery
now exists, which shalt abolikh. the .me thbre•
in, at any. time, or times, itefore the, 'firAt day
of January ( in the year of ot, F 4lrdpire thou
sand and rune hundred, shall femme compen
• sanou frOm the • United btatia` l es 'follows, to
wit.: it-. •
"the President of the United Sires shall
deliver to every, state, ismds of , p e United
States; bearing interest iiiithe rate of 1--- per
cent. per nunurn, tit au aiiimmt equal, to the ag
gregate sum:of ----tor each slave shown to,
have been therein, by the eighth wears of the
United Stated, 13.14 bonds to be defivered to
such' State "by inatalmenis, or in one parcel, at
the coruirlellOu bf the abolishment, accordingly
as the same shall have been gradual,* ur at one
time, within suth.State; and interest , shall be
gin to run upon may such bond only from the
proper time tif its' delivery as aforesaid. Any
State having received Wadi. as aforeraid, and
afterwardereintroduciug or tolerating slavery
therein, shall , refund to the United , States the
bonds so received, or the value there'll, Stud ell
interest paid therebh. ' 1- ,
, ,J
"AitTIOLZL—. • All slaved who sw h ave en
joyed actual freedom by the cnances cif the war
at my,tinne before the,, end of the, rebellion,'
shall be fprever free,but all owners of Such,who
`shall ribt . have . bhimidisloyal, 6,.a1l be compen-
sated fur them, at the same rates as is;provided
tor .States adopting abolishment of slavery, but
in such way, f4O 119 , 1314'03 8114 be , twice sc.
comical for. , ,
''''AirrioLa---. eMigrearilmat aPprOptiate mo
,ney, and otherwise I provide,' for': colonizing
free, colored persons, with• their own consent,
at any , place or places without the United
' I beg indingence' to' discuss these proposed
:nudes at some length. -.Without slavery, the
rebedion could never have existed ;I without
slavery it could not continue. i . •
Among' tab friends of the Union ther is great
diVersfty . bf i tilintiinea; rind 'ot policy ini regard
to slavery, and the Afritan race among us,
Some ,would perpetuate slavery, some would
abolishlt suddenly, and without compqntation;
some .would abolii4i it gradually, raid with
cOrafignsation ; Borne 'would remove the freed
peoPlaitrom us , and some isrobld retain them
with cur; and ;here are yetother minor diversi
ties. Because of these , diversities, ,we wage
inUch ' strength , 'inqitrugglOS among ourselves.
BY mutual' concessicin 'we shotild harmonize,
and Sot together. I.This Weld be compromise ;
but it would ibe compFOudse among the ifriends,
and nyt with the euemies of the Uidom These
articles iirebiterided to embody a plan of` shch
routhalconoendons: If thepianshati be adopted,-
it is awnmed.that emancipation will-follow, at
least, in seyetal of Arie,litates.. .. :
As to the first article, the main points are:
first, the entatikipation, secondly, the length of
time foe pqnsunnimting.itr-thirtkmveri years ;
and thirdlyithe compensation. 1
Th e emancipation will be misatisfalitory to
the advecates of . perikstriiii - slavery ; but the
length of'time should' greatly mitigate their
dissatisfaction.. I The thus spares both • races
from the evils o of sudden deraugement-rin fact,
from the necessity of arty deraugement:t-while
most Of those 'Whose habitual course of thought
will be. disthrbed• by t,herraissure, will haie
passed 'away before Be' oonaninmation l . They
will never see it. Another plass will hitil the
prospect of ernaneipation, but. will depredate the
fength ortime. ' 'ibey will feel that it eves too,
little to the now' living Slaves.' ' 'But Id rally,
gives them much; .It saves 'them from' the va-'
grant destitution .whichAmusttlargedY !attend
immediate emancipition„in: localities !where
their numbers are very great; and it Ot os t h e
i ns pi r i n g assurance that their pester* she).
b e
tee' forever. ' m... , .„, .. -di 1 ,, ~
The plan leaveeto each Istate-choosing to act ,
uP 3 Pr it, to OA* slavery, &ann.:mat the end
of the century, e .. ,nt miy,interatedlatet*ne, or
by dtrees, 'extending over the whole Or any
part of the period; titid it'Obllgits' nO tivtit States
, to,proceedlalike. leisatiolirOvldesliar;' *all
I Witt9P/I#o4l%. l oo7l4tateligiodo
Ibis, it would seem, muit further mitt to the
di ssa ti s f ac ti on of those. who,: favor perpetual
slavery, and especially of those who are to re
ceive the compensatiort .-Detibtless some of
those who are to pay, and not to receive, will
object. Yet the mervurels both just and eco
nomical In a certain sense, the-liberation of
slaves is, the destruction of property—property
acquired by descent, or by purchase, the name
as any other property 4
It is no less true for having been often said,
that the people of the south are not more re
sponsible for the original introduction of this
property, than are the people of the North ;
and when it is remembered how uuhesitatingly
we all use cotton and sugar, and share the
profits os dealing in them, it may not be safe
to say that the south has been more responsible
than the north, for its continuance. It, then,
for a common' object, this property is to be sac
rificed, is it not just that it be done at a com
mon charge? •
And if, with less money, or money more
easily paid, we can preserve the benefits of the
Union by this means, than we can by the war
alone, is it not also economical to do it ? Let
us consider it then.. Let us ascertain the sum
we have expended in the war since compensated
emancipation was proposed last March, and
consider whether, ii that measure had bean
promptly accepted, by even some of the stave
States, the same sum would not have done
more to close the war than has been otherwise
done. If so, the measure would gave money,
and, in that view, would' be a prudent and eco
nomicalt measure. Certainly it isnot so easy
to pay something as it is to pay nothing; but it is
easier to pay a large AMU than it is to pay a
Larger one. And it is easier to pay any sum
when we are able than it is to pay it before we
are able. The war revuires large sums, and
requires them at once..
The aggregate sum necessary for compensated
emancipation, of course, would be large. But
it would require no ready cash ; nor the bonds
even, any faster than the emancipation pro
gresses. This might not, and probably would
not, close before the end of the thirtyseven
years. At that time we shall probably have a
hundred millions of people to Share the burden,
instead of thirty-one millions, as now. And
not only so, but the increase of our population
may be expected to continue for a long time
after that period, as rapidly as before ; because
onr territory will not have become full. Ido
not state this inconsiderately. At the same
ratio of increase which we have maintained, on
an average, from our first national censure, in
1790, until that of 1860, we Aiould, in 1900,
have a population of 103,208,416.
And wh) may we not continue that ratio
beyond that period ? Our abundant room—our
broad' national homestead—is our ample re
'source. Were our ' territory as limited as are
the, British Isles, very certainly our population
could not expand as stated. ; Instead of receiv
ing the foreign born, as now, we. should be
'compelled to send Part Of the nstive born
&ivory. But such is ncit"Our condition. We
have two millions ninettuadred and sixty-three
; thousand square miles. Europe has three
milhons and eight hundred thousand, with a
population 'averaging seventy.thtee and one
third to the Square mile. ' Why may
not our .country; at somaliine, average as
many ? Is it : less fertile ? , Has it more waste
Surface, by Monntains, rivers, lakes, deserts, or
other causes?,, • Is It , inferAot,Ao Europe in any
natural advantage ? If, then, we are, at some
time, to be as populous as Europe, how soon ?
As to when this may be, we can judge by the
pagt and the present;, as to wheat it will be, if
ever, depends much on, whether we maintain
the Union. 'beveral of our `hates are already
above the average hi htutsiie---seyenty-three
and a third to the square Mile: Massachusetts
has 1117; Ehode Island, 133; Connecticut, 99;
New York . and New Jersey, each, !80. Also,
two ether great States, Pennsylvania and Ohio,
are not. far below — the former hgvlng 66 and
the tatter 59. 'the :States already/ above the
European average, except New York, have in
creased in as rapid a ratio,;
since passing that
point, as ever before; while no one of them is
equal to some other parts of our country, in
natural capacity for sustaining a dense popula
Taking the nation in the, aggregate, and we
find its population and ratio of increase, for the
several decennial periods, to be as follows:
1790 3,920,837 • • •
1800 6,306,937 36.02 per et. ratio of increase
1810 7,239,814 36.43
1820 9,688,131 33.14 "
1880 12,866,020 33.49 " "
184 0 17,069,453 32.67 " "
1850 23,191,876 35.87 "
1860 31,443,790 35.58 ". ,
This shows an average decennial increase of
34.60 per cent. in population through the sev
enty years, from our first to our last census yet
taken. It, is seen that the ratio of increase at
no one of these seven periods, is either two per
cent. below or two per cent. above tfe average;
thus showing how inflexible, 'arid Consequently
how reliable, the law of increase itrour case is-
Assuming that it will continue, gives the fol
lowing results :
1870.. 42,323,341
1880 ' 66.967,216
.1890 . ' '"76779,872
1900 J... 108,208,445
1910 ....... . .138,918526
1920 186, 981,335
1930 '` 251,60,914
: These figures:show` that 'our country may be
46 populous as -Europe now is, at some point
between 1920 and 1930—say about ;1925—0ur
territory, at seventy-three and a third persons
to the squitrei mile, being of capacity to contain
,And.we toidd reach this, too, if we do not our-
Selves relinquish the chalice, by the ,folly and
evils of disunion, or by long and exhausting
war Springing from the only great i element of
national discord among us. While - it cannot
be forseen exactly how much one' huge exam
ple of secession, breeding lesser ones indefi
nitely, Would retard population,civiliaation and
prosperity, no one can doubt that the 'extent of
it wotdit be very treat injurious'. '
The proposed, emancipation would -shorten
the war, perpetuate peace, insure this increase
of population,
and proportionately, the wealth
of the country. With these, we should pay all
the emanCipation would cost, tagetheiNtith our
other. deft,, easier. than we should ply our
other debt, without it. . It we. h sd4pped our
old national debt to run at six, pec cent. per
annum, simple' interest; front the '4nd' of our
revolutionary strugglb until tottiti,f, •Nvithout
paying, anything ,on either prineipal dr inter
rst„ eacb,man of ns would ,owe,; less upon that
debt now, than each man owed upon A then ;
bid this becausebter hadreaSeof then, through
the whole period, has been greatat'ithan six
per cent.;, ban um faster • than the interest upon
tAe,!:leht. 'Thus, , time alone, relieves a debtor
nation; so ;long as its popohlflo,n, increases
fasterthan Unpaid intereatdcOWtaliktes on its
•i 11
,ThilEff4o,‘ would b nunse.tor, delaying
[OOn'snionn ON FOUR= MON.]