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.ri.'i:: !':" iU
U ; r ; , i,;H. B. MASSE, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.
3TOR. - . ... Tgfgg OFFICE,
COllNEll OF CENTRE ALLEY & MARKET STREET. ;
gl iTamtlB Hctospaprr-Dcbotrt to JjoHtfts, Hfternture, ittoralftg, jyortfou anti "Domestic Sictos, scWncc nni the 'irts'giflVftuttttrr, Itfattets, ftimtscmcnts, rc.
NEW SERIES VOL. I, NO. t.
SUNBUItY, XOIITJIUMBERLAM) COUNTY, PA., SATURDAY, . FK IWiUAUY 17, 1841).
OUT) SERIES VOL. 0, NO. 1. ;
TURNS OF THE AMI'IUC AY. :
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POLiLAItH peraniiuin to be puitl hull yeurly in advui.ee.
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. All cttiDianicntionv nt leiteriion bumm-ns relating to the
aflice, to insure attention, mual lie POST 1'AIJJ.
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- Five dollar, in advance will pay for Uuee year's subscrip
kiau to the American.
.One Square of 10 lines, 3 limci,
Every auliBeque.it insuriiun,
' Hie Suonre, 3 looulUs,
Six mi tut lis, .
Oh year, -
Business Cards of Five lines, per annum,
Merchants and others, ailvertiun; liy the
year, with the privilege I' iiiKcilingtiii-
remit advertisements weekly.
iy Larger Advertisements, as per agreement.
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Business attended to in ilie Coitntios of Not
kumlerland. Union. Lycoming and Columbia.
..... , . . Kefer tot
' P. & A. HoTootiT,
Low KB Sl Dtmios.
KOMKll Sl tinouonASS, V'AiVutf.
Rllt SOLUS, Mcl'AltLAK Co. j
Srnrnxo, 'ioon oi Co., J
. . THE IDEAPBflllK STORE.
."0DA1TIELS & SICITEG
Ciikaf New S: 5ilcob hand Hook Siork,
Xvrth Wetl corn" of fourth and Arch Street t
- ' FhtlnttelfMa.
"Law Books. Thfoloairal noil Cl!iral Books,
MEDIC A.Tj COOKS,
S10GIi.irmC.it. ic Hlxi'OKICAL BOOKS
' 'Scientific nb Mathematical BokS.
Ju ven He Books, in great von d y.
Hymn Books nd't'rnyrr Books, Biblos, all siies
"Blank Booh, Writing I'qicr, ohJ Stationary,
irvm n - e an llt tntt,
W OnK prices n re nutrh lower thnn the urotT-Ait prices.
P? Libiaries bik! bimhII pfircelB of bxks purchased.
Hoiks importeil to urd-r fr.m London,
l'hiladelplua, Ajirii 1, ll y
" GROCERS COMMISSION intCHAMS
mid Dculrrn hi Seeds,
Arch St 1'HlLADF.I.PlllA.
Constantly on haml a enetal assortment of
GROCERIES, TEAS, WINES, SEEDS,
To which Ibey respectfully invite the attention
i of the public.
All kinds of country produce taken in exchange
for Groceries or sold on Commission.
; Philad. April 1, 1H48
' ; lyiANUrACTOHI?,
Kn. IS South Sctnnd ttrtrt Kusl fide, down ttairi,
, ; 5 r .HENRY COULTER,
TTJ) ESPEi;TFULLY informs his friends and
3tL ,le public, that he constantly keeps on
hand a large assortment of chi drens w ilow
Coach's, Chairs, Crad es, market and tiave'.
linj baskets, and every variety of basket work
Country Merchants and others who wish to
purchase such articles, good and cheap, wou'd
do wen to call on bim, s they are at. manufac
tured by him inthe best manner,
i. Philadelphia, June 3, 1818. ly
CAItD &. SEAL 13XIJUAT1XO.
WM. G. MASON.
48 Cltttiiut if. 3 diHin ahnvt 'ind Philadelphia
' Ensraver of BIKINI: fc VISITING CAUDS,
" Watch papers, labels, Door plates, Seals and
Flampi lor Odd Fellows, Sons of Temperance,
&c. Always on hand a general assortment
of Fine Fancy Goods Gold pens of every quality
Don Collars in great variety. F.ngrnvers tools
Agency for the Manufacturer of Glaziers Dia
Order per mail (post paid) will be punctually
V Philadelphia, April 1, J48 y
: JMf JETS "."ttSBCL 9 gs&
FIRST PnEMIUM PIANO rOIliES.
'HE SUBSCKlllKR has been appninter: asenl
for the sale of CONRAD MF.Yr.K'S CKLK
BRATED PREV.1UM ROSE WOOD PIANOS,
at Ibis place. These Pianos have a plain, mas
aive and beautiful exterior finish, and, lor depth
o tone, and elegance of wotkmar.ship, are not
surpassed by any in the United Stales
These instruments are highly approved of by
tha-moat eminent Professors and Composers of
Music in this and other cities.
For qualities of tone, touch and keeping in
tone upon Concert pilch, they cannot be sucpas.
ed by cither American or F.uiopean Pianos.
. , Sutlice it to say that Madame Castellan, W. V
r Wallace. Vieus Temps, and his sister, the cele.
" brated Pianist, and many others ol the most dis
ttnquished performers, have given these instru
menta preference ovet all others
They have also fceived ihe first notice of the
tbrea last Exhibitions, and the last Silver Medal
hr the Franklin Institute in 1813, was awatded
to I hem, which, with other premiums from the
same aource, may be teen at the Ware-room ISo.
S3 'ou 'h Fourth tt.
rri nother Silver Medal was awarded to C
Meyer, b V Ibe Frahklin Institute, Oct. 1845 for
Ihe best P n0 lnH exhibition.
Again at 'be exhibition of the Franklin Insti
tute. Oct 1846, the first premium and medal was
awarded to C 'My" for his Pianos although H
had teen awarded at the exhibition of the yeai
before, n 'he grou.id that he bad ma!e still great
er impVovementi in bia Instruments within the
nast li months. , , .
Again at the last e.xhibition of Ihe Franklin
Inatitute. 1847. another Premium was award-d
ta C Meyes, for tfc best Piano in the exhibition
.J iJo.ton. at tlieic Jast exh.b.tion. Spt. 1817.
C Meyar received the first ailver Merlal and Ji.
iT.cHna; for the best sqnar Piano m Ihe exhibition;
The Pianos will be aold at the rr.anulaclu.
rer'aUweat Philadelphia pries, if not anmethin
1 lower v P cruris are requested to call and exam.
.criber. 1B MASSF.R.
fianbnry, April 8, 1818 .
JBru-li, Cil omt VnrlHy
BOCKIUS AND BROTHER, '
. AKO DEALERS IN CO.MBai VAUIRTIE8
- AAAV(A Third. bl Kn,t c. oni
KjM cod'ie of Third and Market Ureet, ' ' '
.."14.1. , i PHaXADBliPHXAa
ttrHEREthey offer lor aa'e a general atsorl
Vy meu. ,f all kinds of Brushes, Comb and
ml'" M they nr rlelerm'ned to tell
u.r ih.i. nn he nurchssed aewhera. ...
Country Merchant and other Pureha.inj in
litaaboy line wih find it to their advantage to
call befar purchatinj Uewhere a tb ajut.ity
."d priee. will b ftty fuaranteed .gnui.ta'l
rem pet it toil.
PhfadMrhu, June 3,
From tho Dot in Courier.
Tilt PVIllrtCAl ION OF THE BAR. '
BY ALLK C. BPOOKln.
Read at the late Bar Supper at the Revere
TheTe has been a movement in Boston among
the members of the legal profession to "purify the
bar." They have had a meeting and proposed ta
form an association. The movement has produced
this "good thing" if it docs nothing else.
The Bar of tho State had grown wretchedly sick
It must plninly be cured, or "step out" very quick ;
So there gathered together, from near and from fa
A jury of lnwycra to sit on tho Bar.
Sage Counsellor Chati: commenced the debale;
Says he, "Matter have got in a terrible state ;
The Bar is as had as the Devil coulJ wish :
Who can tell how to cook such a kettle of fiRh."
"There ne'er waa a time, that the oldest remcmlicrs
When disease so infected the head, heart or mem
bers; To discover its seat we are hero now assembled;
Our purpose is good let it not be dissembled."
i'i have pondcre.l it well, and I apeak it with de
ference, Toothers more knowni;. and having no reference
To A. B. or C. it may truly be said,
The disease of Ihe Bar is a void in the hend.
'When I w.is a student, I swallowed Coke whole :
Special pleading was dcr to my innermost soul ;
To h Counselor' place was tiien a long journey,
And it took nif-seven1 Ycar to become an Attorney."
Next Counsellor Sqmboli jumps up on his logs;
Bowing low, the indulgence o"all men he begs;
Says he, "submit that the cryi'.ig disease -Of
the Bur of our State is the lowtifss of fees."
"You may hay what you will nbout 'voids in the
If your pocket is empty, you'd bettor he dead ;
I therefore most humbly ask leave to suggest,
That the Bar's chief disease isavoid iutlie chest."
Next Counsellor Billions got up and aiiggcsted,
That the Bar was not duly nor truly respected ;
Ho mixed up tho Bible with every day's reading.
And morals enforced in the whole of his pleading.
Yet he, even he had been widely blasphemed ;
When he said it, he almost believed that he dream
ed; Yet he, as ho sat in his office so snug,
Had been called by a client an arrant H bug!
He therefore ptopoaed, and thought it not visionary f
To send out at once n pure, legal missionary,
To enlighten the public, and show them how far
They were wanting in proper respect for the Bar
Next rose Counsellor Sly, with a plausible air,
As disposed to do everything honest and fair,
Though yesterday caught in a false affidavit :
Saya he, "Our loved Bar, from disgrace I would
I have heard what .'Squire Grave and 'Squire
Squibob have said,
That the Bar was diseased in tho chest and the
But I roundly appeal to roch member's sagacity
The main fault of the Bur is the want of veracity.
After him, lawyer Splurge rose up much elated
"The Bar's insults," suys he, "cannot he oveisatcd
I think they are wanting in propor effrontery,
To gain the rcupect of tho folks in the country.
"You men in Ihe city and populous town
Do not know the importance of putting on gowns;
But unless we're disposed to be treated like pigs,
Our salvation depends ujmjii wearing of wigs."
Then Counsellor Soaker rose up, and says ho
"Nothing dot s as much harm as a dinner or spree
The truest account of our troubles by far
U, that lawyers too often attend the wrong Bur."
Next rose lawver Lovclattgh, well known in the
Although not a mcmlicr of any Committee,
And gravely proposed the subjoined resolution
Which broke up the sitting in utter confusion :
Resolved, "That the Bar here gathered together,
A motley assemblage of birds of a feather
Recommended to tho public, as wisest by far,
Baron Bradwardiuc'. motto, 'Biwiui or rut
KVritAt'Ti FIIOU MtCAIXAYS HISTORY
CIIAHACTF.R OK JEFFREYS.
The great soal was left i. Guilford's cus
tody ; hut a marked indignity was at the
same time offered to him. It was deter
mined tlmt another lawyer of more yip-or
and audac-.'ty should be called to assist in the
administration. 1 lie person selected was
Sir (,eorTe Jetffr'VS, Chief Justice of the
Court of King's bVtich. The depravity of
this man has passed into a proverb. Both
the great English parties have attacked his
memory with emulous violence; for the
Whigs considered him as tJjeir most barba
rous enemy, and the Tories found it conve
nient to throw on him the blame of all the
crimes which had sullied their triumph.
A diligent and candid inquiry will show
that some frightful Tories which have been
teld concerning him are fals.yir exaggera
ted ; yet the dispassionate historian will bo
aula to make very little deduction from the
vast mass of infamy with which the memo
ry of the wicked judge has been loaded.
He wrs a man of quick and vigorous
parts, but constitutionally prone to insolence
and ta tho angry passions. When just
emerging from boyhood, he had risen into
practice at the Old Bailey bar, a bar where
advocates have always used a license of
tongue unknown in Westminster Hall.-
Here, during many years, his chief business
was to examine and cros examine the most
hardened miscreant of-a great capital. J-
Daily conflicts with proslituti's and thieves
callt'd out and exercised his powers so el-
fectual y that he becamethe most cousumate
Lully ever known in his profession.
All tenderness lbr the feelings of others,
all sense of the becoming, were obliterated
from his mind. He acquired a boundless
command of the rhetoric in which the vul
gar express hatred and contempt. The pro
fusion of maledictions and vituperative epi
thets which composed his vocabulary could
hardly have been rivalled in the fish mar
ket or the bear garden. His countenance
and his voice must always have been utm
iniable ; but thpse natural advantages fir
such he seems to have thought them he
had improved to such a degree that there
wre few who, in his paroxysms of rage,
could see or hear him without emotion.
Impudence and ferocity sat upon his brow.
The glare of his eyes had a fascination for
the unhappy victim on whom they were
fixed; yet his brow and eye were said to
be less terrible than the savage lines of his
mouth. His yell of fury, as was said by
one who had often heard it, sounded like
the thunder of the judgment day. These
qualifications he carried, while still a young
man, from the bar to the bench. He early
became common sergeant, and then recor
der of London. As judge of the city ses
sions he exhibited the same propensities
which afterward, in a higher post, gained
for h'un an unenviable immortality. Al
ready might be remarked in him the most
odious vice which is incident to human na
ture, a delight hi misery merely as misery.
There was a fiendish exultation in the way
in which he pronounced sentence on offen
ders. Their weeping and imploring seem
ed to titillate him voluptuously : and he
loved to scare them into fits by dilating
with luxurient amplification on all the de
lails of what they were to stifle r. T h u w h e n
he had an opportunity of ordering an un
lucky adventuress to be whipped at the
cart's tail, 'Hangman,' he would exclaim, I
charge you to pay particular attention to
this lady! Scourge her soundly, man!
Scourge her till the blood runs down! It
is Christmas, a cold time for madam to strip
in! See that you warm her shoulders
thoroughly! He was hardly less facetious
when he passed udment on Ludowick
Muggleton, the drunken tailor who fancied
himself a pronhet. 'Impudent rogue!'
roared Jeffreys, 'thou shai't have an easy,
easy, easy punishment!" One part of this
asy punishment was the pillory, m which
the wretched fanatic was almost killed with
By this time the nature of Jefl'revs had
been hardened to that temper which tyrants
require in their worst implements. He bad
hitherto looked for professional advance
ment to the corporation ot London. 11.
had hitherto professed himself a Round
head, and had always appeared to be in a
higher state of exhilaration when he ex
plained to popish priests that they were to
be cut down alive, and were to see their
own bodies burned, than when he passed
ordinary sentences ot death. Hut, as soon
as he had got all that the city could give
he made haste to sell his forehead ot brass
and his tongue of venom to the court
Cbillinch, who was accustomed to act as
broker in infamous contracts ol more than
one kind, lent his aid. lie had conducted
many amorous and main' pulitical intrigues,
but he assuredly never rendered a more
scandalous service to his masters than when
he introduced Jeffreys to Whitehall. The
renegade soon found a patron in the obdu
rate and revengeful James, but was always
regarded with sconr-and disgust by Charles,
whose faults great as they were, had no
allinity with insolence and cruelty. 'That
man,' said tho king, 'has no lear
sense, no manners, and more impudence
than ten cartfd street walkers.' Work was
to be done, however, which could be trust'
cd to no man who reverenced law or was
sensible of shame, and thus Jeffreys, at an
ag;a at which a barrister thinks himself for
tunate if he is employed to lead un impor
tant cause, was made Chief Justice of the
His enemies could not deny that he pos
sessed some ot Inequalities tl a great judgei
His legal knowledge, indeed, was merely
such as he had picked up in practice of no
very hisrh kind; but he had one of those
happily constituted intellects which, across
labyrinths ol sophistry and through masse
of immaterial facts, go straight to the true
point. Of his intellect, however, he had
seldom the full use. Even in civil cause
his malevolent and despotic temper per
petually uisorderett his judgment. Jo en
ter his court Was to enter the den of a wild
beast, which none ciould tame, and which
was as likely to be roused to rage by cares
ses as by attacks. He frequently poured
forth on plaintiffs and defendants, barristers
and attorneys, witnesses and jurymen, tor
rents of frantic abuse, intermixed with oaths,
and curses. His looks and tones had in
spired terror when he was merely a young
advocate struggling into practice.- Now
that he was at the head of the most formi
dable tribunal in the realm, there were few
indeed who did not tremble before him.
Even when he was sober, his violence was
sufficiently frightful; but, in general, his
reason was overclouded, and his evil pas
sions stimulated by the fumes of intoxica
tion. Iis evenings were ordinarily given
to revelry. People who saw him only
over his buttle would have supposed him to
be a man gross indeed, sottish, and addict
ed to low company and low merriment, but
social and good humored. He was con
stantly surrounded on such occasons by buf-
loom, selected for the most . part, from
among the vilest pettifoggers who practised
before him. These men bantered and abu
sed, each other for his entertainment. He
joined in their ribald talk, sang catches with
them, and, when his head grew hot, hus
ged and kissed them in an rcstaey of drunk
en fondness. But, though win) at . first
seemed to soAen his heart, the effect a few
hours lalr wsit very different. ; Ho often
came to the judgment st-at, having kept the
court waiting long, and yet having but half
slept oil' his debauch, his choeks on fire, his
eyes staring like those of a maniac. When
he was in this state, his boon companions
of the preceding night, if they were wise,
kept out ol his way, lor the recollection ol
the familiarity to which ho he had admit
ted them inflamed his malignity, and as he
Was sure to take every opportunity of over
whelming them with execration and invec
tive. Not the least odious ot'his many odi
ous peculiarities was the pleasure, which ho
took in publicly brow-heating and mortify-
ng those whom, in his lits ol maudlin ten-
erness, he had encouraged to presume on
The services which the government had
expected from him were performed, not
merely wUhont flmcliiii::, but eagerly and
triumphantly. His first exploit was the
judicial murder of Algernon Sidney. V hat
followed was in perfect harmony Avith this
beirinnino;. Respectable Tories lamented
he disgrace which the barbarity and inde
cency of so great a functionary brought
upon tho administration of jus'ice; but the
excesses which filled such men with hor
ror were titles to the esteem ol James.
flreys, therefore, after the death of
Charles, obtained a seal in the cabinet and a
peerage. This last honor was a signal mark
of royal approbation : for, since the judi
cial system of the realm had been reiuo-
h-d 1:1 Lis thirteenth century, no chief
stu't; Inv.l been a lord of Parliaments
Prf-m tt;e Nt".v 1. -i. I' i. --Vi:ro:.i.
SOMETHING Allot T WIJillMI,
We live in an age and in a country
wherein it would almost be con.-idt red a
proof of lunacy, or gnat temerity at least,
to say that printing is not Ihe most useful of
arts. That tliL' art of printing is like salt
"it is the preservative of all arts" seems
to be a position conceded by all civilized
communities where its benefits have been
diffused with either an unsparing or stinted
hand. That it has facilitated the march of
improvement, spread abroad and propaga
ted correct principles, heralded forth the
principles ol Christianity, carried civiliza
tion, the arts and knowledge, to heathen
lands, and that it has elevated man, shown
him what he ought to be, besides conferring
numerous other invaluable advantages, no
one who is cogniaiit to its i.ie'iions fur a
moment doubt. .Hut the intention in com
mencing this article was not toeulogize the
art for the benefactions it has conferred
upon man, but for entirely another pur
Common or letter press printing, sin h as
hooks, newspaper?, &e., is carried on by a
larre number ot jotts or types, everyone
of which costs money, labor nnd ingenuity
to lit for use. A type of long primer size,
although it is but eleven twellths of an inch
long, one seventh broad, and one fourteenth
thick on an average, siill costs something.
It is said that there are but two or three
men in the United Stales who can make
the matrices in which types ar.: cast, si
peculiar, complete, proportioned must the
work be done. The letters are principally
made of lead, mixed with other metals in
order to harden it sufficiently-when cool,
while at the same time those other ingredi
ents caused the fused composition to till
the most tenuous cret ice of the matrix com
pletely. For every sized type, niiU difie
reiitly shaped types and there are more
than 300 ahapes and sizes of letter in our
alphabet in use new matrices have to be
made, and each with the same exactness or
the font is defective. In Roman each let
ter has to-be made three times large and
small capitals and lower case, saying noth
ing of points and other indispensable char
acters. To give some iJea of the number
of characters and letters which go from a
font of types, it may answer to slate that
there are two cases, as the the printer terms
them. The lower c.?e, containing all the
common or smaller letters ; with the fig
ures and points for punctuation, double let
ters, and quadrats; this case has commonly
51 boxes, and every one is occupied. The
upper ens;', containing the large and small
capitals, and numerous marks and charac
ters which are in common use; and but
two or three of them are unoccupied.
Thus you see the type founder in order to
supply a common font of roman letter--, has
to have constructed lf0 matrices and the
italics are not included here, which will
make over a hundred more just to manu
facture liters &.c, of one size and corres
ponding faces. Here then, there must be
about fieo huivlred und fijfy characters
made, and some of them a good many thou
sand times over, just to print the plain mat
ter of a common newspaper. To give the
uninitiated an idea of the numbers and pro
portion of types used lor printers have no
secrets that I know of it may answer to
state that we use, say for a common ave
rage fount : ,
a 8,.r00 n 9,000
b 1,J00 o 8,000
c 3,000 p 1,707
d 4,400 q ' ' f)00
e 12,000 r 0000
f 2,000 s 8,000
g 1,700 t f.OOO
h CMX) u 9,000
i - 8,000 v 1.-200
j 400; w 2000
k 800 x 4 00
; 2,000 y , 2,000 .
in 3,000 i ' 200
Nothing here is said of points, figures,
double letters and other characters, which
would swell the list amazingly. And all
this makes but one item in a newspaper
Nor is anything said of the numerous
pictures, flowers, ornamented, shaded, con
densed, 8tc.,&e;, types, used in job and
newspaper printing, all of which are ne
cessary to make up the stock of an ordinary
newspaper establishment. These types,
that -is Uio pjain onety cost from 30 cents
up to $2 a pound. A common newspaper
requires, or ought to be supplied With from
800 to 1,0 )0 lbs. of type. These, with
some two hundred dollars worth of wood
works, $2)0 for press, a good many mote
for brass rule, and still more for irou matri
ces, also paper, ink, &c., &c.,.will make a
very large subtraction lroin !1,IJU0.
Y ben all these items are paid for by the
printer, he is just about ready to go to work
if he has a roller made and set hislype.
The usual width of newspaper colums is
17 ems ol long primer type; nut ours are
twenty-one cms wide. An em is the thick
ness of a line. On an average, nearly three
types will go into nn em, counting spaces.
Tor every one thousand ems a printer sets,
he handles in ar three thousand types: and
if lie seta five thousand, which is a day's
work, with correcting the same, and distrib
uting enough (or the next, he handles not
far from thirty thousand types.
The remark is often made, that there are
many errors in the papers, and it is too
true; but let the '.)!) out of the 100 who
makes the observation, try tho experiment
and make fewer errors if tfic.'j can.' All
the printers ouht to, be good spellers ; but
a few of them are deficient in the qualifica
tion, while others ar; careless, just like
some other folks.
These are but a few things, and but very
lew, concerning the important and useful
business of printing; and if printers read
them and find errors, as very, possibly they
will, h i them go to work and correct, if
th.-y think worth while: fir, if printers do
not correct each other, who will ?
Will anv conscientious man, after know
ing these facts, itfuse to pay the printer?
If so, 1 w ill advertise his conscience to let,
lor iiW!ing. It is in vjew of these things
lhatyprinti rs write so freely of those delin
quentrf'wlfo will not rAVTin:ri:iNTi:r..
i.ai 1:1: i kom thu .r.i:.vx salt lam:
Till! .MOII.MU.XS .'AUFUIIMA (iOLI), Ac.
The ntisbitrsh Cn-cite niiecunees ibe ar
rival in Ibat eily of Mr. E. Whipple, one of
the leading M.inuoits, fioin the settlement in
lbr! neiiihborli'iinl uf tho Great Salt Lake
Mr. Whipple left th.i Great Salt Lake set
tlement on tho 13ih of October, nnd arrived
at Furl Kearney, on th..' Missouri, in Sl days.
The settlement of Mormons with which be
is connected, is located in a beautiful valley
on the borders tn' tho Great Salt Lake, in the
north-eastern part of I'pP'T California. The
Great Pall Lake U about 150 miles lont', by
50 bread, and contains nothing living. It is
r-ai.l that tluee barrels of water will make one
of sail. The bores of the Lake, in the dry
season, are encrusted with salt lit lor rise, it
b;;s r.o ut.t-lel.
Neatly souih of the Salt Lake is a fresh
water lake called the Utah, which empties
its waters into the former. In this lake, fish,
the mountain trout, aru found. The river
which connects the two Lakes the Mormons
call ihe .i.iidi.i:. Tin' valley in which they
are Mlnate.l slopes fiom tho mountains to the
river, on both sides.' These lakes, we may
state for tie' inf.umali. in of those who have
not ar.-ess to late maps, urn situated on the
w estern elope of tin; Koeky Mountains, near
tbu head waters of the River Platte, which
runs into the Misvutri, the Colorado, which
empties into the Gulf ol California, and the
Columbia, which empties into the Pacific,
The waters of the Platte and tie; Colorado al.
most tiiiiln by means of the S.vect Water
I'iver, which heads west of the Rooky Moun
tain chain, and rm.s into ihe Platte thiouL'h
the faumi-.s South Pass. Between these Luke
and the California mountains, hi which the
Sacramento rises, is a vast valley or basin,
s:ipp')s--il V consist principally of sandy plains
about -100 miles wide from psihI to west, ami
some !)() to din miles long lroin north to Ninth
From this immense banns r.o egress for water
has been discovered, the rivers losing them,
selves in the sand.
The valley, in which tho Moinioi.s selils
incuts nre, is about titty miles long, and forty
broad, and is surrounded on three sides l y
mountains, ami on the no. ih bide by the lake.
It gradually slopes from the mountains to tho
ltiver Jordan, ami is formed into t-teppes-Fiom
various c.irges ia the mountains, nume
rous fie.-h water streams pour their waters
iuirt the J.ird.Mt, affording line water power
No timber grows in the valley, but an abun.
dance is supplied by lie; vail, ys ufihe streams
in thu mountains. It consists of lir, pine, Ji'-ru-loek,and
tu this delightful valluy, about 1,000 miles
from Missouri on the enst, and 700 from the
cold-diirings of ihe Sacramento, on ihe west
iho Rocky "Mountains being u barrier on
one side, ami Iho Great Basin, and the Cali
fornian or Sierra Nevada range on the other
the Mormons have ut last found a resting
place. About 7,000 persons, of all ages, and
bollt xes are now coileetej ill this valley
Th"y commenced arriving in the valley in
July, 18-17,nnd last ewthon they mised, a tine
crop cf wheat coin and oilier productions, suf.
ficiout fur1 their own consuuir.iiou and uf those
of their faith who are yearly coming in. Af.
ter next liar vest they will have pioviiuus ro
diKpuso of. : They have lwo -jiist-mills and
four saw-mills in operation, have 1-dd out se
veral villages, mid a lo .vu on au elevated plat,
whiuli overlooks tho whole. galley and lake.
They are building si.Lstanlial houses and siir
i omuling tlieinsJves with mi.y couifuits.
They expect a large emigration this season
from their brethren in the neighboihoud of
Council Bluffs, u here there are some tliuusunJs
The road to Oregon and California, by the
North Fork uf iho PUtte river, and the Suulh
I'.ui?, passes bonis CO miles to the north of Ihe
aeillomeut but a route by tho way of the Sail
Lake vuu bo taken which will not taku the
traveller out u his way' inore'ti'ai: 40 or 50
miles. Tho Mormons will ho able to supply
fresh mules and oxen ; and after next harvest
provisions to those who arc emigrating lb Cali
fornia. ' , .
Mr. Whipple says the road is very good all
tho way from Independence 10 west of the
mountain. In 1S47, about 1,000 wagons
pnMed over it, and last year some 350. iThe
trail is so well defined that no danger from
losing it need be feared. Mr. Whipple re
commends oxen in preference to mules, and
says they will make very good lime. Emi
grants usually make about 15 miles a day.
On some portions of iho route there isascarci.
ty of grass. For about 500 miles, buffalo
meat ran be obtained in abundance.
Mr. Whipple represents the valley of tho
Salt Lake as perfectly healthy, and the jour
ney to that region as attended with no dan
gers and but little fatigue. He returns again
in the Spring.
The Mormons havo established ferries over
ihb only rivers which are not fordable on ac
count of high waters tho Platte and Green
rivets, so that no hindrance to emigrants
from that causo need now be feared. No
jrold has yet been found in the neighborhood
of the Salt Lake, or anywhere east of iho
Sierra Nevada, ns far as Mr. Whipple is in.
formed. What has reached that region, was
brought there by the discharged Mormon sol
diers, who bad returned from the Placer to
visit iheir families.
Willi the reference to tin; story that the
Mormons had claimed a pre-emption right to
the diggings, and were demanding a per
cnnkige on the gold found, Mr. Whipple gives
the following account. The first discovery
of gold was made by Mormons, (discharged
soldiers.) in digging a mill race for Mr. Sut
ler. As the discovery was on his ground, he
gave them the liberty of digging gold, on
condition of paying him a certain percentage.
This they tigreed'to do but soon started off to
explore for themselves, and having 'found
some rich spot they demanded a per centage
from new comers for digging in their ground,
to which they claimed fl. right of discovery.
This practice is general in tho mines, and iho
Mormons, Mr. Whipple says, no more claim
the w hole of the mines than they do the whole
Another Good Movk dy Coxcrkss. The
IIucse of Congress, having abolished Hogging
in the Navy, have followed up the good move
mout by abolishing the grog ration, which is
Uvo gills a day In place of this the sailor is
to receive Coiir cents. Mr. John A. Rockwell,
of Connecticut, has the credit of this net, and
Mr. Saw yer, of Ohio, the credit of tho former.
If the Senate eonfiim these proceedings, we
shall soon sou a desirable improvement in the
character of the Navy.,
SoMCTiiixuCrniovs. Mr. Samuel Greece,
left w ith us yesterday a small phial, containing
some fifty or more small worms, preserved iu
spiiits, which ho scraped up from tho snow, on
tho morning of tho 5th of December, last.
They are ubout half an inch long, and about
us large around ns a common needle. Mr.
Davison informs us that they came down w illi
lire snow iu innumerable quantities, and were
found for more than half a mile from where
ho first observed them, in some place almost
covering tho surface. They showed signs of
life, und on being put into warm water, be
came quite lively. Rvheilcr Democrat.
Ccltivatixu Fisu. The Boston Chrono-
; type says that in some countries a practice is
introduced of cultivating fish as a crop, which
might perhaps be profitahliy imi'.aled.
pent .f iwir l-iii, I ...ini nl: n.'l.'.t t.v tftmi.
.., w . .j
i tjr00i or rivule
and so environed that it esii
bo easily ovotllowed, is selected. By making
u dam or embankment.' tho water is easily
raised to the requisite heigl't, ar.i a good fiia -
bio kind of fish Is introduced, that sort which
has irvu loitu l hy experience in- tne
loihj,l to ! b--t adapted to the soil. The
fi h multiply from tlm abundance of food
which they gather from tho soil. For two
three or four years iho place is constantly
cropped, with the same sort of fifh and a good
profit made on the land nnd labor. At length
ihe f,sli run out, and another sort is introduced, ;
wluii llouri-h-s, probably on food which the i
first rejected. After a considerable rotation j
of fish crop, tho pond or tank is drawn olf and J
i. found in an improved condition tobe culti-j
vatud with Vegetables. j
- , j
Gkx. Siuiau, t-ays tho Boston Post, was
shot through the breast t Ccrro Gordo, and;
repoitcd ''mortally wounded," yet reeoveiedi j
und now lakes the place of Judge Breese iu j
the United States Senate. This has given J
rise to the following good thing by a sucker j
WII5 : I
Some men hive "lott thtir hiatW' and lived,
But stranger far than these
Tho shut that pa'd through Shield . breast, .
Instead of him killed Breetc. I
Fcblic Economy. The cost of maintaining '
Iho city paupers of New. York is represented
by the Knickerbocker to be $10 a head pei
week- ll suggests, as a measure of economy
ou the part of tho public, that these paupers
should be boarded at the Asior House, or some
o Jior commodious hotel, at 57 per week.
Tut Black Diamonds, from Pennsylvania,
have already commenced going to Cuiorniu.
The ship La vant, which is to leave this port
for California, on the 1 7 lit iwt, we learn, car
ries out three h.u.died tuns ofotr anthracite
coal in ballast. ,
Somebody .iys ibat females if0 !0 Meeting
to look ut encholhers' boiuiols. Thai's down
right scandal T They go to sfbw their own !
A BOSTOft ICE ESTABLISHMENT.
Iii the vicinity of Boston the business of si.v
curing ice is a regular systematic operation.'
The Cambridge Chronicle gives iho following
description of the mode or gathering tho ico
crop at Fresh Pond :
"The mode of cutting is this.. Two rieA
go upon the pond with a straight edged board
which they lay parallel to its margin, and
just outsido tho rough ice, w hich usually oc'.
curs next tha. land. This board being held
firm by the two, another runs a species of saw,
or coarse comb, with an iron handle, along its
edge, making a groove n inch or two in depth
The board is then moved in the direction of
its length and tho groove prolonged. When
the (ibass line," as snrve yors would call it, is
laid out, tho plungh, drawn by a horse, is cm'
ployed to moke a scries of grooves parallel
thereto one share running in the channel
just cut,1 while andther cuts tho- next nt tho
propel distance. This operation is repeated
until ti.ey reach tho- limit proposed, when
another series of grooves is made at right an
gles to the formor, so that several acres may
often be seen divided into squares of 'about
twenty inches on a side. Then by means of
w hip-saws, at large mass thus prepared, sonto
hundred foot square is seperated, and floated
along the canal made by the removal of the
ice already taken into tho houRe, until it reach-,
es the machine for elevating it ' Here a few
blows of a large chisel break off cakes of the
size of an ordinary breakfast tabic contain
ing nine of the cakes ns channelled by the
plough, nnd usually seen in our ice carts.
These blocks are llout still further, until they
disappear by passing into tin: house containing
tho steam engine which drives tho lifting ap.
paratus. ; ..
This engine is tho -'Philadelphia," a loco-
motive originally employed on the Boston mid
Providence raihoad, standing, lender and alb
precisely as if it were about to shoot out of
tho house and away, and really, when the tin
kle Cf the t;ll which announces that all is
ready in the house, some hundred-feet distent
is answered by tho locomotive's bell, and its
pulT and snort, one can hardly help clearing
tho track. A friend with us would not trust
himself in front of the engine, until solemnly
1 assured there was no no danger, ns the ''crit
ter" wastied. From the largedriving wheels
on each Bide, a chain passes down to a drum
on a shaft below the surface of the water.
From this shaft three, endless chains, 'ndu
like the chain on the barrel of a watch, but
rather stouter, lying parallct to each other,
pass up at an angle of forty or furty-five de
grees, to a drum about thirty feet from tho
To these chuins, nt intervals of twelve or
fifteen feet, are attached' transverse strips of
wood, which, catching behind the cakes
ice, as they are floated over the chains, most
unceremoniously draw them out of their na
tive element, and drive thorn through a plan
ing machine which reduces them to a uni
form lt:icknes at present twelve and three
eighths inches leaving two longitudinal bars
on tho upper surface, an inch in height and
five inches in width, by resting on w hieli they
are prevented fiom freesing into a solid mass
when packed. On leaving this planing ma
chine lliey are shut oil upon a species of n:riul
railroad to the doors of the packing house,
each cake sliding upon a frame balanced by
a weight, which frame slowly siiiks until it
discharges its load.upnn a little t.-m-road of
wood, along which it is propelled it its des
tined resting place.
The largo building of Mr. Wyeth holds a.
bout forty thousand tons, though it is rarely
niore luan seven-eignins mien, .-ome men
: of its size may bo obtained from a know ledge
! of the fact that more than a thousand -of
. these large, cakes, containing twenly-five cu
1 bio feet each, are required to cover its floor.,
Between three and foor thousand tg;is of ice
j are raised daily, employing in all t'.ie o ie-ii
lions Irom n hundred and twenty-live to n
hundred and fifty men. none of whom receive
less than a dullar a day, being paid each night
in tickets redeemable at thu Charles River
Bank. The ieo was never better than at prc-
' sent, and our parting advice in simply this
before the weather changes go out to r resn
Pond and sec fer yourselves Mr. Wyeth's ma-
chinery remembering that iee which will b-ar
a horse is not likely to give way under the
weight ol ' a lidy; ond that tho most timid
need not be afraid of the locomotive as it is
. . .
A Li:sox koii Scot.iMNO Wivr.s. "And L
dare say you have scolded your wife very of-
ten, Newman," said I once. . 4, : '
c,;j xewmau looked down, and his wife
t00t Up tM8 ri.j.lj- .
"Never to signify and if bo has, 1 di'er-
j " . ,
'-And I dare sav, if tho truth wero told,
.j,, ui,c K
!Nay," said the old woman, v.ilh a beauty
cf k'n-.'.nesf, which-all the poetry in the world
cannot excel. "How can a wife scold her
rood mai, who has been working for her lit
tle ones nil the day It may do for a man' -to
be peevish, for it is ha who bears tlo cros
ses of the world ; but who should make him
forget them but hi own w ifel And she had .
best, for her own sake for nobody pan scold
much w hen the scolding is all on one side."
A Cm Jims' I'most of rolorcd persons iu
Pennsylvania ha been f irmed, to obtr.iu for.,
thanvielves all the rivhls and immunities, r !
The First IVstmasteu Glxebal in the
United Slates was Or. Franklin. His Hilary