Sunbury American. (Sunbury, Pa.) 1848-1879, January 27, 1849, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

    ' ,!feffc:
yol ni!"rn n lo 'V;'' '! I
j JL
Oil '
a jTamds iictospaprr-Drtotrt toDolttfcs, attcrnturr
I 10 Colin
NW SERIES VOL. 1. lf.,,,A"."
SUN11U11Y, XonTHUMBERLAND COUNTY, PA.. SVruilDAY, J AN 1 A II Y sirlMal"..;. ':
.it ;:i ,'
tJt t,1!,:l.'.-;l 'V li " ' -
; I . fi - ' I I I .
!' I a5"Tllsii nwn yn"' i r- . t K:,.t, . ... i .1, vt I ,J''J i'(Kinq oj . ,.:.. ! .' n . , . , , ,
i . .li i .n..ini ".' ' '. I i i iim nil nil! iTJJL . .- linn .11 i hum .- " '--- -,
r ittor8m;-irotrtctfmt amtstw nttotiS&ktniinrA' mYmk&ktithlhfc-ft iwirririJ;iiflentirt. tt:m ! S;?.!::':7''' to'TT?.f3r,6;i.i'if:
TtlF. 1MFJUCAV i nulrfiahwl vr flatbltln at TAV'O
61lXkS pW milium to be raid half yenrly in ailvancc.
Tl ctunmtiuiculirtna or lei ton on hunim-ra rtUitniff to tha
iMtnsiima qikii xni. rra inio are pniu.
.Vhret eopiM to oiic addnaa, '., i 8,500
Stvm -'- Tn Do ' K " 10U0
TiO!'j ".li-;. .!" 1-1!'. t WW
, Five dultam in ailvanpe will pav for three yeu'nubucrip-
(J,;; Wuart of !6 linei, 3 tim, " '
vrv ubqeiit iiwertion, i! i ! r
One ftwmre, ? monlhe, ,
Six ihmithi,
On year, ; ' ' :
Bunincse Carde of Five lino, per miimm,
Merchant! end other, edvertninn hy the :.
year, with the privilege of mnertii-g ! .,'
ferent Bilvertinvineiin weekly. -
tf lrgcr AdvcrlincmcnH, as per egrecinent.
i 374
Dinrtnni itcnt!ml. to in the Cuuntint of Not
ouirlcrliDtl, UiiioM. Lycoming mil Columbia.
Refer to i
' P. & A. HuvoL'nT, ,
' I.owr St Uirimn,
, KitnotBK, McKamlanii A (t. I
Suntno, ''oou it Cu J
Cheap New & Second hank Hook Store.
Sorth Writ totntr tf fourth and Arch Sh-rttt
. rhllatlrliiMn,
Law Book. Theological and Clucnical liooke,
' ScitNTinc asd Mathematical Bouk
... Juvenile Books, in great variety.
Hymn Booka ind Prayer Hooka, Biblea, all sitea
. f ., nrl pricpa.
Blank Boots, Writing Paper,andStationary,
MVial.S'i't and Itrtatl,
rV Oca, pricea are much lower thon the KKotXAit pricei.
f" l.ibiarioa and aruB iivcela of b purchased. ,
If Bonke imported t i onlr frniil Lundun.
Philadelphia, April I, lMH f t
r j , , - Uealrra ill eierd,
Conatantly on hand a ffnrral aasorlmrat of
v LIQUORS, ,4ic. .
To which tbey reippctlully invite tbe attention
;t , of the public.
All kind of couulry produce taken in exchange
for Groceriel or aold on Comtaitainn.
Pbilad. April I. 118 . ,
. BASrET ,.
Ko. li South Sttimd $irett u'Jc, dtilvn tloirg,
RF.SPKt'TKCLLY informa bis fi inda and
the pub ic, that he comtant'y keep on
band a large annrtment of chi diem wilow
Coaehea, Chairs, Crad ea, market and travel
ling baiketi. and every variety of basket work
Cauntry VerchanU and other! who wiah to
purchaie turh titie'ea, pood and cheap, would
da well to call on him, aa they are al manufac
tured by him inthe beat manner.
1'hi'ade phi-. Junt 3, 1848. 1y
4S Chetmit it. S duorx above indit., Philadelphia
.TS'ttch papera. Ltbeli, Door platea. Saata and
SUrapi for Odd Fellewa, Sons of Temperance,
fcc, fcc Alwayi on hand a general aortmcnt
of Fine Fancy Uooda. Gold pena of every quality.
Dog Collart in great variety. Enjravera toola
.and materia la.
.'Acency for tbe Manufacturer of Glaiiera Dia--tmmdf.
: - " : '
OtdrMgwr mail (peat paid) will be punctually
attended to. ,
Philadelphia, April'l, 1R48 J
riux pniBKZuss riAxro roarrs.
(TABE SUU SCai bF.R baa been appointee agent
l.for theaaWol CONRAD MEVER'S CKLE
t thia place. Thete Pianoa have a plain, mil
aive and beautiful eiterior finish, and, 'for depth
of tone, and elegance of workmar.ahiei, are not
fcurpataed by any in the United Sute'a
Thaa inatrumenta are highly approved of by
'the moat emitaent Profeaaota and Composer of
Muaic in iIm and other cine.
For qualities of tone, touch and keeping in
ton npon Concert pilch, tbey cannot be sue pas
ed by either American or European piano.
Suffice it to lay that Madame CttlelUn, W. V
Wallace. Vieus Temps, and hi sistt-r, tha cele
brated Pianist, and many other ol tha most dia
tinquished performers, have given these insttu
ments preference over alt other
They have also r.eeived the first notice of the
three lt Exhihitiona. and the laat Silver M-dal
j tbe Frankliu Institute in 1813, was swarded
to them, wbicb, with other premiums from tbe
Hne source, may be seen at the Ware-room No.
Si south Fourth st.
. rrAnolber Silver Medal w awarded to C
Meyer, by the Frahklin Institute, Oct. 1843 for
tha best Piano in the exhibition.
Again at the exhibition of the Franklin Insti
tute, Oct 1840, the first premium and medal was
awarded to (!. Meyer for hi Pianos, although it
bad been awarded at tbe exhibition of the year
befora, on the ground that ha bad made still creat
or improvement in bi Instruments within the
Ml) I) months.
Agaiaat tha last exhibition of the Franklin
Institute, 1847, another Premium wa awarded
to C. Meyer, for the beat Piano in the exhibition
.At Btwton, t their last axhtbitioiv, Sent. iSiT.
C. Meyer received tbe nut silver Medal etf pi
ploma, for lb best square Piano in the exhibition
Tbe Piano will aold at the rfarnilseia
ter'aloweei Philadelphia price, if not something
lower. Perse art requested ta call and exam
in for tbcatsal, at tbe residence of tha tub
amber. ni , H B. MASSER.
Sanbnry, April 8, 1848
iii .. j i mi - '. I.l i i'.. ' e
Drtjvli, CAkuh rind Variety
A North Third. btlw Knee ft. and North
EjI tonntr of Third and Market ttreet,
yiIEn.E tbey offer lor ' a general assort-
meat of ail kind of Biushr. Comb nd
varieties avbirb Ibef are determined to (ell
Jawr lM r b purchased setebrrn.
Country Merchant nd other Purobasiiuf in
lbebov 'inn wil find it lo their edvnU to
ea before purchasing a'avwbera a (he qi.a'ily
end price will be lul'y guaranteed nio-t e'l
tea. petition
fr:rt.e'.'jr. i, fire S, 11S- iy
FirnTitEti Passage rnoM roxton's adven-
Buaveii has so depreciated in value with
in the last few years, thas trapping has al
most been abandoned ; the price paid for
the skin of this Valuable animal having fal
len from six and fight dollars per pound to
o? "llaJ1, which hardly pays the expen-
of li'Sir animals, ami equips.!!! ! aM
i V . . - , I
hunt, and is certainly no aaetii; e
neration for the incredible hardships, toil,
and danger; which are undergone by the
hardy trappers in the course of their adven
turous expedition?. The cause of the great
decrease in value of beaver fur is the sub
stitute which has been lout id for .it in skins
of the fur-seal and nutria the improved
preparation of other skins of little value,
such as the hare and rabbit and, more
than all, in the use of silk in the manufac
ture of hats, which has in a great measure
superseded that of the beaver. Thus the
course of the trapper is levelled against all
the new-fashioned materials of l'aris hats ;
and the light and (h)airy gossamer ol
twelve-and-six is anathemised in the moun
tains in a way which would be highly dis
tressing to the feelings of Messrs. Jupp and
Johnson, . and other artists in the ventila-ting-gossamej:
line. . .
Thanks to the innovation, however, a
little breathing-time has been allowed the
persecuted castor; and this valuable fur
bearing animal, which otherwise would, in
the course of a few years, have become ex
tinct, has now a chance of multiplying, and
will in a short time again become abund
ant; for, although not a very prolific ani
mal, the beaver has perhaps, fewer natural
enemies than any other o( ic feroe nntum,
and being at the same time a wise and care
ful one, provides against all contingencies
ot cold and hunger, which in northern cli
males carry oil so large a proportion ol their
bfcrtcftro of CvaDcI.
brother beasts. country, but for the daring enterprise of
The beaver was once found in every part ! these nn-n, would be even now a term in
ol North America from Canada to the Gulf j conitu to geographers, as indeed a great
of Mexico, but has now gradually retired portion still is ; but there is not an acrethat
from the encroachments and the persecu- has not been passed and repassed by trnp
tions of civilized man, and is met with only pers in their perilous excursions. The
in the far,. Far West, on the tributaries of, mountains and streams still retain the names
tbe great rivers, and .thy. streams which j assigned to them Ly the rude hunters; and
water the mountain-valleys , in the great i these alone, are the hardy pioneers who
chain of the. Rocky Mountains. . On. the ! have paved the way for the settlement of
waters of the Platte and Arkansas they are the western country. . ,
still numerous, and within the Mast two Trappers are of two kinds, the "hired
ypars have increased considerably in num- hand" and the "free trapper:" the former
bers: but the best trapping-ground now is j hired for the hut.t by the fur companies;
on the streams running through the Bayou j the latter, supplied with animals and traps
Salado, and the Old and New Parks, all of j by the company, is paid a certain price for
which are elevated mountain valleys.
The habits of the beaver present quite
a study to the naturalist, and they are cer
tainly the most sagaciously instinctive of
all quadrupeds. .Their dams affords a les
son to the engineer, their houses a study
for the architect oi comfortable abodes,
while their indefatigable and unremitting
labor industry are models to be followed by ;
the working man. . Tha lodge of the bea- j
ver is generally excavated inthe stream,
the entrance being invariably underwater:
but not unfrequently, where the banks are i
flat, they construct lodges in the stream it-
self, of a conical form, of limbs and branches
ol trees woven together and cemented with
mud. For the purpose of forming dams,
for the necessary timber for their lodges, or
for the bark which they store for their win
ter's supply of food, the beaver often fells
a tree eight or ten inches in diameter,
throwing it, with the skill of an expert
woodsman, in any direction he pleases, al-
ways selecting a tree above stream, in or-j
der that the logs may be carried down with
it to their destination. The log is then '
chopped into small lengths, and, pushing
them into the water, the beaver steers them :
to the lodge or dam. These trees are as
cleanly cut as they could be by a sharp ax,
the gouging furrows made by tho animal's
strong teeth cutting into ths very centre of
the trunk, the notch being as smooth as
sawed wood.
With his broad tail which is twelve or '. made fast lo the belt by a chain or guard of
fourteen inches long, and about four in ' steel, hich also supports a little buck-skin
breadth, and covered w ith a thick scaly ; case containing a whetstone, i A tomahawk
skin, the beaver plasters his lodge, thus ma- j is also often added; and of course, a Ions,
king it perform all the offices of a hand. heavy rifle is part and parcel of his equip
They say that, when the beaver's tail be- j ment. I had nearly forgotten the pipe
comes dry, the animal dies, but, whether holder, which hangs round his neck, ami is
this is the case or not, I have myself seen . generally a gage d 'amour, and a triumph of
the beaver when at work return to the wa- squaw workmunship, in the shape of a
terand plunge his tail into the stream, and : heart, garnished with beads and porcupine-
men resume ins laoor wnn renewed vigor ;
and X have also seen them, with their bodies
on the bank, thumping the water with their
tails with a most comical perse verence.
The female leldom produces more than
three kittens at a birth, but I know an in
stance where one was killed with young,
having no, Jess than eleven in her. They
Jive Jo aconsiderable age," arid I once ate
Hie taif of an bid "man" beavef whose head
was perfectly' gray with aae, and his beard
was of the same venerable hue, notwith
standing Which his tail was as tender a a
young racoon. The kittens are as playful
as their namesakes of the feline race, and it
is highly amusing to see an old one with
grotesque gravity inciting her young to
gambol about her, while she herself is en
gaged about some household work.
Tho nutrias of Mexico are identical with
the beavers of tha northern parts of North
America, a species of seal, or, as I have
heard it described, a hybrid between the
seal and the beaver, is called nutria quite
a distinct animal, however, from the Mexi
can nutria.
The trappers of the Rocky Mountains
belong to a 'genus" more approximating to
the primitive savage than, perhaps any oth
er clas of civilized man. Their lives be.
ing spent in the remote wilderness of the
mountains, with no other companion than
Nature hervlf, their habits and character
assume a rnost slnjuiar Cast of simplicity
' mingled with ferocity, appearing to lake
Kttrii coloring irom xiic nceiit-a unu uwjcuia
which surround them. Knowing no wants
saving those of nature, their sole care is to
procure sufficient food to support life, and
the necessary clothing to protect them from
the rigorous climate. This, with the as
sistance of their triirty rifles, they are gen
erally able to i'(Tt-ct, but sometimes al the
expense of great peril and hardship. When
engaged in their avocation, the natural in
stinct of primitive man is ever alive, for
the purpose ol guarding against danger and
the provision of necessary food.
en observers ot nature, they rival tne
e 1- ' l- - tM,l onr
m mis ui nrev in Discovering mc i.-u .
habits of game, and in their skill anu Can
ning in capturing it. Constantly exposed
to perils of all kinds, they become callous
to any feeling of dangpr, and destroy hu
man as well as animal life with as little
scruple and as freely as they expose their
own. Of laws, human or divine, they nei
ther know nor care to know. Their wish
is their law, and to atlain it they do not
scruple as to ways and means. Firm
friends and bitter enemies, with them it is
"a word and blow," and the blow often
first. They may have good qualities, but
they are those of the animal ; and people
fond of giving hard names call them re
vengeful, blood-thirsty . drunkards (wlien
the wherewithal is to be had), gamblers, re
gardless of the laws of mntm and iitum in
fact, "White Indians." However, there
are exceptions, and ltave met honest mountain-men.
Their animal qualities, how
ever, are undeniable. Stronsr, activp, har
dy as bears, daring, expert in the usp of
their weapons, they are just what uncivili
zed while man might be supposed to be in a
brute state, depending upon his instinct for
the support of life. .Not a hole or corner
in the vast wilderness of the "Far West"
but has been ransacked by these hardy
men. From the Mississippi to the mouth
of the Colorado of the West, from the fro
zen regions of thf North to the Gila in
Mexico, the beaver-hunter has set his traps
in every creek and stream. All this vast
his furs and peltries,
There is also the trapper "on his own
hook ;" but this class is very small. He
has his own animals and traps, hunts where
he chooses, and sells his peltry to whom ho
pleases. : ! .
On starting for a hunt, the trapper fits
himself out with the necessary equipment,
either from the Indian trading forts.orfrom
some of the petty traders coureursdes hois
who frequent the western country. This
equipment consists usually of two or three
horses or mules one for saddle, the other
for packs and six traps which are carried
in a bag of leather called a trap sack. Ain-
munition, a few pounds ot tobacco, dressed
deer-skins for moccasins, &c, are carried
in a wallet of dressed buflalo-skin, called a
possible-sack. His "possibles" and "trap
sack" are generally carried on the saddle
mule when hunting, the others being pack
ed with the furs. The costume of the trap
per is a hunting-shirt ol dressed buckskin,
ornamented with long fringes; pantaloons
of the same material, and decorated with
porcupine-quills and long fringes down the
outside of the leg. A flexible felt hat and
moccasons clothe his extremities. Over
his left shoulder and under his right arm
hang his powder-horn and bullet-pouch, in
; which he carries his balls, flint, and steel,
; and odds and ends of all kinds. Round the
' waist is a belt, in which is stuck a large
i butcher-knife in a sheath of buffalo hide.
; qui
Thus provided, and having determined
the locality of his trapping-ground, he starts
to the mountains, sometimes alone, some
times with three or four in company, as
soon as the breaking of the ice allows him
to commence operations. Arrived on his
hunting-grounds he follows the creeks and
streams, keeping a sharp lookout for "sign."
If he sees a prostrate cotton-wood tree, he
examines it to discover if it be tbe work of
a beaver whether "thrown" for the pur.
pose of food, or to dam the stream. The
track of the beaver on the rnud or sand un
der the bank is also examined ; and if the
"sign" be fresh he sets h'u trap in the run
of the animal, hiding it under water, and
attaching it by a stout chain to a picket
driven in the bank, or to a brush or tree.
A "float-stick" is made fast to the trap by a
a cord a few feet long, which, if the ani.
mal carry away the trap, floats on the wa
ter and points out its position. The trap is
baited with the "mediciue," an oily sub.
stance obtained from a gland in the scrotum
of the beaver, but distinct from the teste.
A stick is dipped into this and planted over
the trap ; and the beaver,, attracted by tho
smell, and wishing a close inspection, very
foolishly pots his leg inter the trap, and is a
"gonewaver. .i .
When a lodge is discovered, the trap is
set it the edge of the dim, at the point
where the animal passes from deep to shoal
water, and always under water. Early in
the morning the hunter mounts lib mule
and examines the traps. The captured ani
mah are skinned, and tho tails, which are
a great dainty, carefully packed into camp.
Tho skin is then stretched over a hoop or
framework of osier-twigs, and is allowed lo
dry, the llosh and fatty substance being
carefully scraped. When dry, it is folded
into a square sheet, the fur turned inward,
and the bundle, containing about ten to
twenty skins, tightly pressed and corded, is
ready fur transportation.
During the hunt, regardless of Indian vi
cinity, the fearless trapper wanders far and
ui-jr i'1 search of "sign." His nerves must
ever be in a i'!n of tension, and his mind
ever pres-r.t at his call. His fagle eye
sweeps round the Country, art:! in an in
stant detects any foreign- ap,?Para'.,c A
turned leaf, a blade of grass pressed u,?xvil
the uneasiness of the wild animals, the flight
of birds, are all paragraphs to him written
in nature's legible hand and plainest lan
guage. All the wits of the subtile savage
are called into play to gain an advantage
over the wily woodsman ; but with the
natural instinct of primitive man, the whi e
hunter has the advantages of a ui'i?ed
mind, and, thus provided, seldom fails to
outwit, under equal advantages, the cunning
savage. " ' '
Sometimes, following on his trail, the
Indian watches him sethistrapion ashnib
belted stream, and, passing up the bed, like
Bruce of old, so that he may leave no track,
he lies in wait in the hushes until the hun
ter comes to examine his carefully-set traps.
Then, waiting; until he approaches his am
hiishnient within a few feet, whiz flies the
home-drawn arrow, never failing at such
close quarters to brin j the victim to the
around. For one white scalp, however,
that dangles in the smoke of an Indian's
lodup, a dozen black ones, at the end of the
hunt, ornament the camp-fires of the ren
dezvous. At a certain time, when the hunt is
over, or they have loaded their pack-animals,
the trappers proceed to the "rendez
vous," the locality of which has been pre
viously agreed upon ; and here the traders
and agents of the fur companies await them,
with such assortment of goods as their hardy
customers may require, including generally
a fair supply of alcohol. The trappers
drop in singly and in small bands, bringing
their packs of beaver to this mountain mar
ket, not unfrequently to the value ol a
thousand dollars each, the produce of one
hunt. The dissipation of the "rendezvous,"
however, soon turns the trapper's pocket
inside out. The jroii-ls brought by the tra
ders, although of the most inferior quality,
are sold at enormous prices: coffee, twen
ty and thirty shillings a pint-cup, which is
the usual measure; tobacco fetches ten and
fifteen shillinrjrs a plug: alcohol, from twen
ty to fifty shtllinrsn pint; gunpowder, six
teen shillings a pint cup : au.1 all other arti
cles at proportionality . evhorbilar.t puces.
The "beaver" is purchased at from, two
to eiht dollars, per pound; the Hudson's
Bay Company alone buying it by pluie, or
"plew," that is, the whole skin, giving a:
certain price for skins, whether of old bea
ver or "kittens." ' ' '
The rendezvous is one continued scene
of drunkenness, gambling, and brawling
and fighting, as long as the money and
credit of the trappers last. Seated, Indian
fashion, round the fires, with a blanket
spread before them, groups are seen with
their "decks" of cards, playing at "euker,"
"poker," and "seven-up," the regular moun
tain games. The slakes are "beaver,"
which is here current coin : and when the
fur is gone, their horses, mules, rifles, and
shirts, hunting-packs, and breeches, are
staked. Daring gamblers make the rounds
of the camp, challenging each other to play
for the trapper's highest stake his horse,
his squaw (if he have one, and as once
happened, his scalp. There goes "bos and
beaver!" is the mountain expression when
any great loss is sustained ; a'nd, sooner or
later,"hos and beaver" invariably find their
way into the insatiable pockets of the tra
ders. . A trapper often squanders the pro-
utice ot Ins hunt, amounting to hundreds ol
dollars, in a couple of hours; and, supplied
on credit with another equipment, leaves
tho rendezvous for another expedition,
which has the same result time alter tiuip,
although one tolerably successful hunt
would enable him to return to the settle
ments and civilized life, with an ample sum
to purchase and stock a farm, and enjoy
himself in ease and comfort the remainder
ofhisdays. r
An pld trapper, a French Canadian, as
sured me that he received fifteen thousand
dollars for beaver dunrtg- a sojourn of twen
ty years in the mountains. Every year ho
resolved in hta mind to' return to Canada,
and, with this object, always converted his
fur into cash; but a tortoiiht at the "ren
dezvous" always cleaned hini out, and at
the end of twenty years, he had npt even
credit sufficient to buy a pound of powder.
Thpse annual gatherings are often the
scenes of bloody duels, for over their cups
and cards no men are more quarrelsome
than your mountaineers. . Rifles, at twenty
paces, settle all differences, and, as may he
imagined, the fall of one or the other oi" the
combatants is certain, or, as sometimes hap
pens, both fall to the word "tire."
No animals in theso western regions inter
ested me so much as the prairie-dugs. These
lively littlo fellows select fur the site of their
towns a level piece of prairie with a sandy or
gravelly soil, out of which they oan excavate
their dwellings with great facility. Being of
a merry, sociuluble dUpudtion, thoy, unlike
the bear or wolf, choose to live in a large
community, wheie laws exist far the- publio
good, and there is loss danger to be appre
hended from the attacks of thoir numerous
' and crafty enemies. Then town final n
extent - and population the largest cities of loo, I fear, is not tho welcome guest he re
Europe, soma extomlina many miles in length ! poits himself to be; for often I have slain
w i:h considerable regularity in their streets,
and tho bouses of a uniform stylo ofarchi:cct
ttire. Although their form- of governmcii
may bu styled republican, yet great respect
is paid Id lliuir chief magistrate, who, gene
rally a dog of large dimensions and imposing
appearance, venule. in a house conspicuous for
size in thu centre of the town, where he may
always bo seen on bis house-top, regarding
with dignified complaisaney the varionsoccu
pitiims of the busy population some indus
triously bearing to tbe granaries tho winter
supply of roots, others building or repairing
their houses ; while many, their work being
over, fit dialling on their house-tops, watch
ing the gambols of the juveniles as they play
around thorn. Their hospitality to strangers
is Unbounded. The owl, who on the bare
1. 1.. r.,,1 n . ...i. :..
pi,." I" , utiuiu ii unu n lie; w, lut. III
which to boiiu be' Cih 13 provmed witn a
comfortable lodging, wiiC:e sh? may in so-
curity rear her round-eyed progeny j and the
rattlesnake, in spile of bis bad character, ;s
likewise cnteitaineJ with similar hospitality,
although it is very doubtful if it is not sorne-
tiaics gtossly abused ; and many a childless
dog may perhaps justly altribute his calamity
to the partiality of the epicurean, snake for
the tender meat of the delicate pfftirie-pup.
However,, it is, certain. .that the snake is. a
constant guest; and, whether admitted into
ihe domestic circle of tho dog fumily, or liv
ing in separate apartments, or in copartner
ship with tho owl, is an acknowledged mem
ber of the community at large.
The prairie-dog (a species of marmot) is
somewhat longer than the guinea-pig, of u
of a light brown or sandy color, and with n
bend resembling that a young lerrier pup. It
is also furnished with a littlo stumpy tail,
which, when its owner is excited, is in a per
petual jerk and flutter. Frequently, when
hunting, I have amused myself fur hours in
watching their fiulicksome motions, lying
concealed behind one of their conical houses.
Theso Rie raisud in tho form of a cone, two
or three feet above the ground, and then des
cending obliquely into the interior. Of course
on ihe fiist approach of such a monster as
man, all the dogs which have been scattered
over Ihe town scamper to their boles as fast
as their little legs will admit, and concealing
utl hut their heads- atid tails, bark lustily their
displeasure nt the instrusion. When U.ey
have sufficiently exhibited their daring, every
dogs dives into his burrow, but two or throe :
who remain an stiutiiic!, chattering iu high
dudgeon, until ihe enemy is within a few
paces of them, when, they take - the usual
Kuniuicitvti and the town is sileut and dcseit
e l. Lying perfectly still for several minutes
I could observe an old fellow raise his head
cautiously above his hole ami j-cconnoitor,
mid if satisfied, that, the coast was plear, hof
wouiii commence a snort oarK. i ins oai K,
by the way, from its resemblance to that of
a dog, has given that jiajno to ihis Ul'ilo. ani
mal, but it is more like that of a wooden toy-,
dug, which is made, to .bark by raising aud
depressing tho bellows under the., figure-
When this warning has been given, oihcrs
are soon seen lo emerge . from their houses,
and assured of their security play and frisk
about. Aftor a longer delay, tattlesnnkes is
sue from the holes, and coil themselves in
the sunny eido of the hillock, erecting their
treacherous heads, and rattling an anury note
of warning it, in tho play, a thoughtless pup
approaches ton near; and, lastly, a sober owl
appears, and, if tho sun be low, hops through
ihe town, picking up tho lizards and came.
Icons, which every where abound. At the
first intimation, of danger given by the eenti
ue'.s. li.',', tho stragglers hasten to their holes,
tumbling over owls and rattlesnakes, who hiss
and rattle angrily nt being distmbed. Every
one scrambles to his ow n domicil, and if, in
his Iti'.rry, he should mistake his dwelling, or
rush for safety into any other than his own,
he is soon made sensible of . his error, and,
without eoreiHony, ejected Then, every
house occupied, commences such a volley of
of barking, aud such a twinkling of little heads
aud tails, which alone appear above ths holes
to defy description. Tho lazy snakes, re.
gardless of dangpr, remain coiled up, and only
evinced their consciousness by an occasional
rattle; while Iho owfs, in tho hurry and con
fusion, belaka themselves wflh sluggish win
to wherever a biish of sago or grease-wood
affords them temporary concealment.
Tho ' praivlc-dng leads a life of constant a
larm,'and numerous enemies' are ever on the
Watch to surprise him'.' : The hawk' arid th
engle, hovering high in air, wntoh their towns
and pounce suddenly tipon them, never fail
ing to carry vi in tkeir cruel laloiuj some
unhappy member of he eommuity. The
coyote, too, no heriditary foe, lurka behind a
hillock,' watching patiently for hours until -an
unlucky straggler approaches within reach of
his murderous spring. In the winters when
the prairie-dog, snug in his subtorrcan abode,
and with granaries well-tilled, never care to
expose hiss littlo noso to tho icy Mast which
sweep across tho plains, but, between eating
and sleeping, parses nerrt1y the frozen win
ter, ho is often roused from his warm bed,
and almost congealed with terror by hearing
tho snorting yelp of the half-famished wolf,
who, mad with hunger,' asaulls with . tooth
and claw, the frost-bormd roof of his house,
and with almost soperlupine strength, hurls
down the well-cenionted walls, tears up the
passages, plunging hi cold none into tho very
chambers snorting into them with his earth
stuffed nose, in ravenous anxiety, and drives
tbe poor Httla inmate into tha abest remote
corners, too o!':er. to be dragged forth, wd
unhesitatingly dersured. Ihe rattlesnake
the wily serpent with a belly to much protu
berant to bo either healthy or natural, and
bearing, in its outline, a very strong resem
blance to tho figure of a prairie-dog.
Proceeding, on my arrival at St. Louis, to
an excellent hotel called the "Planter's
House," I that night, for tho first time for
nearly ten months, slept upon a bed much to
the astonishment of limb and body, which
long nccusatomed to no softer mattress than
another earth, tossed about nil night, tumble
to appreciate tho unusual luxury. I found
chairs a positive nuisance, and in my own
room caught myself in the act. more than
once, of squatting cross-leggp.d on the floor.
The gieatest treat to me wasbread ; I thought
it tho best part of the profuse dinners of the
Planter's House, and consumed prodigious
quantities of the staff of life, lo the astonish
ment of the waiters. Forks, too, I thought
were mot useless superfluities, and more
than once I found myself on the point of
grabbing a tempting leg of mutton mountain
fashion, and butchering ofT a hunter's mouth
ful. But what words can Jcsdrib 'he agony
of squet-zingwiy-feet into boots, aftcrnearly a
year of moccasons, or discarding my turban
for a great boardy bat, w hich seemed to
crush my temples! The.ini! its of getting
into a horrible :coat of .brace,, Maistcgats,
gloves, and all such implements of torture
were too acuta to bo. described, and there
fore I draw a veil over them.
An active competition in the manufacture
of gold pens has brought down the price from
ten dollars to one and two dollars, according
to finish ; and as might bo expected they
have got into general use. A New York cor
respondent of thu Charleston Courier has giv
en, in one of his late letters, an interesting
account of th invention of gold pens and the
manner in which they aiv made, a portion of
which we subjoin :
The first pen of this sort ever used was in
1H38. '. Tho idea of the utility of gold for tho
purpose was conceived by Rev. Mr. Cleveland.
He communicated this idea to Mr. Brown,
who improved on it and immediately went
into tho business He was tallowed by some
half dozen others, liaglcy is now tho most
extensive manufacturer of the article, and ho
employes iu it a capital of eighty thousand
dollars His expenses are one thousand dol
lars per week. Piatt & Brothers, in tho ear
ly stage of tho manufacture, made a contract,
w ith Brown &. Bagley for all the pens they
made, and thus had tho monopoly of tho
market for threG years. TheV sold seventy
five thousand dollars per annum of this ai ti
cloyMearly one half of which was profit. Uag
lcy tlusiv went on and has made a more rapid
fortune.. His pens rank the first in the mar
ket, though Brown's , and the ''Richelieu '
pen are equally good.
Ii: the TTianufacture of pens the cold is first
foiled out in ribands, and then cut with a'die-
to the required shape,- the points put on and
then ground down to the required nib The
points aie irridum, a new mclal formed w ith
platinum. Tho points are all imported,' gen
erally without the ceremony of an introduc
tion to the custom-house, and cost from seven
to fifty-five dollars per ounce. The pens and
cases soil from ten to thirty dollars per dozen-
Tbe manufacture of the silver cases is a dis
tinct business aud employs a capital. It is
not easy to make an estimate of the number
of pens manufactured per annum, but it is
not less than one million, of which Brown fc
Bagley mako about one-half. A person who
hal not thought of the subject, would scarce
ly suppose that eight hundred pounds of gold
were used every year in the manufacture of
such a trilling article as pens a business un
known ten years ago yet such is the fact,
demand for the article is enormous, and it is
now difficult to find a person who writes at
all unprovided with this most economical of
all pens. One export of one thousand gross
has been made to England, where they sell
for a guinea a piece.
; Kajtlinu fob a Woman A young girl
residing in the upper part of the city was not
long since desperately attacked w ith gold fe
ver.. . The Sacramento and its precious sands
were ever before her mind hut though hand
some and of unblemished reputation, she
was. entirely Without tho means of accom
plishing her ivialies. XHtyc passed and yot
she seemed no nearer, curing a passaa to
California that at .ust.M Forteiiately at kt
she became acquainted with a party of youn
men who were going out on board one of the
vessels for Sair ' Francisorx ' They wished a
cook and ut once agreed to rallle for he. The
amount paid for chances was, to ho given to
her, and the fortunate fellow who won, was
to marry her before leaving tho city. If she
did not fancy tho person on whom, iho lot
fell, then she was to pay her own passage out
and under tho protection of tho whole party,
wasTo cook and wash for them. The money
was accordingly paid and the girl rarilod.
There was one person whom she hoped
would win, hut the fates were against her
choice. A little shoemaker won hor. The
girl wo-dd not marry hiin, but true to her
promise she wrote a furew!l letter to her
friondsin Connecticut, and thou took passage
with her comrade adventurers -Y. f. Sun.
A turk was publicly beheadod at Constan
tinople on tha 30:h November, for the crime
of having, ' while in a stale tf intoxication,
said that h -Jj4 net -aie a straw for Allah or
tha prophet.
Mr. Bunion made a speech a few days ago''
upon the California bill ngninst thu proposi
tion to sell mineral lands in two sere lots, as '
no two lots of t'.iat sizo would bo alike. The
value can only bo told by digging, am! rIuiiy'
two acres will contain no gold, and may
patches of twenty or thirty feet square will
contain a rich deposit. Tho object is to find
it, aud that is to be done by huu'ing, for
which permils arc required aud protection in
the discovery. Tho following remarks upon
tho gold washings are interesting :
Theso washings are called in Spanish yl
ccr, from the Latin placcrc, to please ; becausoi
it is a pleasing thing to find the shining gold
under one's feet. But it is a transient plea,
sure. There is no fee simple iu it ; there is
not even a life estate in it ; not even a loase(
for a year, a mouth, a week or a day. The
pleasure is soon gone. Kxhnnstrd placcrt now
exist in Now Mexico, formerly j iclding much, t
now somo twenly-five or fifty cents a day,
and only pursued by the poorest Mexicans. .
Regular mining has followed there, and i.t
now yielding considerable quantities These .
washings of California are marvellously rich ; '
for we have to believe what is certified to us .
by so many witnesses : but they are nol tho
richest th it evst woro scon. Far from it. ThuaO
of Brazil; in the mountains, back of Rio Janci- .
ro, in tliK time of Lord Anson's voyage, . say k
one hundred years ago, were far richer; and
yet they have been exhausted,
memory of them is lost, and their history o;:.-
ly lives iu old books. Two millions sterling,
teu millions of dollars were annually sent,
to Europe, lor years, from .these washing
They wenr worked by slaves, who, to secure,
their fidelity and industry, were usually al-.
lowed by their masters all the. proceeds of
the day above a given amount ; and iu thai
way many slaves became rich, lurchnsed
their freedom, aud then bought slaves of their
own, lived iu splendor and opulence, nnd laid
the foundation of families. Vet theso wash
ings aie exhausted, time out of mind, and so
will be those of California, mid the sooner
ihe better. I am a friend to a gold currency
but not to gold mining. That is a pursuit
which tho experience of nations shows to ha
both impoverishing and demoralizing to a,
nation. I regret that we have these mines in
California; but they are there, and I am for
getting rid of thoui nssoon as possible. Mako
the working as free as possible. Instead of
hoarding-, and holding thorn up; and selling in
driblets, lay them open to industry nnd enter
pris. Lay them open to natural capital to
labor to tho man that has stout arms aud a
willing heart.' Give him a fair chance. Give
all a fair chance. It is no matter ho digs
up tho goldj or where it goes. Tho digger-,
will not eat it, and it will go where commerce,
will carry it. The nations which havo in
dustry which havo agriculture, commerce,
and manufactures they will get the gold,
provided always that they keep out small pa-,
per money. Not sales, but permits, is the
proper tnodo to follow, nnd t)ie only piactica-,
blemode. - ' - - , t:.T
The great men of dark eras are ever enfor-"
tunate, and yet" not wholly so.' Cato who
wrenched from his gored frame, his own
bowels, was happier in his death' tfrari) . th:
Ca-srir who sank "even at the base of Pom
pey's statue." No man with a just and well
baianccd mind would prefer the triumph ef
Napoleon to the defeat of Cavaignac. Of the
former we have yet to know that he has a
virtue; of the latter that ho has a vice. Ca
vaiirnac has manifested in all that has been
required from him, in a season of the most
formidable dsr.ger; every virtuo that elevates
human nature. Ho may die undignified by
office, but will live, in after times, with a
glory to which a crown could not add ona
ray of light.
California, and Caixctta. The Londoir
Timej in speaking of the lack of public spirit
in Calcutta aud Bombay, draws the follow leg
parallel :
California was scarcely known a )ear back
but unless public opinion shall soon make it
self heard, it will scarcely appear too much
to predict that its chief port on the Pacific
will bo opened up by a line of a railway from
New Yoik, and with a steam licet to Canton,
before tho first locomotive will have started
from either of tho gigantio and now compara
tively anciont cities of Calcutta or Bombay.
Many VLABssiNcr. ex-Lieutonanl Governor
Childs, of Berkshire than a young man, was
bitten by a mad dog, which resulted in symp
toms of hydrophobia. His father, an eminent
physician, gave mercury hi doses sufficient to
produce salivation, and, though tllo" patichi
sulTered dreadfully, lie vas, through 'thrf un
tiring efTorts of his father, finally cured. Bcj
Ion Post. ' '' ' " ' " '
"Pair," aald Mr. lb Mr; B
"will you have the complaisance to take my
cloak in your carriage to town V "With
pleasure ; but how will you get it again !"
:Oh, very easily," replied the modeet appli
cant, "1 shall remain it it." '
Gaotse Killed vTen:aaeH. Number
grouse nfo killed by coming n routaot v illi
telegraph wire, near Chicago. Thy are fre
quently picked up along the line, often strik
ing w ith such force as to completely . sever
their necks from their bodies.
"War vo toc set jour cup of coff- i p)o
the chair, Mr. James t sakl a woithy land
lady, one morning at breakfast. "It is 5-
very vf td', iM'tiii," replied Mr. Jsmrs t-
j mur&'y, 1 ithiufht ! Aould i'T-V?,"'