Sunbury American. (Sunbury, Pa.) 1848-1879, January 27, 1849, Image 1
' ,!feffc: yol ni!"rn n lo 'V;'' '! I j JL Oil ' H. B. MASSfeR, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR. a jTamds iictospaprr-Drtotrt toDolttfcs, attcrnturr CI I 10 Colin .(.I NW SERIES VOL. 1. lf.,,,A"." 1? Ml?. SUN11U11Y, XonTHUMBERLAND COUNTY, PA.. SVruilDAY, J AN 1 A II Y sirlMal"..;. ': .it ;:i ,' OLD SERIES VOL. 9, NO; 18 ma 1 JLLJ' tJt t,1!,:l.'.-;l 'V li " ' - ; I . fi - ' I I I . !' I a5"Tllsii nwn yn"' i r- . t K:,.t, . ... i .1, vt I ,J''J i'(Kinq oj . ,.:.. ! .' n . , . , , , i . .li i .n..ini ".' ' '. I i i iim nil nil! iTJJL . .- linn .11 i hum .- " '--- -, r ittor8m;-irotrtctfmt amtstw nttotiS&ktniinrA' mYmk&ktithlhfc-ft iwirririJ;iiflentirt. tt:m ! S;?.!::':7''' to'TT?.f3r,6;i.i'if: l&nMS OF THK AM URIC A . TtlF. 1MFJUCAV i nulrfiahwl vr flatbltln at TAV'O 61lXkS pW milium to be raid half yenrly in ailvancc. Tl ctunmtiuiculirtna or lei ton on hunim-ra rtUitniff to tha iMtnsiima qikii xni. rra inio are pniu. .Vhret eopiM to oiic addnaa, '., i 8,500 Stvm -'- Tn Do ' K " 10U0 TiO!'j ".li-;. .!tP0.it" 1-1!'. t WW , Five dultam in ailvanpe will pav for three yeu'nubucrip- (J,;; Wuart of !6 linei, 3 tim, " ' vrv ubqeiit iiwertion, i! i ! r One ftwmre, ? monlhe, , Six ihmithi, On year, ; ' ' : Bunincse Carde of Five lino, per miimm, Merchant! end other, edvertninn hy the :. year, with the privilege of mnertii-g ! .,' ferent Bilvertinvineiin weekly. - tf lrgcr AdvcrlincmcnH, as per egrecinent. as 250 i 374 SOU 3UI ATTORNEY AT LAW,' ; SDNBURT, PA. Dinrtnni itcnt!ml. to in the Cuuntint of Not ouirlcrliDtl, UiiioM. Lycoming mil Columbia. Refer to i ' P. & A. HuvoL'nT, , ' I.owr St Uirimn, , KitnotBK, McKamlanii A (t. I Suntno, ''oou it Cu J ' THE CIIE1P HOUR STUKL". DA1TIELS &c SMITH'S Cheap New & Second hank Hook Store. Sorth Writ totntr tf fourth and Arch Sh-rttt . rhllatlrliiMn, Law Book. Theological and Clucnical liooke, MBDICAL BOOKS, BIOGRAPHICAL HISfOHlCAL BOOKS, SCHOOL HOOKS. ' . . ' ScitNTinc asd Mathematical Bouk ... Juvenile Books, in great variety. Hymn Booka ind Prayer Hooka, Biblea, all sitea . f ., nrl pricpa. Blank Boots, Writing Paper,andStationary, MVial.S'i't and Itrtatl, rV Oca, pricea are much lower thon the KKotXAit pricei. f" l.ibiarioa and aruB iivcela of b purchased. , If Bonke imported t i onlr frniil Lundun. Philadelphia, April I, lMH f t POILTEP. .& E1TGLISH, ' cnoCEBS COMMISMOiV .MKRCIIANTS r j , , - Uealrra ill eierd, AV 3 -drcA S PHILADELPHIA. Conatantly on hand a ffnrral aasorlmrat of GItOCEUlES. TEAS, VVLNRS, :SEEDS, v LIQUORS, ,4ic. . To which tbey reippctlully invite tbe attention ;t , of the public. All kind of couulry produce taken in exchange for Groceriel or aold on Comtaitainn. Pbilad. April I. 118 . , . BASrET ,. MANUrACTOR-Sr, Ko. li South Sttimd $irett F.al u'Jc, dtilvn tloirg, . '.:, PHILADELPHIA. - HENRY COULTLR, RF.SPKt'TKCLLY informa bis fi inda and the pub ic, that he comtant'y keep on band a large annrtment of chi diem wilow Coaehea, Chairs, Crad ea, market and travel ling baiketi. and every variety of basket work manufactured. Cauntry VerchanU and other! who wiah to purchaie turh titie'ea, pood and cheap, would da well to call on him, aa they are al manufac tured by him inthe beat manner. 1'hi'ade phi-. Junt 3, 1848. 1y - CARD K SEAL. EXGRAVIXG, 1 WM O MASON. 4S Chetmit it. S duorx above indit., Philadelphia Enjrarer ! BVSINESS It VISITING CARDS, .TS'ttch papera. Ltbeli, Door platea. Saata and SUrapi for Odd Fellewa, Sons of Temperance, fcc, fcc Alwayi on hand a general aortmcnt of Fine Fancy Uooda. Gold pena of every quality. Dog Collart in great variety. Enjravera toola .and materia la. .'Acency for tbe Manufacturer of Glaiiera Dia--tmmdf. : - " : ' OtdrMgwr mail (peat paid) will be punctually attended to. , Philadelphia, April'l, 1R48 J ots33s-rJE:irBL riux pniBKZuss riAxro roarrs. (TABE SUU SCai bF.R baa been appointee agent l.for theaaWol CONRAD MEVER'S CKLE ATED PRE vi 1 U M ROSE WOOD PIANOS. t thia place. Thete Pianoa have a plain, mil aive and beautiful eiterior finish, and, 'for depth of tone, and elegance of workmar.ahiei, are not fcurpataed by any in the United Sute'a Thaa inatrumenta are highly approved of by 'the moat emitaent Profeaaota and Composer of Muaic in iIm and other cine. For qualities of tone, touch and keeping in ton npon Concert pilch, tbey cannot be sue pas ed by either American or European piano. Suffice it to lay that Madame CttlelUn, W. V Wallace. Vieus Temps, and hi sistt-r, tha cele brated Pianist, and many other ol tha most dia tinquished performers, have given these insttu ments preference over alt other They have also r.eeived the first notice of the three lt Exhihitiona. and the laat Silver M-dal j tbe Frankliu Institute in 1813, was swarded to them, wbicb, with other premiums from tbe Hne source, may be seen at the Ware-room No. Si south Fourth st. . rrAnolber Silver Medal w awarded to C Meyer, by the Frahklin Institute, Oct. 1843 for tha best Piano in the exhibition. Again at the exhibition of the Franklin Insti tute, Oct 1840, the first premium and medal was awarded to (!. Meyer for hi Pianos, although it bad been awarded at tbe exhibition of the year befora, on the ground that ha bad made still creat or improvement in bi Instruments within the Ml) I) months. Agaiaat tha last exhibition of the Franklin Institute, 1847, another Premium wa awarded to C. Meyer, for the beat Piano in the exhibition .At Btwton, t their last axhtbitioiv, Sent. iSiT. C. Meyer received tbe nut silver Medal etf pi ploma, for lb best square Piano in the exhibition Tbe Piano will aold at the rfarnilseia ter'aloweei Philadelphia price, if not something lower. Perse art requested ta call and exam in for tbcatsal, at tbe residence of tha tub amber. ni , H B. MASSER. Sanbnry, April 8, 1848 iii .. j i mi - '. I.l i i'.. ' e Drtjvli, CAkuh rind Variety ;.':.j,ST01vE.""!:;,a BOCfciUS AND BROTHER, tH MAM ACTlKERa, AND DEALERS IN COMBS VARIETIES A North Third. btlw Knee ft. and North EjI tonntr of Third and Market ttreet, ym&ASBU'HiA. yiIEn.E tbey offer lor ' a general assort- meat of ail kind of Biushr. Comb nd varieties avbirb Ibef are determined to (ell Jawr lM r b purchased setebrrn. Country Merchant nd other Purobasiiuf in lbebov 'inn wil find it lo their edvnU to ea before purchasing a'avwbera a (he qi.a'ily end price will be lul'y guaranteed nio-t e'l tea. petition fr:rt.e'.'jr. i, fire S, 11S- iy t FirnTitEti Passage rnoM roxton's adven- TVllES IN MEXICO AND THE P.OCKY , MOUNTAINS. BEAVR AND BEAVER TRAPPERS IN THE ROtkV MOUNTAINS. Buaveii has so depreciated in value with in the last few years, thas trapping has al most been abandoned ; the price paid for the skin of this Valuable animal having fal len from six and fight dollars per pound to o? "llaJ1, which hardly pays the expen- of li'Sir animals, ami equips.!!! ! aM i V . . - , I hunt, and is certainly no aaetii; e remit- neration for the incredible hardships, toil, and danger; which are undergone by the hardy trappers in the course of their adven turous expedition?. The cause of the great decrease in value of beaver fur is the sub stitute which has been lout id for .it in skins of the fur-seal and nutria the improved preparation of other skins of little value, such as the hare and rabbit and, more than all, in the use of silk in the manufac ture of hats, which has in a great measure superseded that of the beaver. Thus the course of the trapper is levelled against all the new-fashioned materials of l'aris hats ; and the light and (h)airy gossamer ol twelve-and-six is anathemised in the moun tains in a way which would be highly dis tressing to the feelings of Messrs. Jupp and Johnson, . and other artists in the ventila-ting-gossamej: line. . . Thanks to the innovation, however, a little breathing-time has been allowed the persecuted castor; and this valuable fur bearing animal, which otherwise would, in the course of a few years, have become ex tinct, has now a chance of multiplying, and will in a short time again become abund ant; for, although not a very prolific ani mal, the beaver has perhaps, fewer natural enemies than any other o( ic feroe nntum, and being at the same time a wise and care ful one, provides against all contingencies ot cold and hunger, which in northern cli males carry oil so large a proportion ol their bfcrtcftro of CvaDcI. brother beasts. country, but for the daring enterprise of The beaver was once found in every part ! these nn-n, would be even now a term in ol North America from Canada to the Gulf j conitu to geographers, as indeed a great of Mexico, but has now gradually retired portion still is ; but there is not an acrethat from the encroachments and the persecu- has not been passed and repassed by trnp tions of civilized man, and is met with only pers in their perilous excursions. The in the far,. Far West, on the tributaries of, mountains and streams still retain the names tbe great rivers, and .thy. streams which j assigned to them Ly the rude hunters; and water the mountain-valleys , in the great i these alone, are the hardy pioneers who chain of the. Rocky Mountains. . On. the ! have paved the way for the settlement of waters of the Platte and Arkansas they are the western country. . , still numerous, and within the Mast two Trappers are of two kinds, the "hired ypars have increased considerably in num- hand" and the "free trapper:" the former bers: but the best trapping-ground now is j hired for the hut.t by the fur companies; on the streams running through the Bayou j the latter, supplied with animals and traps Salado, and the Old and New Parks, all of j by the company, is paid a certain price for which are elevated mountain valleys. The habits of the beaver present quite a study to the naturalist, and they are cer tainly the most sagaciously instinctive of all quadrupeds. .Their dams affords a les son to the engineer, their houses a study for the architect oi comfortable abodes, while their indefatigable and unremitting labor industry are models to be followed by ; the working man. . Tha lodge of the bea- j ver is generally excavated inthe stream, the entrance being invariably underwater: but not unfrequently, where the banks are i flat, they construct lodges in the stream it- self, of a conical form, of limbs and branches ol trees woven together and cemented with mud. For the purpose of forming dams, for the necessary timber for their lodges, or for the bark which they store for their win ter's supply of food, the beaver often fells a tree eight or ten inches in diameter, throwing it, with the skill of an expert woodsman, in any direction he pleases, al- ways selecting a tree above stream, in or-j der that the logs may be carried down with it to their destination. The log is then ' chopped into small lengths, and, pushing them into the water, the beaver steers them : to the lodge or dam. These trees are as cleanly cut as they could be by a sharp ax, the gouging furrows made by tho animal's strong teeth cutting into ths very centre of the trunk, the notch being as smooth as sawed wood. With his broad tail which is twelve or '. made fast lo the belt by a chain or guard of fourteen inches long, and about four in ' steel, hich also supports a little buck-skin breadth, and covered w ith a thick scaly ; case containing a whetstone, i A tomahawk skin, the beaver plasters his lodge, thus ma- j is also often added; and of course, a Ions, king it perform all the offices of a hand. heavy rifle is part and parcel of his equip They say that, when the beaver's tail be- j ment. I had nearly forgotten the pipe comes dry, the animal dies, but, whether holder, which hangs round his neck, ami is this is the case or not, I have myself seen . generally a gage d 'amour, and a triumph of the beaver when at work return to the wa- squaw workmunship, in the shape of a terand plunge his tail into the stream, and : heart, garnished with beads and porcupine- men resume ins laoor wnn renewed vigor ; and X have also seen them, with their bodies on the bank, thumping the water with their tails with a most comical perse verence. The female leldom produces more than three kittens at a birth, but I know an in stance where one was killed with young, having no, Jess than eleven in her. They Jive Jo aconsiderable age," arid I once ate Hie taif of an bid "man" beavef whose head was perfectly' gray with aae, and his beard was of the same venerable hue, notwith standing Which his tail was as tender a a young racoon. The kittens are as playful as their namesakes of the feline race, and it is highly amusing to see an old one with grotesque gravity inciting her young to gambol about her, while she herself is en gaged about some household work. Tho nutrias of Mexico are identical with the beavers of tha northern parts of North America, a species of seal, or, as I have heard it described, a hybrid between the seal and the beaver, is called nutria quite a distinct animal, however, from the Mexi can nutria. The trappers of the Rocky Mountains belong to a 'genus" more approximating to the primitive savage than, perhaps any oth er clas of civilized man. Their lives be. ing spent in the remote wilderness of the mountains, with no other companion than Nature hervlf, their habits and character assume a rnost slnjuiar Cast of simplicity ' mingled with ferocity, appearing to lake Kttrii coloring irom xiic nceiit-a unu uwjcuia which surround them. Knowing no wants saving those of nature, their sole care is to procure sufficient food to support life, and the necessary clothing to protect them from the rigorous climate. This, with the as sistance of their triirty rifles, they are gen erally able to i'(Tt-ct, but sometimes al the expense of great peril and hardship. When engaged in their avocation, the natural in stinct of primitive man is ever alive, for the purpose ol guarding against danger and the provision of necessary food. en observers ot nature, they rival tne e 1- ' l- - tM,l onr m mis ui nrev in Discovering mc i.-u . habits of game, and in their skill anu Can ning in capturing it. Constantly exposed to perils of all kinds, they become callous to any feeling of dangpr, and destroy hu man as well as animal life with as little scruple and as freely as they expose their own. Of laws, human or divine, they nei ther know nor care to know. Their wish is their law, and to atlain it they do not scruple as to ways and means. Firm friends and bitter enemies, with them it is "a word and blow," and the blow often first. They may have good qualities, but they are those of the animal ; and people fond of giving hard names call them re vengeful, blood-thirsty . drunkards (wlien the wherewithal is to be had), gamblers, re gardless of the laws of mntm and iitum in fact, "White Indians." However, there are exceptions, and ltave met honest mountain-men. Their animal qualities, how ever, are undeniable. Stronsr, activp, har dy as bears, daring, expert in the usp of their weapons, they are just what uncivili zed while man might be supposed to be in a brute state, depending upon his instinct for the support of life. .Not a hole or corner in the vast wilderness of the "Far West" but has been ransacked by these hardy men. From the Mississippi to the mouth of the Colorado of the West, from the fro zen regions of thf North to the Gila in Mexico, the beaver-hunter has set his traps in every creek and stream. All this vast his furs and peltries, There is also the trapper "on his own hook ;" but this class is very small. He has his own animals and traps, hunts where he chooses, and sells his peltry to whom ho pleases. : ! . On starting for a hunt, the trapper fits himself out with the necessary equipment, either from the Indian trading forts.orfrom some of the petty traders coureursdes hois who frequent the western country. This equipment consists usually of two or three horses or mules one for saddle, the other for packs and six traps which are carried in a bag of leather called a trap sack. Ain- munition, a few pounds ot tobacco, dressed deer-skins for moccasins, &c, are carried in a wallet of dressed buflalo-skin, called a possible-sack. His "possibles" and "trap sack" are generally carried on the saddle mule when hunting, the others being pack ed with the furs. The costume of the trap per is a hunting-shirt ol dressed buckskin, ornamented with long fringes; pantaloons of the same material, and decorated with porcupine-quills and long fringes down the outside of the leg. A flexible felt hat and moccasons clothe his extremities. Over his left shoulder and under his right arm hang his powder-horn and bullet-pouch, in ; which he carries his balls, flint, and steel, ; and odds and ends of all kinds. Round the ' waist is a belt, in which is stuck a large i butcher-knife in a sheath of buffalo hide. ; qui Thus provided, and having determined the locality of his trapping-ground, he starts to the mountains, sometimes alone, some times with three or four in company, as soon as the breaking of the ice allows him to commence operations. Arrived on his hunting-grounds he follows the creeks and streams, keeping a sharp lookout for "sign." If he sees a prostrate cotton-wood tree, he examines it to discover if it be tbe work of a beaver whether "thrown" for the pur. pose of food, or to dam the stream. The track of the beaver on the rnud or sand un der the bank is also examined ; and if the "sign" be fresh he sets h'u trap in the run of the animal, hiding it under water, and attaching it by a stout chain to a picket driven in the bank, or to a brush or tree. A "float-stick" is made fast to the trap by a a cord a few feet long, which, if the ani. mal carry away the trap, floats on the wa ter and points out its position. The trap is baited with the "mediciue," an oily sub. stance obtained from a gland in the scrotum of the beaver, but distinct from the teste. A stick is dipped into this and planted over the trap ; and the beaver,, attracted by tho smell, and wishing a close inspection, very foolishly pots his leg inter the trap, and is a "gonewaver. .i . When a lodge is discovered, the trap is set it the edge of the dim, at the point where the animal passes from deep to shoal water, and always under water. Early in the morning the hunter mounts lib mule and examines the traps. The captured ani mah are skinned, and tho tails, which are a great dainty, carefully packed into camp. Tho skin is then stretched over a hoop or framework of osier-twigs, and is allowed lo dry, the llosh and fatty substance being carefully scraped. When dry, it is folded into a square sheet, the fur turned inward, and the bundle, containing about ten to twenty skins, tightly pressed and corded, is ready fur transportation. During the hunt, regardless of Indian vi cinity, the fearless trapper wanders far and ui-jr i'1 search of "sign." His nerves must ever be in a i'!n of tension, and his mind ever pres-r.t at his call. His fagle eye sweeps round the Country, art:! in an in stant detects any foreign- ap,?Para'.,c A turned leaf, a blade of grass pressed u,?xvil the uneasiness of the wild animals, the flight of birds, are all paragraphs to him written in nature's legible hand and plainest lan guage. All the wits of the subtile savage are called into play to gain an advantage over the wily woodsman ; but with the natural instinct of primitive man, the whi e hunter has the advantages of a ui'i?ed mind, and, thus provided, seldom fails to outwit, under equal advantages, the cunning savage. " ' ' Sometimes, following on his trail, the Indian watches him sethistrapion ashnib belted stream, and, passing up the bed, like Bruce of old, so that he may leave no track, he lies in wait in the hushes until the hun ter comes to examine his carefully-set traps. Then, waiting; until he approaches his am hiishnient within a few feet, whiz flies the home-drawn arrow, never failing at such close quarters to brin j the victim to the around. For one white scalp, however, that dangles in the smoke of an Indian's lodup, a dozen black ones, at the end of the hunt, ornament the camp-fires of the ren dezvous. At a certain time, when the hunt is over, or they have loaded their pack-animals, the trappers proceed to the "rendez vous," the locality of which has been pre viously agreed upon ; and here the traders and agents of the fur companies await them, with such assortment of goods as their hardy customers may require, including generally a fair supply of alcohol. The trappers drop in singly and in small bands, bringing their packs of beaver to this mountain mar ket, not unfrequently to the value ol a thousand dollars each, the produce of one hunt. The dissipation of the "rendezvous," however, soon turns the trapper's pocket inside out. The jroii-ls brought by the tra ders, although of the most inferior quality, are sold at enormous prices: coffee, twen ty and thirty shillings a pint-cup, which is the usual measure; tobacco fetches ten and fifteen shillinrjrs a plug: alcohol, from twen ty to fifty shtllinrsn pint; gunpowder, six teen shillings a pint cup : au.1 all other arti cles at proportionality . evhorbilar.t puces. The "beaver" is purchased at from, two to eiht dollars, per pound; the Hudson's Bay Company alone buying it by pluie, or "plew," that is, the whole skin, giving a: certain price for skins, whether of old bea ver or "kittens." ' ' ' The rendezvous is one continued scene of drunkenness, gambling, and brawling and fighting, as long as the money and credit of the trappers last. Seated, Indian fashion, round the fires, with a blanket spread before them, groups are seen with their "decks" of cards, playing at "euker," "poker," and "seven-up," the regular moun tain games. The slakes are "beaver," which is here current coin : and when the fur is gone, their horses, mules, rifles, and shirts, hunting-packs, and breeches, are staked. Daring gamblers make the rounds of the camp, challenging each other to play for the trapper's highest stake his horse, his squaw (if he have one, and as once happened, his scalp. There goes "bos and beaver!" is the mountain expression when any great loss is sustained ; a'nd, sooner or later,"hos and beaver" invariably find their way into the insatiable pockets of the tra ders. . A trapper often squanders the pro- utice ot Ins hunt, amounting to hundreds ol dollars, in a couple of hours; and, supplied on credit with another equipment, leaves tho rendezvous for another expedition, which has the same result time alter tiuip, although one tolerably successful hunt would enable him to return to the settle ments and civilized life, with an ample sum to purchase and stock a farm, and enjoy himself in ease and comfort the remainder ofhisdays. r An pld trapper, a French Canadian, as sured me that he received fifteen thousand dollars for beaver dunrtg- a sojourn of twen ty years in the mountains. Every year ho resolved in hta mind to' return to Canada, and, with this object, always converted his fur into cash; but a tortoiiht at the "ren dezvous" always cleaned hini out, and at the end of twenty years, he had npt even credit sufficient to buy a pound of powder. Thpse annual gatherings are often the scenes of bloody duels, for over their cups and cards no men are more quarrelsome than your mountaineers. . Rifles, at twenty paces, settle all differences, and, as may he imagined, the fall of one or the other oi" the combatants is certain, or, as sometimes hap pens, both fall to the word "tire." FUA1KIE DOCJM AND THEIR CITlKii. No animals in theso western regions inter ested me so much as the prairie-dugs. These lively littlo fellows select fur the site of their towns a level piece of prairie with a sandy or gravelly soil, out of which they oan excavate their dwellings with great facility. Being of a merry, sociuluble dUpudtion, thoy, unlike the bear or wolf, choose to live in a large community, wheie laws exist far the- publio good, and there is loss danger to be appre hended from the attacks of thoir numerous ' and crafty enemies. Then town final n extent - and population the largest cities of loo, I fear, is not tho welcome guest he re Europe, soma extomlina many miles in length ! poits himself to be; for often I have slain w i:h considerable regularity in their streets, and tho bouses of a uniform stylo ofarchi:cct ttire. Although their form- of governmcii may bu styled republican, yet great respect is paid Id lliuir chief magistrate, who, gene rally a dog of large dimensions and imposing appearance, venule. in a house conspicuous for size in thu centre of the town, where he may always bo seen on bis house-top, regarding with dignified complaisaney the varionsoccu pitiims of the busy population some indus triously bearing to tbe granaries tho winter supply of roots, others building or repairing their houses ; while many, their work being over, fit dialling on their house-tops, watch ing the gambols of the juveniles as they play around thorn. Their hospitality to strangers is Unbounded. The owl, who on the bare 1. 1.. r.,,1 n . ...i. :.. pi,." I" , utiuiu ii unu n lie; w, lut. III which to boiiu be' Cih 13 provmed witn a comfortable lodging, wiiC:e sh? may in so- curity rear her round-eyed progeny j and the rattlesnake, in spile of bis bad character, ;s likewise cnteitaineJ with similar hospitality, although it is very doubtful if it is not sorne- tiaics gtossly abused ; and many a childless dog may perhaps justly altribute his calamity to the partiality of the epicurean, snake for the tender meat of the delicate pfftirie-pup. However,, it is, certain. .that the snake is. a constant guest; and, whether admitted into ihe domestic circle of tho dog fumily, or liv ing in separate apartments, or in copartner ship with tho owl, is an acknowledged mem ber of the community at large. The prairie-dog (a species of marmot) is somewhat longer than the guinea-pig, of u of a light brown or sandy color, and with n bend resembling that a young lerrier pup. It is also furnished with a littlo stumpy tail, which, when its owner is excited, is in a per petual jerk and flutter. Frequently, when hunting, I have amused myself fur hours in watching their fiulicksome motions, lying concealed behind one of their conical houses. Theso Rie raisud in tho form of a cone, two or three feet above the ground, and then des cending obliquely into the interior. Of course on ihe fiist approach of such a monster as man, all the dogs which have been scattered over Ihe town scamper to their boles as fast as their little legs will admit, and concealing utl hut their heads- atid tails, bark lustily their displeasure nt the instrusion. When U.ey have sufficiently exhibited their daring, every dogs dives into his burrow, but two or throe : who remain an stiutiiic!, chattering iu high dudgeon, until ihe enemy is within a few paces of them, when, they take - the usual Kuniuicitvti and the town is sileut and dcseit e l. Lying perfectly still for several minutes I could observe an old fellow raise his head cautiously above his hole ami j-cconnoitor, mid if satisfied, that, the coast was plear, hof wouiii commence a snort oarK. i ins oai K, by the way, from its resemblance to that of a dog, has given that jiajno to ihis Ul'ilo. ani mal, but it is more like that of a wooden toy-, dug, which is made, to .bark by raising aud depressing tho bellows under the., figure- When this warning has been given, oihcrs are soon seen lo emerge . from their houses, and assured of their security play and frisk about. Aftor a longer delay, tattlesnnkes is sue from the holes, and coil themselves in the sunny eido of the hillock, erecting their treacherous heads, and rattling an anury note of warning it, in tho play, a thoughtless pup approaches ton near; and, lastly, a sober owl appears, and, if tho sun be low, hops through ihe town, picking up tho lizards and came. Icons, which every where abound. At the first intimation, of danger given by the eenti ue'.s. li.',', tho stragglers hasten to their holes, tumbling over owls and rattlesnakes, who hiss and rattle angrily nt being distmbed. Every one scrambles to his ow n domicil, and if, in his Iti'.rry, he should mistake his dwelling, or rush for safety into any other than his own, he is soon made sensible of . his error, and, without eoreiHony, ejected Then, every house occupied, commences such a volley of of barking, aud such a twinkling of little heads aud tails, which alone appear above ths holes to defy description. Tho lazy snakes, re. gardless of dangpr, remain coiled up, and only evinced their consciousness by an occasional rattle; while Iho owfs, in tho hurry and con fusion, belaka themselves wflh sluggish win to wherever a biish of sago or grease-wood affords them temporary concealment. Tho ' praivlc-dng leads a life of constant a larm,'and numerous enemies' are ever on the Watch to surprise him'.' : The hawk' arid th engle, hovering high in air, wntoh their towns and pounce suddenly tipon them, never fail ing to carry vi in tkeir cruel laloiuj some unhappy member of he eommuity. The coyote, too, no heriditary foe, lurka behind a hillock,' watching patiently for hours until -an unlucky straggler approaches within reach of his murderous spring. In the winters when the prairie-dog, snug in his subtorrcan abode, and with granaries well-tilled, never care to expose hiss littlo noso to tho icy Mast which sweep across tho plains, but, between eating and sleeping, parses nerrt1y the frozen win ter, ho is often roused from his warm bed, and almost congealed with terror by hearing tho snorting yelp of the half-famished wolf, who, mad with hunger,' asaulls with . tooth and claw, the frost-bormd roof of his house, and with almost soperlupine strength, hurls down the well-cenionted walls, tears up the passages, plunging hi cold none into tho very chambers snorting into them with his earth stuffed nose, in ravenous anxiety, and drives tbe poor Httla inmate into tha abest remote corners, too o!':er. to be dragged forth, wd unhesitatingly dersured. Ihe rattlesnake the wily serpent with a belly to much protu berant to bo either healthy or natural, and bearing, in its outline, a very strong resem blance to tho figure of a prairie-dog. MISERIES OF CIVILIZED LIFE. Proceeding, on my arrival at St. Louis, to an excellent hotel called the "Planter's House," I that night, for tho first time for nearly ten months, slept upon a bed much to the astonishment of limb and body, which long nccusatomed to no softer mattress than another earth, tossed about nil night, tumble to appreciate tho unusual luxury. I found chairs a positive nuisance, and in my own room caught myself in the act. more than once, of squatting cross-leggp.d on the floor. The gieatest treat to me wasbread ; I thought it tho best part of the profuse dinners of the Planter's House, and consumed prodigious quantities of the staff of life, lo the astonish ment of the waiters. Forks, too, I thought were mot useless superfluities, and more than once I found myself on the point of grabbing a tempting leg of mutton mountain fashion, and butchering ofT a hunter's mouth ful. But what words can Jcsdrib 'he agony of squet-zingwiy-feet into boots, aftcrnearly a year of moccasons, or discarding my turban for a great boardy bat, w hich seemed to crush my temples! The.ini! its of getting into a horrible :coat of .brace,, Maistcgats, gloves, and all such implements of torture were too acuta to bo. described, and there fore I draw a veil over them. GOLD PENS. An active competition in the manufacture of gold pens has brought down the price from ten dollars to one and two dollars, according to finish ; and as might bo expected they have got into general use. A New York cor respondent of thu Charleston Courier has giv en, in one of his late letters, an interesting account of th invention of gold pens and the manner in which they aiv made, a portion of which we subjoin : The first pen of this sort ever used was in 1H38. '. Tho idea of the utility of gold for tho purpose was conceived by Rev. Mr. Cleveland. He communicated this idea to Mr. Brown, who improved on it and immediately went into tho business He was tallowed by some half dozen others, liaglcy is now tho most extensive manufacturer of the article, and ho employes iu it a capital of eighty thousand dollars His expenses are one thousand dol lars per week. Piatt & Brothers, in tho ear ly stage of tho manufacture, made a contract, w ith Brown &. Bagley for all the pens they made, and thus had tho monopoly of tho market for threG years. TheV sold seventy five thousand dollars per annum of this ai ti cloyMearly one half of which was profit. Uag lcy tlusiv went on and has made a more rapid fortune.. His pens rank the first in the mar ket, though Brown's , and the ''Richelieu ' pen are equally good. Ii: the TTianufacture of pens the cold is first foiled out in ribands, and then cut with a'die- to the required shape,- the points put on and then ground down to the required nib The points aie irridum, a new mclal formed w ith platinum. Tho points are all imported,' gen erally without the ceremony of an introduc tion to the custom-house, and cost from seven to fifty-five dollars per ounce. The pens and cases soil from ten to thirty dollars per dozen- Tbe manufacture of the silver cases is a dis tinct business aud employs a capital. It is not easy to make an estimate of the number of pens manufactured per annum, but it is not less than one million, of which Brown fc Bagley mako about one-half. A person who hal not thought of the subject, would scarce ly suppose that eight hundred pounds of gold were used every year in the manufacture of such a trilling article as pens a business un known ten years ago yet such is the fact, demand for the article is enormous, and it is now difficult to find a person who writes at all unprovided with this most economical of all pens. One export of one thousand gross has been made to England, where they sell for a guinea a piece. ; Kajtlinu fob a Woman A young girl residing in the upper part of the city was not long since desperately attacked w ith gold fe ver.. . The Sacramento and its precious sands were ever before her mind hut though hand some and of unblemished reputation, she was. entirely Without tho means of accom plishing her ivialies. XHtyc passed and yot she seemed no nearer, curing a passaa to California that at .ust.M Forteiiately at kt she became acquainted with a party of youn men who were going out on board one of the vessels for Sair ' Francisorx ' They wished a cook and ut once agreed to rallle for he. The amount paid for chances was, to ho given to her, and the fortunate fellow who won, was to marry her before leaving tho city. If she did not fancy tho person on whom, iho lot fell, then she was to pay her own passage out and under tho protection of tho whole party, wasTo cook and wash for them. The money was accordingly paid and the girl rarilod. There was one person whom she hoped would win, hut the fates were against her choice. A little shoemaker won hor. The girl wo-dd not marry hiin, but true to her promise she wrote a furew!l letter to her friondsin Connecticut, and thou took passage with her comrade adventurers -Y. f. Sun. A turk was publicly beheadod at Constan tinople on tha 30:h November, for the crime of having, ' while in a stale tf intoxication, said that h -Jj4 net -aie a straw for Allah or tha prophet. t BENTON AND CALIFORNIA h.m.n. . Mr. Bunion made a speech a few days ago'' upon the California bill ngninst thu proposi tion to sell mineral lands in two sere lots, as ' no two lots of t'.iat sizo would bo alike. The value can only bo told by digging, am! rIuiiy' two acres will contain no gold, and may patches of twenty or thirty feet square will contain a rich deposit. Tho object is to find it, aud that is to be done by huu'ing, for which permils arc required aud protection in the discovery. Tho following remarks upon tho gold washings are interesting : Theso washings are called in Spanish yl ccr, from the Latin placcrc, to please ; becausoi it is a pleasing thing to find the shining gold under one's feet. But it is a transient plea, sure. There is no fee simple iu it ; there is not even a life estate in it ; not even a loase( for a year, a mouth, a week or a day. The pleasure is soon gone. Kxhnnstrd placcrt now exist in Now Mexico, formerly j iclding much, t now somo twenly-five or fifty cents a day, and only pursued by the poorest Mexicans. . Regular mining has followed there, and i.t now yielding considerable quantities These . washings of California are marvellously rich ; ' for we have to believe what is certified to us . by so many witnesses : but they are nol tho richest th it evst woro scon. Far from it. ThuaO of Brazil; in the mountains, back of Rio Janci- . ro, in tliK time of Lord Anson's voyage, . say k one hundred years ago, were far richer; and yet they have been exhausted doloiigUiata.il, memory of them is lost, and their history o;:.- ly lives iu old books. Two millions sterling, teu millions of dollars were annually sent, to Europe, lor years, from .these washing They wenr worked by slaves, who, to secure, their fidelity and industry, were usually al-. lowed by their masters all the. proceeds of the day above a given amount ; and iu thai way many slaves became rich, lurchnsed their freedom, aud then bought slaves of their own, lived iu splendor and opulence, nnd laid the foundation of families. Vet theso wash ings aie exhausted, time out of mind, and so will be those of California, mid the sooner ihe better. I am a friend to a gold currency but not to gold mining. That is a pursuit which tho experience of nations shows to ha both impoverishing and demoralizing to a, nation. I regret that we have these mines in California; but they are there, and I am for getting rid of thoui nssoon as possible. Mako the working as free as possible. Instead of hoarding-, and holding thorn up; and selling in driblets, lay them open to industry nnd enter pris. Lay them open to natural capital to labor to tho man that has stout arms aud a willing heart.' Give him a fair chance. Give all a fair chance. It is no matter ho digs up tho goldj or where it goes. Tho digger-, will not eat it, and it will go where commerce, will carry it. The nations which havo in dustry which havo agriculture, commerce, and manufactures they will get the gold, provided always that they keep out small pa-, per money. Not sales, but permits, is the proper tnodo to follow, nnd t)ie only piactica-, blemode. - ' - - , t:.T '"' ' CAVAICNAC. The great men of dark eras are ever enfor-" tunate, and yet" not wholly so.' Cato who wrenched from his gored frame, his own bowels, was happier in his death' tfrari) . th: Ca-srir who sank "even at the base of Pom pey's statue." No man with a just and well baianccd mind would prefer the triumph ef Napoleon to the defeat of Cavaignac. Of the former we have yet to know that he has a virtue; of the latter that ho has a vice. Ca vaiirnac has manifested in all that has been required from him, in a season of the most formidable dsr.ger; every virtuo that elevates human nature. Ho may die undignified by office, but will live, in after times, with a glory to which a crown could not add ona ray of light. California, and Caixctta. The Londoir Timej in speaking of the lack of public spirit in Calcutta aud Bombay, draws the follow leg parallel : California was scarcely known a )ear back but unless public opinion shall soon make it self heard, it will scarcely appear too much to predict that its chief port on the Pacific will bo opened up by a line of a railway from New Yoik, and with a steam licet to Canton, before tho first locomotive will have started from either of tho gigantio and now compara tively anciont cities of Calcutta or Bombay. Many VLABssiNcr. ex-Lieutonanl Governor Childs, of Berkshire than a young man, was bitten by a mad dog, which resulted in symp toms of hydrophobia. His father, an eminent physician, gave mercury hi doses sufficient to produce salivation, and, though tllo" patichi sulTered dreadfully, lie vas, through 'thrf un tiring efTorts of his father, finally cured. Bcj Ion Post. ' '' ' " ' " ' "Pair," aald Mr. lb Mr; B "will you have the complaisance to take my cloak in your carriage to town V "With pleasure ; but how will you get it again !" :Oh, very easily," replied the modeet appli cant, "1 shall remain it it." ' Gaotse Killed vTen:aaeH. Number grouse nfo killed by coming n routaot v illi telegraph wire, near Chicago. Thy are fre quently picked up along the line, often strik ing w ith such force as to completely . sever their necks from their bodies. "War vo toc set jour cup of coff- i p)o the chair, Mr. James t sakl a woithy land lady, one morning at breakfast. "It is 5- very vf td', iM'tiii," replied Mr. Jsmrs t- j mur&'y, 1 ithiufht ! Aould i'T-V?,"'