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SUNBURY, NOntHlIMBfeRLAND COUNTY, TA., SATURDAY, JANUARY 13, 1840.
OLD, SERIES VOL. 0, NO. 16.
..v.l tU.i ! ni - . s .; . . . i j ' in, . , , . ' . , '
. . . ...... & T i- .
sa-sse s I I . 1 ii - - 1 i. .. - - 1 . - . . 1 . t. - . . - . 1 1
CSk MASfefete C,?4I lt STREET. ' 5
r5ttk tr THE AMfiRICAIV.
i .TfrB-XltWllCXN Ii aMuh(4 every Bulunhjr TWO
tt)OIl.XR8 per annum to b paid half yearly In advanc.
Wo saner discontinued until u arraarnna are paid. -
Ail aummuiucationi or letter, on buainrm rrlatiiif to the
TTmce, ta insure attention, niun oe runr rAiu.
Three eoiaa lo addreea, '7 . .
JBeVen h Vo t , Do ,; , '
Fifteen . , & . P ' -v KUDO
Five doilferi Jn adrMca 1M pay for three year'a tubecrip-
OB IO UW AlUCriCKU, -f , : l. - '
Oaa Rquaaj of ft 1fma t (Une) v,,.-1
. Every lubeeqaeat juaanlon, 'Z ' .
, One square, monlhi, "
taineia CaNC of. Five linet, prf annum, "
ercnantf am oinera, aorertinnf try ina
year, with the privilege of iniertief dif-
lerent aovertiaemenu weeny.
'W Larger Advertieementa, aa per agreement.
H. B 1CAS3EP., '
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
" lUMBUBT. PA.
Buainee ailendej to in the Counliee of Nor
kutrlwland. Union, Lycoming oi Columbia.
.t ;.,'.. !: Refer to i
P. & A. IIoviii'iit,
Low an & Biii.ri,
So'Mtki & iol9aai,
. -'' RtfOLi)i, McFtii At Co.
' ' 8mi, 'loon 5c Co.,
' TUB CHEAP BOOK STORE. ,
Cmar Niw & Skcond-hakd Book Stoat,
North Wul corner nf Fourth and Arch Strtetr
Law Booki, Theological and Clattical Books,
BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORICAL BOOKS,
. SCHOOL HOOKS. .
SclKMTIFlO AND MATHEMATICAL BooXi.
i Juvenile Books, in great variety.
Hymn Booki and Prayer Book,' Bibles, all tizei
Blank Booh, Writing Paper, and Stationary,
Whotitnl and Retail.
ffTOem prleee are much kiwer than the liouia pricei.
fW" Libiariea and email parcel! of bnnk purchaaed.
ff Booki impnrtnl tn order from London.
Philadelphia, April I, li-lf y
POFJTEP. & E1TGLXSZ,
CROCERS COMMISSION MERCHANTS
j 1 and Ilrnlera In Seeds,
-. .V.. S. Arch St. PHILADELPHIA.
CoBitanlly on hand a general assortment of
GROCERIES, TEAS, WINES, SEEDS,
' LIQUORS, &c.
"Ta which they reapectfully invite (fee attention
of the public.
'All kinds of country produce taken in exchange
for Groceries or sold on Com mils inn.
Philad; April 1, 18-18 .
MANUF ACTOR Y,
Wa.'lS Stuth Stamd ttrcct East tide, down ilairt,
, HENRY, COULTER,
BESPECTKULLY informs bis friends and
the public, that be constantly keeps on
. large assortment of cbi drens willow
Coachea. Chairs. Craves, market and travel
lipg baskets, and every variety of basket work
Cauntry Merchants and others who wish to
archase sueh articles, good aud cheap, would
o well to call on him. as they are all matiutat
tared by him inthe best manner.
Philadelphia, June 3, 1848. I y ;.
CAItD & SEAL. C!f GRAV1NO.
' ' ' WM. G. MASON.'
4 Chitnut it. tdoort above indtt.. Philadelphia
- X a rarer l BUSINESS k VISITINO CARDS
. Watch papers, Labels, Poor plates, Seals and
Stamnt for Odd Fellows, Sons of Temperance
lie., fcc-rAlways on band a general assortment
f Fine Fancy Goods, tioltl pens ol every quality
avok voiiara in great vaiieiy. C4iis;iv.
and materiala ' 1
Agene tor the Manufacturer of Glaziers Dia
' Orders per mail (post paid) Will be punctually
attended to. . ' -i ' .' ,, ,
, Philadelphia,. April 1,1848 Jr
flvHE SUBSCRIBER has been appointee agent
1 for the sale of CONRAD MEYER S CELE
BRATED PREMIUM ROSE WOOD PIANOS.
al thia nlace. These Pianos have a plain, mas
sive and beautiful exterior 'finish', and, for depth
'of tone, and elegance of workmanship, are not
surnassed bv any in the Lnited btates
Tfaeaa instrument! are highly approved of by
A most -eminent Professors aud Composers of
Music mi this and other cities. . , ,
For qualities of tone, touch and keeping in
taae opoa Concert pttebj tbey cannot oa sucpas
' aed by either A merit-en or European Pianos.
Suffice it to say that Madame Castellan, W. V
Wallace.' Vieog Temps, and bia sisttv, tha cele
brated Pianist, and many others of the most die-
-tinquished performers, have given tbese inttru
jnents nreference over all others.
They have also received the first notice of the
.three last Exhibitions, and fhe last Silver Medal
by the Franklin Insthute in 1843, was awarded
tm Ibaro,. which, with other premiums from the
aame source, may be seen at the Ware-room No,
Jsonth Fourth st. " . it-; -;) ;t- i
t DAaother Silver Medal was awarded to C.
Meyer, by the Frahklin Institute, Oct.. 184 9 fit
the best Piano tn The exhibition.
- Aeaii at the exhibition of the Franklin Insti
'ttttf, Oct 1848, the first premium and medal was
awarded ta U. Meyer for his Pianos, although it
bad 1eeti warded t the exhibition nf the year
betnre.on the ground that be bad marie still great-
er improvenents in his Instruments within the
past 18 montbs.
Again the last exhibition of the Franklin
tnerrrate, 1847, another Premium was awarded
te'C.Meyer, jor inenest nana in ibe exhibition.
At Boaton, at their last exhibition, Sept. 1847,
Meyer received the first silver Medal and Di
Blama, for the best sauare Piano in the exhibition
These Pianoe will be sold at the manufactu
rer's lowest Philadelphia prices, if not aatnething
lerwer."i Peraoni art reejaested ta call aad exam
'iaa for tkeeuelvaa. at tha residence of the sub
'ieribaT. " " H.B. MASSER.-
Iswbary, April 8. 1848 .5. j-. ? 1
jpnitby pomb una Variety
f.)6iir 'STOltEs . ', ,
n BOCKIUS AND BROTHER,
AKIi DBAUERS Itf COM BR VARIETIES
aM North Third, beloa Hat St. tmd North
". ' Ejui Conner of Third and Market etrtet,
.'!! t; n yBxz.AAnJBZA. ''' '
WHERCthay ff tor aaa general aasart
aseot of all kinds of Brushes, Combe and
varieties which tbey are determined la sell
Lawer taaa ran. be purchaaed a aewtere.
. Catiy Metchaats and albert Purchasing ia
JaVteeava liaa will f,od it to their advantage to
eatl beiare parrbaaing elsewhere is tha quality
aad pricea artU be fullf guaranteed agaiaet aB
petit iaa. ,
PhRadelfhia, Jane .3, Utl-ly
' IProm the Lady's Wreath. '
v THE TEAR, OR CONSOLATIOrt. .
Translated from the Frtnth of Lamar tine.
BT BOS. ILLlt LIWIS.
Descend, thou silent tear,
. - On Earth's cold bosom talh '
. No pidus hands are near, ' .
No friends on whom 16 call. .
Fall, like tha ltarirtg rain
On rocks, from tow'ring sky, '
Where sun is never seen,
Or wind, to wipe thee dry.
What care mv fellow men
For my poor heart'a deep woe 1
Too far above my pain,
My distant griefs to know.
They're free from doubts or cares;
No clouds their sky shall pall ; -Their
future has no fears ;
Their cup is free from gall. .
That crowd, with friv'lous noise,
Move on, in laughing ghee,
They need no pitying Voice,
To eay, -I wsxe with tbii!"
When friendship turns away, -1
Forgetful of her bond ;
The staff, that was my stay;
Gives way and tears the hand ;
When man, as frail in faith,
To shun contagious woe,
Deserts our dreary path,
And leaves as to tire foe (
The gloomy future bears
No promise for to-morrow 5
The taste of hitler tears
Is the sole bread of sorrow 1
Tis then Thy power relieves
The silence of my breaat ;
'Tis then Thy Hand removes
The icy weight that presa'd.
Thy tender Won), too pure
To rqix with Earth's vain strife,
' Comes Lord, with solace sure,
, When all is lost in life.
Thy Heavenly Love beguiles
Our woes, like friend's embrace,
The world, which aces out smiles,
Their eouroe can never trace.
tn prayer dissolve the soul,
And mingles with the sklea,
Our tears no longer roll
Thy Grace has dried our eyes,
As sunlight, in the glen,
X)n branch and rocky glade,
Breaks through, and dries the rain
That lingered in the shade.
Correspondence of the Boston Atlaa.
OEN'L TAYLOR HIS PERSONAL APPEAR
AKCCE AND MANNERS.
Niw Orleans, Dec. 4, I848
As you may well suppose, the recent visit
of Gen. Taylor to this city created an im
mense sensation. Everybody in N. Orleans of
course had often seen the old hero, but not an
individual of them all had set eyes upon the
President of the republic. Of course, every
body must see Gen. Taylor over again, as if
as indeed is the case some new splendor
were suddenly attached to so popular a per
sonage. Such a hurrying to and fro snch a
running among office-holders and office seek
ers such long faces and bright facea ah you
can better imagine than 1 describe the scene
that followed his landing from the boat
Wearing his usual military coat and cap, he
quietly took his way on foot to his quarters;
but the moment the word went round, 'There's
Old Zack,' he had such an escort that he
found it almost impossible to put one foot
Deiore the other, the old General was
obliged to carry his cap in his hand) bowing
and smiling all the way, with such a perfect
recklessuess of all consequences to his never
surrender principle, (each new bow and smile
raising a hundred new men in his progress,)
that I began to fear the guardian angels of
his neck and life had suddenly deserted their
posts. Then came the loud rorr of artillery
all over the city, and at every new discharge
the old hero's eyes would brighten up, as if
he were admid the blazing cannon at Buena
Vista or Monterey. .1
The President elect is a little above the
middle stature, with a compact frame, and
rather stout withal.. He has just Completed
his fifty-eighth year, and though his hair is
beginning to be a little silvery in hue, he
has none of the marks of age Upon him His
ruddy countenance and almost wonderful ac
tivity, bespeak him in the enjoyment of the
most perfect health , Aa he sits in the jotun-
da of the hotel, chatting with all, hit appear
ance it that of a downright honest man. of
sound sense and great frankaneas,' good hu
mor, and urbanity in his character. You
would hardly take him to be one of the "whose
namea were not born to die.1' He haa not the
commanding figure of Scott, nor the ferocious
nity of Twiggs,' nor yet the aristocratic
bearing of that Orson of warriors, Harney.
Neither is that stamp of intellectuality upon
his brow which marks Webster, Clay, or Cal
houn, among a thousand. But he haa a hich
and lofty brow thai amplitude of Jbrahead
wmcn proclaims the intellect within. ' Tho
eharadterislio expression of his countenance
that which lights it up ia conversation and
makes you loth to take your a yet from it is
benevolence. The sunlight of hit heart beams
right through it, and wanna you at once to
ward! him. . But auohao VtaaQanaraJ Ta.
lor bat i have rarely, if vw, mt in a ha-
man being. Each particular -irfrrtf htetn
Mfall tlnon vou like a smalt flash ef lie-hi.
ning, and did not the smile upon his face for
bid the idea, "you would expect a small clap
-P. 1 . t ... ,. . .. tr
or inunaer 10 ioiiow 11 immediately, rtnow;
ing him to be, as we do, a master in what
the poet calls ! ' . ., . 1 ' l' -
( "'The art Napoleon, the mj rtery of commanding,"
I can easily imagine how the fires of that
eye must kindle and flash amid the discharge
of artillery 'on die tiattle field. I do not
doubt it will keep a vigilant watch over the
constitufioA and the best interests of the
ccJnrrtry. Gen. Taylor has been acoustomed
to sleep on the ground, On plank and plat
form, and he sleeps everywhere equally well'
1 do not know ' that he sleeps with one eye
open, but if he should be beset at Washing,
ton by an army of office-holders and office-
seekers, forcing their way into the White
House, I should not be surprised to hear that,
wrapping himself in his blanket, he threw
himself on the floor, some tiight, near the en
trance of the Executive mansion, with one
of his eagle-eyes wide open, to "see that the
Repu-blio rectives no detriment."
Gen. Taylor is one of the most sociable men
in the world, and when there is a large crowd
around him, o may be seen running about,
chatting and laughing as pleasantly as if it
was his particular business to make everyone
happy ; and you come away with the con
viction thnt he is the only rrtari of the whole
crowd who has not beeeti thinking of Presi
dent Taylor. In a mixed assembly, he makes
tie alhrnon to political topics, though in a
company of personal friends he speaks his
mind very freely.- His off hand speeches
and he has made quito a number here show
unusual intelligence aud concentration of
thought, clothed in simple yet beautiful lan
From the Philadelphia Ledger,
THE TKA PLANT.
In ten years wo shall astonish the world
by producing tea in the United States, supe
rior in quality to and cheaper in cost than the
tea of China. This is no idle prediction. Al
ready we find it produced in large quantities
and of excellent flavor in Brazil: and Mr.
Junius Smith is now planting the shrub in one
of our Southern States with a view to its ex
Mr. Spencer Bonsail, of Philadelphia, has
been for ssme years engaged in snperintend
ing a very extensive rnnge of tea plantations
in Assam, having some thousands of hands
employed in the field and the factory. The
success was perfect and Assam is now a tea
country, This gentleman has returned to
Philadelphia Under the certain conviction that
tea can be grown here without doubt or diffi
culty of any sort. We have been favored
with a perusal of his notes which record eve
ry particular of his valuable experience and
from them we are enabled to present to our
readers such a satisfactory summary as will
convince them that we heed no protection to
grow our own tea. Assam is the northeas-
temmost part of British India, lying diagonal
ly between 25 and 28 N. Lat. It is Watered
by the Brahmapootra.
The tea plant, which, in China, is a shrub,
grows native in Assam to the height of 30
and 40 feet. But for plantation use, it is ne
cessary to trim it, so that it shall not grow
over five or six feet, to place the leaves in
reach of the gatherer. With Yankees, it
might be allowed to grow much higher.
Green and black teas are made from the
same plant, the difference being owing to the
manner of curing, though some leaves are al
lowed in making black tea whio would be
rejected in green, because of their being a
little too old. ;
The wood of the tea bush is light colored
and close grained, and it snvills, when peeled
like the black currant. The flowers are
white and fragrant. It is very leafy. The
green leaf is bitter, pungent and uusavory,
and its decoction would be any thing but pa
latable. : The seed consists of two to five ha
zellike nuts, enclosed in a smooth, broad cap
sule. . The kernel is white, oily and nauseous.
The tea plant is remarkably hardy, and it
flourishes on the high slopes of mountains,
where frost and snow prevail' three months
In the years ! Its favorite soil in China and
also in Assam, is the poorest yellow sandy
loam, with carbonate of iron in analysis. Si
lex, 19; clay, 10 : carb iron, 10 j water, &c,
4100. No lime. 1 .
Plantimo. Cuttings do well. But usually
several seed, are, when gathered, put at once
into shallow holes fonr feet apart, and allow
ed to grow up bush fashion. Or it is grown
in nurseries and transplanted, lu four or five
weeks the germ appears above ground, tt
grows about a foot every. In the third year
they begin to gather the leaves; nipping ofl
the end bud to to restriot its height and breadth
It it desirable to select hillside ground, where
the sun shines about half the day!. A good
tree ia expected to yield ,
At 8 yean 14 ox. tea,or 187 lbs. per acre
11 4 ' u 21 31J "
5 ' 11 4 50q
At 6 years, when it is fuii beaing, 6 or tea
or 750 lbs. per acre. j. ' -...
2000 trees are allowed to tha acre. The
tree lives to 50 years of age. 11
The process of manufacture consists chiefly
in ofKepeated exposure of the leaves in well
heated iron vessels, with quiok and aocurata
manipulations, till the nngent oil is extracted
from them, and in dexterously rolling them
in baJl-massea, to curl tht leaf at we tee it,
This band process spoils a vast deal ol it, for
the least ' over toasting, or the smoking of a
stray W, Injures thy flavor of the mass. Mr.
all cootnvM roaohins to dispones with
Jet! of kbor raployod in beating th learn
betweea'the eeekinge; by whirh one hoy ifid
the work of ten men, and fully as well. ' Ho
feels confident that the expensive hot hearth
process can be done with far greater nicety
by steam-heated metal plates, which would
preserve the flavor of the most delicate teas
and circular wird screens, moving by steam
power, would Sort the teas easily enough.
Thus tho whole manufacture is perfectly
adapted to machinery, and Mr. Bonsail thinks
that the best teas can be produced in this
latitude, at a cost not exceeding a shilling a
When we say the beet teas we do not wish
to be understood to mean the best that we'
know here. 1 For nota bene we will let
you into a secret, asking pardon of our tea
drinking and chatter eyhiliratinc friends, for
the necessity which the conveyance of scien
tific information imposes of thus letting the
cat out of the sack
Good tea, or rather real genuine tea at all
is a commodity which, like the delicate and
blushing aurora borealis, we read of every
day, but see only once in years, and then by
chance. Ileal tea begets tho most refined
and lady-like allusions to the foibles of our
neighbors ; while the trash we drink gives
our tea-table scandal its proverbial harshness,
There is not a single box of tea, after all
the pains taken by the country makers, that
is not opened and extensively be-rubbished
by the Catiton dealers before it is allowed to
get into the hands of Christian barbarians.
In our cities it undergoes also a liberal be-
Vankelication ' beforo it reaches our tea
rooms: so that whut is real tea is tne excep
tion, and what is not tea is the rule.
Almost every farmer iu China raises his
own family tea, and thus escapes the adultera
Now we would earnestly recommend some
of otir agricultural friends to form an associa
tion for the cultivation and manufacture of
tea, and to secure tht aid of Mr. Bonsail,
whoso character is entirely tree lrom san
guine enthusiasm, and who is tho only per
son in our counrry thoroughly familiar with
tea culture in all its details. The seed is
easily procured ; of its adaption to our soil
there cannot be a doubt ; and of its profits
there can scarcely be much fear, while the
risk of loss would in any case be trifling.
Our agricultural societies throughout the
land and the governments of every State
should be earnestly pressed to turn their at"
tention to this matter, and to do whatever is
in their power to promote so useful a branch
of home Industry. Anthrax.
Religion Slightly Sprinkled with Poli
tics. At the late Conference of the Metho
dist Episcopal Church, South, held in the
town of Elizabeth City, N. C, tho Rev. Mr.
Rosser, toward the close of a sermon preach
ed by him, in illustration of the mishtly a-
chievements which perseverance had accom
plished, referred in his usual eloquent style
to the guVlant Zachary Taylor leading his
small, but Spartan Band, against the superior
numbers of the Mexican forces; and feeling
that enthusiasm so becoming the heart of an
American citizen, notwithstanding he was a
democrat, he broke out in the following lan
guage : "I pray God that he may be elected '
Here the speaker paused, and looking over
the congregation he saw at a glance the ef
feet producted. Tho friends of tho old Gene
al seemed ready for a hearty amen, whilst
his opponents seemed awfully to fear it, He
immediately added "to eternal salvation by
faith and good works." At this point the
preacher took his seat, and immediately a
reverend gentlemen of the democratio party
slruck up the old familiar hymn, "Come all
my partners in distress." The friends of the
old General lost their gravity at the singular
A Wit Disc-omitted "We remember
witnessing the complete discomfiture of a
wit, of no inferior order, by a message, polite
ly delivered, at a supper party by a little girl :
"If you please, Mr. B , mamma sends
her compliments, and would be much obliged
if you would fccgin fo be fanny " lb.
A Jew d'Esprit. Somebody asked the
Baron Rothschilds to take venison "No,"
said the Baron, "1 never eath wenshon ; 1
don't think it ishsocoot ash mutton. ""Oh!"
said the Baton's friend, -'I wonder at your
saying so; if mutton were not better than ve
nison, why does venison cost so much more V
"Vy 1" replied the Baron, "I will tell you
vy in dish world de peoples alwaysh prefers
vat ish deer to vat ish jWp."-TAo(for
Hook's Remains. . .
If you sneeze on Monday, yon sneeze for danger t
8neezeon a Tuoaday, kiss a stranger ; ' 1
Sneexe on a Wednesday, sneeze for a letter;
feueete on a Thursday, something better;
8neexa on a Friday, sneeze for sorrow ;
Sneeze on a Saturday, see your sweetheart to-
, morrow; '
Sneeze on a Sunday, and the devil will have do
minion over you all the week f
Shaxspeare Frenchified A Fienchtnan
who aspired to do the leading parts in an
English theatre, gave the following as a spe
cimen of his ability to play Richard the
Third! ; 1
Now is da winter of dam uneasiness, .
Made into hot weddor by York's little bay,
(Dai is tot you oaU da son of York 0
Arid d dark doud which stick at top.
Of de kouae In da boUom ofde aea, , .
Da. Graves, in hit Clinical Leotnres, states,
as a remarkable circumstance, that female
are very rarely affected" With stammering.
) ; ' ' ii 'l' Ut'ARER anecdote,
, There is a good story told of a quaker, who
during the lost war with England owned
vessel, in which he had taken passage for
home, having beeu to a foreign port on busi
ness. On the passage the vessel was over-
hauled bv a nrivatoer. The Friend was of
course anxious to save his property, and nt
the same time desirous of avoiding a partici
pation in fighting. He said to the Captain
"I do not approve of fiahtine, but thee
must get the vessel to port safely."
He then went below. The enemy rapidly
approached, and having fire a few times,
came near with the intention of boarding.
As she got along side, our1 Quaker friend came
upon deck with a hatchet in his hand. One
of the enemy had seized a rope which hap
pened to be hanging over the side of the ves
sel, and was climbing upon deck. Approach
ing him, tho Quaker said :
"Friend, if theo wants that piece of rope,
thee may have it !" .
And 8uitingthe action to the word, he cut
off the rope and down went the poor fellow
into the ocean. It is needless to add, that
tho privateer hauled oil and her intended
piize arrived safely at its port. Lynn News.
A Tough Customer. A Canadian of this
city who bought a patriarch of a turkey, that
had frightened every other purchaser from
the idea of making a jaw-fill feast of him,
said afterwards: "1 took him home mV
wife bile him tree hours, and den he crow.
My wife put him in depot wid de taters, and
he kick 'em ull out." Northern Tribune,
Gen. Tavlor. The editor of the New
York Courier, on his return from Washing
ton, says that no man there knows,
tends to know, whom
calling into his cabinet.
A Poor Endorser. A worthy, but poor
minister, writing to a friend from the coun
try, requested, a few days since, the loan of
fifty dollars from the cashier of our bank ;
and in the note requesting the faVor, he said
that if the cashier would oblige him, he would
pay him in ten days, on the faith of Abra
ham." The cashier returned word "that by
the rules of the bank, the endorser must re
side in the State!" Knickerbocker
English TiHevbs represent themselves at
the west as traveling noblemen, "tuking
notes.' which they do only by picking poc
Mrs. Partington says that her minister on
Thanksgiving day, preached about "the paro
dy of the probablo son."
A young girl intending logo and buy some
hard soap, stopped some time at the store end
received a great quantity of soft soap from
Extraordinary Feat of A Mare.'-
Yankee veteran of the turf, John Sherman of
Cambridge, Mass., rode his celebrated mare
Lady Romp twenty miles within an hour, on
Tuesday last, at the Washington Trotting
Course, Including tha old roan, his saddle,
&c, the mare had to carry over 200 pounds
a feat, they say, never before equalled.
Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer is, it is said,
shortly to marry the Hon. Georgiana Welles-
ley, youngest daughter of the late, and sister
of the present Lord Cowley,
An eruption of the volcano Klu't, in the
Island of Borneo, has occurred aud spread
immense destruction of man, cattle and prop
erty on every side.
To the Senate and House of Representatives
oj the vommonwealtn oj rennsylvama ;
Fellow Citizens, In performing the res
ponsible duties enjoined by the Constitution,
on the Executive of the State, a sincere plea
sure is felt in addressing at the commence
ment of each session of the Legislature the
immediate representatives of the people.
To present to them in faiihful oaudor the true
positiou 01 puuuu uuaira, tu ouyyesi tatncuies
for known wants, to aid in the enactment of
such measures as the interesis, happiness nnd
welfare of tht) citizens seem to demand, is
not less gratifying that it is ma la the duty nf
the Executive department. The events of
the past year, will not fail to teach us the
lesson of an overruling Providence and the
gratitude we owe as a people for the bless
ings wnicn, tnrougn tne wisaom ot Aimignty
uoodness, havo been vouensateu to the na
tion. When the representatives of the peo
ple last met, there existed between our coun
try and a neighboring republic, a fierce and
bitter war. The result, indeed, was not
doubtful, for, with a people justly celebrated
among nations, for their unconquerable biave
ry, unsurpassed skill in military affairs, and
ineir gieai superiority over tneir enemies in
physical and mental qualities, victory was the
necessary couseuuence; yet lha undecided
contest was a source of profound regret, for
the sacrifice of human lite, and the expendi
ture of public and private treasure neueasary
to the re-establishment of our own peaceful
relations. . . . "
It is therefore gratifying to know that the
war lial fully terminattid, aud that Peace,. the
rational desire of all, sheds again its blessings
on every portion of our country. To the Al
mighty Father, who in mercy turned the
hearta of the rulera ot both countries, to lay
aside the aword, to cultivate the spirit of
brotherly kindness, and to establish peaceful
relatione between tht Citizens of their respec
tive governments, wo owe tha deepett and
most fervent gratitude. The abundant of
our harveett, the blessings of continued and
general health, and tht pressrvatioa of our
oivil and religioua rights, aa guaranteed to ut
by tho free institutions of our country j while
destitution, misery, and convulsed govern
ments, and precarious oivil ami religious in
stitutions harass the rerplt of other lands,
shoulJ produce) in our hearts' a forVent ac
knowledgement Of His superintending kind
ness and mercy. t
In the late contest with Mexico, this Com
monweallh was called upon by the National
Government, to furnish a portion of the troops
deemed necessary by the constituted authori
ties 10 carry tno war to a successiui issue.
With this requisition it is scarcely necessary
to state, our Commonwealth complied with
the alacrity which has heretofore distinguish
ed her among her meter republics. A large
volunteer force was instantly placed nt the
disposal of the National Government, and it
is a matter of just pride to their fellow citi
zens, that in the discharge of every duty,
these volunteers maintained the honor of the
State, and the renown of their country. The
citizen soldier who fortunately escaped death,
has returned to his family and friends, after
having earned for himself and the State, a
reputation for undaunted bravery, for endu
ring and patient suffering, and manly and he--roits
virtue, that the future annalist will delight
It is due to theso patriotic citizens, that
this commonwealth do some net as an ac
knowledgement of their past illustrious ser
vices. To the memory of the dead who fell
in the service of their country, it is the duty
of the Slate to erect a suitable monument,
that their bravery and virtue may bo endu
ringly remembered, and their heroic sacrifice
emulated in other times, fhould the honor and
safety of the country require it from future
cince the adjournment of the last LegisUf
monwealth. the late Governor Shnnk, has
sunk beneath the malady which then afflicted
him. Ho died on the 20lh day of July, 1848.
It will not be deemed improper in me to
say a few words in leferenctJ'to the character
of ihe illustrious deceased,
1 he late Governor Shunk having spent a
large portion of his life in the public service,
and having mingled much with his fellow
cilizens, was well and extensively known
thronshout the Slate, and it is with pleasure
the circumstance is recalled to my mind, that
at one period of his life, I had the honor to
enjoy his intimate personal friendship.
During our intimacy, it always gave turn
great pleasure to aid and assist the youngand
inexperienced to relievo the distressed, and
to impart to his fellow men by words of kind
ness, and deeds of charity, ns large a share of
nappiness as his condition would allow.
His intercourse with others was courteous,
his friendships were laslinrr, his attachments
strong and enduring, while his resentments
tor linunes Were transltorv and made no per-
rtianent impression in his bosom. It may
with truth be said of Governor Shunk, that
he was a sincere friend, a good neighbor,
pure Christian and an honest man. Such was
the reputation ho sustained unions his fellow
citizens when my intimacy with him, gave
me a Knowledge ot his character, and al
though a difference of political views separa
ted us for many years before his death, his
friends, at a later period of his life, have
borne testimony that the same purity of in
tention and desire ot well doing remained
with him until the hour of his dissolution.
The Legislature is respectfully invited to
take such action in relation to the decease of
the firot Chief Magistrate of the Common
wealth, whoso death occurred during the pe
riod tor which be was elected, as may be
deemed most appropriate to express its sym
palhy for the sorrow and bereavement of the
surviving relatives, and to testily its respect
tor the memory ot the virtues ot the distin
Prior to tho decease of Governor Shunk ;
on the 9th day of July, 1848, as appears by
the records in the State Department, ho re
signed the office of Governor of this Common
wealth, and thereupon, under the provisions
of the 14th section of the 2nd article of the
Constitution, which declares, that "in case of
the death or resignation of the Governor, or
of his removal from office, the Speaker of
the senate shall exercise the office ot Go
vernor, Until another Governor shall be duly
qualified," the duties ol the Executive De
partment of tho Government devolved on me.
Official iuformatidn of the act of resignation,
did not reach me until tho 17lh day of July,
1848. Tho section of tlio constitution herein
referred to also declared in reference to the
same subject, that '-in sueh case another Go
vernor shall be chosen at the next annual p
lection of Representatives, unless such death
resignation or removal shall occur within
three calendar months immediately preced
ing such next annual election : iu w hich case
a Governor shall bu chosen at the second
succeeding annual election of Representa
tives." By the 34th section of the act of the
General Assembly relating to the elections of
this Commonwealth, it is provided, that "in
case any vacancy shall occur in the office of
Governor ot ttus Commonwealth, more than
three calendar months next preceding the
Tuesday in October in any year, it shall be
the duty ot the speaker ot tne senate) or
whoever shall bu iu tho exercise of the
office of Governor, to issue his writs to
the Sheriffs of the several counties, reqni
ring them to give the usual notice, that an
election to supply such vacancy will take
place 011 the second Tuesday in October next
thcrealter, and wnen sucn vacancy occurs
within three calendar monlhi before the sec
ond Tuesday in October, it shall be the duty
of tha Speaker of the Senate, or whoever shall
bo in the exercise of the office of Governor to
issue his writs as a aforesaid, requiring notice
of such election on the second Tuesday in
October next, after the issuing of said writ,
aud in each case said writ shall issue at least
three calendar months before the election."
1 An examination of the constitutional provi
sions; the act ot Assembly ; and the circum
stances of the resignation, will satisfy you)
that while the resignation occurred more
than three months before the next annual
election of Representatives it took place at a
timq rendering acompliance With the act of
assembly in relation to the issuing ot writs,
utterly impossible. In this view of the case,
it might have been deemed a compliance
with duty, to have refrained from all interfe
ranco in the matter, inasmuch a events had
put it out of my power to comply with tha
terms of the act of Assembly, directory of the
mode in which tha Constitutional provision 011
the subject should be parried into effect. ,
After a full and careful examination . Ot the
whiila mailer. I believed it my duty td issue
the writs requiring notice, to be given, that an
eleolkm Would be duly held 011 the second
Tuesday of October then next ensuing, for
the election of a Chief Magistrate of this
Commonwealth. It appeared Id me, that in
all eases of doubt, there was no safer retting
plaoe than submission to tht decision of the
neoole. and that in the eonatruotiou of the
law a. relating to Ibe poiut to. Question, if any
doubt arose, tht better cod r so 111 a republican
govtrumtut, waa to refer to the citizen voter
right of seltoting at tht earliest pariod his
presiding officer, rathtr than assume a fosi-
tion which would continue official station in
myself, beyond the earliest legal opportunity
to surrender it into his hands. Theoiuanio law
required the election, and tha Legislative en- "
aciment should bu so cons-trued as hot to con- .
tiavene IheCcnstitutlonal provision. Had the '
terms of the Constitution aqd laws clearly
given a different position to the question, v
however unpleasant the task of performing
the duties of the office without the. 'endorse
ment of the people's will, they would have
been faithfully executed.
In assuming as Speaker of the SerVae. the T'
exercise of Executive functions, although not
deeming it absolutely necessary, prudence...
suggested the propriety of being sworn Ip a '
faithful discharge, of the Executive duties
and an oath to that effect was administered
to me by the honorable the Speaker of the "
House of Representatives.
A law requiring in all cases of death or re
signation of the Governor, or of his removal
from office; that writs to the Sheriffs of the
different 00001)68 shall be issued as soon as
the Speaker of the Senate shall be Officially
informed of such death, resigSrotfoh or re- .
moval, and requiring, further, that the officer
assuming Executive functions should be. .
sworn in the same manner and to the same
effect as in case of a Chief Magistrate indue- -ted
into office, determining also the person
authorized to administer the oath, would ob
viate future doubts, and the same is resnecU
fully recommended to the Legislature. -It
is worth v the attention of iIir l.piriMinro
and the people, that no provision exists in the
Constitution in the contingency of the death,
or inabilty to serv of the Speaker of the Seni
ate after the death, resignation, or removal of
tne tiovernor, tor I lie election ot a presiding
magistrate. Such an event happenine, the
govomment would be left without a constitu
tional officer to carry on its operations. An
omission of such importance should be supplied
at tho earliest possible period.
resolutions expressive ol tha profound sor
row of the legislature, for the death of that
illustrious patriot and sage, John Quincy
Adams, and of condolence for the familv in
their bereavement, were passed by that body
at it's lust session : and the Executive was di
rected to transmit the same to the widow and
familv of the deceased. The letter of the
late Executive in the performance of that
duty, ond the reply of the venerable survivor,
are herewith transmitted.
Tho attention of the Legislature having
been called to the neglected and suffering
condition of the insane poor of the Slate, ait
act was passed on tho 14th day of April, 184
providing for the establishment of on assylurri
for this unfortunate class of our inditrent' pop
ulation, to be located within ten miles bf the
seat of government. The commissioners
named in this act, with funds contributed for
the purpose by humane and benevolent citi
zens of Harrisburg. aided by a liberal appro
priation mado from the treasury of Dauphin
County, purchased a farm of about 130 acres,
eligibly situated within a mile and a half of
the State Capitol. In January, 1846, these
commissioners made a report to the Legisla
ture, iu which they stated, that on a critical,
examination of the aforesaid apt, such defects
were apparent, that they did not conceive
themselves justified in proceeding with the
building, or in making any expenditure of the
sum appropriated by the State, towards its
erection, until some modification sho-ild be
made in the law under which they were acting
To remedy these defects a supplementary act
was passed, on the lllh day of April, 1848,
upon which the commissioners forthwith a
dopted measures for the commencement of
the work. Apian for the proposed building
was adopted, and a contract was made with
an experienced architect and builder for its
construction. A considerable portion of the
materials, as I am informed, has been provi
ded ; the excavation bf the cellars and found
ation has been made; the laying of the stone
masonry commenced, and the hydraulic apt
paratus for rising water to the building nearly
completed. Of the appropriation made on
account of this building, a warrant has been
drawn tor $5,0U0, ot which only $2,726 05
has been expended. It is hoped and believed
that the work will be forwarded with as much
despatch as is consistent with prudence and a.
proper regard lor tne corn ions una restoration
of Ihe atllicted insane poor. . .
By the act of the 4th of May. 1841, enti;
tied "An act to provide revenue to meet tho
demands on the treasury, and for other pur
poses," certain banks were authorized to sub
scribe tor a loan to the commonwealth, to an
amouut equal to a fixed per cenlage therein
slated, on their respective capitals; the a-
mount of such loan to be placed in the trea
sury for the use thereof, in notes of said banks
of the denomination of one. two and five dol
lars. By the terms of lha law, the loan was
redeemable at any time within five years,
and was peremptory that it should ha paid,
and the notes authorized to be issued, with
drawn from circulation on or before tho 4th
day of May, 1846. The act also provided,
that the bauks issuing said notes should re
ceive them ut par value In payment of debts
due these institution?. It was thought, that
by making their redemption dependant on
tno tattnol the state, as well as on mat ot
the banks bv which they were issued, a safe
and reliable currency would be constituted,
while the Mate would be larsrely bt-rjeiilted
by a loan at one, instead of five and six per
cent., as on previous occasions. , .
The notes thus issued, were;-sjjbstantially. .
the creatures of tho banks TTi(J const itu-.V
ted a loan to tho Commonwealth, were requi- .
red to be paid into ihe treasury in the mari
ner prescribed in the lawjff1 were Ver1e'rt
ablo ut their par Value at fhe cBhnters W the
banks! and the circumstance of the faith of
the State in addition to that of the banks, he
ing pledged for :lheir. redemption, could not
raise a rational doubt df their constitutionality
How far a aub&tduent act, passed the 31st
day of May, 1844, by relieving the banks
from all responsibility touching their red amp
tion and payment: thereby making then! an '
issue on the part of the Commonwealth, re
deemable at the treasury alone,' contravened
the Constitution of the United States, il iaf
not necessary now to decide. . ' : j
Under the provisions of the Original aol of
tho 4 in of May, 184 1,' the amount of note
issued was '2,220,205 tols.. which waf
specifically appropriated to the suppoit of the
government during the year, the payment of
debts, and other tpecmi purpose therein
mentioned. Within two year thereafter, the
sum of 135.214 M.t of said issue wea fund
ed by tha bank and converted into perma
nent loans at five per oent. By a resolution
of the 6th Of February, 1843, and the act of
the 8lh of April of ihe earn year, 68,087
dols.y were cancelled and destroyed. . 7 ' ' ,
It wa doubtless, the Intention of the lew.
Iaf are. that the um of 50.000' doll., sfcraM
destroyed quarterly. Under jriiftcf. the sum
of 100,000 do!., was cancelled iu 1844; thai
further sura of 85,000 dol., In 1845, 4
further aura of HftSOd dole., In 1846.-!S0r
C?0 do't , in 1M7, and V Is 1M